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VCS-254 - Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX - Dump Information

Vendor : Vmware
Exam Code : VCS-254
Exam Name : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX
Questions and Answers : 298 Q & A
Updated On : April 22, 2019
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VCS-254 Questions and Answers

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VCS-254 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

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Exam Questions Updated On :


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VCS-254 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

Test Code : VCS-254
Test Name : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX
Vendor Name : Vmware
Q&A : 298 Real Questions

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Vmware Administration of Veritas Cluster

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX provides high Availability and disaster recuperation for actual and virtual Server Environments | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware digital Servers throughout Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) today unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing high availability and disaster healing to heterogeneous information facilities operating digital server software. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for catastrophe healing and offers management of clustered virtual and physical servers. splendid to avoid downtime in case of application, virtual computing device, network hyperlink, or server screw ups, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a single ESX server or across a campus or WAN. VCS is a key component of Veritas Server foundation, a suite of products which allows business consumers to discover in element what is working on the servers of their data core, actively manage and administer these servers, and make sure that mission crucial applications operating on these servers are at all times obtainable. Symantec may be demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX on the VMworld 2006 convention being held in l. a. this week.

"VMware directors are looking for equipment that no longer most effective automate disaster healing however support them lower the vulnerabilities associated with operating numerous virtual servers on the identical actual server," observed Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's facts middle management group. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these issues through combining catastrophe recovery and excessive availability, and consolidating manage of each digital and physical servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering solutions for home windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Symantec is the market chief in move-platform server clustering, in line with the 2006 version of the IDC global Clustering and Availability utility record(1). With brought aid for VMware ESX, the market's most popular virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX gives a single solution to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous information middle environments.

finished excessive Availability and disaster recovery

VCS for VMware ESX provides high availability and disaster healing for physical and digital servers. by using simplifying and automating far off failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX gives brought protection in opposition t digital computing device or application failures, together with:

-- software and aid monitoring, as well as server monitoring, which gives an improved degree of availability; -- computerized healing from software, community storage, virtual useful resource, digital server, and physical server screw ups; -- Centralized administration of virtual and actual materials and servers from a single console; -- complete trying out for catastrophe recovery integrating both application failover and information replication to allow corporations to test disaster healing without disrupting creation environments. "because it managers are attempting to rein in server sprawl and enhance aid utilization across the commercial enterprise, they're confronted with the challenge of deploying diverse statistics availability and administration solutions to control and protect an ever-starting to be population of virtual servers," mentioned Brian Babineau, Analyst, enterprise approach group. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the project for VMware valued clientele by featuring a single platform that may steer clear of downtime of mission important functions working in virtual and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New guide for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX additionally permits shoppers to maximize the superior aspects of VMware with the aid of recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and dispensed useful resource Scheduler (DRS). If a digital machine is moved from one server to an extra for deliberate renovation using VMotion, the movement could be identified via VCS and VCS will take the fundamental motion to replace the cluster repute thus. it's additionally appropriate with allotted useful resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization characteristic.

computerized disaster recovery testing

exciting to VCS is fireplace Drill, a feature of VCS that provides an introduced layer of insurance plan for digital servers. With hearth Drill, corporations can assess their disaster healing plan and configuration without impacting the construction ambiance. In digital environments the place server places alternate often, hearth Drill helps monitor and song cell servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

fee and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to be launched within the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX begins at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the world chief in presenting solutions to assist individuals and businesses guarantee the safety, availability, and integrity of their guidance. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in forty international locations. greater suggestions is available at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, global Clustering and Availability utility 2005 dealer Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

notice TO EDITORS: if you would like additional info on Symantec corporation and its products, please talk over with the Symantec information Room at http://www.symantec.com/information. All costs stated are in U.S. greenbacks and are valid best in the united states.

Symantec and the Symantec brand are logos or registered logos of Symantec enterprise or its associates within the U.S. and different nations. other names could be emblems of their respective homeowners.


