You know the best and fastest way to pass ST0-149 exam? I got it.

ST0-149 brain dumps | ST0-149 model question | ST0-149 test example | ST0-149 prep questions | ST0-149 test exam -

ST0-149 - Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment - Dump Information

Vendor : Symantec
Exam Code : ST0-149
Exam Name : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Questions and Answers : 171 Q & A
Updated On : January 18, 2019
PDF Download Mirror : Pass4sure ST0-149 Dump
Get Full Version : Pass4sure ST0-149 Full Version

where can i discover ST0-149 dumps of real test questions?

hi there there fellows, simply to inform you that I surpassed ST0-149 exam a day or two ago with 88% marks. sure, the examination is hard and partillerocken Q&A and examination Simulator does make lifestyles less difficult - a amazing deal! I think this unit is the unrivaled motive I surpassed the exam. As a matter of first importance, their exam simulator is a present. I typically loved the inquiry and-answer agency and exams of various types in light of the truth that that is the maximum best approach to study.

Great source of great actual test questions, accurate answers.

I were given an first-rate cease result with this package. Amazing outstanding, questions are accurate and i had been given maximum of them at the examination. After ive exceeded it, I advocated partillerocken to my colleagues, and all and sundry exceeded their tests, too (some of them took Cisco assessments, others did Microsoft, VMware, and many others). I have not heard a awful assessment of partillerocken, so this must be the tremendous IT education you could currently find on line.

Great opportunity to get certified ST0-149 exam.

this is a top notch ST0-149 exam training. i bought it seeing that I could not find any books or PDFs to have a look at for the ST0-149 examination. It turned out to be better than any book when you consider that this exercise examination offers you true questions, simply the manner youll be asked them at the exam. No vain info, no inappropriate questions, that is how it changed into for me and my friends. I tremendously advise partillerocken to all my brothers and sisters who plan to take ST0-149 exam.

Take a smart circulate to pass ST0-149

Asking my father to help me with something is like entering in to huge trouble and I certainly didnt want to disturb him during my ST0-149 preparation. I knew someone else has to help me. I just didnt who it would be until one of my cousins told me of this partillerocken. It was like a great gift to me since it was extremely helpful and useful for my ST0-149 test preparation. I owe my great marks to the people working on here because their dedication made it possible.

it's miles unbelieveable, but ST0-149 today's dumps are availabe right here.

I sincerely thank you. I have cleared the ST0-149 exam with the help of your mock tests. It was very much helpful. I surely would recommend to those who are going to appear the ST0-149.

Is there a shortcut to fast prepare and pass ST0-149 exam?

This braindump from helped me get my ST0-149 certification. Their materials are really helpful, and the testing engine is just great, it fully simulates the ST0-149 exam. The exam itself was tricky, so Im happy I used partillerocken. Their bundles cover everything you need, and you wont get any unpleasant surprises during your exam.

No less expensive source than those ST0-149 Q&A dumps available but.

Clearing ST0-149 checks turned into for all intents and purpose unrealistic for the benefit of me. The check factors have been without a doubt excessive for me to recognize. however they illuminated my downside. I illuminated the ninety inquiries out of a hundred Questions correctly. by way of basically pertaining to the observe manual in mind unload, i used to be organized to look the subject matters nicely. additionally the superb exam simulator like partillerocken ST0-149 With success cleared this check. I provide gratitude partillerocken for serving the incredible administrations. an awful lot favored.

Found an accurate source for real ST0-149 dumps.

I surpassed the ST0-149 examination three days lower back, I used partillerocken dumps for making geared up and i could effectively entirethe exam with a excessive score of 98%. I used it for over a week, memorized all questions and their solutions, so it have become easy for me to mark the proper answers at some point of the live exam. I thank the partillerocken crewfor helping me with this form of incredible education material and granting success.

experience confident through preparing ST0-149 dumps.

ST0-149 examination become without a doubt tough for me as I become no longer getting sufficient time for the practise. Finding no way out, I took help from the sell off. I also took help from Official Certification Guide. The unload turned into splendid. It treated all the topics in an smooth and pleasant manner. Could get thru maximum of them with little attempt. Answered all of the query in just 81 minutes and were given ninety seven mark. Felt in reality happy. Thanks loads to partillerocken for their priceless steering.

right understanding and look at with the ST0-149 Q&A and Dumps! What a mixture!

I subscribed on partillerocken with the aid of the suggession of my buddy, as a way to get some greater useful resourcefor my ST0-149 checks. As quickly as I logged on to this partillerocken I felt relaxed and relieved on account that I knew this could help me get thru my ST0-149 take a look at and that it did.

See more Symantec dumps

ST0-086 | 251-312 | 250-430 | 250-503 | ST0-200 | ST0-095 | 250-365 | 250-824 | ST0-025 | 250-311 | ST0-151 | ST0-174 | 250-513 | 250-314 | 250-700 | 250-251 | 250-315 | ST0-94X | 250-407 | 250-318 | 250-254 | 250-270 | 250-308 | ST0-029 | 250-403 | 250-512 | ST0-114 | ST0-155 | 250-405 | 250-722 | ST0-075 | ST0-079 | ST0-153 | 250-410 | ST0-172 | 250-316 | ST0-141 | ASC-066 | ST0-29B | ST0-066 | ST0-090 | ST0-91W | ST0-067 | 250-272 | ST0-149 | ST0-130 | 250-300 | ST0-100 | ST0-147 | ST0-202 |

Latest Exams added on partillerocken

1Y0-340 | 1Z0-324 | 1Z0-344 | 1Z0-346 | 1Z0-813 | 1Z0-900 | 1Z0-935 | 1Z0-950 | 1Z0-967 | 1Z0-973 | 1Z0-987 | A2040-404 | A2040-918 | AZ-101 | AZ-102 | AZ-200 | AZ-300 | AZ-301 | FortiSandbox | HP2-H65 | HP2-H67 | HPE0-J57 | HPE6-A47 | JN0-662 | MB6-898 | ML0-320 | NS0-159 | NS0-181 | NS0-513 | PEGACPBA73V1 | 1Z0-628 | 1Z0-934 | 1Z0-974 | 1Z0-986 | 202-450 | 500-325 | 70-537 | 70-703 | 98-383 | 9A0-411 | AZ-100 | C2010-530 | C2210-422 | C5050-380 | C9550-413 | C9560-517 | CV0-002 | DES-1721 | MB2-719 | PT0-001 | CPA-REG | CPA-AUD | AACN-CMC | AAMA-CMA | ABEM-EMC | ACF-CCP | ACNP | ACSM-GEI | AEMT | AHIMA-CCS | ANCC-CVNC | ANCC-MSN | ANP-BC | APMLE | AXELOS-MSP | BCNS-CNS | BMAT | CCI | CCN | CCP | CDCA-ADEX | CDM | CFSW | CGRN | CNSC | COMLEX-USA | CPCE | CPM | CRNE | CVPM | DAT | DHORT | CBCP | DSST-HRM | DTR | ESPA-EST | FNS | FSMC | GPTS | IBCLC | IFSEA-CFM | LCAC | LCDC | MHAP | MSNCB | NAPLEX | NBCC-NCC | NBDE-I | NBDE-II | NCCT-ICS | NCCT-TSC | NCEES-FE | NCEES-PE | NCIDQ-CID | NCMA-CMA | NCPT | NE-BC | NNAAP-NA | NRA-FPM | NREMT-NRP | NREMT-PTE | NSCA-CPT | OCS | PACE | PANRE | PCCE | PCCN | PET | RDN | TEAS-N | VACC | WHNP | WPT-R | 156-215-80 | 1D0-621 | 1Y0-402 | 1Z0-545 | 1Z0-581 | 1Z0-853 | 250-430 | 2V0-761 | 700-551 | 700-901 | 7765X | A2040-910 | A2040-921 | C2010-825 | C2070-582 | C5050-384 | CDCS-001 | CFR-210 | NBSTSA-CST | E20-575 | HCE-5420 | HP2-H62 | HPE6-A42 | HQT-4210 | IAHCSMM-CRCST | LEED-GA | MB2-877 | MBLEX | NCIDQ | VCS-316 | 156-915-80 | 1Z0-414 | 1Z0-439 | 1Z0-447 | 1Z0-968 | 300-100 | 3V0-624 | 500-301 | 500-551 | 70-745 | 70-779 | 700-020 | 700-265 | 810-440 | 98-381 | 98-382 | 9A0-410 | CAS-003 | E20-585 | HCE-5710 | HPE2-K42 | HPE2-K43 | HPE2-K44 | HPE2-T34 | MB6-896 | VCS-256 | 1V0-701 | 1Z0-932 | 201-450 | 2VB-602 | 500-651 | 500-701 | 70-705 | 7391X | 7491X | BCB-Analyst | C2090-320 | C2150-609 | IIAP-CAP | CAT-340 | CCC | CPAT | CPFA | APA-CPP | CPT | CSWIP | Firefighter | FTCE | HPE0-J78 | HPE0-S52 | HPE2-E55 | HPE2-E69 | ITEC-Massage | JN0-210 | MB6-897 | N10-007 | PCNSE | VCS-274 | VCS-275 | VCS-413 |

See more dumps on partillerocken

C2020-700 | LOT-956 | P2040-052 | EUCOC | EX0-100 | C2010-509 | A2010-005 | C9550-606 | 922-104 | 77-888 | 9A0-142 | 2B0-020 | 000-911 | 70-545-VB | RH133 | 000-M236 | QQ0-300 | ST0-093 | C2010-508 | C90-06A | 1V0-621 | 1Y0-340 | 71-178 | 000-577 | 310-065 | ST0-075 | LOT-402 | ST0-10X | A6040-752 | CD0-001 | 1Z0-514 | HP0-876 | 1Y0-614 | 98-369 | M2060-730 | OG0-081 | 000-N02 | ASF | HP2-E48 | 250-410 | HP0-Y42 | 70-521-Csharp | HP2-Z30 | OG0-9AB | 3204 | HP0-145 | 9A0-040 | 000-612 | 000-905 | 00M-651 |

ST0-149 Questions and Answers

Pass4sure ST0-149 dumps | ST0-149 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

ST0-149 Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Study Guide Prepared by Symantec Dumps Experts ST0-149 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers

ST0-149 exam Dumps Source : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Test Code : ST0-149
Test Name : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 171 Real Questions

No waste cutting-edge time on internet! observed genuine source today's ST0-149 questions.
I wanted to have certification in test ST0-149 and i get it with killexams. Perfect pattern of new modules facilitate me to attempt all the 38 questions inside the given time-body. I score more than 87. I actually have to mention that I may want to in no way ever have carried out it on my own what i used which will accumulate with killexams.Com Q&A. Killexams.Com Q&A offer the ultra-present day module of questions and cover the associated subjects. Thanks to killexams.Com Q&A.

proper source to get ST0-149 modern brain sell off paper.
thanks for complete help through offering this query bank. I scored 78% in ST0-149 exam.

observed most ST0-149 Questions in dumps that I prepared.
I will endorse you to come back back right right here to put off all fears associated with ST0-149 certification due to the fact this is a greatplatform to offer you with assured goods to your arrangements. I used to be concerned for ST0-149 examination but all thanks to killexams.Com who provided me with exceptional products for my practise. I was absolutely involved aboutmy fulfillment however it become handiest ST0-149 examination engine that multiplied my fulfillment self notion and now i am feeling pride on this unconditional help. Hats off to you and your improbable offerings for all students and professionals!

try out these ST0-149 dumps, it is wonderful!
Killexams.Com become a blessing for ST0-149 exam, for the cause that gadget has loads of tiny info and configuration tricks, which may be tough if you dont have a good deal of ST0-149 experience. ST0-149 questions and solutions are enough to sit down and bypass the ST0-149 test.

Just try real ST0-149 test questions and success is yours.
Many thanks for your ST0-149 dumps. I recognized maximum of the questions and also you had all the simulations that I was asked. I were given 97 percentage score. After trying numerous books, I was pretty disenchanted no longer getting the proper substances. I become searching out a guideline for exam ST0-149 with easy language and properly-prepared content material. Killexams.Com Q&A fulfilled my want, because it defined the complicated topics within the simplest way. In the actual exam I were given ninety seven%, which changed into beyond my expectation. Thank you, to your tremendous manual-line!

ST0-149 actual query bank is real have a look at, authentic result.
My brother saden me telling me that I wasnt going to go through the ST0-149 exam. I notice when I look outside the window, so many different people want to be seen and heard from and they just want the attention of us but I can tell you that we students can get this attention when we pass our ST0-149 test and I can tell you how I cleared my ST0-149 test it was only when I got my study questions from which gave me the hope in my eyes together forever.

surprised to appearance ST0-149 present day questions in little rate.
I dont experience by myself a mid tests any longer in light of the fact that ive a beautiful examine partner as this killexams.Com dumps. Im quite appreciative to the educators right right here for being so extraordinary and properly disposed and assisting me in clearing my distinctly exam ST0-149. I solved all questions in exam. This equal course turned into given to me amid my exams and it didnt make a difference whether or not or no longer it have become day or night, all my inquiries have been spoke back.

Is there a person who surpassed ST0-149 examination?
Thank You killexams.Com for full assist via offering this question bank. I scored seventy eight% in ST0-149 Exam.

ST0-149 exam isn't any greater tough with these QAs.
Killexams.Com is an correct indicator for a university students and clients functionality to work and test for the ST0-149 examination. It is an accurate indication in their potential, particularly with exams taken quick in advance than setting out their academic study for the ST0-149 examination. Killexams.Com offers a reliable up to date. The ST0-149 tests supply a radical photograph of candidates functionality and talents.

So smooth training of ST0-149 exam with this question bank.
I solved all questions in simplest half time in my ST0-149 exam. I will have the capability to make use of the killexams.Com have a look at guide reason for distinct checks as well. An awful lot favored killexams.Com brain dump for the help. I need to inform that together together with your out of the regular examine and honing gadgets; I passed my ST0-149 paper with suitablemarks. This because of the homework cooperates together with your utility.

Symantec Symantec Storage Foundation and

Symantec Veritas Storage foundation V5.1 has solid-state drive auto-discovery, skinny extent reclaim | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec Corp. is beefing up its storage useful resource management utility via enhancing visibility for solid-state drives (SSDs), strengthening its thin provisioning capabilities, including integration with Microsoft Corp.'s Hyper-V and improving utility restoration within the Veritas Cluster File device.

The enhancements to Veritas Storage foundation, Cluster File gadget and Cluster File Server are included in version 5.1 of its Veritas Storage basis platform for Unix, Linux and Microsoft home windows.

