|Exam Name||:||Symantec Technical Foundations: Security Solutions 2.0 Technical Assessment:|
|Questions and Answers||:||100 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 18, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure ST0-192 Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure ST0-192 Full Version|
Exam Questions Updated On :
ST0-192 exam Dumps Source : Symantec Technical Foundations: Security Solutions 2.0 Technical Assessment:
Test Code : ST0-192
Test Name : Symantec Technical Foundations: Security Solutions 2.0 Technical Assessment:
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 100 Real Questions
It turned into incredible to have real exam questions of ST0-192 exam.
It had been years and I was stuck at the same designation, it was like being glued to the chair with fevicol. Initially you think, just wait good things come in time. But then your patience wears off and you know you gotta take a stand before its too late. Since my work involves mostly dealing with a ST0-192 clientele base I decided to ace it and become the he knows all about ST0-192 dude in the office. Upon a friends guidance I tried your ST0-192 demo from killexams.com, loved and it and moved onto a purchase. Your exam simulator is fabulous and today your study kit has made me the new ST0-192 manager.
Little study for ST0-192 examination, got outstanding success.
As a assured authority, I knew I want to take assistance from Dumps on the off danger that I need to clear the extremeexam like ST0-192. moreover i used to be correct. The killexams.com Dumps have an thrilling technique to make the difficultsubjects simple. They manipulate them in short, easy and specific way. clear-cut and dont forget them. I did so and could solution all of the questions in half time. remarkable, killexams.com dumpss a right associate in want.
It is unbelieveable, but ST0-192 real exam questions are availabe here.
I passed the ST0-192 exam with this package deal from Killexams. I am no longer tremendous i would have finished it without it! The thing is, it covers a big type of subjects, and if you put together for the exam for your private, without a installed technique, chances are that a few matters can fall through the cracks. The ones are only a few areas killexams.com has virtually helped me with there may be just an excessive amount of facts! killexams.com covers the entirety, and since they use actual exam questions passing the ST0-192 with an awful lot less pressure is a lot less difficult.
Very easy to get licensed in ST0-192 examination with these Q&A.
When I had taken the selection for going to the exam then I got an first rate support for my education from the killexams.com which gave me the realness and dependable practice ST0-192 prep classes for the same. Right here, I additionally got the possibility to get myself checked before feeling assured of appearing well within the manner of the getting ready for ST0-192 and that changed into a pleasing issue which made me best geared up for the exam which I scored rightly. Way to such matters from the killexams.
Less effort, great knowledge, guaranteed success.
Passing the ST0-192 exam turned into quite hard for me until i was added with the query & solution through killexams. a number of the topics appeared very hard to me. tried plenty to study the books, however failed as time was quick. subsequently, the sell off helped me understand the topics and wrap up my instruction in 10 days time. amazing guide, killexams. My heartfelt way to you.
test out those real ST0-192 questions and have a look at help.
Your question bank is need of the hour. I have got 89.1% in the ST0-192 exam. Very good wishes for your experts. Thank you Team. so delighted to clear this exam. Your study material was extremely useful, clear, consise, covering entire material and suberb stacking of questions to make one strong preparation. Thanks again to you and your team.
Do a smart move, prepare these ST0-192 Questions and Answers.
After 2 times taking my exam and failed, I heard approximately killexams.com guarantee. Then i bought ST0-192 Questions answers. Online trying out Engine helped me to schooling to clear up query in time. I simulated this check for commonly and this assist me to maintain reputation on questions at exam day.Now i am an IT licensed! Thank you!
What is wanted to take a look at for ST0-192 exam?
The satisfactory IT exam prep i have ever stumble upon. Genuinely my ST0-192 exam is in some days, however I experience so equipped and reassured, specifically now that i have examine all of the top class opinions here. The exam simulator seems to be very helpful, its smooth to remember questions and answers, plus, if you keep going through them time after time, you startseeing a bigger picture and apprehend the concepts higher. So far, i have had top class enjoy with Killexams!
Take Advantage, Use questions and answers to ensure your success.
They charge me for ST0-192 exam simulator and QA file but first i did not got the ST0-192 QA material. there was some file error, later they fixed the error. i prepared with the exam simulator and it was good.
I found everything needed to pass ST0-192 exam here.
We need to discover ways to choose our thoughts just the equal manner, we pick out our garments everyday. that is the power we can habitat.Having said that If we want to do matters in our life, we must warfare hard to comprehend all its powers. I did so and worked difficult on killexams.com to find out awesome position in ST0-192 exam with the help of killexams.com that proved very energetic and exceptional program to find out favored function in ST0-192 exam.It turned into a perfect program to make my life relaxed.
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif.--(enterprise WIRE)--Symantec these days announced the launch of a first-of-its-type program, the Symantec Cyber profession Connection (SC3), to handle the international body of workers hole in cybersecurity and provide new career opportunities for younger adults who might also now not be school-sure. The program become introduced as a commitment to action today at the Clinton global Initiative the us meeting by way of Secretary Hillary Rodham Clinton and Symantec’s government director of the application, Aled Miles. A pilot of the program will delivery in August in long island metropolis, Baltimore and San Francisco Bay enviornment, and should be carried out through a community of companions, including 12 months Up, NPower and LifeJourney, working along side Symantec’s charitable basis, the Symantec foundation. The program will extend internationally in future years.
“This has been a precedence for us as a result of six years after the fiscal crash, many younger people are still struggling. actually, one of the most terrifying statistics is that very nearly six million younger americans between the a while of sixteen and 24 are out of faculty and out of labor, and for those that don’t get a school training and even high faculty, most doorways just won’t open no remember how hard they knock,” observed Secretary Clinton. “We wish to get to work and it's one of the vital highest priorities for CGI america and i’m delighted that there's so tons activity because eventually it’s about greater than pay assessments.”