Symantec adds catastrophe recuperation capabilities to Veritas Cluster Server | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

How collaboration apps foster digital transformation

VMware Fusion eleven pro boosts photos efficiency and hardware help | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mac clients nonetheless wanting to run native home windows purposes will find VMware Fusion 11 professional's graphics and hardware improvements worth the upgrade rate. learn greater about the up-to-date VM platform.

virtualiztionistock-1139220545natalyayudina.jpg

photo: Natalya_Yudina, Getty photographs/iStockphoto

operating windows on a Mac continues to be an occasional requirement for some Mac clients. fortunately, digital machine (VM) application now not simplest streamlines the method, however VM guide and efficiency are enhancing.

VMware's Fusion pro eleven platform is a well-liked alternative. A full license runs $159.99, whereas enhancements from edition 8 or more recent can charge only $119.99.

SEE: 10 fundamental apps and utilities for your Mac (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

Fusion eleven seasoned defaults to the usage of a new more suitable metallic photographs Rendering Engine with Direct3D 10.1 compatibility on compatible hosts. The VM utility additionally now helps Anti-Aliasing, Geometry shaders, and games and apps requiring DirectX 10.1 and people that fall back to version 10.1 from eleven and that run in a windows 7, eight, or 10 VM session.

VMware Fusion 11's new software Menu simplifies accessing assorted VMs, altering views and adjusting settings and snapshots. the brand new interface also lets you open a home windows app with a single click on.

Mac Finder operation is built-in inside the new VM window, thereby allowing you to right now navigate to file and folder places. you can now drag-and-drop a file to print the VM's file direction within a text field.

MacBook pro clients fond of Apple's contact Bar will find the brand new Fusion pro 11 possesses additional contact Bar customization alternate options. additional enhancements prolong customizing loads of VM Library and VM Window services (figure A). The means speeds entry to typical elements, chiefly if you need to manipulate distinctive VMs.

figure A

vmware-fusion-11-fig-a.png

vmware-fusion-11-fig-a.png

photo: VMware

Fusion's leisure API, which smooths automation and third-birthday party application integration, consists of virtual networking improvements. for example, there are new alternatives for working with Mac-IP DHCP bindings and NAT port forwarding.

that you may now use the VM platform to connect to any Linux VM it truly is running an OpenSSH or suitable carrier, too. And, new vSphere updates and ESXi 6.7 and vCenter Server equipment 6.7 help permit viewing materials by using VM, host, or cluster. The enhancements simplify VM administration, primarily for those managing assorted VMs.

With hardware platform edition sixteen support, performance and security are more advantageous inside Fusion 11 professional. moreover safety fixes, UEFI comfy Boot ability and additional support for the newest host and visitor working techniques, including macOS, Ubuntu, Fedora, and home windows client and server structures, the brand new VM utility is business able.

Even newbie users advantage from enhancements delivered over time designed to make it easier to manipulate digital machines. automatic Disk Cleanup, originally added in Fusion 10, is but one example (determine B).

determine B

vmware-fusion-11-fig-b.png

vmware-fusion-11-fig-b.png

When chosen (allow the function from the frequent digital computing device Settings choice as proven in figure B), the virtualization application instantly performs disk cleanup actions whenever a VM is shut down. The feature helps ensure host disk space is optimized, which is not any small consideration with default pressure sizes having trended downward on many Mac models.

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no matter if you need iPhone and Mac information or rundowns of business-specific Apple information, we've acquired you coated. Delivered Tuesdays

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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

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Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX Provides High Availability and Disaster Recovery for Physical and Virtual Server Environments | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

SOURCE: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware Virtual Servers Across Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) today unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing high availability and disaster recovery to heterogeneous data centers running virtual server software. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for disaster recovery and provides management of clustered virtual and physical servers. Ideally suited to prevent downtime in case of application, virtual machine, network link, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a single ESX server or across a campus or WAN. VCS is a key component of Veritas Server Foundation, a suite of products which enables enterprise customers to discover in detail what is running on the servers in their data center, actively manage and administer those servers, and ensure that mission critical applications running on those servers are always available. Symantec will be demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX at the VMworld 2006 conference being held in Los Angeles this week.