Bob Laliberte, a senior analyst at Milford, Mass.-based mostly commercial enterprise method community (ESG), talked about none of the individual advancements are huge information, but taken together the free up "provides some great capabilities to an already fairly comprehensive suite of storage management and excessive-availability offerings."

more advantageous storage tiering for SSDs

Symantec is tackling intelligent storage tiering capabilities for SSDs, some thing records storage directors have been waiting for before taking the soar into strong state in storage arrays, and different companies are scrambling to bring. EMC Corp. has pledged to carry the primary edition of its completely automatic Storage Tiering (speedy) software through the conclusion of the year, and IBM is engaged on establishing intelligent administration application for strong-state drives throughout its storage and server product strains.

in advance of present day unlock, Veritas Storage basis could recognize Fibre Channel (FC), iSCSI or SATA facts storage tiers, however could not respect SSD elements on storage arrays or servers.

Sean Derrington, Symantec's director of storage and availability administration neighborhood, observed Veritas Storage foundation can now instantly find any SSD device and instantly movement information on and off strong-state drive instruments in response to administrator-created guidelines.

"administrators can identify storage array volumes that are strong state and people which are mechanical," Derrington observed. "there may be loads of issues which you could do when you take into account the multipathing, file device and volume administration layer."

Derrington referred to Veritas Storage groundwork's dynamic storage tiering technology will place statistics the place it is most low-cost. high I/O-elegant statistics corresponding to database, email and on-line-processed transactions may also be saved on SSDs, whereas much less-accessed records corresponding to database log entries will also be moved to lower-charge supplies.

For now, Veritas Storage basis's more advantageous solid-state power visibility works only on Unix and Linux programs. nonetheless, ESG's Laliberte spoke of the extended SSD visibility is a welcome growth. "It enables organizations to enhanced utilize enterprise Flash, and use it over a wider latitude of applications because it automates a few of that know-how," he referred to.

Veritas Storage groundwork moves facts to applicable tiers however does not alternate the facts's namespace. "That skill that your applications and databases wouldn't have to be re-written," Symantec's Derrington spoke of. "It also ability that your backup and recuperation guidelines would not have to change and, in all probability most significantly, the conclusion users do not know that the rest modified, however you have put the appropriate file on the appropriate tier of storage."

Making thin provisioning slimmer

Symantec extended Veritas' skinny Reclamation API, which helps companies using skinny provisioning to preserve its volumes skinny over time.

shoppers with storage techniques that support skinny provisioning can now use Veritas Storage basis's SmartMove and Veritas extent Replicator to allow thick to skinny migration over distance. 3PAR and IBM have introduced aid for the skinny Reclamation API, and Derrington referred to Hitachi records programs and different main storage carriers are adding support for the API.

"Veritas Storage basis does not provide thin provisioning; we simply make hardware-based mostly skinny provisioning work stronger," Derrington stated.

"there's lots of application so that it will go out and inform you here's the information you have got and here's the statistics that will also be reclaimed, but most commonly nothing goes and reclaims the statistics since it's too hard," ESG's Laliberte stated.

Souping up Microsoft Hyper-V

Symantec additionally printed improved integration with Microsoft Hyper-V to permit shoppers to dynamically grow and shrink volumes whereas adding snapshot and replication capabilities for virtual machines.

Veritas Storage basis delivered host-degree information protection for every baby partition on Hyper-V; this means users can snapshot a complete newborn partition, whereas Veritas volume Replicator can replicate any single virtual laptop or all digital machines.

"because we're in the mother or father, that gives us advanced visibility into how that information is managed," Symantec's Derrington talked about. "Dynamic multipathing is natively integrated, and we're able to do the entire identical issues with load balancing and failover, and enhance visibility into thin volumes and skinny-reclaimable volumes."

Veritas additionally improved its Cluster File device by using granting each the energetic and passive cluster servers concurrent read/write facts access. This potential that failover restoration best requires an application restart to reconnect shoppers as an alternative of importing disk groups and mounting file programs.

all of the Veritas Storage foundation enhancements are available these days as downloads for latest Veritas Storage foundation and Cluster File device renovation consumers.

Symantec declares New models of Veritas Storage groundwork and high Availability solutions for home windows | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduces assist for home windows Server 2008, multiplied Operational Effectiveness, stronger user journey

Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) these days announced Veritas Storage groundwork and Veritas Cluster Server 5.1 for windows, the industry main heterogeneous storage management and high availability solution proposing records and utility availability for windows environments. A key component of the Symantec options for home windows portfolio scheduled to be obtainable in June 2008, Veritas Storage foundation 5.1 excessive Availability for home windows introduces guide for windows Server 2008 and supplies tremendous advancements to operational effectiveness and ease of use including more advantageous availability and catastrophe restoration, centralized storage visibility and SmartMove for efficient array migrations.

“customers nowadays face overwhelming demands in managing disparate islands of storage and meeting strict provider stage agreements for prime availability,” stated Aaron Aubrecht, senior director of product administration, Symantec. “Veritas Storage foundation for home windows and Veritas Cluster Server supply businesses with a standard set of convenient-to-use tools that work across just about every server and storage platform to give online quantity administration, storage and application availability, utility integrated quick healing and storage enviornment network direction management. Enabling IT groups to use a single software answer to manipulate their storage infrastructure and get better purposes in the experience of a local failure or catastrophe can tremendously in the reduction of both capital and operational costs, whereas concurrently making certain confidence that present carrier stage agreements are met.”

multiplied working device, application and Storage aid

Veritas Storage foundation for windows and Veritas Cluster Server are extending aid for home windows Server 2008 and home windows Server 2008 Server Core environments, with support for ordinary, enterprise, and Datacenter versions across x86, x64, and IA64 platforms. additionally, this free up provides elevated guide for home windows Vista, Microsoft exchange 2007 carrier Pack 1, Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server 2007, Symantec enterprise Vault 2007 and Blackberry commercial enterprise Server.

Veritas Storage foundation for windows Dynamic Multi-pathing continues to increase guide for main storage systems — enabling consumers to have a single multi-pathing solution with out compromising a heterogeneous tiered storage infrastructure. apart from the 40+ array families already supported — support for Pillar, 3PAR, and more recent IBM and HDS arrays has been delivered.

improved Availability and Recoverability

Veritas Storage groundwork for home windows presents a guided, step-with the aid of-step wizard to be sure Microsoft trade and other applications may also be at once recovered from a degree-in-time quantity copy. IT corporations can now simplify the storage administration complexity of recuperating consistent trade statistics to an alternate vicinity with this new ability — automatic image healing to alternate recuperation Storage businesses. furthermore, for groups requiring a multi-site disaster restoration infrastructure for change or different functions, Veritas Cluster Server has added aid for EMC Symmetrix faraway facts Facility (SRDF)/big name.

more desirable Operations, administration, and performance

proposing visibility throughout distinctive hosts from a single, cozy, web-based mostly console can drastically in the reduction of operational fees and hazards to software downtime. Veritas Storage foundation supervisor will help Veritas Storage groundwork for windows and up to 3,000 hosts enabling businesses to profit insight into storage objects including volumes, storage subsystems, and storage area network paths. Complementing the storage infrastructure visibility, Veritas Cluster Server management Console has been superior to dynamically discover physical and virtual (e.g., VMware) clusters throughout Unix, Linux and home windows in a single international operation, and dramatically simplify operations. for instance, clustered functions will also be without difficulty identified by geographical website or enterprise unit, thereby making it more convenient to manage, act and report on the logical agencies of Veritas Cluster Server deployments.

Configuration Checker mitigates chance to software downtime through presenting a simple and powerful means for corporations to proactively and simply identify configuration-connected installation blunders, departures from most beneficial practices, and incompatible hardware and/or application. SmartMove is a new feature in Veritas Storage basis 5.1 for home windows that enormously enhances the effectivity of data-intensive operations by using examining the statistics and guaranteeing that only the vital blocks of statistics are moved. This tremendously enhances the effectivity of records movement operations, equivalent to developing or synchronizing mirrors or snapshots.

About Symantec

Symantec is a worldwide leader in presenting protection, storage and techniques administration solutions to aid companies and consumers comfortable and manipulate their suggestions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in more than forty nations. more information is accessible at


Jerry Gowen

Symantec Corp.

+1 (503) 690 4714

Amanda Jones

connect Public relations

+1 (252) 637 7923

Symantec upgrades Storage basis, supports SSDs | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

via Kevin Komiega

-- Symantec announced a slew of product enhancements for Veritas Storage groundwork, Cluster File equipment and Cluster Server today with its points of interest set on boosting the efficiency and management of strong-state disk (SSD) drives, enhancing failover tactics, and rounding out its skinny provisioning method.

Veritas Storage groundwork, the business's storage management platform, bought the majority of the upgrades. Sean Derrington, director of Symantec's storage and availability administration group, says Storage foundation can now automatically discover SSD devices from array and server vendors and put facts where it belongs in a way it really is transparent to clients.

Storage basis's SSD optimization elements encompass pre-defined policies that automate the file migration system based upon a number of attributes, together with file measurement, classification, or recreation. The software can now immediately movement files from a mechanical volume to a excessive-efficiency SSD-primarily based volume.

"as an instance, we are able to take two volumes in an array – one on common tough disk drives [HDDs] and one on SSDs – and provides an administrator visibility into each because of our dynamic multipathing software," says Derrington.

On the skinny provisioning entrance, Storage basis's SmartMove technology, which works in tandem with Veritas quantity Replicator to migrate from "thick" to "thin" storage over distances, can now peer into legacy storage volumes and automate the storage reclamation procedure.

Symantec has also prolonged its skinny provisioning expertise to home windows-based digital server environments by means of including guide for Microsoft Hyper-V to its Storage groundwork for home windows product.

Derrington says the Veritas skinny Reclamation API, introduced last year, is now utterly supported by means of Symantec partners IBM (XIV) and 3PAR (InServ), with extra hardware companions planning assist in the coming months.

the skinny Reclamation API allows for automatic house reclamation for thin provisioning storage arrays.

in addition, Symantec has tightened the combination between Veritas Cluster File equipment and Oracle, Sybase and IBM DB2 to provide "close instantaneous" restoration of applications.

Symantec has enhanced Cluster File device and Cluster Server for better degrees of availability in Oracle environments. consequently, consumers can now failover purposes working single-illustration Oracle or single-example DB2 in seconds, in keeping with Derrington.

Symantec is also providing a Storage assessment service to assist shoppers of their efforts to deploy Symantec products, together with Veritas Storage foundation, Veritas Cluster File gadget and Veritas Cluster Server.

related articles:Symantec unveils FileStore cloud storage platform3PAR places a new twist on thin provisioningSymantec updates Storage basis for home windows

ST0-149 Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Study Guide Prepared by Symantec Dumps Experts ST0-149 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers

ST0-149 exam Dumps Source : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Test Code : ST0-149
Test Name : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 171 Real Questions

No waste cutting-edge time on internet! observed genuine source today's ST0-149 questions.
I wanted to have certification in test ST0-149 and i get it with killexams. Perfect pattern of new modules facilitate me to attempt all the 38 questions inside the given time-body. I score more than 87. I actually have to mention that I may want to in no way ever have carried out it on my own what i used which will accumulate with killexams.Com Q&A. Killexams.Com Q&A offer the ultra-present day module of questions and cover the associated subjects. Thanks to killexams.Com Q&A.

proper source to get ST0-149 modern brain sell off paper.
thanks for complete help through offering this query bank. I scored 78% in ST0-149 exam.

observed most ST0-149 Questions in dumps that I prepared.
I will endorse you to come back back right right here to put off all fears associated with ST0-149 certification due to the fact this is a greatplatform to offer you with assured goods to your arrangements. I used to be concerned for ST0-149 examination but all thanks to killexams.Com who provided me with exceptional products for my practise. I was absolutely involved aboutmy fulfillment however it become handiest ST0-149 examination engine that multiplied my fulfillment self notion and now i am feeling pride on this unconditional help. Hats off to you and your improbable offerings for all students and professionals!

try out these ST0-149 dumps, it is wonderful!
Killexams.Com become a blessing for ST0-149 exam, for the cause that gadget has loads of tiny info and configuration tricks, which may be tough if you dont have a good deal of ST0-149 experience. ST0-149 questions and solutions are enough to sit down and bypass the ST0-149 test.

Just try real ST0-149 test questions and success is yours.
Many thanks for your ST0-149 dumps. I recognized maximum of the questions and also you had all the simulations that I was asked. I were given 97 percentage score. After trying numerous books, I was pretty disenchanted no longer getting the proper substances. I become searching out a guideline for exam ST0-149 with easy language and properly-prepared content material. Killexams.Com Q&A fulfilled my want, because it defined the complicated topics within the simplest way. In the actual exam I were given ninety seven%, which changed into beyond my expectation. Thank you, to your tremendous manual-line!

ST0-149 actual query bank is real have a look at, authentic result.
My brother saden me telling me that I wasnt going to go through the ST0-149 exam. I notice when I look outside the window, so many different people want to be seen and heard from and they just want the attention of us but I can tell you that we students can get this attention when we pass our ST0-149 test and I can tell you how I cleared my ST0-149 test it was only when I got my study questions from which gave me the hope in my eyes together forever.

surprised to appearance ST0-149 present day questions in little rate.
I dont experience by myself a mid tests any longer in light of the fact that ive a beautiful examine partner as this killexams.Com dumps. Im quite appreciative to the educators right right here for being so extraordinary and properly disposed and assisting me in clearing my distinctly exam ST0-149. I solved all questions in exam. This equal course turned into given to me amid my exams and it didnt make a difference whether or not or no longer it have become day or night, all my inquiries have been spoke back.

Is there a person who surpassed ST0-149 examination?
Thank You killexams.Com for full assist via offering this question bank. I scored seventy eight% in ST0-149 Exam.

ST0-149 exam isn't any greater tough with these QAs.
Killexams.Com is an correct indicator for a university students and clients functionality to work and test for the ST0-149 examination. It is an accurate indication in their potential, particularly with exams taken quick in advance than setting out their academic study for the ST0-149 examination. Killexams.Com offers a reliable up to date. The ST0-149 tests supply a radical photograph of candidates functionality and talents.

So smooth training of ST0-149 exam with this question bank.
I solved all questions in simplest half time in my ST0-149 exam. I will have the capability to make use of the killexams.Com have a look at guide reason for distinct checks as well. An awful lot favored killexams.Com brain dump for the help. I need to inform that together together with your out of the regular examine and honing gadgets; I passed my ST0-149 paper with suitablemarks. This because of the homework cooperates together with your utility.

Whilst it is very hard task to choose reliable exam questions / answers resources regarding review, reputation and validity because people get ripoff due to choosing incorrect service. Killexams. com make it certain to provide its clients far better to their resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other peoples ripoff report complaint clients come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams enjoyably and easily. We never compromise on our review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self confidence is important to all of us. Specially we manage review, reputation, ripoff report complaint, trust, validity, report and scam. If perhaps you see any bogus report posted by our competitor with the name killexams ripoff report complaint internet, ripoff report, scam, complaint or something like this, just keep in mind that there are always bad people damaging reputation of good services due to their benefits. There are a large number of satisfied customers that pass their exams using brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams practice questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit, our test questions and sample brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will definitely know that is the best brain dumps site.