Secretary Clinton is prioritizing early life employment as one of the most key concerns for her work on the Clinton groundwork, and believes that business-led initiatives will play a vital role in addressing this essential financial problem. The Clinton basis is working intently with groups and leading nonprofits, economists, and advocates across the nation to determine and scale valuable techniques for corporations to handle their core business needs through enticing our nation’s chance early life. on the 2014 CGI the us meeting, Secretary Clinton introduced Job One, an enormous set of commitments - together with Symantec’s - concentrated on improving job pathways for youth in the united states. To facilitate the sharing of best practices, and inspire extra agencies to adopt youth employment activities, Secretary Clinton additionally announced at the 2014 CGI the united states meeting that CGI could be making a U.S. early life Employment motion community to help CGI individuals continue to work on this crucial subject over the yr forward.
In an international of elevated cybersecurity assaults, an estimated 300,000 cybersecurity jobs are vacant within the u.s.; amongst those, 60,000 can be crammed via people with no four-12 months faculty degree.1 Demand for cybersecurity professionals is anticipated to raise as the deepest sector faces extraordinary numbers of information breaches and cybersecurity threats. Symantec’s web protection risk document has shown that the amount of information breaches grew by means of sixty two% in 2013 and that approximately 552 million identities have been exposed worldwide as a result of facts breaches.
“Symantec is dedicated to creating the world a safer and stronger vicinity, and as a leader in cybersecurity we consider we can help solve the cyber career gap and movement underserved younger adults –together with people of colour, women and veterans – out of low-conclusion jobs and into totally paid and meaningful careers,” spoke of Cecily Joseph, vice president of company accountability at Symantec. “SC3 will additionally support us meet the critical needs of our shoppers and give a boost to countrywide security in difficult economic times.”
The pilot program will consist of a cybersecurity curriculum developed through Symantec in partnership with the nonprofits, in addition to a digital mentorship application designed to promote and familiarize students with the trade. Following their practising, college students can be placed in cybersecurity internships to learn the way to be the rest from a techniques administrator to a network protection technician. Symantec will aid software graduates are looking for jobs via its community of consumers and companions.
“We’re excited to associate on a software that so intently aligns with year Up’s mission to permit low-revenue young adults to flow from poverty to skilled careers,” talked about Gerald Chertavian, founder and CEO of 12 months Up, an intensive one-12 months program that gives participants with six months of technical and professional talents practicing followed by a six-month corporate internship. “We’ve known that cybersecurity is likely one of the leading topics that our students are interested in, and as an authority on cybersecurity, Symantec is an ideal companion. This program will open the door for so many young adults to the profitable cybersecurity container.”
“Our mission is to give access and possibility to underserved young adults via our confirmed tech and knowledgeable capabilities application,” mentioned Stephanie Cuskley, CEO of NPower. “by expanding our present partnership with Symantec, our manhattan metropolis program will prepare these proficient younger adults to reap business-diagnosed CompTIA network+, security+ and ethical Hacker certifications, and permanent employment to in the end assist fill the IT protection box skill gap.”
Symantec, along with the Symantec basis, is providing monetary support, software and human capital in the pilot software. See the SC3 web page for complete counsel, http://go.symantec.com/cyber-career-connection.
Symantec supplier (NASDAQ: SYMC) is an guidance insurance plan expert that helps people, organizations and governments looking for the liberty to free up the opportunities know-how brings -- every time, any place. centered in April 1982, Symantec, a Fortune 500 business, operating one of the vital greatest global information-intelligence networks, has supplied leading protection, backup and availability options for where a must-have advice is stored, accessed and shared. The company's more than 20,000 personnel reside in additional than 50 countries. Ninety-9 p.c of Fortune 500 groups are Symantec customers. In fiscal 2014, it recorded revenues of $6.7 billion. To be trained extra go to www.symantec.com or join with Symantec at: go.symantec.com/socialmedia.
about the Symantec basis
The Symantec groundwork is a 501(c)(three) private basis created via Symantec organization to allow a sustainable and distinct future for the know-how business via international community partnerships.
About Clinton world Initiative the usa
The Clinton global Initiative the united states (CGI the usa), a application of the Clinton world Initiative addresses economic restoration in the united states. established in June 2011 through President invoice Clinton, CGI the usa brings together leaders in enterprise, government, and civil society to generate and enforce commitments to create jobs, stimulate economic boom, foster innovation, and support body of workers development within the u.s.. on account that its first meeting, CGI the usa participants have revamped 300 commitments valued at greater than $15 billion when completely funded and carried out. To study extra, discuss with cgiamerica.org.
note TO U.S. EDITORS: if you would like additional info on Symantec enterprise and its items, please talk over with the Symantec information Room at http://www.symantec.com/information. All fees stated are in U.S. greenbacks and are valid most effective within the united states.
Symantec and the Symantec logo are trademarks or registered emblems of Symantec service provider or its associates within the U.S. and other international locations. other names can be trademarks of their respective house owners.
forward-searching STATEMENTS: Any forward-searching indication of plans for items is preliminary and all future unlock dates are tentative and are subject to trade. Any future unlock of the product or planned adjustments to product means, performance, or feature are subject to ongoing comparison through Symantec, and can or might also not be carried out and should no longer be regarded company commitments by Symantec and will now not be relied upon in making buying choices.