"VMware administrators are seeking tools that not only automate disaster recovery but help them minimize the vulnerabilities associated with running multiple virtual servers on the same physical server," said Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's Data Center Management Group. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these problems by combining disaster recovery and high availability, and consolidating control of both virtual and physical servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering solutions for Windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Symantec is the market leader in cross-platform server clustering, according to the 2006 edition of the IDC Worldwide Clustering and Availability Software report(1). With added support for VMware ESX, the market's most widely used virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a single solution to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous data center environments.

Comprehensive High Availability and Disaster Recovery

VCS for VMware ESX provides high availability and disaster recovery for physical and virtual servers. By simplifying and automating remote failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX provides added protection against virtual machine or application failures, including:

-- Application and resource monitoring, as well as server monitoring, which provides a higher level of availability; -- Automatic recovery from application, network storage, virtual resource, virtual server, and physical server failures; -- Centralized management of virtual and physical resources and servers from a single console; -- Comprehensive testing for disaster recovery integrating both application failover and data replication to enable organizations to test disaster recovery without disrupting production environments. "As IT managers try to rein in server sprawl and improve resource utilization across the enterprise, they are faced with the challenge of deploying multiple data availability and management solutions to control and protect an ever-growing population of virtual servers," said Brian Babineau, Analyst, Enterprise Strategy Group. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the task for VMware customers by providing a single platform that can prevent downtime of mission critical applications running in virtual and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New Support for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX also allows customers to maximize the advanced features of VMware by recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS). If a virtual machine is moved from one server to another for planned maintenance using VMotion, the movement will be recognized by VCS and VCS will take the necessary action to update the cluster status accordingly. It is also compatible with Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization feature.

Automated Disaster Recovery Testing

Unique to VCS is Fire Drill, a feature of VCS that provides an added layer of protection for virtual servers. With Fire Drill, organizations can verify their disaster recovery plan and configuration without impacting the production environment. In virtual environments where server locations change frequently, Fire Drill helps monitor and track mobile servers, their configuration and dependency links.

Price and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to be released in the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX starts at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the world leader in providing solutions to help individuals and enterprises assure the security, availability, and integrity of their information. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in 40 countries. More information is available at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, Worldwide Clustering and Availability Software 2005 Vendor Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

NOTE TO EDITORS: If you would like additional information on Symantec Corporation and its products, please visit the Symantec News Room at http://www.symantec.com/news. All prices noted are in U.S. dollars and are valid only in the United States.

Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.


Veritas to Support Linux Server Clustering | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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When mission-critical applications fail, so does your business. This often is a true statement in today's environments, where most organizations spend millions of dollars making their services available 24/7, 365 days a year. Organizations, regardless of whether they are serving external customers or internal customers, are deploying highly available solutions to make their applications highly available.

In view of this growing demand, almost every IT vendor currently is providing high-availability solutions for its specific platform. Famous commercial high-availability solutions include IBM's HACMP, Veritas' Cluster Server and HP's Serviceguard.

If you're looking for a commercial high-availability solution on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the best choice probably is the Red Hat Cluster Suite.

In early 2002, Red Hat introduced the first member of its Red Hat Enterprise Linux family of products, Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS (originally called Red Hat Linux Advanced Server). Since then, the family of products has grown steadily, and it now includes Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (for entry- and mid-range servers) and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS (for desktops/workstations). These products are designed specifically for use in enterprise environments to deliver superior application support, performance, availability and scalability.

The original release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS version 2.1 included a high-availability clustering feature as part of the base product. This feature was not included in the smaller Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES product. However, with the success of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family, it became clear that high-availability clustering was a feature that should be made available for both AS and ES server products. Consequently, with the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 3 in October 2003, the high-availability clustering feature was packaged into an optional layered product called the Red Hat Cluster Suite, and it was certified for use on both the Enterprise Linux AS and Enterprise Linux ES products.

The RHEL cluster suite is a separately licensed product and can be purchased from Red Hat on top of Red Hat's base ES Linux license.

Red Hat Cluster Suite Overview

The Red Hat Cluster Suite has two major features. One is the Cluster Manager that provides high availability, and the other feature is called IP load balancing (originally called Piranha). The Cluster Manager and IP load balancing are complementary high-availability technologies that can be used separately or in combination, depending on application requirements. Both of these technologies are integrated in Red Hat's Cluster Suite. In this article, I focus on the Cluster Manager.