Vk Profile
Vk Details
Killexams Reddit
Google Album
Google About me

QV_Developer_11 bootcamp | IL0-786 pdf download | HP3-025 test prep | 000-874 practice exam | LOT-920 exam prep | 000-822 real questions | LOT-847 dumps | HP0-P21 free pdf | JN0-540 free pdf download | C9030-634 questions answers | C4040-123 free pdf | ST0-172 study guide | 090-600 mock exam | 1Z0-982 braindumps | 1Z0-336 test prep | 000-N23 test prep | M2090-733 dump | HP0-773 cram | 70-357 cheat sheets | C2020-632 Practice Test |


Audit ST0-149 real question and answers before you step through exam ST0-149 Exam PDF comprises of Complete Pool of Questions and Answers with Dumps checked and affirmed alongside references and clarifications (where applicable). Our objective to assemble the Questions and Answers isnt in every case just to pass the exam at the first attempt yet Really Improve Your Knowledge about the ST0-149 exam subjects.

Are you looking for Symantec ST0-149 Dumps of real questions for the Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment Exam prep? We provide most updated and quality ST0-149 Dumps. Detail is at We have compiled a database of ST0-149 Dumps from actual exams in order to let you prepare and pass ST0-149 exam on the first attempt. Just memorize our Q&A and relax. You will pass the exam. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders

If you are searching for ST0-149 Practice Test containing Real Test Questions, you are at correct place. have aggregated database of questions from Actual Exams keeping in mind the end goal to enable you to plan and pass your exam on the main attempt. All preparation materials on the site are Up To Date and checked by our specialists. give most recent and updated Pass4sure Practice Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of Symantec ST0-149 Exam. Practice our Real Questions and Answers to Improve your knowledge and pass your exam with High Marks. We guarantee your achievement in the Test Center, covering every one of the subjects of exam and improve your Knowledge of the ST0-149 exam. Pass without any doubt with our exact questions.

Our ST0-149 Exam PDF contains Complete Pool of Questions and Answers and Dumps checked and confirmed including references and explanations (where material). Our objective to collect the Questions and Answers isnt just to pass the exam at first attempt however Really Improve Your Knowledge about the ST0-149 exam points.

ST0-149 exam Questions and Answers are Printable in High Quality Study Guide that you can download in your Computer or some other gadget and begin setting up your ST0-149 exam. Print Complete ST0-149 Study Guide, convey with you when you are at Vacations or Traveling and Enjoy your Exam Prep. You can get to updated ST0-149 Exam Q&A from your online record whenever. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders

Download your Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment Study Guide promptly in the wake of purchasing and Start Preparing Your Exam Prep Right Now!


Killexams 920-505 examcollection | Killexams ICYB exam prep | Killexams FN0-405 dump | Killexams IQ0-100 braindumps | Killexams HP2-K35 test prep | Killexams 4H0-100 brain dumps | Killexams 300-160 test questions | Killexams 190-803 real questions | Killexams 000-834 practice exam | Killexams HP0-E01 braindumps | Killexams MB2-527 braindumps | Killexams C2090-614 braindumps | Killexams CTAL-TTA-001 free pdf | Killexams HAT-680 questions answers | Killexams 300-209 VCE | Killexams LOT-841 sample test | Killexams HP0-D20 mock exam | Killexams HS330 real questions | Killexams HP2-E34 cram | Killexams C2020-930 study guide |


View Complete list of Brain dumps

Killexams N10-006 real questions | Killexams 920-115 braindumps | Killexams HP2-B102 braindumps | Killexams BCP-520 practice test | Killexams 000-799 brain dumps | Killexams 1Z0-898 study guide | Killexams HP0-830 bootcamp | Killexams 920-160 practice questions | Killexams P2170-749 pdf download | Killexams 9A0-702 test prep | Killexams ST0-250 test prep | Killexams 920-165 VCE | Killexams H12-261 questions answers | Killexams 9L0-621 mock exam | Killexams 1D0-61A free pdf | Killexams 1Z0-521 test questions | Killexams P2090-050 exam prep | Killexams 000-M40 cheat sheets | Killexams HP0-J34 practice test | Killexams 3309 questions and answers |

Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Pass 4 sure ST0-149 dumps | ST0-149 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

13. References | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Annala J H (1996) New Zealand’s ITQ system: have the first eight years been a success or a failure? Rev in Fish biol. and Fisheries vol. 6 (1) - 1996 pp 43-62

Anon (1997) - Statement of conclusions, 5th International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea - Intermediate Ministerial Meeting on the Integration of Fisheries and Environmental Issues - Bergen, Norway 13/14 March 1997

Bailey K, Williams P G and Itano D - (1996) By-catch and discards in Western Pacific tuna fisheries: A review of SPC data holdings and literature. SPC Oceanic Fisheries Programme Technical Report No 34. Noumea, New Caledonia 1996.

Barratt F A (1986). A study on the feasibility of utilizing prawn by-catch for human consumption. Report to South Pacific Regional Fisheries Development Programme - RAS/85/004. FAO Oct. 1986

Bejei A (1980) Observations on the trash fish from catches of a prawn trawler in coastal waters of Sarawak. Paper presented at Workshop on the biology and resources of penaeid shrimp in the South China Sea area. 30 June - 5 July 1980 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. SCS/GEN/80/26

Bligh E G and R Duclos (1982) - Salting of minced fish. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea: report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Bostock T (1987) Marine fisheries of Gujarat: post harvest losses: possibilities for development. Report of the Tropical Development and Research Institute, No L25. UK 1987

Bostock T and Ryder J (1995) By-catch usage in India: an NRI/ODA BOBP project experience. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Brander K M (1981) Disappearance of common skate Raja batis from the Irish Sea. Nature Vol. 290 (5801) p 48 - 49

Branstetter S (1997) Bycatch and it’s reduction in the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic shrimp fisheries. Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc., Tampa, Florida

CEC (1996) Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) laying down certain technical measures for the conservation of fishery resources. (96/C 292/01) COM (96) 295 final - 96/0160 (CNS)

CEC (1992) - Report from the Commission to the Council on the discarding of fish in Community fisheries: causes, impact, solutions. CEC 12 March 1992 SEC (91) 413 final

Chan E H and Liew H C (1986) Characteristics of an exploited tropical shallow-water demersal fish community in Malaysia. In Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum. Asian Fisheries Society, (Maclean J L, Dizon L B and Hosillos LV, eds) 26 - 31 May 1986 Manila. pp 349 - 352

Chee P E (1996) A review of the bycatch and discards in the fisheries of Southeast Asia - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

Clucas I J (1996) Reduction of fish wastage - An introduction. In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO 1996.

Crean K and Symes D (1994). The discards problem: towards a European solution. Marine Policy 18 (5) 422-434 pp 1994

Disney J G, Parr W H and Morgan D L (1978) Fish silage: preparation, utilisation and prospects for development. In: Proceedings of symposium on fish utilisation technology and marketing in the IPFC Region, Section III. IPFC 18th Session Manila, The Philippines, March 1978.

Duthie A (1996) Estimates of discards in the 1994 Atlantic Canada fisheries (Part of FAO region 21). - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO 1996.

Evans S M, J E Hunter, Elizal and Wahhju R I (1994) Composition and fate of catch and bycatch in the Farne Deep (North Sea) Nephrops fishery ICES Journal of Marine Science Vol. 51 (2) pp 155 - 168

Eyabi-Eyabi G (1995) Utilisation of by-catch from shrimp trawlers in Cameroon. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

FAO (1995) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries - Rome, FAO 1995

FAO (1996a) Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547. Rome, FAO 1996.

FAO (1996b) FAO Yearbook - Fishery Statistics: catches and landings - 1994 Vol. 78. Rome, FAO 1996

FAO (1996c) FAO Yearbook - Fishery Statistics: commodities - 1994 Vol. 79. Rome, FAO 1996

FAO (1996d) AQUACULT-PC. Rome, FAO 1996

FAO (1997) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1996. Rome, FAO 1997

Feidi I (1989) Economic utilization of fish by-catch and by-products in the Arab Gulf region. Paper prepared for Seminar on Economic Utilization of Waste. INFOSAMAK/FAO. Jeddah 1989

Garcia-Rodriquez E (1995) Utilisation of shrimp by-catch in Cuba. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Gordon A (1991) The by-catch from Indian shrimp trawlers in the Bay of Bengal: the potential for its improved utilisation. FAO/BOBP Working Paper No 68, 1991. Madras, India

Gordon R M (1981) Guyana. In Fish By-catch....Bonus from the Sea : report on a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana 27-30 October 1981. p131 Ottawa IDRC 1982

Grafton R Q (1996) - ITQs: theory and practice. Rev in Fish biol. and Fisheries vol. 6 (1) - 1996 pp 5-20

Gulland J A and Rothschild B J (eds.) (1982) Penaeid shrimps - their biology and management. Fishing News Books. Farnham , England.

Hall M A (1996) On bycatches. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries vol. 6 (3) pp 319 - 352 (1996)

Harris A N and Poiner I R (1990) By-catch of the prawn fishery of the Torres Strait, composition and partitioning of discards into components that float or sink. Austr. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. Vol. 41 pp 37 - 52

Hendrickson H M and Griffin W L (1993) An analysis of management policies for reducing shrimp by-catch in the Gulf of Mexico. North American journal of fisheries management. Lawrence KS; vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 686-697; 1993

IDRC (1982) Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Isaksen B (1996) The Norwegian approach to reduce bycatch and avoid discards. - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

Isaksen B and Larsen R B (1993) Size selectivity for shallow water shrimps using a rigid metal grid in the aft and top section of the trawl. Report of Institute of Marine Research, Bergen and The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Tromsø, Norway

Jallow A M (1995) Recent positive and negative experiences on the utilisation of shrimp by-catch in the Gambia. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Japanese Fishery Agency (1995) The Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action - Fisheries Agency, The Government of Japan 1995

Japp D (1996) Discarding practices and bycatches for fisheries in the Southeast Atlantic region (Area 47) - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

Jensen H, Emslie D and Coull K (1996) Discards of fish species of no or little economic interest. Study Contract no 92/3508 - final report for Commission of the European Comunity, May 1994

Kelleher V and A Mussa (1995) Retention of by-catch for human consumption; The Mozambique experience. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Kulberg R (1989) Shrimp trawler by-catch in Andhra Pradesh, India. Report on a minor field study to BOBP. Oct. - Dec. 1988. SIDA funded.

Kungsawan A (1996) Regulations, practices and statistics with regard to by-catch in the shrimp industries in Thailand. Paper prepared for FAO - mimeo 1996

Lieveld R (1995) Utilisation of shrimp bycatch in Suriname. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Løbach T and Viem A K (1996) Compatibility and applicability of discard/retention rules for the conservation and utilisation of fishery resources in the Northwest Atlantic. Workshop on Discard/Retention Rules. St Petersburg. 7-8 September 1996

Matsuoka T (1996) Discards in Japanese marine capture fisheries and their estimation - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

Mgawe Y (1995) Recent positive and negative experiences in Tanzania with regard to utilisation of Shrimp by-catch. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

NOAA (1997) - Federal fishing regulations pertaining to the exclusive economic zone off Alaska. AL Regulations - National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, Alaska 1997

Nolan C P and Yau C (1996) Observed and reported estimates of discard and bycatch from the commercial fishery of the Falkland Islands - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

OECD (1997a) Towards sustainable fisheries: economic aspects of the managment of living marine resources. OECD Paris 1997

OECD (1997b) Towards sustainable fisheries: Country reports (European Union) OECD - OCDE/GD(97)119 Paris 1997

Pauly D and Neal R (1985) Shrimp vs. fish in Southeast Asian fisheries: the biological, technological and social problems. In: Recuros Pesqueros Potenciales de Mexico: La Pesca Acompañante del Camarón. Progr Univ de Alimentos, Inst Cienc del Mar y Limnol., Inst. Nac. de Pesca, UNAM, Mexic D F pp 487 - 510

Pender P J, Willing R S and Canns B (1992b). NPF by-catch a valuable resource ? Is it worth the effort. Australian Fisheries February 1992 pp 30 -31

Pender P J, Willing R S and Ramm D C (1992a). Northern Prawn Fishery bycatch study: Distribution, abundance, size and use of bycatch from the mixed species fishery. Fishery Report No 26 Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Northern Territory, Darwin Australia. 1992

Petersen E E (1981) The Guyana project: industrial use of by-catch. In Fish By-catch....Bonus from the Sea : report on a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana 27-30 October 1981. p69 Ottawa IDRC 1982

Poulter N H (1982) - Canned, frozen and dried products from by-catch fish. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Productos Pesqueros Mexicanos (1982) - Pepepez - A new, frozen minced product. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Queirolo L E, Fritz L W, Lingston P A, Loefflad M R, Colpo D A and deReynier Y L (1995) Bycatch, utilisation and discards in the commercial groundfish fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska, Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-58. US Dept of Comm., NOAA - November 1995

Rakotondrasoa M (1995) Récupéperation du poisson d’accompagnement de la pêche crevettière - l’expérience Malgache. In Report and Proceedings of TCDC Workshop - Utilisation of by-catch from Shrimp Trawlers, 6 - 8 June 1995. Nose Bé, Madagascar. Govt of Madagascar/UNDO/FAO 1995

Redant F and Polet H (1994) Introduction on the finfish by-catches and discards in the Belgian Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Demersal Fish committee CM1994/G:29

Saisithi B (1982) Thailand. In: Fish By-catch....Bonus from the Sea : report on a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana 27-30 October 1981. Ottawa IDRC 1982.

Salz P (Ed) (1996) Bio-economic evaluation of multi-species and multi-annual fisheries management measures The Hague, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI-DLO), 1996.

Saville A (1980) The assessment and management of pelagic fish stocks: discussion and conclusion of symposium. In: Rapports et Proces Verbaux des Reunion du Conseil International pour L’Exploration de la Mer. ICES 177 pp 513-517

Smith A (1996) Estimation of discards in the North East Atlantic (Area 27) - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.

Smith T P (1993) Allocating the incidental catch of crab, halibut, herring and salmon in the groundfish fisheries off Alaska In Proceedings of "The International Symposium on Management Strategies for Exploited Fish Populations" Anchorage Alaska 21 - 24 Oct. 1992

Suwanrangsi S (1988) By-catch utilisation in Thailand. INFOFISH International 5/88, 1988.

Tableros M A and R H Young (1982) - Acceptability and storage characteristics of frozen, minced products from Mexican by-catch. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Tan Sen Min, Tatsuru Fujiwara, Ng Mui Chng and Tan Ching Ean (1982) - Processing of by-catch into frozen minced blocks (surimi) and jelly products. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982

Thorsteinsson G (1992) Experiments with square mesh windows in the Nephrops trawling off South Iceland. Conc. meeting of the ICES 24 Sept. to 2 Oct. 1992. pubs ICES 1993

Thorsteinsson H P and G Valdimarsson (1994) Experimental utilisation and marketing of by-catches and deep water species in Iceland. From: Deep-Water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Hull, UK, March 1994. A G Hopper (Ed) Kluwer Academic Pubs.