1 (ICS)2 Cybersecurity Jobs document (2013)
While it is hard errand to pick solid certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets as for exam dumps update and validity. The greater part of other's sham report objection customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effortlessly. We never bargain on our review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Extraordinarily we deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you see any false report posted by our rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protestation or something like this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams rehearse questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, our example questions and test brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
EX0-100 test questions | 250-252 practice questions | 4A0-102 practice exam | 700-104 real questions | P8010-005 dumps | 000-861 test prep | 000-421 real questions | HP0-Y31 exam prep | 190-955 dumps questions | 132-S-911-3 free pdf | 650-474 questions answers | 200-530 practice test | 000-740 sample test | 000-857 braindumps | 000-003 real questions | HP0-A08 bootcamp | A2010-565 study guide | 2V0-751 questions and answers | 300-550 pdf download | 00M-638 free pdf |
killexams.com ST0-192 Brain Dumps with Real Questions
killexams.com give most recent and updated Practice Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of Symantec ST0-192 Exam. Practice our Real Questions and Answers to Improve your knowledge and pass your exam with High Marks. We guarantee your success in the Test Center, covering every one of the points of exam and construct your Knowledge of the ST0-192 exam. Pass beyond any doubt with our actual questions.
Are you searching out Symantec ST0-192 Dumps containing actual test questions and answers for the Symantec Technical Foundations: Security Solutions 2.0 Technical Assessment: Exam prep? killexams.com is here to provide you one most updated and fine source of ST0-192 Dumps this is http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ST0-192. We have compiled a database of ST0-192 Dumps questions from actual test that allows you to put together and pass ST0-192 exam on the first attempt.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as underneath;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders more than $ninety nine
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
Quality and Value for the ST0-192 Exam: killexams.com Practice Exams for Symantec ST0-192 are composed to the most astounding benchmarks of specialized precision, utilizing just guaranteed topic specialists and distributed creators for improvement.
100% Guarantee to Pass Your ST0-192 Exam: If you don't pass the Symantec ST0-192 exam utilizing our killexams.com testing engine, we will give you a FULL REFUND of your acquiring expense.
Downloadable, Interactive ST0-192 Testing engines: Our Symantec ST0-192 Preparation Material gives you all that you should take Symantec ST0-192 exam. Subtle elements are inquired about and created by Symantec Certification Experts continually utilizing industry experience to deliver actual, and intelligent.
- Comprehensive questions and answers about ST0-192 exam - ST0-192 exam questions joined by displays - Verified Answers by Experts and very nearly 100% right - ST0-192 exam questions updated on general premise - ST0-192 exam planning is in various decision questions (MCQs). - Tested by different circumstances previously distributing - Try free ST0-192 exam demo before you choose to get it in killexams.com
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
Killexams C2090-913 test prep | Killexams 00M-660 practice exam | Killexams 920-551 test prep | Killexams P2065-013 questions and answers | Killexams 1Z0-489 braindumps | Killexams 1T6-520 dump | Killexams HH0-350 questions and answers | Killexams 310-053 pdf download | Killexams 1T6-215 dumps questions | Killexams ST0-247 braindumps | Killexams C2050-724 questions answers | Killexams 250-318 free pdf | Killexams HP2-T14 practice test | Killexams 9L0-619 free pdf | Killexams OG0-081 study guide | Killexams 000-430 test questions | Killexams LOT-801 bootcamp | Killexams 000-579 exam questions | Killexams VCP5-DCV study guide | Killexams 1Z0-511 sample test |
Killexams 4A0-101 free pdf | Killexams 820-427 practice test | Killexams 000-042 examcollection | Killexams 190-846 free pdf download | Killexams 190-952 real questions | Killexams 000-139 real questions | Killexams HP0-S13 bootcamp | Killexams 700-801 dump | Killexams 1Z0-560 exam questions | Killexams HP2-E24 study guide | Killexams 00M-155 questions and answers | Killexams C2090-612 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-474 brain dumps | Killexams SPS-200 real questions | Killexams HP0-J12 exam prep | Killexams HPE2-E55 brain dumps | Killexams A2090-730 free pdf | Killexams 70-355 sample test | Killexams 000-S01 study guide | Killexams HP3-C40 test prep |
Synopsys' Portfolio of DesignWare Foundation, Analog, and Interface IP Accelerate ISO 26262 Qualification for ADAS, Powertrain, 5G, and Radar Automotive SoCs
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. and SANTA CLARA, Calif., March 20, 2019 /PRNewswire/ --
Synopsys, Inc. (Nasdaq: SNPS) and GLOBALFOUNDRIES (GF) today announced a collaboration to develop a portfolio of automotive Grade 1 temperature (-40ºC to +150ºC junction) DesignWare® Foundation, Analog, and Interface IP for the GF 22-nm Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (22FDX®) process. By providing IP that is designed for high temperature operation on 22FDX, Synopsys enables designers to reduce their design effort and accelerate AEC-Q100 qualification of system-on-chips (SoCs) for automotive applications such as eMobility, 5G connectivity, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and infotainment. The Synopsys DesignWare IP implements additional automotive design rules for the GF 22FDX process to meet stringent reliability and operation requirements. This latest collaboration complements Synopsys' broad portfolio of automotive-grade IP that provides ISO 26262 ASIL B Ready or ASIL D Ready certification, AEC-Q100 testing, and quality management.
"Arbe's ultra-high-resolution radar is leveraging this cutting edge technology that enabled us to create a unique radar solution and provide the missing link for autonomous vehicles and safe driver assistance," said Avi Bauer, vice president of R&D at Arbe. "We need to work with leading companies who can support our technology innovation. GF's 22FDX technology, with Synopsys automotive-grade DesignWare IP, will help us meet automotive reliability and operation requirements and is critical to our success."