Table 1 shows the major components of the RHEL Cluster Manager.

Table 1. RHEL Cluster Manager Components

Software Subsystem Component Purpose Fence fenced Provides fencing infrastructure for specific hardware platforms. DLM libdlm, dlm-kernel Contains distributed lock management (DLM) library. CMAN cman Contains the Cluster Manager (CMAN), which is used for managing cluster membership, messaging and notification. GFS and related locks Lock_NoLock Contains shared filesystem support that can be mounted on multiple nodes concurrently. GULM gulm Contains the GULM lock management user-space tools and libraries (an alternative to using CMAN and DLM). Rgmanager clurgmgrd, clustat Manages cluster services and resources. CCS ccsd, ccs_test and ccs_tool Contains the cluster configuration services dæmon (ccsd) and associated files. Cluster Configuration Tool System-config-cluster Contains the Cluster Configuration Tool, used to configure the cluster and display the current status of the nodes, resources, fencing agents and cluster services graphically. Magma magma and magma-plugins Contains an interface library for cluster lock management and required plugins. IDDEV iddev Contains the libraries used to identify the filesystem (or volume manager) in which a device is formatted.

Shared Storage and Data Integrity

Lock management is a common cluster infrastructure service that provides a mechanism for other cluster infrastructure components to synchronize their access to shared resources. In a Red Hat cluster, DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) or, alternatively, GULM (Grand Unified Lock Manager) are possible lock manager choices. GULM is a server-based unified cluster/lock manager for GFS, GNBD and CLVM. It can be used in place of CMAN and DLM. A single GULM server can be run in standalone mode but introduces a single point of failure for GFS. Three or five GULM servers also can be run together, in which case the failure of one or two servers can be tolerated, respectively. GULM servers usually are run on dedicated machines, although this is not a strict requirement.

In my cluster implementation, I used DLM, and it runs in each cluster node. DLM is good choice for small clusters (up to two nodes), because it removes quorum requirements as imposed by the GULM mechanism).

Based on DLM or GLM locking functionality, there are two basic techniques that can be used by the RHEL cluster for ensuring data integrity in concurrent access environments. The traditional way is the use of CLVM, which works well in most RHEL cluster implementations with LVM-based logical volumes.

Another technique is GFS. GFS is a cluster filesystem that allows a cluster of nodes to access simultaneously a block device that is shared among the nodes. It employs distributed metadata and multiple journals for optimal operation in a cluster. To maintain filesystem integrity, GFS uses a lock manager (DLM or GULM) to coordinate I/O. When one node changes data on a GFS filesystem, that change is visible immediately to the other cluster nodes using that filesystem.

Hence, when you are implementing a RHEL cluster with concurrent data access requirements (such as, in the case of an Oracle RAC implementation), you can use either GFS or CLVM. In most Red Hat cluster implementations, GFS is used with a direct access configuration to shared SAN from all cluster nodes. However, for the same purpose, you also can deploy GFS in a cluster that is connected to a LAN with servers that use GNBD (Global Network Block Device) or two iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) devices.

Both GFS and CLVM use locks from the lock manager. However, GFS uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize access to filesystem metadata (on shared storage), while CLVM uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize updates to LVM volumes and volume groups (also on shared storage).

For nonconcurrent RHEL cluster implementations, you can rely on CLVM, or you can use native RHEL journaling-based techniques (such as ext2 and ext3). For nonconcurrent access clusters, data integrity issues are minimal; I tried to keep my cluster implementations simple by using native RHEL OS techniques.

Fencing Infrastructure

Fencing also is an important component of every RHEL-based cluster implementation. The main purpose of the fencing implementation is to ensure data integrity in a clustered environment.

In fact, to ensure data integrity, only one node can run a cluster service and access cluster service data at a time. The use of power switches in the cluster hardware configuration enables a node to power-cycle another node before restarting that node's cluster services during the failover process. This prevents any two systems from simultaneously accessing the same data and corrupting it. It is strongly recommended that fence devices (hardware or software solutions that remotely power, shut down and reboot cluster nodes) are used to guarantee data integrity under all failure conditions. Software-based watchdog timers are an alternative used to ensure correct operation of cluster service failover; however, in most RHEL cluster implementations, hardware fence devices are used, such as HP ILO, APC power switches, IBM BladeCenter devices and the Bull NovaScale Platform Administration Processor (PAP) Interface.