Truelove K (1997) Australia: Policy options for fisheries bycatch. In: Towards sustainable fisheries: Issue papers. OCDE/GD(97)54 OECD Paris 1997

U Khum Mg Aye (1995) Bycatch in commercial trawling for shrimp in Myanmar. Mimeo paper presented at Workshop on Research in Fishing Gear and Methods Selectivity in the Southeast Asian Countries with special attention to shrimp fishing. Chendering, Malaysia - May 1995

USA (1996) Magnuson-Stevens fishery conservation and management act. Public Law 94-265 US Department of Commerce/NOAA/NMFS. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-23. December 1996

Vold Soladal A and Engås A (1997). Survival of young gadoids excluded from a shrimp trawl by a rigid deflecting grid. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 54 (1), Feb. 1997

Young R H (1982) - Development of a salted, minced product from Mexican shrimp From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea : report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982

Zhou Y and Yimin Y (1996) Estimation of discards and bycatch in Chinese fisheries - In Report on the Technical Consultation on Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries. (Clucas I J and D James - Eds.) Tokyo, Japan, 28 October - 1 November 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No 547 supplement. Rome, FAO, 1996.


This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at

This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at

DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING By Philip Hoehn and Mary Lynette Larsgaard (Map & Imagery Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara Library).  Designed by John Creaser