"GF's close, collaborative relationships with leading automotive suppliers and ecosystem partners such as Synopsys have enabled advanced process technology solutions for a broad range of driving system applications," said Mark Ireland, vice president of ecosystem partnerships at GF. "The combination of our 22FDX process with Synopsys' DesignWare IP enables our mutual customers to speed the development and certification of their automotive SoCs, while meeting their performance, power, and area targets."
"Synopsys' extensive investment in developing automotive-qualified IP for advanced processes, such as GF's 22FDX, helps designers accelerate their SoC-level qualifications for functional safety, reliability, and automotive quality," said John Koeter, vice president of marketing for IP at Synopsys. "Our close collaboration with GF mitigates risks for designers integrating DesignWare Foundation, Analog, and Interface IP into low-power, high-performance automotive SoCs on the 22FDX process."
For more information on Synopsys DesignWare IP for automotive Grade 1 temperature operation on GF's 22FDX process:
GLOBALFOUNDRIES (GF) is a leading full-service foundry delivering truly differentiated semiconductor technologies for a range of high-growth markets. GF provides a unique combination of design, development, and fabrication services, with a range of innovative IP and feature-rich offerings including FinFET, FDX™, RF and analog/mixed signal. With a manufacturing footprint spanning three continents, GF has the flexibility and agility to meet the dynamic needs of clients across the globe. GF is owned by Mubadala Investment Company. For more information, visit www.globalfoundries.com/.
About Synopsys DesignWare IP
Synopsys is a leading provider of high-quality, silicon-proven IP solutions for SoC designs. The broad Synopsys DesignWare IP portfolio includes logic libraries, embedded memories, embedded test, analog IP, wired and wireless interface IP, security IP, embedded processors, and subsystems. To accelerate prototyping, software development and integration of IP into SoCs, Synopsys' IP Accelerated initiative offers IP prototyping kits, IP software development kits and IP subsystems. Synopsys' extensive investment in IP quality, comprehensive technical support and robust IP development methodology enables designers to reduce integration risk and accelerate time-to-market. For more information on Synopsys DesignWare IP, visit https://www.synopsys.com/designware.
Synopsys, Inc. (Nasdaq: SNPS) is the Silicon to Software™ partner for innovative companies developing the electronic products and software applications we rely on every day. As the world's 15th largest software company, Synopsys has a long history of being a global leader in electronic design automation (EDA) and semiconductor IP and is also growing its leadership in software security and quality solutions. Whether you're a system-on-chip (SoC) designer creating advanced semiconductors, or a software developer writing applications that require the highest security and quality, Synopsys has the solutions needed to deliver innovative, high-quality, secure products. Learn more at www.synopsys.com.
Editorial Contacts:Norma SengstockSynopsys, Inc.email@example.com
SOURCE Synopsys, Inc.
BEAVERTON, Ore.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF), a leading open Internet of Things (IoT) standards development organization, today announced that its OCF 1.0 specification has been ratified as an International Standard by ISO/IEC JTC 1 (Joint Technical Committee for ICT standardization of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)), marking a critical step in the OCF’s efforts to establish a common and secure language fueling IoT interoperability worldwide. The OCF standard will be published as ISO/IEC 30118 (Parts 1-6).
While the IoT presents an incredible opportunity to improve the technology businesses’ and consumers’ use every day, a lack of a universal language ensuring seamless communication between devices challenges and limits user experiences. With its now worldwide recognized specification, OCF continues to advance in developing a truly open IoT protocol, equipping developers and manufacturers in the IoT ecosystem with the tools they need to provide a secure, interoperable end user experience.
Incorporating a strong security framework with Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and cloud management capabilities are essential for today’s digital approaches. With these additional elements, OCF’s latest 2.0 specification defines a best in class secure and cloud native network protocol for IoT practices and ecosystems. The OCF resource description allows for industry-specific deployment across Smart Home, Healthcare, Automotive and Commercial Building. The Foundation’s two open source implementations – IoTivity and IoTivity Lite – allow for quick adoption of the ratified standard. The OCF 2.0 specification will be submitted to ISO/IEC JTC 1 later this year.
“We are excited to see the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 approval of the OCF specification as an international standard for the IoT ecosystem,” said John Park, Executive Director of OCF. “Achieving this recognition reinforces OCF’s contribution to the global IoT community to solve the interoperability gap between devices, supported by the development of ISO/IEC 30118 standardization and OCF-certified devices in the coming years.”
“ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) is very pleased to welcome the important work of OCF and have its specifications transposed into approved ISO/IEC standards," said Phil Wennblom, JTC 1 Chair. "This accomplishment marks the strong and constructive relationship between our organizations.”
To learn more about OCF’s secure interoperability framework, visit https://openconnectivity.org/blog/ocf-2-0-specification-securing-the-internet-of-things.
To learn more about OCF’s open source implementations, IoTivity and IoTivity Lite, visit https://openconnectivity.org/blog/iotivity-vs-iotivity-lite-two-paths-ocf-certification.
See publicly available standards in accordance with ISO/IEC JTC 1 at https://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/.
About Open Connectivity Foundation
The Open Connectivity Foundation is dedicated to ensuring secure interoperability for consumers, businesses and industries by delivering a standard communications platform, a bridging specification, an open source implementation and a certification program allowing devices to communicate regardless of form factor, operating system, service provider, transport technology or ecosystem. The industry-leading companies involved in OCF believe that secure and reliable device discovery and connectivity is a foundational component to enable IoT. Learn more and join our 400+ members.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies. Through its members, ISO brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market-relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges.