Note that for RHEL cluster solutions with shared storage, an implementation of the fence infrastructure is a mandatory requirement.

Step-by-Step Implementation of a RHEL Cluster

Implementation of RHEL clusters starts with the selection of proper hardware and connectivity. In most implementations (without IP load balancing), shared storage is used with two, or more than two, servers running the RHEL operating system and RHEL cluster suite.

A properly designed cluster, whether you are building a RHEL-based cluster or an IBM HACMP-based cluster, should not contain any single point of failure. Keeping this in mind, you have to remove any single point of failure from your cluster design. For this purpose, you can place your servers physically in two separate racks with redundant power supplies. You also have to remove any single point of failure from the network infrastructure used for the cluster. Ideally, you should have at least two network adapters on each cluster node, and two network switches should be used for building the network infrastructure for the cluster implementation.

Software Installation

Building a RHEL cluster starts with the installation of RHEL on two cluster nodes. My setup has two HP Proliant servers (DL740) with shared fiber storage (HP MSA1000 storage). I started with a RHEL v4 installation on both nodes. It's best to install the latest available operating system version and its updates. I selected v4 update 4 (which was the latest version of RHEL when I was building that cluster). If you have a valid software subscription from Red Hat, you can log in to the Red Hat network, and go to software channels to download the latest update available. Later, once you download the ISO images, you can burn it to CDs using any appropriate software. During the RHEL OS installation, you will go through various configuration selections, the most important of which are the date and time-zone configuration, the root user password setting, firewall settings and OS security level selection. Another important configuration option is network settings. Configuration of these settings can be left for a later stage, especially in building a high-availability solution with Ether-channel (or Ethernet bonding configuration).

You may need to install additional drivers after you install the OS. In my case, I downloaded the RHEL support package for the DL740 servers (the HP Proliant support pack, which is available from h18004.www1.hp.com/products/servers/linux/dl740-drivers-cert.html).

The next step is installing the cluster software package itself. This package, again, is available from the RHEL network, and you definitely have to select the latest available cluster package. I selected rhel-cluster-2.4.0.1 for my setup, which was the latest cluster suite available at the time.

Once downloaded, the package will be in tar format. Extract it, and then install at least the following RPMs, so that the RHEL cluster with DLM can be installed and configured:

  • Magma and magma-plugins

  • Perl-net-telnet

  • Rgmanager

  • System-config-cluster

  • DLM and dlm-kernel

  • DLM-kernel-hugemem and SMP support for DLM

  • Iddev and ipvsadm

  • Cman, cman-smp, cman-hugemem and cman-kernelheaders

  • Ccs

  • Restart both RHEL cluster nodes after installing vendor-related hardware support drivers and the RHEL cluster suite.

    Network Configuration

    For network configuration, the best way to proceed is to use the network configuration GUI. However, if you plan to use Ethernet channel bonding, the configuration steps are slightly different.

    Ethernet channel bonding allows for a fault-tolerant network connection by combining two Ethernet devices into one virtual device. The resulting channel-bonded interface ensures that if one Ethernet device fails, the other device will become active. Ideally, connections from these Ethernet devices should go to separate Ethernet switches or hubs, so that the single point of failure is eliminated, even on the Ethernet switch and hub level.

    To configure two network devices for channel bonding, perform the following on node 1:

    1) Create bonding devices in /etc/modules.conf. For example, I used the following commands on each cluster node:

    alias bond0 bonding options bonding miimon=100 mode=1

    Doing this loads the bonding device with the bond0 interface name and passes options to the bonding driver to configure it as an active-backup master device for the enslaved network interfaces.

    2) Edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 configuration file for eth0 and the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 file for the eth1 interface, so that these files show identical contents, as shown below:

    DEVICE=ethx USERCTL= no ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes BOOTPROTO=none

    This enslaves ethX (replace X with the assigned number of the Ethernet devices) to the bond0 master device.