A Army A IN B Auto in basement AA Antiaircraft artillery; Automobile Assn. AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration; American Automobile Assn. AACR Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2d. ed. AACCCM Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials AAES American Assn. of Engineering Societies AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAGS American Assn. for Geodetic Surveying AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAPG American Assn. of Petroleum Geologists AARLS Arkansas Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors AARS Asian Assn. on Remote Sensing AARSE African Association for the Remote Sensing of the Environment AASG Assn. of American State Geologists AASP American Assn. of Stratigraphic Palynologists AB Air base ABAG Assn. of Bay Area Governments (California) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. ABN American Bank Note Company ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ABSM Alberta Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Abzw Abzweigstelle AC Aerospace Center; Air Corps; American Cartographer (journal) A.C. Antonio Castro A/C Aircraft ACA American Cartographic Assn.; American Conservation Assn.; Automovil Club Argentino; Aerial Cartographics of America (Firm) ACACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives cartographiques du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACAPS Automated Chart Production System (C&GS) ACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives; Academia de Ciencias de Cuba ACC Association canadienne de cartographie AC&C Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography (U.S.) ACCDTS Advisory Committee on Canadian Digital Toponymic Services AccuDEM High-accuracy DEM Accu-DRAPE High-accuracy DEM Draped Images ACD Aeronautical Charting Division (C&GS) ACDDS Advanced Cartographic Data Digitizing System ACE Advanced Cartographic Equipment; Advanced Cartographic Environment (PCI Carto Inc.) ACEC American Consulting Engineers Council ACG Association canadienne des geographes; Address Coding Guides ACI Assn. Cartographique Internationale = International Cartographic Assn. ACIC Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (U.S.); Automated Cartographic Information Center (Univ. of Minnesota Library) ACIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, Great Britain) ACLS Assn. of Canadian Lands Surveyors ACM Assn. for Computing Machinery ACMGIS Assn. for Computing Machinery Geographic Information Systems ACML Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries ACMLA Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACMS Automated Census Mapping System ACM- SIGGRAPH Assn. for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics ACOE Army Corps of Engineers (U.S.) ACRES Australian Centre for Remote Sensing ACRS Asian Conference on Remote Sensing ACS Advanced Cartographic Systems; Agricultural Cooperative Service; Automated Cartographic Systems; Automatic chemical sprinklers; Attitude Control Subsystem (Landsat); American Community Survey (USBC) ACSAD Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands ACSC Automobile Club of Southern California ACSM American Congress on Surveying and Mapping ACSTTO Assn. of Certified Survey Technicians and Technologists of Ontario ACT Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie (Luxembourg); Australian Capital Territory AD Administrative Division (USGS); Aeronautical data A/D Analog to digital ADAC Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ADAR Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (Positive Systems, Inc.) ADC Alexandria Drafting Company; American Digital Cartography Inc A-DCS Advanced/Data Collection System ADDA American Design Drafting Assn. ADE AutoCAD Data Extension ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite ADEPT Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype ADF Application Development Facility (GeoVision Corp.) ADFG Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game ADI Areas of Dominent Influence (USBC TIGER) ADK Arealdatakontoret (Denmark) ADL Alexandria Digital Library Adm. Admiral; Admiralty ADM1 First-order administrative division ADM2 Second-order administrative division ADNR Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources ADOT Arizona Dept. of Transportation ADOTPF Alaska Dept. of Transportation and Public Facilities ADP Automated data processing ADPDP Alaska Division of Policy Development and Planning ADR Aerial Data Reduction Associates Inc. ADRG ARC-digitized raster graphics (USDMA) ADRGs Arc digitized raster graphics(USDMA) ADS Aerial Data Service (firm) ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Ad. St. Aldolf Stieler ADT Advanced Data Technologies, Inc.; Abstract Data Type AdV Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Lander der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ADW Agricultural drainage well ADWR Arizona Dept. of Water Resources A/E Architectural/engineering A&E Architect and Engineering AEC Architecture, engineering and construction AED Analysis and Evaluation Div. AEF Alliance for Environmental Education; Accurate Environmental Forecasting, Inc. AEG Association of Engineering Geologists AEI Aerial Exposure Index AEIDC Arctic Environmental Information Data Center AEM Atmospheric Explorer Mission AERS Advanced Earth Resources Satellite AES Analysis and Evaluation Staff AESE Association of Earth Science Editors Aest. Aestuarium = Estuary AE2S Advanced Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc. AFA American Forestry Assn.; Automatic fire alarm AFB Air Force base; Aerial FotoBank (Firm) AFCEA Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Assn. AFE Automated feature extraction AFF American Fact Finder (DADSO) AFFRC Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center (Japan) AFI American Forest Inst. AFLAG Asean Federation of Land Surveying and Geomatics AFREF African Geodetic Reference Frame AfRL Akademie fur Raumforschung und Landesplanung (Germany) AFS Air Force station AFT Ambiguity function technique AFWA Air Force Weather Agency (U.S.) AG Attorney General AGC Army Geospatial Center (US); Assn. Geologique du Canada; Arkansas Geological Commission AGCHO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office AGCO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Office AGDS Automated Graphics Digitizing System AGI American Geological Inst.; Assn. for Geographic Information (London); Analytical Graphics, Inc. AGIC Alabama Geographic Information Council; Arizona Geographic Information Council AGILE Association of Geographic Information Laboratories AGIO Arkansas Geographic Information Office AGIS Automated Geographic Information System AgRI- STARS Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing AGS American Geographical Society; Alberta Geological Survey AGSL American Geographical Society Library AGSO Australian Geological Survey Organisation AGSS American Geographical and Statistical Society AGU American Geophysical Union AHAP Alaska High-altitude Aerial Photography (program) AHCPR U.S. Agency for Health Care and Policy Research AHDAS Adaptable Hydrologic Data Acquisition System AHDS Arts and Humanities Data Service AHRS Attitude and Heading Reference System AHS Automated Highway System AI Artificial intelligence; Appraisal Inst. AIA American Inst. of Architects AI/ANA American Indian/Alaska Native Area AIC Australian Institute of Cartographers AICP American Inst. of Certified Planners AID Agency for International Development; Aeronautical information data AIH American Inst. of Hydrology AILESP American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project AIMS Airborne Integrated Mapping System; Automated Investigation Measurement System (Nikon) AIPG American Inst. of Professional Geologists AIPP Ambroziak Infinite Perspective Projection AIR American Indian reservation AIRB Alabama Inspection and Rating Bureau AIRS Atomspheric Infrared Sounder AIREA American Inst. of Real Estate Appraisers AIRS Atmospheric infrared sounder AISH Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques = International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences AJG African Journal of Geoinformation AK Alaska AL Alabama Ala. Alabama ALA American Library Assn. ALAE Atmospheric LymanAlpha Emissions ALARS Alaska Land and Resources System ALI Advanced Land Imager ALIS Automated Land Information System (TVA) ALMRS Automated Land and Mineral Record System (US BLM) ALOHA Aerial Locations of hazardous Atmospheres (model) ALP Automated Lands Project ALSA Alberta Land Surveyors Association Alt. Altitude ALTA American Land Title Assn. ALTM Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper (Optech) ALTMS Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping System AM Automated Mapping AMA Associacion Mexicana Automovilistica AMAD Airborne Missions and Applications Division (NASA-Ames Research Center) AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program AMC Assn. Mineralogique du Canada; Australian Map Circle Inc. AME Aero-Metric Engineering Inc. AM/FM Automated mapping/facilities management AMG Australian Map Grid; Automated machine guidance AMI Applied Mapping Inc. AMIE Airglow Measurements of Infrared Measurements Emissions AMIS Aviation Management Information System AMISAR Active Microwave ImagerSynthetic Aperture Radar AML ARC Macro Language AMPR American Map Price Record AMPS Automatic Mapping and Planning System AMS Army Map Service; American Meteorological Society; Attitude Measurement Sensor; Automated Mapping System AMSD Adjusted Mapping Support Data AMSR Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (JPL) An. Anno = year A.N.A. Asociacion Nacional Automovilistica (Mexico) ANA Area Navigation Approach ANAE Atlas of North American English ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions ANGEL Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ITT) ANTGS Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System ANMS Automated Notice to Mariners System ANOVA Analyses of variance ANRC Alaska Native Regional Corp. ANSI American National Standards Inst. ANV Alaska Native village ANVSA Alaska Native village statistical area ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANZLIC Australia New Zealand Land Information Council ANZMapS Australian and New Zealand Map Society AO Area of Operations AOA Allen Osborne Associates, Inc. AODC Australian Oceanographic Data Centre AOI Area of Interest AOIPS Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System AOL America On Line AOLS Assn. of Ontario Land Surveyors AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory AOO American Oceanographic Organization AOSS Ashtech Office Suite for Survey AP Analytical Plotter APA American Planning Assn. APCA Air Pollution Control Assn. APBEL Atlantic Provinces Board of Examiners for Land Surveyors APCM Aerial Photography Contract Management System APD Automated Plat Design (ConneXt, Inc.) A.P.D.R. Avec privilege du Roi = By license of the King APE Allen Precision Equipment APEGGA Assn. of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta APFO Aerial Photography Field Office (USDA) API American Petroleum Inst.; Application programming interface APIS Aerial Photography Information System APMI Aerial Photography Micrographic Index System (USGS) Apo. Apogee APPSR Aerial Photography Progress Summary Report APQF Aerial Photography Quad File APR Airborne Profile Recorder APS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor APSR Aerial Photography Summary Record APSRS Aerial Photography Summary Record System (USGS) APT Automatic picture transmission; Area proportional to APTS Aerial Profiling of Terrain System APWA American Public Works Assn. APWWA American Public Water Works Assn. AR Arkansas ARA Address Register Area; Algemeen Rijksarchief (Netherlands) ARAMCO Arabian American Oil Company Arb. Arbeiter ARC Ames Research Center (NASA); Appalachian Regional Commission ARCC American Rivers Conservation Council ArcFM Arc Facilities Manager (ESRI) Arch. Architect; Architecture Arc-SDE Arc Spatial Data Engine ARG American Resources Group ARIA Arizona Regional Image Archive ARIS Alabama Resource Information System; Arizona Resources Information System Ark. Arkansas ARM Administracion de Recursos Minerales (Panama); Airborne Remote Mapping ARMIS Arkansas Resource Management Information System ARMS Agricultural Resource Management System (Canada) Arr. Arrondissement ARRSTC Asian Regional Remote Sensing Training Centre ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ARSC Australian Remote Sensing Conference ARSP Applied Remote Sensing Program (Univ. of Arizona) Artil. Artillery ARZ AutoRestricted Zone AS Anti-spoofing; Area source; automatic sprinklers A-S Anti-spoofing ASA American Standards Assn. ASAP Advanced Scientific Array Processor; Agricultural Sciences Advisory Panel ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASB. CL. Asbestos-covered frame building ASC American Society of Cartographers ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE SMD American Society of Civil Engineers Surveying and Mapping Division ASCF Ames Satellite Communications Facility ASCIE American Standard Code for Information Exchange ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCLA Assn. of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ALA) ASCP America Society of Consulting Planners ASCS Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA) ASDD Australian Spatial Data Directory ASDI Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure ASEE American Society for Engineering Education ASF Alaska SAR Facility ASFE Assn. of Soil and Foundation Engineers ASFPM Assn. of State Floodplain Managers ASGA Assn. des Services Geologiques Africains ASGC Australian Statistical Geographical Classification ASGS Australian Statistical Geography Standard ASHTD American Assn. of State Highway and Transportation Officials ASI Analytical Surveys, Inc. ASLA American Society of Landscape Architects ASLO American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ASMC Alaska Surveying and Mapping Conference ASO Australian Survey Office ASP American Society of Photogrammetry; Application service provider ASPG American Society for Professional Geographers ASPLS Alabama Society of Professional Land Surveyors; Alaska Society of Professional Land Surveyors ASPRS American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ASPS Arkansas Society of Professional Surveyors ASRL Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory Ass. Association Assn. Association AST Atlantic Standard Time; Automated Summary Tables ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTM American Society for Testing Materials AT Aero-Triangulation ATC Air Target Chart; Advance Technology Corp. ATID Attribute ID ATISRoads Arizona Transportation Information System (ADOT) ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem ATM Adaptive triangular mesh ATMET Atmospheric, Meteorological and Environmental Technologies, LLC ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATON Aids to Navigation ATR1 Automatic Target Recognition module (Leica) ATS Advanced Technology Satellite; Applications Technology Satellite; Automated Technical Systems (Firm) AU Astronomical unit AURISA Australasian Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn. AUSDEC Australasian Data Exchange Centre AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group AUV Autonomous underwater vehicle AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Av. Avenue AV Audio-visual; AmericaView AVCA Audio-visual and Cartographic Archives Div., National Archives of Canada Ave. Avenue AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVI Audio Visual Interleave AVIRIS Advanced Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer AVL Automatic Vehicle Location AVNIR Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer AVO Alaska Volcano Observatory; Audio/visual object; Amplitude Versus Offset; AVRI Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory AVS Application Visualization System (Visual Systems, Inc.) AWAR Area weighted average resolution AWG Association for Women Geoscientists AWIPS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System AWLS American West Land Surveying (Firm) AWMC Ancient World Mapping Center AWMSAS ArcView Marine Spill Analysis System AWRA American Water Resources Assn. AWS Air Weather Service AWWA American Water Works Assn. AZ Arizona A.Z. Alexander Zakreski AzMAP Arizona Mapping Advisory Council b Battalion B Brigade; Bulletin B&L Boggs and Lewis BA Booksellers Assn. of Great Britain & Ireland BAAMA Bay Area Automated Mapping Assn. BADGER Bay Area Digital GeoResource BAKOSUR- TANAL Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional (Indonesia) = National Coordination Agency for Surveying and Mapping (Indonesia) Banobras Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Publicos (Mexico) BAOR British Army of the Rhine BAOSC Bay Area Open Space Council BARCIS BARCode Information System BARD San Francisco Bay Area Regional Database BARP Bundesamt fur Raumplanung (Switzerland) BART Bay Area Rapid Transit District (California) BAS British Antarctic Survey BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; Bay Area Shared Information Consortium BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Systems (USEPA) BATCO Boulder Area Trails Coalition BB Band-by-band; Blattbereich BBS Bulletin board system BC British Columbia; Ballistic camera; Bureau of the Census (U.S.) BCC Bibliographic Control Committee (ACMLA) BCDC Bay Conservation and Development Commission BCGS Board of Coast and Geodetic Survey (Philippines) BCH Beach BCSS Battlefield Command Support System (Australian Army) BDC Base de donnees sur les collectivities (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) BDET Bengston, DeBell, Elkin & Titus Ltd. BDG Bridge Bdy Boundary BE Brick enclosed elevator BEA Bernhard, Eisenbraun and Associates; Bureau of Economic Analysis (US) B.E.F. British Expeditionary Force BEG Bureau of Economic Geology (Texas) BEICIP Bureau d'Etudes Industrielles et de Cooperation de l'Institut Francais du Petrole bes. besonders BES Bureau of Environmental Service (Portland, Oregon) Betrbf Betriebsbahnhof BETS Brunson Electronic Triangulation System BEV Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen (Austria) BFE Base flood elevation BfGR Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Germany) BfLR Bundesanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumentwicklung (Germany) BG Block group BGC Business Geographics Conference BGHT Bight BGN Board on Geographic Names (U.S.) bgs Below ground surface BGS British Geological Survey Bgw. Bergwerk = mine Bhf. Bahnhof = Railway station BHIC Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum = Brabant Historical Information Centre BHS Boston Harbor Software, Inc. BI Big Idea (NIMA); Business intelligence BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (U.S.) BIC Borderlands Information Center (Texas) BICI Book item contribution identifier BIG Brunei Institution of Geomatics BIL Band Interleaved by Line BIM Building information modeling BIMCC Brussels International Map Collectors' Circle BIOMAPS Biodiversity Mapping for Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources BIOTROP Regional Center for Tropical Biology (Indonesia) BIP Band Interleaved by Pixel Bl. Boulevard BLDG Building BLG Binary line generalization BLIS Brownfields Location Information System (Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce) BLM Bureau of Land Management (U.S.) BLOB Binary large object BLPU Basic land and property unit BLS Bahamas Lands and Surveys Dept. BLT Bundesamt fur Landestopographie (Switzerland) BLVA Bayerisches Landesvermessungsamt Blvd. Boulevard BM Bench mark; Bureau of Mines BMA Botswana Ministry of Agriculture BMAC Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (U.S.) BMG Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (Philippines) .BMP Bitmapped image format (Microsoft Corp.) BMR Bureau of Mineral Resources (Australia, Papua New Guinea) BMW Barclay Mapworks, Inc. BN Biblioth`eque Nationale BNA Block numbering area BND Stream bend BNDT Base nationale de donnees topographiques (Canada) BnF Bibliotheque national de France BNPC Bathymetric navigation planning chart BNPD Bivariate Normal Probability Density BNSC British National Space Centre BOA Building omission area BOC Bureau of the Census BOFRS Books and Open-File Report Section (USGS) BOLS BADGER On-line Service BOM Bureau of Mines BOP Bureau of Printing BOR Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.) BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study BORPELS Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors (Calif.) BOSS Behavior of Offshore Structures, Conference on BOTUS Best of the U.S. (Space Imaging) BP Boundary marker (USDMA) BPA Bonneville Power Administration BPI Bits per Inch BPPT Badan Pembinaan dan Penerapan Teknologi (Indonesia) BPR Bureau of Public Roads BPS Bits per Second BR Bureau of Reclamation br. breit Br. Breite Brck. Brucke = bridge BRFD Bidirectional reflectance distribution function BRGM Bureau de recherches geologique et minieres (France) BRICMICS British and Irish Committee for Map Information and