ISO has published more than 22 000 International Standards and related documents covering almost every industry, from technology to food safety, to agriculture and healthcare.
For more information, please visit www.iso.org.
The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the world’s leading organization that prepares and publishes globally relevant International Standards for all electric and electronic devices and systems. It brings together 171 countries; 86 are Members (National Committees) and 85 are Affiliates, developing countries that benefit from IEC work without the burden of membership.
Together they represent more than 99% of the world population and world electricity generation. More than 20 000 experts cooperate on the global IEC platform and many more in each member country.
They ensure that products work everywhere safely and efficiently with each other. The IEC also supports all forms of conformity assessment and administers four Conformity Assessment Systems that certify that components, equipment and systems used in homes, offices, healthcare facilities, public spaces, transportation, manufacturing, explosive environments and during energy generation conform to them.
IEC work covers a vast range of technologies: power generation (including all renewable energy sources), transmission, distribution, smart grid & smart cities, batteries, home appliances, office and medical equipment, all public and private transportation, semiconductors, fibre optics, nanotechnology, multimedia, information technology, and more. It also addresses safety, EMC, performance and the environment.
In his office within the gleaming-stainless-steel and orange-brick jumble of MIT’s Stata Center, Internet elder statesman and onetime chief protocol architect David D. Clark prints out an old PowerPoint talk. Dated July 1992, it ranges over technical issues like domain naming and scalability. But in one slide, Clark points to the Internet’s dark side: its lack of built-in security.
In others, he observes that sometimes the worst disasters are caused not by sudden events but by slow, incremental processes – and that humans are good at ignoring problems. “Things get worse slowly. People adjust,” Clark noted in his presentation. “The problem is assigning the correct degree of fear to distant elephants.”
Today, Clark believes the elephants are upon us. Yes, the Internet has wrought wonders: e-commerce has flourished, and e-mail has become a ubiquitous means of communication. Almost one billion people now use the Internet, and critical industries like banking increasingly rely on it.
At the same time, the Internet’s shortcomings have resulted in plunging security and a decreased ability to accommodate new technologies. “We are at an inflection point, a revolution point,” Clark now argues. And he delivers a strikingly pessimistic assessment of where the Internet will end up without dramatic intervention. “We might just be at the point where the utility of the Internet stalls – and perhaps turns downward.”
Indeed, for the average user, the Internet these days all too often resembles New York’s Times Square in the 1980s. It was exciting and vibrant, but you made sure to keep your head down, lest you be offered drugs, robbed, or harangued by the insane. Times Square has been cleaned up, but the Internet keeps getting worse, both at the user’s level, and – in the view of Clark and others – deep within its architecture.
Over the years, as Internet applications proliferated – wireless devices, peer-to-peer file-sharing, telephony – companies and network engineers came up with ingenious and expedient patches, plugs, and workarounds. The result is that the originally simple communications technology has become a complex and convoluted affair. For all of the Internet’s wonders, it is also difficult to manage and more fragile with each passing day.
That’s why Clark argues that it’s time to rethink the Internet’s basic architecture, to potentially start over with a fresh design – and equally important, with a plausible strategy for proving the design’s viability, so that it stands a chance of implementation. “It’s not as if there is some killer technology at the protocol or network level that we somehow failed to include,” says Clark. “We need to take all the technologies we already know and fit them together so that we get a different overall system. This is not about building a technology innovation that changes the world but about architecture – pulling the pieces together in a different way to achieve high-level objectives.”
Just such an approach is now gaining momentum, spurred on by the National Science Foundation. NSF managers are working to forge a five-to-seven-year plan estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million in research funding to develop clean-slate architectures that provide security, accommodate new technologies, and are easier to manage.
They also hope to develop an infrastructure that can be used to prove that the new system is really better than the current one. “If we succeed in what we are trying to do, this is bigger than anything we, as a research community, have done in computer science so far,” says Guru Parulkar, an NSF program manager involved with the effort. “In terms of its mission and vision, it is a very big deal. But now we are just at the beginning. It has the potential to change the game. It could take it to the next level in realizing what the Internet could be that has not been possible because of the challenges and problems.”
Firewall NationWhen AOL updates its software, the new version bears a number: 7.0, 8.0, 9.0. The most recent version is called AOL 9.0 Security Edition. These days, improving the utility of the Internet is not so much about delivering the latest cool application; it’s about survival.
In August, IBM released a study reporting that “virus-laden e-mails and criminal driven security attacks” leapt by 50 percent in the first half of 2005, with government and the financial-services, manufacturing, and health-care industries in the crosshairs. In July, the Pew Internet and American Life Project reported that 43 percent of U.S. Internet users – 59 million adults – reported having spyware or adware on their computers, thanks merely to visiting websites. (In many cases, they learned this from the sudden proliferation of error messages or freeze-ups.) Fully 91 percent had adopted some defensive behavior – avoiding certain kinds of websites, say, or not downloading software. “Go to a neighborhood bar, and people are talking about firewalls. That was just not true three years ago,” says Susannah Fox, associate director of the Pew project.
Then there is spam. One leading online security company, Symantec, says that between July 1 and December 31, 2004, spam surged 77 percent at companies that Symantec monitored. The raw numbers are staggering: weekly spam totals on average rose from 800 million to more than 1.2 billion messages, and 60 percent of all e-mail was spam, according to Symantec.
But perhaps most menacing of all are “botnets” – collections of computers hijacked by hackers to do remote-control tasks like sending spam or attacking websites. This kind of wholesale hijacking – made more potent by wide adoption of always-on broadband connections – has spawned hard-core crime: digital extortion. Hackers are threatening destructive attacks against companies that don’t meet their financial demands. According to a study by a Carnegie Mellon University researcher, 17 of 100 companies surveyed had been threatened with such attacks.