    3) Create a network script for the bonding device (for example, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0), which would appear like the following example:

    DEVICE=bond0 USERCTL=no ONBOOT=yes BROADCAST=172.16.2.255 NETWORK=172.16.2.0 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 GATEWAY=172.16.2.1 IPADDR=172.16.2.182

    4) Reboot the system for the changes to take effect.

    5) Similarly, on node 2, repeat the same steps with the only difference being that the file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 should contain an IPADDR entry with the value of 172.16.2.183.

    As a result of these configuration steps, you will end up with two RHEL cluster nodes with IP addresses of 172.16.2.182 and 172.16.2.183, which have been assigned to virtual Ethernet channels (the underlying two physical Ethernet adapters for each Ethernet channel).

    Now, you easily can use the network configuration GUI on the cluster nodes to set other network configuration details, such as hostname and primary/secondary DNS server configuration. I set Commsvr1 and Commsvr2 as the hostnames for the cluster nodes and also ensured that name resolution in both long names and short names would work fine from both the DNS server and the /etc/hosts file.

    A RHEL cluster, by default, uses /etc/hosts for node name resolution. The cluster node name needs to match the output of uname -n or the value of HOSTNAME in /etc/sysconfig/network.

    Listing 1. Contents of the /etc/hosts File on Each Server

    # Do not remove the following line, or various programs # that require network functionality will fail. 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 172.16.2.182 Commsvr1 Commsvr1.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.2.183 Commsvr2 172.16.1.186 Commilo1 Commilo1.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.1.187 Commilo2 Commilo2.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.2.188 Commserver 192.168.10.1 node1 192.168.10.2 node2 172.16.2.4 KMETSM

    If you have an additional Ethernet interface in each cluster node, it is always a good idea to configure a separate IP network as an additional network for heartbeats between cluster nodes. It is important that the RHEL cluster uses, by default, eth0 on the cluster nodes for heartbeats. However, it is still possible to use other interfaces for additional heartbeat exchanges.

    For this type of configuration, you simply can use the network configuration GUI to assign IP addresses—for example, 192.168.10.1 and 192.168.10.2 on eth2, and get it resolved from the /etc/hosts file.

    Setup of the Fencing Device

    As I was using HP hardware, I relied on the configuration of the HP ILO devices as a fencing device for my cluster. However, you may consider configuring other fencing devices, depending on the hardware type used for your cluster configuration.

    To configure HP ILO, you have to reboot your servers and press the F8 key to enter into the ILO configuration menus. Basic configuration is relatively simple; you have to assign IP addresses to ILO devices with the name of the ILO device. I assigned 172.16.1.100 with Commilo1 as the name of ILO device on node1, and 172.16.1.101 with Commilo2 as the ILO device name on node2. Be sure, however, to connect Ethernet cables to the ILO adapters, which usually are marked clearly on the back side of HP servers.

    Once rebooted, you can use the browsers on your Linux servers to access ILO devices. The default user name is Administrator, with a password that usually is available on the hard-copy tag associated with the HP servers. Later, you can change the Administrator password to a password of your choice, using the same Web-based ILO administration interface.

    Setup of the Shared Storage Drive and Quorum Partitions

    In my cluster setup environment, I used an HP fiber-based shared storage MSA1000. I configured a RAID-1 of 73.5GB using the HP smart array utility, and then assigned it to both of my cluster nodes using the selective host presentation feature.

    After rebooting both nodes, I used HP fiber utilities, such as hp_scan, so that both servers should be able to see this array physically.

    To verify the physical availability of shared storage for both cluster nodes, look in the /dev/proc/proc file for an entry like /dev/sda or /dev/sdb, depending upon your environment.