Catalogue Systems BRH Bush, Roed & Hitchings (Firm) BRS Bibliographic Retrieval Service BS Bureau of Statistics (Japan) Bs. As. Buenos Aires BSB Bayerische Staatsbibliothek BSC Boston Survey Consultants BSE Base flood elevation BSNH Headwater basin BSQ Band Sequential BSR Bibliographic Standard Record BSU Base Spatial Unit BT Base Topo BTA Basic Trading Areas (FCC) BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics (US) BUIS Beihai Urban Information Center BUPMIS Beihai Urban Planning Management Information System BUPNIS Beijing Underground-Network Information System BUTE Butte BVG Berliner Verkehrs Gesellschaft BVU Brightness Value Unit B/W Black and white BWC Bandwidth Compression BWE Bandwidth Expansion c Company C Cartography; Celsius (degrees) ca. Circa CA California; Cartographic and architectural; Census agglomeration (Canada) C/A Coarse-Acquisition (code) CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration (U.S.); Civil Aviation Authority (Great Britain) CAAD Cartographic and Architectural Archives Div., National Archives of Canada CAC Center for Advanced Computation (Univ. of Illinois); Compressed Aeronautical Chart (U.S. government) CACS Canadian Active Control System CAD Computer-aided drafting; Computer assisted design CADD Computer-aided design and drafting CADMAP Computer-aided drafting, mapping, and photogrammetry CADRG Compressed ADRG CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CAFM Computer-aided facility management CAG Canadian Association of Geographers CaGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Science (journal)); Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (journal) CAGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Society Cal. California Calif. California CALMIT Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln) CALS Connecticut Assn. of Land Surveyors; Computer-aided acquisition and logistic support; Computer Assisted Land Survey System (SPDK) CALTRANS California Dept. of Transportation CAM Computer aided mapping CAMA Computer-aided mass appraisal system (Montana) CAMEO Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations System (U.S.) CAMFER Center for the Assessment & Monitoring of Forest & Environmental Resources (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley) CAN Controlled Area Network CANRI Community Access to Natural Resources Information CanSIS Canadian Soil Information System CANSPACE Canadian Space Geodesy Forum CanVec Canadian Vector Data CAP Cooperative Agreements Program (FGDC) CAPCO Capital Area Planning Council (Texas) CAPDU Canadian Assn. of Public Data Users CAR Curriculum, Accreditation and Registration Committee (ACSM); Central African Republic CARES Center for Agricultural, Resource, and Environmental Systems (Univ. of Missouri) CARL Canadian Assn. of Research Libraries CARS Computer-Assisted Reproduction; Center for Applications of Remote Sensing (Oklahoma State Univ.) CASA Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (Univ. College, London) CASE Computer-Aided Software Engineering CASI Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager CaSIL California Spatial Information Library CASS Coding and Accuracy Support System (USPS) CAST Center for Advanced and Spatial Technologies (Univ. of Arkansas) CAT Computer Assisted Thermography CATS Consequences Assessment Tool Set (FEMA) CAVA Cartographic and Audio-Visual Archives Div. = Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles (DACA), National Archives of Canada CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute CB Column builder C.B. Hollow concrete or cement block construction CBD Central business district CBEP Community-Based Environmental Protection (USEPA program) CBEPS Canadian Board of Examiners for Professional Surveyors CBET Concrete block enclosed elevator CBF Cartographic boundary file CBI China Burma India Theatre of Operations (WW II) CBL Centraal Bureau Luchtkartering (Suriname); Calibration (or calibrated) base line cbm Kubikmeter (cubic meter) CBM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming State Geological Survey) CBN Cooperative Base Network CBP Chesapeake Bay Project C. BR Concrete, lime, cinder or cement brick CBS Community Base Station CBWE Corn Blight Watch Experiment CC Cartographic Catalog C.C. Chain carrier CCA Canadian Cartographic Assn. CCAFS Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (Florida) CCAP Competative Cooperative Agreements Program (U.S.) CCBCCM Canadian Committee for the Bibliographic Control of Cartographic Materials CCC Canadian Committee on Cataloging; Cataloging and Classification Committee (MAGERT) CCCELS California Council of Civil Engineers and Land Surveyors CCD Census county division; Computer Center Div. (USGS); Charged couple device; Charged-coupled device; Charge-coupled device CCDM Core Cadastral Domain Model CCELC Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification CCGE Canadian Council on Geographic Education CCGM Center for Computing Graphics (Delft Univ. of Technology) CCIG Centre canadien d'information sur la geoscience CCID Chain component ID CCISA Congress of Cartographic Information Specialist Associations CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCK Centrale Catalogus Kartografie (National Library of the Netherlands) CCLS Canadian Council of Land Surveyors CCM Canada Centre for Mapping; Compressed County Mosaic (USDA) CCNS4 Computer Controlled Navigation System (E. Coyote Enterprises, Inc.) CCPS Central Colorado Professional Surveyors CCPR California Center for Population Research CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CCS Census consolidated subdivision (Canada) CCT Computer Compatible Tape; Centro de Ciencia Tropical CD Compact disc; Conservation Div. (USGS); Committee Draft (ISO) CDA Colorado Dept. of Agriculture CDC California Dept. of Conservation; Control Data Corporation CD-CINC CD-ROM Consistent Interface Committee (U.S.) CDED Canadian Digital Elevation Data CDF Cumulative distribution function; California Dept. of Forestry (and Fire Protection) CDFG California Dept. of Fish and Game CDFS Cloud Depiction and Forecast System CDH Communications and data handling CDi Compact Disk interactive CDIS Coordinated Design and Information System CDL Cropland data layers (USDA NASS) CDMG California Div. of Mines and Geology CDN Coordinates, definitions and notations CDOT Colorado Dept. of Transportation CDOW Colorado Division of Wildlife CDOWG CD-ROM Data Origination Working Group (U.S.) CDP Cartographer Development Program; Census designated place; Colorado Division of Planning .CDR CorelDraw format CD-R Compact disk-recordable CD-ROM Compact disk-read only memory CDRS Collaborative Digital Reference Service CDS Catalogue of Data Sources CDT Computer display terminal; Central Daylight Time; Constrained Delaunay triangulation CDTED Compressed digital terrain elevation data CDV Cartographic data visualizer CD-W Compact disk-- re-writable CDWR California Dept. of Water Resources CE Corps of Engineers C.E. Civil Engineer CEAL Centro Editor de America Latina CEAO County Engineers Association of Ohio CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility CECO Consulting Engineers Council of Ohio CECSVB Comit pour l'Etablissement de la Carte des Sols et de la Vegetation de la Belgique CECW Consulting Engineers Council of Washington CEDAC Comprehensive Economic Data Atlas of China CEDARE Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe CEDD Committee on the Exchange of Digital Data CEE Comite Estatal de Estadisticas (Cuba) CEGET Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropical (Bordeaux) CEGIS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (USGS) CELSOC Consulting Engineers and Land Surveyors of California Cem. Cemetery CEMA Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Assn. CEMAR Centro de Estudos do Mar CEN Comite europeen de normalization electronique CENREN Centro de Recursos Naturales (El Salvador) CENTA Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (El Salvador) CENTAUR Civil Engineering Technologies for Automatic Roadmaking (DSNP) CEO European Centre for Earth Observation CEONet Canadian Earth Observation Network CEP Celestial Ephemeris Pole CERCLIS Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (US EPA) CERCO Comite Europeen de Responsibles de la Cartographie Officielle CERD Catalog of Environmental Resource Data CERES California Environmental Resource Evaluation System CERCG Centre d'Etudes et de Realisations Cartographiques Geographiques (France) CERR Centre d'Ecologie des Ressources Renouvelables (France) CES Committee on Earth Sciences CET Commission on Education and Training (IGA) CETENAL Comision de Estudios del Territorio Nacional (Mexico) CEU Continuing education unit CFC Comite francais de cartographie CFCC Census Feature Class Code CFF Cartographic Feature File CFUA Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association C.G. Coast Guard CGA Color Graphics Adaptor CGC Commission geologique du Canada CGDB Central Geographic Data Base CGDI Canadian Geomatics Digital Initiative ; Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure CGE Comision Geografico-Exploradora (Mexico) CGI Computer Graphics Interface; Common gateway interface; Center for Geographic Information CGIC Canadian Geoscience Information Centre CGIS Center for GIS (Qatar) .CGM Computer graphics metafile CGMW Commission for the Geological Map of the World CGNHS Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey CGNS Canadian Geographical Names Service GCN1 Canadian Geographical Names, Level 1 CGPM Conference General des Poids et Mesures CGPS Continuous global positioning system CGRG Canadian Geomorphology Research Group CGS California Geological Survey; Civil GPS Service; Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Colorado Geological Survey C&GS Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Commercial & Government Systems (Kodak) CGSB Canadian General Standards Board CGSB-COG Canadian General Standards Board Committee on Geomatics CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGSICO Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGTP Cartographic and Geospatial Technology Programs CGU Canadian Geophysical Union CGW Computer Graphics World (journal) CH; Ch. Chief Hydrologist; Church; Chapel CHA Canadian Hydrographic Association CHEEC Center for the Health Effects of Environmental Contamination (Univ. of Iowa) CHEST Combined Higher Education Software Team (UK) CHGIS China Historical Geographic Information System (Harvard University) CHIA Cumulative Hydrologic Impact Assessment CHNM Marine channel CHS Canadian Hydrographic Service CI Compass and inclinometer; Coal Investigations Map (USGS) CIA Central Intelligence Agency (U.S.) CIAF Centro de Investigaciones en Percepcion Remota CIAS CD-ROM Index Architecture Specification Working Group (U.S.) CIACER Centro de Investigacion y Aplicacion de Sensores Remotos (Bolivia) CIB Controlled image base CIBESA Cartografica Iberica S.A. CICAEDAS Committee Investigating Cartographic Entity, Definitions, and Standards CICLOPS Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations CID Community Information Database (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) CIDAMM Centro de Informacion y Documentacion del Area Metropolitana de Madrid CIE Iompair Eireann Coras; Classified image editor CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network CIG Canadian Inst. of Geomatics; Climate Interest Group; Centro de Investigaciones Geotecnicas (El Salvador) CIGF Centre d'Information Geographique et Fonci`ere Ministre de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec) CIGNET Cooperative International GPS Network CIKM Conference on Information Knowledge Management CIM Collection insertion map; Council on Information Management (Virginia) CIMIS California Irrigation Management Information System CINDI Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (USGS) CIO Central Imagery Office (U.S.) CIP Contour Interpolation Program; Canadian Institute of Planners CIR Color infrared CIRSS California Integrated Remote Sensing System CIS Canadian Inst. of Surveying; Color Imaging Systems (Barneyscan Corp.) CISD Cook Islands Dept. of Survey CISIG Conservational International GIS CISM Canadian Inst. of Surveying and Mapping CIST Centre d'information sur les sciences de la Terre (Canada) CITYG City Graphic CIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, Great Britain) CK-PL Check plotter CLA Canadian Library Association CLD Center line data CLDB Common Land Data Base CLDS Canada Land Data System(s) CLI Canada Land Inventory CLICK Center for LiDAR Information Coordination (USGS) CLID Class identifier CLIRSEN Remote Sensing Center (Ecuador) Clk. Clerk CLL Corrected line length CLOMA Confidential letters of map amendment CLS Canada Lands Surveyor CLSA California Land Surveyors Assn. CLSR Canada Lands Surveys Records CLU Common land units CLUMP Canada Land Use Monitoring Program cm Centimeter CM Cartographic material; Configuration management CMA Census Metropolitan Area (Statistics Canada); Central Mapping Agency (New South Wales) CMAP Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning CMAS Circular Mean Accuracy Standard CMCC California Mapping Coordinating Committee CMD Current meter digitizer; Command CMEDS Comprehensive Mapping and Engineering Data System (LES) CMI Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. CMIB Controlled multispectral image base CMIS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder CMM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming State Geological Survey) CMO Canada Map Office CMOTS Cartographic Material Order and Tracking System (USGS) CMP Coastal Mapping Program; Camp CMS California Map Society; Cavity Monitoring System (Optech); Clay Minerals Society CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area CMSDU Commission on Map Use and Spatial Data Use (ICA) CMSM Committee on Marine Surveying and Mapping CMT Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. C&MT Communication & Measurement Technologies Ltd. CMYK Cyan-magenta-yellow-black CNA Comiss~ao Nacional do Ambiente (Portugal) CNIDR Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (USA) CNES Centre national d'etudes spatiales (France) CNEXO Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Oceans (France) CNFL Confluence CNI Coalition for Networked Information CNIG Centro Nacional de Informac~ao Geografica = Portuguese National Center for Geographic Information CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche (Italy); Canadian National Railway CNRA Commission on National and Regional Atlases (ICA) CNRG Centre National de Recherches Geomorphologiques (Belgium) CNROA Centro Nacional de Reconhecimento e Ordenamento Agrario (Portugal) CNRS Centre National de Recherches Scientifique (France) CNRST Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (Burkina Faso) CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics (U.S.) Co. Company; County CO Cartometric operations; Colorado COBOL Common Business Oriented Language COBRIG Council of British Geography COE Corps of Engineers (US Army) COEB Coastal and Estuarine Oceanography Branch (US NOS) COFPAES Committee on the Federal Procurement of Architect and Engineer Services COFRS Chinese Operational Earth Resources Satellite COG Council of Governments COGNA Council of Geographic Names Authorities COGO Coordinate geometry; Coalition of Geospatial Organizations C.O.I. Office of Coordinator of Information (U.S.) col. Color; colored Col. Colonel; Colorado COL Agricultural colony COLD Computer Output to Laser (optical) Disc Com. Committee; Commission; Commodore COM Component Object Model (Microsoft) COMAP Continuous area pattern mapping Comdg. Commanding COMIS Cartographic Operations Management Information System COMPAS Coastal Ocean Management, Planning and AssessmentSystem COMSAT Communications Satellite (Corp.) CONAE Comision nacional de actividades espaciales (Argentina) CONC. Concrete or reinforced concrete construction Cong. Congress Conn. Connecticut CONRIM Committee on Natural Resource Information Management(Alaska) CONUS Continental United States CO-COPS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA) COP/BOP City of Portland Bureau of Planning CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture CORC Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (OCLC) Corp. Corporal; Corporation CORS Continuously operated reference station(s); Continuously operating GPS reference stations CORSE Conference on Remote Sensing Education COS Central Office of Statistics (Malta) COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information Center COSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries COSPAR Committee on Space Research COTS Commercial-off-the-shelf COVIS Commonwealth of Virginia Information Systems CP Cartographic Perspectives (journal); color printer CPFS Colorado Plateau Field Station (USGS) CPH Cartographic Publishing House (China) CPID Composite ID CPLAR Community Perspectives on Land and Agrarian Reform (South Africa) CPLC Court of Private Land Claims CPS Characters per second; Contour plotting system; Cartographic production system C.P.S.C.R.A.M. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Regiaeque Apostolicae Majestatis = With the privilege of the Holy Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty CPSO Cataloging Policy and Support Office (Library of Congress) CPU Central processing unit CR Central Region; Coordinate reader CRA Common Resource Area CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (U.S) CRAG Columbia Region Association of Governments CRAIGES Cartographic Reproduction and Interactive Graphic Editing System CRBT Centre de Recherches Biologiques Tropicales (Algeria) CREPUQ Conference des recteurs et des principaux des universites du Quebec CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (U.S.) CRG Centre de Recherche en Geomatique (Universite Laval) CRIB Computerized Resources Information Bank CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (US) CRISTA Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRKT Tidal creek CRL Cartographic research laboratory CrlMSS Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite CrlS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CSD Census subdivision (Canada) CRM Consejo de Recursos Minerales (Mexico); Customer relationship management CRN Canadian Road Network CRPD City Real Property Database CRREL Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratories CRTR Crater CRSA Canadian Regional Science Association CRSC California Remote Sensing Council CRSS Canadian Remote Sensing Society CRT Cathode ray tube CRV Cloth, rolled, varnished CS Color scanner; Cubic splines C.S. Charles Simonneau CSA Canadian Space Agency CSAA California State Automobile Association CSAC Census Statistical Area Committee (U.S.) CSAV Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences CSC Computer Sciences Corporation; Commercial Space Center (NASA); Coastal Services Center (NOAA); California Surveying Corporation CSDGM Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata CSDMS Centre for Spatial Database Management and Solutions CSDS California Surveying and Drafting Supply CSFS Colorado State Forest Service CSG Cartography Special Group, Assn. of American Geographers; Council of State Governments CSIG Cyberinfrastrucure Summer Institute for Geoscientists CSIN Computer Systems Information Network CSIP Continental Scale International Project CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) CSISS Center for Spatially Integrated Social Sciences (UCSB) CSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries CSOC Consolidated Space Operations Center CSP Conformal Space projection CSPA Council of State Planning Agencies CSPG Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists CSR Center for Space Research (Univ. of Texas at Austin) CSRS Canadian Spatial Reference System CSUF California State University, Fresno CSUN California State University, Northridge CST Central Standard Time; Chicago Steel Tape Co.; Coast; Certified Survey Technician CSVNS California Surveying Virtual Survey Network (California Surveying and Drafting Supply Ct. Court CT Census tract; Connecticut CTA Crafton, Tull & Associates CTC Cartoteca de Catalunya; Cooperating Technical Communities CTCUQ Commission de transport de la Communaute urbaine de Quebec CTD Chief, Topographic Division; Conductivity-temperature-depth CTI Critical Technologies Inst. (RAND Corp.) CTI-S Centre for Topographic Information - Sherbrooke CTL Cartographic Technology Lab. CTOG Contour to Grid CTS Communications Technology Satellite (Canadian); Conventional terrestrial system CUA Canadian Underwriters' Association CUAC Cartographic Users Advisory Council (U.S.) CUBE Combined Uncertainty and Bathymetry Estimator CUET Cuesta CUGiK Centralny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) CUR Council on Undergraduate Research CUSEC Central United States Earthquake Consortium CUSMAP Conterminous United States Minerals Assessment Plan CVO Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS) CWHR Califoria Wildlife Habitat Relationships CWRA Canadian Water Resources Program CWS Cartographic workstation CYP Cape York Peninsula CYPLUS Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner CZM Coastal Zone Management (U.S. federal act of 1972) C4G Center for GeoInformatics (Louisiana State University) D Division; Dwelling DA Data Acquisition; Dept. of the Army; Dissemination area (Canada) D/A Digital to Analog (converter) DAAC Div. des archives audiovisuelles et cartographiques, Archives nationales du Canada; Distributed Active Archive Center DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System (USDMA) DAASC Defense Automated Addressing System Center (USDMA) DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter DACA Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles, Archives nationales du Canada DACH Deputy Assistant Chief Hydrologist DADS Digital Assisted Data Base System DADSO Data Access and Dissemination System Office (USBC) DAESA Dual Axis Fourier Shape Analysis DAFIF Digital Aeronautical Flight Information Files (NGA) DAG Directorate of Geographic Affairs (Lebanon) DAIS-1 Digital Airborne Imagery System (Space Imaging (Firm)) DAISIDS Distributed Ad-hoc Intelligent Sensor-Intrusion Detection System DAL Data Analysis Laboratory DAM Detection and mapping DAMES Defense Automated Message Exchange Service (USDMA) DANE Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (Colombia) DAR Data acquisition request DARDC Device for Automatic Remote Data Collection DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (U.S.) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S.) DAS Delaware Assn. of Surveyors; Digial Aerial Solutions, LLC DA&SM Data Acquisitions & Systems Maintenance DAT Digital audio tape DATIS Digital Airborne Topographic Imaging System DATPE Direction de l'Amernagement du Territoire et de la Protection de l'Environnement (Haiti) D.A.V. Deutscher Alpenverein DAVE-G Dialogue Assisted Virtual Environment for Geoinformation DB Data base; Dissemination block (Canada) DBB Deutsche Bundesbahn DBDB Digital Bathymetry Data Base (U.S. government) DBH Diameter at breast height DBI Database Indexing; Database Interface DBMS Database management system DBPPWG Data Base Population Planning Working Group DBPWG Data Base Population Working Group DBR Dienst Bodemkartering (Suriname) DBS Data Base Specifications; Direct broadcast satellites DC District Chief; District of Columbia; Div. Chief; Dublin Core D.C. District of Columbia DCA Dept. of Community Affairs (Montana) DC&A Data Collection and Analysis DCASS Digital Cartographic Software System DCDB Digital Cartographic Data Base DCDSTF Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force (U.S.) DCE Data Communication Equipment; Distributed Computing Environment DCF Digital Cartographic File DCHUM Digital Chart Update Manual (USDMA) DCI Differential Corrections, Inc.; Director of Central Intelligence DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative DCN Direccion de Cartografia Nacional (Venezuela); Document control number DCP Dept. of city planning; Digital Cartographic Production; Data collection platform DCPS Digital Cartographic Production Segment DCR Design Concept Review DCRM Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials DCRM(C) Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Cartographic) DCS Digital Cartography Section; Digital color separate; Directorate of Colonial Surveys (U.K.); Data collection system; Digital Cartographic Studio DCSE Diba Consulting Software Engineers DCS/RSE Data collection system receiving site equipment DCST Data collection system tape DCT Direction Topographique et du Cadastre (Congo) DCW Digital Chart of the World (USDMA) DD Data dictionary; Dewey Decimal; Decimal degrees DDA Data descriptive area DDAC Deutscher Automobil-Club DDC Dewey Decimal classification; Digital data conversion DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol DDE DOE Data Explorer (US Dept. of Energy) DDES Digital Data Editing System DDF Data descriptive file DDG La direction des documents gouvernementaux (La Bibliotheque et des Archives du Canada) DDI Design Data Inc. DDIS Depository Distribution Information System (USGPO) DDL Data Definition Language DDM Documents Data Miner; Digital Distance Model; Dynamic Digital Map DDN Defense Data Network DDPO Defense Dissemination Program Office (U.S.) DDPS Desktop Digital Photogrammetry System (3D Mapper Pty. Ltd.) DDR Data descriptive record DDS Digital Data Storage DDTI Digital Data Technologies, Inc. DE Data extraction; Delaware DEA David Evans and Associates, Inc. dec. Declination DEC Digital Equipment Corp. DED Data Element Dictionary DE-DEM Drainage-Enforced DEM DEIS Draft environmental impact statement del. Delineation; delineator Del. Delaware delt. Delineator DEM Digital Elevation Model; Digital elevation matrix DEM-G Digital Elevation Model--Graphic (coordinates) DEM-P Digital Elevation Model--Planar (coordinates) DEMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada DEMVFY Digital Elevation Model Verify (verification software) Dep. Deputy; Departement DEP Dept. of Environmental Protection Dept. Department DES Digital Editing Station DE/S Data Extraction Segment DESI Diversified Energy Services, Inc. DEW Distant Early Warning Line DFAD Digital Feature Analysis Data (U.S. government) DFC Digital Futures Coalition DFG Dept. of Fish and Game DFLIP Digital Flight Information Publication DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DFO Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) DFW Dept. of Fish and Wildlife DGC Direct Geodetic Constraint (software) DGCM Direct Geodetic Constraint Method DGDF Digital Geospatial Data Files DGEC Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Costa Rica) DGF Dept. of Game and Fish DGG Direccion General de Geografia (Mexico) DGGM Direccion General de Geologia y Minas (Colombia) DGGS Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (Alaska); Directorate General of Geological Surveys (Iraq) DGI Direktorat Geologi (Indonesia) DGIAI Direccion General de Integracion y Analisis de la Informacion (Mexico) DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard DGIWG Digital Geographic Information Working Group DGfK Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kartographie DGK 5 Deutsche Grundkarte 1:5 000 DGM Div. des Gites Mineraux de l'Assn. Geologique du Canada; Direction de la Geologie et des Mines (Burkina Faso); Direccion General de Mineria (Dominican Republic) DGMG Direccion General de Minas y Geologia (Venezuela) DGMP Direccion de Geologia, Minas y Petrolio (Costa Rica) DGN Domestic geographic name DGNR Domestic Geographic Names Report (U.S.) DGO Direccion General de Oceanografia (Mexico) DGP Digital Graphic Product DGPA Direccion General de la Produccion Agraria (Spain) DGPS Differential Global Positioning System; Differential Global Positioning Satellite DGRM Direccion General de Recursos Minerales (Panama) DGS Dept. of Geological Survey (Botswana); Delaware Geological Survey DGSE Dept. of Geological Survey and Exploration (Burma) DGU Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse DH Drill hole D.H. Double hydrant DHI Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut; Defense Hydrographic Initiative (USDMA) DHN Directoria de Hidrografia e Navegac~ao (Brazil) DI Data Integration; Digital image DIA Defence Intelligence Agency (U.S.); Dept. of Indian Affairs; Dept. of International Affairs DIAL Digital Image Analysis Laboratory (Univ. of Arizona); Differential Absorption LiDAR (Optech) diam. Diameter DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual DiAP Digital Image Analytical Plotter (ISM) DID Data information delivery; Data information description; Digital Image Data DIDS Digital Information Display System (U.S.) DIELOG DAASC Integrated E-Mail Logistics System (USDMA) DIES Digital Image Enhancement System DIF Data Integration Function; Data Interchange Format; Display Information Facility; Document Interchange Format (U.S. Navy) difSAR Differential SAR DIGCAT Digital Catalog DIGEST Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard DIGIT Digitally Integrated Geographic Information Technologies (laboratory, Univ. of Utah Geography Dept.) DILIGENT Digital Library Infrastructure on Grid Enabled Technology (EC) DIM Digital Image Matching DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Bureau of the Census) DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung Dinageca Direcc~ao Nacional de Geografia e Cadastro (Mozambique) DINO Data in Ontario (organization) DIP Data Integration Program DIPS Digital Image Processing System DIRS Digital Image Rectification/Registration System DIS Distributed Information System; Draft International Standard (ISO) DISGIS Distributed Geographical Information Systems DISHIDROS Dinas Hidro Oceanografi (Indonesia) Dist. District DISTDAHS Distributed Satellite Telemetry Data Handling System Div. Division DKDGS Det Kongelige Danske Geografiske Selskab DL Data logging DLA Diffusion-limited aggregation DLCW Department of Land and Water Conservation (NSW) DLG Digital Line Graph DLG-E Digital Line Graph--Enhanced DLGF Digital Line Graph--Framework DLG-O Digital Line Graph--Optional DLG2DEM Digital Line Graph to Digital Elevation Model (production software) DLG-3 Digital Line Graph--level 3 DLI Digital Library Initiative (U.S.); Data Liberation Initiative (Canada); Dept. of Land Information DLL Windows Dynamic Link Library DLMS Digital Landmass System DLNR Dept. of Land and Natural Resources DLO Document-like object DLR Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. DLS Dominion Land Survey (Canada); Dept. of Lands and Survey (Guyana); Dept. of Lands and Surveys (Cyprus) DLT Digital linear tape DLWC Dept. of Land and Water Conservation (Australia) DM Departamento de Minas (Honduras); Data mining DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.); Designated Market Areas (USBC TIGER) DMAAC Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center DMAFF Defense Mapping Agency Feature File; Defense Mapping Agency Feature Format DMAHTC Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Topographic Center DMAIAGS Defense Mapping Agency Inter-American Geodetic Survey DMAODS Defense Mapping Agency Office of Distribution Services DMASPOEM Defense Mapping Agency Special Program Office for Exploitation Modernization DMA TC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (U.S.) DMATC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (U.S.) DMAUSE DMA Utility Software Environment (USDMA) DMC Disaster Monitoring Constellation (BNSC) DMCA Digital Millenium Copyright Act DME Distance measuring equipment; Dept. of Mines and Energy (Nova Scotia) DMGIS Data, Map and Government Information Services (Univ. of Toronto Library) DMI Digital Mapping, Inc. DMMG Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia (Uruguay) DMMR Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia) DMP Digital Map Products (Firm) DMR Dept. of Mineral Resources (New South Wales) DMRS Data Management and Retrieval System DMRT Dept. of Mineral Resources of Thailand DMS Data Management System; Desktop Mapping System (R-WEL, Inc.); Drawing Management System; Defense Mapping School (USDMA); Defense Message System (USDoD); Distribution Management System; Degrees, minutes, seconds DMSI Data Management Segment Interface Control Document DMSO Defense Mapping School Operations Office (USDMA) DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DMT Digital Mapping Techniques DMTI Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. DMU Defense Mapping Unit (Singapore); Distance measuring unit DMW Daft, McCune, Walker DN Digital Number DNC Digital Nautical Chart DNPM Departamento Nacional de Produc~ao Mineral (Brazil) DNPCT Direction National de Production Cartographique et Topographique (Mali) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources DNRC Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation (Montana) DNREP Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (Kentucky) DNT Direccion Nacional de Topografia (Uruguay) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources Do. Ditto (the same) DO Digital Ortho; District office DOA Dept. of Agriculture Doc. Document DOC Dept. of Commerce DOD Dept. of Defense DOE Dept. of Energy DOGAMI Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries (Oregon) DOH Dept. of Health DOI Dept. of the Interior; Digital object identifier; Document object identifier DOM Document Object Model DOMSAT Domestic Communications Satellite System DOQ Digital orthophoto quadrangle DOQQ Digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle DORIS Decision-Oriented Resource Information System (Ventura County, Calif.); Doppler obitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite DOS Directorate of Overseas Surveys (U.K.); Dept. of State; Digital Orthophoto System; Disc Operating System DOSLI Dept. of Survey and Land Information (New Zealand) DOT Dept. of Transportation DP Data production; Digital Photogrammetry DPE Data processing environment; data processing equipment DPED Dept. of Planning and Economic Development dpi Dots per inch DPI Dots per inch DPIE Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy (Australia) DPL Data Programming Language; Designated place DPMA Data Processing Management Assn. DPPDB Digital Point Positioning Data Base DPS DEM Production System; Digital Production System (USDMA) Dpt. Department DPW Dept. of public works DPWS Digital Photogrammetric Work Station DQDB Distributed-Queue Dual Buses DQQ Digital Quarter Quadrangle Dr. Drive DR Data record(s); Direct Reflex (Trimble) DRAPE Digital Raster Acquisition Project for the East DRAPP Denver Regional Aerial Photography Program DRBC Delaware River Basin Commission DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DRCOG Denver Regional Council of Governments DRF Digital Raster File DRG Digital Raster Graphic; Davey Resource Group DRGM Direction des Recherches gologiques et minires (Niger) DRGP Digital Representation of Graphic Products DRGS Direct Readout Ground Station DRIS Digital Research and Instructional Services (Univ. of Virginia) DRO Digital Revision Overlay DS Digital subsystem D.S. District Surveyor DSD Digital Sailing Directions DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project DSF Delivery sequence file (U.S. Postal Service) DSGM Direcc~ao de Servicos de Geologia e Minas (Angola); Direccion del Servicio Geografico Militar (Paraguay) DSGZ Dept. of the Surveyor General (Zimbabwe) DSIR Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research (Australia, New Zealand) DSL Dept. of Surveys and Lands (Botswana); Data Service Laboratory DSM Directorate of Surveys and Mapping (South Africa); Dept. of Surveys and Mapping (Botswana); Digital stereo model; Digital surface model DSN Deep Space Network; Dataset Name; Data source name DSNP Dassault-Sercel NP DSP Dept. of State Planning; Depository Services Program (Canada) DSPW Digital Photogrammetric Workstation (USCE) DSS Digital Sensor System (Applanix or EMERGE ) DS/S Data Services Segment DSSSL Document Style Semantic and Specification Language DSU Digital Standard Update DTAD Digital Terrain Analysis Data DTD Digital Terrain Data; Digital Topographic Data (Natural Resources Canada); Document Type Definition DTED Digital Terrain Elevation Data (U.S. government) DTG Digital tape generation DTM Digital Terrain Model (or Modeling) DTOP Digital Topographic Data DTS Digital transmission system DTSS-P Digital Topographic Support System Prototype DTW Desk-top Workstation DUMC Dutch Union Map Catalogue DV Daily Value DVD Digital video disc; Digital versatile disc DVNP Death Valley National Park DVP Digital Video Plotter DW Data warehousing DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst DWF Drawing Web Format DWM Digital Web Map (Idaho Geological Survey) DWR Dept. of Water Resources DXF Drawing Interchange File; Digital Exchange Format DXM Data eXchange Manager DySIS Dynamic Software and Integrated Solutions, Inc. D-2 National Interest Lands, Section D-2, Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act D3 Digital Design Data E East; Electronic; Elevator (open); Einwohner = inhabitant EA Environmental assessment EAC Engineering Accreditation Commission (ABET) EAF East African Force (UK) EAFS Effective Aerial Film Speed EAOS Environment Australia Online Service EAP Environmental Affairs Program Earthsat Earth Satellite Corp. EAS-E Engineering and Survey-Exchange EBAMCO Electronic Book and Map Company EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBR Electron Beam Recorder EBRPD East Bay Regional Park District (California) EBX Electronic book exchange EC Electronic control; European Community; European Commission ECAI Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative ECDIS Electronic Chart Display and Information System (U.S.) ECE E. Coyote Enterprises ECEF EarthCentered EarthFixed ECEY Every City, Every Year (Aerials Express) ECI Election Commission of India ECPD Engineering Council for Professional Development ECRF Earth Centered Reference Frame ECS Electronic Charting Systems (NOAA) Ed. Editor; edition ED Elevation data; Enumeration district E.D. Eastern District EDA Electronic design automation; Exploratory data analysis EDC EROS Data Center (LIA); Electronic digital computer; Environmental Data Center (California) EDD Environmental Data Directory (Australia) EDGE Energy Data Geographical Explorer (Petroconsultants, Inc.) EDI Electronic Data Interchange; Electronic Devices Inc. EDIES EROS Digital Image Enhancement Systems EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport EDINA Edinburgh Data and Information Access EDIPS EROS Digital Image Processing System EDIS Environmental Data and Information Service; Electrical Distribution Information System (Santee Cooper) EDITOR ERTS Data Interpretation and Tenex Operations Recorder EDM Electronic distance measurement; Electronic distance meter EDMAS Environmental Dose Modeling and Analysis System EDMI Electronic distance measuring instrument(s) EDMS Electronic document management system(s) EDP Electronic data processing EDS Electronic Data Systems Corp.; Engineering Design System; Environmental Data Service (NOAA) EDT Eastern Daylight Time EdUC Education User Conference (ESRI) EEC European Economic Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E.F. Eisenbahnfaehre EFFIS European Forest Fire Information System EGA Enhanced Graphics Adaptor EGII European Geographic Information Infrastructure EGIS European GIS EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EGS European Geophysical Society; Economic geology series EGSMA Geological Survey and Mining Authority (Egypt) EHS Extremely hazardous materials EIGS Ethiopian Inst. of Geological Survey EIM Environmental information management eingesch. eingeschossig eis. eisern = iron EIS Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental information system Eisb. Brck. Eisenbahnbrucke = Railroad bridge EIWG Earth Imaging Working Group ELC End of line code ELMO Electronic Map Ordering El.W. Elektrizitatswerk = electric power station EM Electromagnetic E.M. Mining Engineer EMA Environmental Management Agency; Ethopian Mapping Authority EMAIL Electronic Mail EMAP Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (U.S. EPA) EMC Eastern Mapping Center (USGS) EMF Enhanced Meta Files (Windows) EMIP European Market for Infrastructural Projects EMMMA Environmental Mercury Mapping, Modeling and Analysis EMPS Elevation Matrix Processing System EMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada; Electromagnetic radiation EMS Electromagnetic spectrum; Engineering Mapping Solutions (Firm) ENC Electronic Navigational Charts (NOAA) E.N.E. East-northeast Eng. Dept. Engineering Dept.; Dept. of Engineers Engr. Bn. Engineer Battalion ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENID Endnote ID E-N&N Electronic News and Notes (WAML) ENSG Ecole Nationale des Sciences Geographiques ENTR Entrance entw. Entworfen = Drawn entworf. Entworfen = Drawn ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EO Earth observation EOCAP Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program EODMS Earth Observations Data Management Systems EOF End of File EOS Earth Observing System; Greek National Mountaineering Assn. EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite (Company) EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System EOT End of Text EOTD Enhanced observed time difference EP End Point EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) EPB Earth Physics Branch (Canada) EPI Electronic Position Indicator EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon EPP Educational Partnership Program (Topcon) EPS Encapsulated PostScript ER Economic region (Canada) ERA Electric Records Archives (NARA) ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (or Sensor) ERCE Groupe d'Etudes de Recherches Critiques d'Espace (Universite du Quebec, Montreal) ERDAS Earth Resources Data Analysis System ERDC Earth Resources Data Center (ERIM); Engineer Research and Development Center (USACE) ERDL Engineer Research and Development Laboratories EREP Earth Resources Experiment Package (Skylab) ERIM Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan ERIN Earth Resources Information Network; Environmental Resource Information Network (Australia) ERIS Earth Resources Inventory System; Earth Resources Infomation System ERL