Simply put, the Internet has no inherent security architecture – nothing to stop viruses or spam or anything else. Protections like firewalls and antispam software are add-ons, security patches in a digital arms race.
The President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, a group stocked with a who’s who of infotech CEOs and academic researchers, says the situation is bad and getting worse. “Today, the threat clearly is growing,” the council wrote in a report issued in early 2005. “Most indicators and studies of the frequency, impact, scope, and cost of cyber security incidents – among both organizations and individuals – point to continuously increasing levels and varieties of attacks.”
And we haven’t even seen a real act of cyberterror, the “digital Pearl Harbor” memorably predicted by former White House counterterrorism czar Richard Clarke in 2000 (see “A Tangle of Wires”). Consider the nation’s electrical grid: it relies on continuous network-based communications between power plants and grid managers to maintain a balance between production and demand. A well-placed attack could trigger a costly blackout that would cripple part of the country.
The conclusion of the advisory council’s report could not have been starker: “The IT infrastructure is highly vulnerable to premeditated attacks with potentially catastrophic effects.”
The system functions as well as it does only because of “the forbearance of the virus authors themselves,” says Jonathan Zittrain, who cofounded the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School and holds the Chair in Internet Governance and Regulation at the University of Oxford. “With one or two additional lines of code…the viruses could wipe their hosts’ hard drives clean or quietly insinuate false data into spreadsheets or documents. Take any of the top ten viruses and add a bit of poison to them, and most of the world wakes up on a Tuesday morning unable to surf the Net – or finding much less there if it can.”
Patchwork ProblemThe Internet’s original protocols, forged in the late 1960s, were designed to do one thing very well: facilitate communication between a few hundred academic and government users. The protocols efficiently break digital data into simple units called packets and send the packets to their destinations through a series of network routers. Both the routers and PCs, also called nodes, have unique digital addresses known as Internet Protocol or IP addresses. That’s basically it. The system assumed that all users on the network could be trusted and that the computers linked by the Internet were mostly fixed objects.
The Internet’s design was indifferent to whether the information packets added up to a malicious virus or a love letter; it had no provisions for doing much besides getting the data to its destination. Nor did it accommodate nodes that moved – such as PDAs that could connect to the Internet at any of myriad locations. Over the years, a slew of patches arose: firewalls, antivirus software, spam filters, and the like. One patch assigns each mobile node a new IP address every time it moves to a new point in the network.
[Click here to view graphic representations of David D. Clark’s four goals for a new Internet architecture.]
Clearly, security patches aren’t keeping pace. That’s partly because different people use different patches and not everyone updates them religiously; some people don’t have any installed. And the most common mobility patch – the IP addresses that constantly change as you move around – has downsides. When your mobile computer has a new identity every time it connects to the Internet, the websites you deal with regularly won’t know it’s you. This means, for example, that your favorite airline’s Web page might not cough up a reservation form with your name and frequent-flyer number already filled out. The constantly changing address also means you can expect breaks in service if you are using the Internet to, say, listen to a streaming radio broadcast on your PDA. It also means that someone who commits a crime online using a mobile device will be harder to track down.
In the view of many experts in the field, there are even more fundamental reasons to be concerned. Patches create an ever more complicated system, one that becomes harder to manage, understand, and improve upon. “We’ve been on a track for 30 years of incrementally making improvements to the Internet and fixing problems that we see,” says Larry Peterson, a computer scientist at Princeton University. “We see vulnerability, we try to patch it. That approach is one that has worked for 30 years. But there is reason to be concerned. Without a long-term plan, if you are just patching the next problem you see, you end up with an increasingly complex and brittle system. It makes new services difficult to employ. It makes it much harder to manage because of the added complexity of all these point solutions that have been added. At the same time, there is concern that we will hit a dead end at some point. There will be problems we can’t sufficiently patch.”
The patchwork approach draws complaints even from the founder of a business that is essentially an elaborate and ingenious patch for some of the Internet’s shortcomings. Tom Leighton is cofounder and chief scientist of Akamai, a company that ensures that its clients’ Web pages and applications are always available, even if huge numbers of customers try to log on to them or a key fiber-optic cable is severed. Akamai closely monitors network problems, strategically stores copies of a client’s website at servers around the world, and accesses those servers as needed. But while his company makes its money from patching the Net, Leighton says the whole system needs fundamental architectural change. “We are in the mode of trying to plug holes in the dike,” says Leighton, an MIT mathematician who is also a member of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee and chair of its Cyber Security Subcommittee. “There are more and more holes, and more resources are going to plugging the holes, and there are less resources being devoted to fundamentally changing the game, to changing the Internet.”
When Leighton says “resources,” he’s talking about billions of dollars. Take Microsoft, for example. Its software mediates between the Internet and the PC. These days, of the $6 billion that Microsoft spends annually on research and development, approximately one-third, or $2 billion, is directly spent on security efforts. “The evolution of the Internet, the development of threats from the Internet that could attempt to intrude on systems – whether Web servers, Web browsers, or e-mail-based threats – really changed the equation,” says Steve Lipner, Microsoft’s director of security strategy and engineering strategy. “Ten years ago, I think people here in the industry were designing software for new features, new performance, ease of use, what have you. Today, we train everybody for security.” Not only does this focus on security siphon resources from other research, but it can even hamper research that does get funded. Some innovations have been kept in the lab, Lipner says, because Microsoft couldn’t be sure they met security standards.