    Once you find your shared storage on the OS level, partition it according to your cluster storage requirements. I used the parted tool on one of my cluster nodes to partition the shared storage. I created two small primary partitions to hold raw devices, and a third primary partition was created to hold the shared data filesystem:

    Parted> select /dev/sda Parted > mklabel /dev/sda msdos Parted > mkpart primary ext3 0 20 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 20 40 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 40 40000

    I rebooted both cluster nodes and created the /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file with the following contents:

    /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sda1 /dev/raw/raw2 /dev/sda2

    A restart of rawdevices services on both nodes will configure raw devices as quorum partitions:

    /home/root> services rawdevices restart

    I then created a JFS2 filesystem on the third primary partition using the mke2jfs command; however, its related entry should not be put in the /etc/fstab file on either cluster node, as this shared filesystem will be under the control of the Rgmanager of the cluster suite:

    /home/root> mke2jfs -j -b 4096 /dev/sda3

    Now, you can create a directory structure called /shared/data on both nodes and verify the accessibility of the shared filesystem from both cluster nodes by mounting that filesystem one by one at each cluster node (mount /dev/sda3 /shared/data). However, never try to mount this filesystem on both cluster nodes simultaneously, as it might corrupt the filesystem itself.

    Cluster Configuration

    Almost everything required for cluster infrastructure has been done, so the next step is configuring the cluster itself.

    A RHEL cluster can be configured in many ways. However, the easiest way to configure a RHEL cluster is to use the RHEL GUI and go to System Management→Cluster Management→Create a cluster.

    I created a cluster with the cluster name of Commcluster, and with node names of Commsvr1 and Commsvr2. I added fencing to both nodes—fencing devices Commilo1 and Commilo2, respectively—so that each node would have one fence level with one fence device. If you have multiple fence devices in your environment, you can add another fence level with more fence devices to each node.

    I also added a shared IP address of 172.16.2.188, which will be used as the service IP address for this cluster. This is the IP address that also should be used as the service IP address for applications or databases (like for listener configuration, if you are going to use an Oracle database in the cluster).

    I added a failover domain, namely Kmeficfailover, with priorities given in the following sequence:

    Commsvr1 Commsvr2

    I added a service called CommSvc and then put that service in the above-defined failover domain. The next step is adding resources to this service. I added a private resource of the filesystem type, which has the characteristic of device=/dev/sd3, mountpoint of /shared/data and mount type of ext3.

    I also added a private resource of the script type (/root/CommS.sh) to service CommSvc. This script will start my C-based application, and therefore, it has to be present in the /root directory on both cluster nodes. It is very important to have correct ownership of root and security; otherwise, you can expect unpredictable behavior during cluster startup and shutdown.

    Application or database startup and shutdown scripts are very important for a RHEL-based cluster to function properly. RHEL clusters use the same scripts for providing application/database monitoring and high availability, so every application script used in a RHEL cluster should have a specific format.

    All such scripts should at least have start and stop subsections, along with a status subsection. When an application or database is available and running, the status subsection of the script should return a value of 0, and when an application is not running or available, it should return a value of 1. The script also should contain a restart subsection, which tries to restart services if the application is found to be dead.

    A RHEL cluster always tries to restart the application on the same node that was the previous owner of the application, before trying to move that application to the other cluster node. A sample application script, which was used in my RHEL cluster implementation (to provide high availability to a legacy C-based application) is shown in Listing 2.

    Listing 2. Sample Application Script

    #Script Name: CommS.sh #Script Purpose: To provide application #start/stop/status under Cluster #Script Author: Khurram Shiraz #!/bin/sh basedir=/home/kmefic/KMEFIC/CommunicationServer case $1 in 'start') cd $basedir su kmefic -c "./CommunicationServer -f Dev-CommunicationServer.conf" exit 0 ;; 'stop') z=`ps -ef | grep Dev-CommunicationServer | grep -v "grep"| ↪awk ' { print $2 } ' ` if [[ $? -eq 0 ]] then kill -9 $z fuser -mk /home/kmefic exit 0 fi ;; 'restart') /root/CommunicationS.sh stop sleep 2 echo Now starting...... /root/CommunicationS.sh start echo "restarted" ;; 'status') ps -U kmefic | grep CommunicationSe 1>/dev/null if [[ $? = 0 ]] then exit 0 else exit 1 fi ;; esac

    Finally, you have to add a shared IP address (172.16.2.188) to the service present in your failover domain, so that the service should contain three resources: two private resources (one filesystem and one script) and one shared resource, which is the service IP address for the cluster.