Of course, some would argue that Microsoft is now scrambling to make up for years of selling insecure products. But the Microsoft example has parallels elsewhere. Eric Brewer, director of Intel’s Berkeley, CA, research lab, notes that expenditures on security are like a “tax” and are “costing the nation billions and billions of dollars.” This tax shows up as increased product prices, as companies’ expenditures on security services and damage repair, as the portion of processor speed and storage devoted to running defensive programs, as the network capacity consumed by spam, and as the costs to the average person trying to dodge the online minefield of buying the latest firewalls. “We absolutely can leave things alone. But it has this continuous 30 percent tax, and the tax might go up,” Brewer says. “The penalty for not [fixing] it isn’t immediately fatal. But things will slowly get worse and might get so bad that people won’t use the Internet as much as they might like.”
The existing Internet architecture also stands in the way of new technologies. Networks of intelligent sensors that collectively monitor and interpret things like factory conditions, the weather, or video images could change computing as much as cheap PCs did 20 years ago. But they have entirely different communication requirements. “Future networks aren’t going to be PCs docking to mainframes. It’s going to be about some car contacting the car next to it. All of this is happening in an embedded context. Everything is machine to machine rather than people to people,” says Dipankar Raychaudhuri, director of the Wireless Information Network Laboratory (Winlab) at Rutgers University. With today’s architecture, making such a vision reality would require more and more patches.
Architectural DigestWhen Clark talks about creating a new architecture, he says the job must start with the setting of goals. First, give the medium a basic security architecture – the ability to authenticate whom you are communicating with and prevent things like spam and viruses from ever reaching your PC. Better security is “the most important motivation for this redesign,” Clark says. Second, make the new architecture practical by devising protocols that allow Internet service providers to better route traffic and collaborate to offer advanced services without compromising their businesses. Third, allow future computing devices of any size to connect to the Internet – not just PCs but sensors and embedded processors. Fourth, add technology that makes the network easier to manage and more resilient. For example, a new design should allow all pieces of the network to detect and report emerging problems – whether technical breakdowns, traffic jams, or replicating worms – to network administrators.
The good news is that some of these goals are not so far off. NSF has, over the past few years, spent more than $30 million supporting and planning such research. Academic and corporate research labs have generated a number of promising technologies: ways to authenticate who’s online; ways to identify criminals while protecting the privacy of others; ways to add wireless devices and sensors. While nobody is saying that any single one of these technologies will be included in a new architecture, they provide a starting point for understanding what a “new” Internet might actually look like and how it would differ from the old one.
Some promising technologies that might figure into this new architecture are coming from PlanetLab, which Princeton’s Peterson has been nurturing in recent years (see “The Internet Reborn,” October 2003). In this still-growing project, researchers throughout the world have been developing software that can be grafted onto today’s dumb Internet routers. One example is software that “sniffs” passing Internet traffic for worms. The software looks for telltale packets sent out by worm-infected machines searching for new hosts and can warn system administrators of infections. Other software prototypes detect the emergence of data traffic jams and come up with more efficient ways to reroute traffic around them. These kinds of algorithms could become part of a fundamental new infrastructure, Peterson says.
A second set of technologies could help authenticate Internet communications. It would be a huge boon to Internet security if you could be sure an e-mail from your bank is really from your bank and not a scam artist, and if the bank could be sure that when someone logs in to your account, that person is really you and not someone who stole your account number.
Today, the onus of authentication is on the Internet user, who is constantly asked to present information of various kinds: passwords, social-security numbers, employee ID numbers, credit card numbers, frequent-flyer numbers, PIN numbers, and so on. But when millions of users are constantly entering these gate-opening numbers, it makes it that much easier for spyware, or a thief sniffing wireless Internet traffic, to steal, commit fraud, and do damage.
One evolving solution, developed by Internet2 – a research consortium based in Ann Arbor, MI, that develops advanced Internet technologies for use by research laboratories and universities – effectively creates a middleman who does the job. Called Shibboleth, the software mediates between a sender and a recipient; it transmits the appropriate ID numbers, passwords, and other identifying information to the right recipients for you, securely, through the centralized exchange of digital certificates and other means. In addition to making the dispersal of information more secure, it helps protect privacy. That’s because it discloses only the “attributes” of a person pertinent to a particular transaction, rather than the person’s full “identity.”
Right now, Shibboleth is used by universities to mediate access to online libraries and other resources; when you log on, the university knows your “attribute” – you are an enrolled student – and not your name or other personal information. This basic concept can be expanded: your employment status could open the gates to your company’s servers; your birth date could allow you to buy wine online. A similar scheme could give a bank confidence that online account access is legitimate and conversely give a bank customer confidence that banking communications are really from the bank.
Shibboleth and similar technologies in development can, and do, work as patches. But some of their basic elements could also be built into a replacement Internet architecture. “Most people look at the Internet as such a dominant force, they only think how they can make it a little better,” Clark says. “I’m saying, ‘Hey, think about the future differently. What should our communications environment of 10 to 15 years from now look like? What is your goal?’”
The Devil We KnowIt’s worth remembering that despite all of its flaws, all of its architectural kluginess and insecurity and the costs associated with patching it, the Internet still gets the job done. Any effort to implement a better version faces enormous practical problems: all Internet service providers would have to agree to change all their routers and software, and someone would have to foot the bill, which will likely come to many billions of dollars. But NSF isn’t proposing to abandon the old network or to forcibly impose something new on the world. Rather, it essentially wants to build a better mousetrap, show that it’s better, and allow a changeover to take place in response to user demand.