    The last step is synchronizing the cluster configuration across the cluster nodes. The RHEL cluster administration and configuration tool provides a “save configuration to cluster” option, which will appear once you start the cluster services. Hence, for the first synchronization, it is better to send the cluster configuration file manually to all cluster nodes. You easily can use the scp command to synchronize the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file across the cluster nodes:

    /home/root> scp /etc/cluster/cluster.conf Commsvr2:/etc/cluster/cluster.conf

    Once synchronized, you can start cluster services on both cluster nodes. You should start and stop RHEL-related cluster services, in sequence.

    To start:

    service ccsd start service cman start service fenced start service rgmanager start

    To stop:

    service rgmanager stop service fenced stop service cman stop service ccsd stop

    If you use GFS, startup/shutdown of the gfs and clvmd services have to be included in this sequence.

    Additional Considerations

    In my environment, I decided not to start cluster services at RHEL boot time and not to shut down these services automatically when shutting down the RHEL box. However, if your business requires 24/7 service availability, you can do this easily by using the chkconfig command.

    Another consideration is logging cluster messages in a different log file. By default, all cluster messages go into the RHEL log messages file (/var/log/messages), which makes cluster troubleshooting somewhat difficult in some scenarios. For this purpose, I edited the /etc/syslog.conf file to enable the cluster to log events to a file that is different from the default log file and added the following line:

    daemon.* /var/log/cluster

    To apply this change, I restarted syslogd with the service syslog restart command. Another important step is to specify the time period for rotating cluster log files. This can be done by specifying the name of the cluster log file in the /etc/logrotate.conf file (the default is a weekly rotation):

    /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron /var/log/cluster { sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript }

    You also have to pay special attention to keeping UIDs and GIDs synchronized across cluster nodes. This is important in making sure proper permissions are maintained, especially with reference to the shared data filesystem.

    GRUB also needs to conform to the suite environment's specific needs. For instance, many system administrators, in a RHEL cluster environment, reduce the GRUB selection timeout to some lower values, such as two seconds, to accelerate system restart time.

    Database Integration with a RHEL Cluster

    The same RHEL cluster infrastructure can be used for providing high availability to databases, such as Oracle, MySQL and IBM DB2.

    The most important thing to remember is to base your database-related services on a shared IP address—for example, you have to configure Oracle listener based on the shared service IP address.

    Next, I explain, in simple steps, how to use an already-configured RHEL cluster to provide high availability to a MySQL database server, which is, no doubt, one of the most commonly used databases on RHEL.

    I assume that the MySQL-related RPMs are installed on both cluster nodes and that the RHEL cluster already is configured with a service IP address of 172.16.2.188.

    Now, you simply need to define a failover domain using the cluster configuration tool (with the cluster node of your choice having a higher priority). This failover domain will have the MySQL service, which, in turn, will have two private resources and one shared resource (the service IP address).

    One of the private resources should be of the filesystem type (in my configuration, it has a mountpoint of /shared/mysqld), and the other private resource should be of the script type, pointing toward the /etc/init.d/mysql.server script. The contents of this script, which should be available on both cluster nodes, is shown in Listing 3 on the LJ FTP site at ftp.linuxjournal.com/pub/lj/listings/issue163/9759.tgz.

    This script sets the data directory to /shared/mysqld/data, which is available on our shared RAID array and should be available from both cluster nodes.

    Testing for high availability of the MySQL database can be done easily with the help of any MySQL client. I used SQLyog, which is a Windows-based MySQL client. I connected to the MySQL database on Commsvr1 and then crashed this cluster node using the halt command. As a result of this system crash, the RHEL cluster events were triggered, and the MySQL database automatically restarted on Commsvr2. This whole failover process took one to two minutes and happened quite seamlessly.

    Summary

    RHEL clustering technology provides a reliable high-available infrastructure that can be used for meeting 24/7 business requirements for databases as well as legacy applications. The most important thing to remember is that it is best to plan carefully before the actual implementation and test your cluster and all possible failover scenarios thoroughly before going live with a RHEL cluster. A well-documented cluster test plan also can be helpful in this regard.



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