To that end, the NSF effort envisions the construction of a sprawling infrastructure that could cost approximately $300 million. It would include research labs across the United States and perhaps link with research efforts abroad, where new architectures can be given a full workout. With a high-speed optical backbone and smart routers, this test bed would be far more elaborate and representative than the smaller, more limited test beds in use today. The idea is that new architectures would be battle tested with real-world Internet traffic. “You hope that provides enough value added that people are slowly and selectively willing to switch, and maybe it gets enough traction that people will switch over,” Parulkar says. But he acknowledges, “Ten years from now, how things play out is anyone’s guess. It could be a parallel infrastructure that people could use for selective applications.”
[Click here to view graphic representations of David D. Clark’s four goals for a new Internet architecture.]
Still, skeptics claim that a smarter network could be even more complicated and thus failure-prone than the original bare-bones Internet. Conventional wisdom holds that the network should remain dumb, but that the smart devices at its ends should become smarter. “I’m not happy with the current state of affairs. I’m not happy with spam; I’m not happy with the amount of vulnerability to various forms of attack,” says Vinton Cerf, one of the inventors of the Internet’s basic protocols, who recently joined Google with a job title created just for him: chief Internet evangelist. “I do want to distinguish that the primary vectors causing a lot of trouble are penetrating holes in operating systems. It’s more like the operating systems don’t protect themselves very well. An argument could be made, ‘Why does the network have to do that?’”
According to Cerf, the more you ask the network to examine data – to authenticate a person’s identity, say, or search for viruses – the less efficiently it will move the data around. “It’s really hard to have a network-level thing do this stuff, which means you have to assemble the packets into something bigger and thus violate all the protocols,” Cerf says. “That takes a heck of a lot of resources.” Still, Cerf sees value in the new NSF initiative. “If Dave Clark…sees some notions and ideas that would be dramatically better than what we have, I think that’s important and healthy,” Cerf says. “I sort of wonder about something, though. The collapse of the Net, or a major security disaster, has been predicted for a decade now.” And of course no such disaster has occurred – at least not by the time this issue of Technology Review went to press.
The NSF effort to make the medium smarter also runs up against the libertarian culture of the Internet, says Harvard’s Zittrain. “The NSF program is a worthy one in the first instance because it begins with the premise that the current Net has outgrown some of its initial foundations and associated tenets,” Zittrain says. “But there is a risk, too, that any attempt to rewrite the Net’s technical constitution will be so much more fraught, so much more self-conscious of the nontechnical matters at stake, that the cure could be worse than the problem.”
Still, Zittrain sees hazards ahead if some sensible action isn’t taken. He posits that the Internet’s security problems, and the theft of intellectual property, could produce a counterreaction that would amount to a clampdown on the medium – everything from the tightening of software makers’ control over their operating systems to security lockdowns by businesses. And of course, if a “digital Pearl Harbor” does occur, the federal government is liable to respond reflexively with heavy-handed reforms and controls. If such tightenings happen, Zittrain believes we’re bound to get an Internet that is, in his words, “more secure – and less interesting.”
But what all sides agree on is that the Internet’s perennial problems are getting worse, at the same time that society’s dependence on it is deepening. Just a few years ago, the work of researchers like Peterson didn’t garner wide interest outside the networking community. But these days, Clark and Peterson are giving briefings to Washington policymakers. “There is recognition that some of these problems are potentially quite serious. You could argue that they have always been there,” Peterson says. “But there is a wider recognition in the highest level of the government that this is true. We are getting to the point where we are briefing people in the president’s Office of Science and Technology Policy. I specifically did, and other people are doing that as well. As far as I know, that’s pretty new.”
Outside the door to Clark’s office at MIT, a nametag placed by a prankster colleague announces it to be the office of Albus Dumbledore – the wise headmaster of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a central figure in the Harry Potter books. But while Clark in earlier years may have wrought some magic, helping transform the original Internet protocols into a robust communications technology that changed the world, he no longer has much control over what happens next.
But “because we don’t have power, there is a greater chance that we will be left alone to try,” he says. And so Clark, like Dumbledore, clucks over new generations of technical wizards. “My goal in calling for a fresh design is to free our minds from the current constraints, so we can envision a different future,” he says. “The reason I stress this is that the Internet is so big, and so successful, that it seems like a fool’s errand to send someone off to invent a different one.” Whether the end result is a whole new architecture – or just an effective set of changes to the existing one – may not matter in the end. Given how entrenched the Internet is, the effort will have succeeded, he says, if it at least gets the research community working toward common goals, and helps “impose creep in the right direction.”
Foundations for a New Infrastructure The NSF’s emerging effort to forge a clean-slate Internet architecture will draw on a wide body of existing research. Below is a sampling of major efforts aimed at improving everything from security to wireless communications.
PLANETLABPrinceton UniversityPrinceton, NJFocus:Creating an Internet “overlay network” of hardware and software–currently 630 machines in 25 countries–that performs functions ranging from searching for worms to optimizing traffic.
EMULABUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City, UTFocus:A software and hardware test bed that provides researchers a simple, practical way to emulate the Internet for a wide variety of research goals.
DETER/University of SouthernCalifornia Information Sciences InstituteMarina del Rey, CAFocus:A research test bed where researchers can safely launch simulated cyber-attacks, analyze them, and develop defensive strategies, especially for critical infrastructure.
WINLAB (Wireless Information Network Laboratory)Rutgers UniversityNew Brunswick, NJFocus:Develops wireless networking architectures and protocols, aimed at deploying the mobile Internet. Performs research on everything from high-speed modems to spectrum management.
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12866692
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12955696
Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2018/01/never-miss-these-st0-192-questions.html
Blogspot : http://killexams-braindumps.blogspot.com/2018/01/just-memorize-these-st0-192-questions_81.html
Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2TQ