Environmental Research Laboratories (NOAA); Earth Resources Laboratory (NASA) ERLAS Earth Resources Laboratory Application Software ERM Earth Resource Mapping (Firm) EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite; Earth Resources Observation System ERP Enterprise resource planning ERPANET Electronic Resource Preservation and Access Network ERR Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg fur die Besetzten Gebiete ERRSAC Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (NASA) ERS Earth Remote Sensing (satellite) ERSAC Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Centre (United Arab Emirates) ERSAL Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Laboratory (Oregon State Univ.) ERSAR Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar ERSC Egyptian Remote Sensing Center ERSP Epipolar Rectified Stereo Pair ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERSUN Environmental Remote Sensing Unit (British Aerospace Space Systems, Ltd.) ESA Egyptian Survey Authority; European Space Agency; Earth Sciences Associates ESC European Seismological Commission ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESD Engineering Services Dept. (Qatar) ESDA Earth Sciences Data Standards (council); Exploratory spatial data analysis ESDD Earth Science Data Directory (USGS) ESDI Earth Science Data Interface ESE Earth Science Enterprise E.S.E. East-southeast ESEM Earth Systems Engineering and Management ESI EagleScan Inc.; Enironmental Sensitivity Index ESIC Earth Science Information Center (USGS); Earth Sciences Information Centre (Canada) ESIG Exemplary Systems in Government award (URISA) ESIM Earth Science Information Manager ESIN Earth Science Information Network ESIO Earth Science Information Office ESIP Earth Science Information Partners ESIS Earth Science Information System ESL Electromagnetic Systems Laboratories, Inc. ESMI European Spatial Metadata Infrastructure ESR Engineering Surveys Reproduction Ltd. ESRI Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc. ESSA Environmental Science Service Administration ESSC Earth System Science Center (Pennsylvania State Univ.) ESSHC European Social Science History Conference ESSI Earth Search Sciences Inc. ESSIC Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (Univ. of Maryland) E. St. Eisenbahn Station = railway station EST Eastern Standard Time ES&T Environmental Science and Technology ESV EarthSystemsVisualizer ET Frame enclosed elevator with self-closing traps ETF European Transfer Format ETL Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USCE); Extract, transform, load ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus EU European Union EUB Alberta Energy and Utilities Board EUROGI European Umbrella Organisation for Geographic Information EVC East View Cartographic (Firm) EVI Enhanced vegetation index EVO Ernst Volker (Oldenburg, Germany) EWP Executive Wilderness Programmes Ex. doc. Executive document EXIF Extensible Image File Format F Fahrenheit; Flat FA Fire alarm box FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) FAAT Fully Analytical Aerotriangulation FAC Feature analysis code(s) FACC Feature and Attribute Coding Catalog FACE Field Ancillary Computer Effort FACM Florida Assn. of Cadastral Mappers FACS Feature Attribute Coding Standard; Feature Attribute Coding System Fahrb. Fahrbahn = roadway FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations) FAPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation FAQ Frequently Asked Question(s) FARC Federal Archives and Record Center FAS Foreign Agricultural Service(USDA) FAST Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Fb. Fabrik = Factory FB Freytag-Berndt und Artaria FBN Federal base network (U.S.) FC Field component; Field completion FCC False color composite; Federal Communications Commission (U.S.) FCM Feature change map FCT Forestry Commission Tasmania FCW Federal Computer Week (journal) FDDI Fiber Digital Data Interface FDEP Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection FDIS Formal Draft International Standard (ISO) FDLP Federal Depository Library Program (US GPO) FDLS Fiji Dept. of Lands and Survey FDPP Framework Demonstration Projects Program (FGDC) FE Feature extraction; Field engineer; Frame enclosed elevator F.E. Forest Engineer fe. Fecit (maker) FEAT Alternate Feature Identification Code fec. Fecit (maker) FED Federal electoral district (Canada); Field-emission displays FedUC Federal User Conference (ESRI) FEE Feature Extraction Environment FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) FEP Feature Extraction Processor FES Feature Extraction Segment FESWMS Finite Element Surface Water Model System FEWS Feature Extraction Workstation FGCC Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S.) FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (U.S.) FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) FGEF Federal Geographic Exchange Format (U.S.) FGI Free Government Information (US) F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society FGS Florida Geological Survey FGT Federal Geographic Technology (U.S.) FH Field headquarters FHA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FHWA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FICCDC Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (U.S.) FIG Federation Internationale des Geom`etres = International Federation of Surveyors FII Fundacion Instituto de Ingeneiria FILS Federal Government Information Locator System FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard(s); Flagstaff Image Processing System FIRM Flood Rate Insurance Map FIRMS Flood Rate Insurance Maps FL Florida; Focal length; Function libraries Fla. Florida FLHO Federal Lands Highway Office (U.S.) FLI-IWG Future of Land Imaging Interagency Working Group (US) FLIMAP Fast Laser Imaging Mapping and Profiling (system) FLIP Flight Information Publication (NGA) FLIR Forward-looking Infrared FLL Waterfall FLOPS Floating Point Operations per Second FM Facilities management; Field manual F.M. Field Marshall FMC Federal Maritime Commission (U.S.) FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (US) FME Feature Manipulation Engine (Safe Software Inc.) FMGIS Flight management geographic information system FMLIS Federal Mineral Lands Information System FMP Field Pack Mobile Professional (All Points Software) FMS Facility Mapping Systems Inc.; Flight Managing System FMS/AC Facility Mapping System for AutoCAD FNC Foreign Names Committee (USBGN) FNESA Federation of New England Surveyors Assn.s FNIB Foreign Names Information Bulletin FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (U.S.) FO Field office F.O. Field Officer; Foreign Office FOC Full operational capability FOF Filtering optical fiber FOGs Fiber Optic Gyros FOM Field Operations Manual FORTRAN Formula Translation (computer language) FOUO For official use only FOV Field of view fPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation FPC Federal Power Commission; Federal Publishers Committee FPT Full production training FPU Floating point unit FRA Federal Railroad Administration (U.S.) FRAP Fire and Resource Assessment Program (Calif. Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection) FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (IFLA) FRC Federal Records Center (U.S.) F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society FRI Forest Resource Inventory Map (Ontario) FRM Farm FRP Federal Radio-navigation Plan F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society FS Fire station; Forest Service (U.S.); Federal Survey Div. (Nigeria) FSA Farm Service Agency (USDA) FSLUPC Federal/State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska FSMS Florida Surveying and Mapping Society FSO Field Support Office (U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories) FSPLS Florida Society of Professional Land Surveyors FSR Flight Summary Report FSRAMIS Forest Service Range Management Information System FT Field terminator FTA Federal Transit Administration (US) Fth. Fathom FTL Future Temporal Logic FTM Foiben Taosarintanin' i Madagasikara FTP File Transfer Protocol FU Field unit Fur. Furlong Fw. Fussweg = Footpath FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (U.S.) FWS Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S.) FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia FZDS Flood Zone Determination Services G Geometry; Imperial guards G&M Geography and Map; geography and Map Div. G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara Inc. Ga. Georgia GA Georgia; Geographic access; Geographical Association GAC Geological Assn. of Canada; Global Area Composite; Geospatial Advisory Committee (USFS) GAF Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Fernerkundung GAMS GIS azimuth measuring system GANS Geomatics Association of Nova Scotia GAP Gap Analysis Program (USNBS); Geographic Application Program; Google Ancient Places GAT Geography Assn. of Thailand GB Gigabyte; Geologische Bundesanstalt (Austria) GBA GeoBusiness Assn.; George Butler Associates, Inc. GBAMS GBS Master Series, Inc. GBAUG Greater Boston Autodesk User Group GBf Guterbahnhof = freight depot GBF Geographic Base File GBFP Georgia Basin Futures Project (Digital Library) GBI Green biomass index GBIS Geo-Based Information System; Global Business Intelligence Solutions (IBM) Gbo. Grabador = engraver GBS Geograpic Base System GCCS Global Command, Control System (USDMA) GCDB Geographic Coordinate Data Base (U.S.) GCDIS Global Change Data and Information System GCG Geocartographics Subdivison (Canada) GCHC Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center (U.S.) GCLI GIS in Canadian Libraries Initiative GCM General circulation model; Global climate model; General Command of Mapping (Turkey) GCMC Geospatial Center and Map Collection (Ball State University) GCP Ground control point(s); Geodetic control point(s) GCRA Geographic and Cartographic Research and Applications Section GCRS Gulf Centre for Remote Sensing (Firm) GCSS Global Combat Support System GCT Greenwich Civil Time GCTP General Coordinate Transformation Package (software); Geographic Coordinate Transformation Package (software) GD Geologic Div. (USGS); Geospatial data; Graphic digitization GDA Geographic Data Analysis System GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library GDC Geographic Data Council GDD Graphics Data Display Manager; GIS Data Depot GDDD Geographical Data Description Directory GDE Graphic Developer's Engine (FCAD Software, Inc.) GDF Geographic data file GDHS Ground Data Handling System (GFSC) GDM Geospatial data management GDN Geography Discipline Network GDS Graphic Data Systems Corp; Grumman Data Systems; Geo-Data System; Geographic Data Service (U.S.) GDT Geographic Data Technology Inc.; Geophysical diffraction tomography GDTA Groupement pour le Developpement de la Teledetection Aerospatiale (France) GE General Electric; Geographic equivalent; Google Earth GEBCO General bathymetric chart of the oceans = Carte generale bathymetrique des oceans GECCo Geospatially Enabling Community Collaboration (program, GITA) GEDS General Environmental Data Base System (Florida) GEGMR General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources (Syria) GEHC Grup d'Estudia d'Historia de la Cartografia GEM Graphical Environment Manager GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System; GeoMap Society GEO Geospatial Metadata Application Profile (USA); Geostationary Earth orbit; Global Environment Outlook GEOBAL Servicio Geologico de Bolivia GEO-CAT Geographic catalog of political and statistical areas Geocorr Geographic Correspondence Engine GEODESY Geospatial Data and Exploration System (Harvard Univ.) Geog. Geography GEOINT Geographical intelligence Geol. Geology GEOLAN Geological (survey) local area network GeoLoB Geospatial Line of Business GEOREF Geological Reference (system) GEOS Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite GEOSAT Geodesy Satellite GEOSEC Geographic Security GeoTMS Geographic Town Management System (Des Lauriers & Assoc. Inc.) GEOZAVOD Zavod za Geoloska i Geofizicksa Istrazivanja (Yugoslavia) GEP Google Earth Pro Ges. Gesamt- GES Geographic Entry System gest. Gestechen = Engraved gez. Gezeichnet = Designed GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (U.S.) GFOSS Geospatial Free and Open Source Software GGBR Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve (Calif.) GGMC Guyana Geology and Mines Commission GGNRA Golden Gate National Recreation Area (Calif.) GGRF Galileo Geodetic Reference Frame GGS Georgia Geologic Survey GGU Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse GI Geographic information; Geospatial information GIA Geographic information analysis; Geographic information and analysis; GPS International Assn.; Geomatics Industry Association GIAA Geometrics Industry Assn. of America GIAC Geomatics Industry Assn. of Canada; Geographic Information Advisory Council (Kentucky) GIAL Geographic Information and Analysis Laboratory (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo) GIB Geographic Information Board (Florida); Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin; G.I. Barnett & Son GICC Geographic Information Coordinating Committee (Colorado) GICS Geographic Identification Code Scheme GID Geodaetisk Institut (Denmark) GIDW General inverse-distance weighted interpolation model .GIF Graphics Interchange File; Graphics Interchange Format GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GIG Geologic Inquiries Group GILS Government Information Locator Service GIMS Geographic Information Management Systems Committee (ASCM/ASPRS) GINIE Geographic Information Network in Europe GIO Geographic Information Officer; Geographic Investigations Office (USGS); Geospatial Information Office (USGS) GIPS Generalized Image Processing Sytstem GIR Geographic information retrieval GIRAS Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (USGS) GIS Geographic(al) information system(s); Geohydrologic Information System; Geoscience Information Society; Global Indexing System GISCI GIS Certification Institute GISCO Geographic Information System of the European Commission GISDEX Federal Geographic Information and Spatial Data Exposition and Conference (U.S.) GIScience Geographic information science GISIC Geographical Information Systems International Group GISMO GIS MOdeling (ERDAS) GISOM Generating Information and Scanning Ohio Maps (Ohio State Univ. Center for Mapping) GISP GIS professional GISS Goddard Institude of Space Studies GISS-SG Geographic Information Systems and Science Specialty Group (AAG) GIST Geographic Information System for Transportation GIT Geomatics information technology; General Information Technology; Global Imaging Technologies (Firm) GITA Geospatial Information & Technology Assn. GITC Geomatics Information Trading Center GITCO Government Information Technology Committee (GODORT) GIU Geographic Information Unit (US Dept. of State) GIV Geologic Information Visualization (software) GKP Geodeticky a Kartograficky Podnik v Praze GKS Graphics Kernal System Gl. Gleis GLAB Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt GLAB-W Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg GLAI Green leaf area index GLAN-W Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System; Geologisches Landesamt des Saarlandes GLAS-H Geologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein GLCF Global Land Cover Facility GLDAS Global Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) GLI Global Imager GLIS Geographic Land Information System (USGS); Geographic and Land Information Society GLM General linear model; GEO Lightning Mapper GLO General Land Office (U.S.) GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (Russia) GLOSS Global Observation Surveillance System GLR-P Geologisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz GLRS Geoscience Laser Ranging System GLT Geospatial Light Table (ERDAS IMAGINE) GLTN Global Land Tool Network GM Geography and Map; Geologic map GMAT Greenwich Mean Astronomical Time G.M. Grist mill GMD Geologisch Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname GMDC Geospatial Map and Data Centre (Ryerson University) GME Geohydrologic Map Editor GML Geography Markup Language GMR Government Micro Resources Inc. GMS Geostationary meteorological satellite(s); Geographic Measurement Systems (Firm) G.M.S.I. Ground Modeling Systems Inc.; Gandalf Mobile Systems Incorporated; GMSI Inc. is a firm (not an abbreviation) GMT Greenwich Mean Time; Generic Mapping Tools G.M.T. Giuseppi Maria Terreni GN Grid north GNC Geologic Names Committee; Global navigation chart GNDB Geographic Names Data Base (US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) GNIAG Geomatics Niagara Information Advisory Group GNIS Geographic Names Information System (U.S.) GNMP Gettysburg National Military Park GNS GEOnet Names Server (USNIMA) GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GNU Geologic Names Unit (USGS) GNULEX Geologic Names Unit Lexicon (USGS) GO Geometric Operations G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. GoC Government of Canada GODORT Government Documents Round Table (ALA) GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NASA) GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite(s) GoMMapP Gulf of Maine Mapping Portal GOS Geospatial One-Stop GOS-PI Geospatial One-Stop Portal Initiative (Open GIS Consortium) Gov. Governor Gov. Gen. Governor General GP Graphic production; Graphics processor; Geography Program (USGS) GPF Geospatial Prototype Facility GPG Graphic Product Generation GPH Geological Publishing House (China) GPI Graphics Programming Interface; Greenman Pedersen Inc. GPIP General Purpose Image Processor GPM Gestalt Photo Mapper GP.MC Geoprocessing Map Call GP.MCD Geoprocessing Map Call Deamon program GPO Government Printing Office GPOS Government Printing Office Style Manual GPPU Graphic Polygon Processing Utilities GPR Ground-Penetrating Radar GPS Global positioning system(s) GPSDR Global positioning system demonstration receiver GPSIC Global Positioning System Information Center (U.S. Coast Guard); GPS Industry Council GPSOS Global Positioning System Occultation Sensor GPST Global positioning system time GPT GIS Portal Toolkit (ESRI) GPW2 Gridded Population of the World (dataset) GQ Geologic quadrangle GQL Graphical Query Language gr. gross Gr. Grosse GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAMPS Graphic Map Production System GRASS Geographic Resource Analysis Support System GRB Government Records Branch (Library and Archives of Canada; National Archives of Canada) GRC Generation of reproducible copy; Geoscience Research Corp. GRD Ground Resolved Distance GRDL Geodetic Research and Development Laboratory GRE Geologic Resources Evaluaion (program, US NPS) GRF-N Geographic Reference File-Names GRIDS Grid Referenced Information Display System; Gridded Resource Inventory Data System GRS Geodetic Reference System GRS 80 Geodetic Reference System of 1980 GRSU Geography Remote Sensing Unit (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara) GS Geological Survey (U.S.); Gray scale GSA General Services Administration (U.S.); Geological Society of America; Geological Survey of Alabama GSC Geological Survey of Canada; Geographic Systems Corp.; Geotronics Service Center; Geocode Service Center (HUD) GSD Ground sample distance; Geological Survey Dept. (Malawi); Geological Survey Div. (Jamaica); Geodetic Survey Div. (Natural Resources Canada) GSDI Global Spatial Data Infrastructure GSDM Global Spatial Data Model GSDS Global spatial data system GSF Generic Sensor Format GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) GSGS Geographical Section, General Staff (U.K.) GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program GSI Geographical Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of India; Geological Survey of Iran; Geological Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of Ireland; Geophysical Services Inc.; Geospatial Systems, Inc. GSJ Geological Survey of Japan GSK Geological Survey of Kenya GSL Geographic Sciences Laboratory (USCE) GSM Graphic Standard Metafile GSMD Geological Survey and Mines Dept. (Swaziland) GSN Geological Survey of Namibia GSNI Geological Survey of Northern Ireland GSP Geological Survey of Pakistan; Geographical statistics program GSPB Geodetic Satellite Policy Board GSPNG Geological Survey Papua New Guinea GSRC Geological Survey Research Committee GSS Geographic support system GSSA Geological Survey South Africa GST Galileo System Time GSTC Geospatial Service and Technology Center (USFS) GSW Geological Survey of Wyoming; GeoScienceWorld GSWA Geological Survey of Western Australia GSZ Geological Survey of Zambia GT Geometry and topology; Greater than; Geologian Tutkimuskeskus = Geological Survey of Finland G.T. Gas tank GTA Greater Toronto Area GTCM Geospatial Technology Competency Model (US Dept. of Labor) GTE Greater than or equal GTI GIS Technology Inc. GTS GPS Timing Simulator (NovAtel Inc.); Great Trigonometrical Survey of India GTUB Geographic tabulation unit base GU Government unit; Guam GUDS Geologicky ustav Dionyz Stur GUGiK Glowny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) GUGK Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartografii (USSR) GUGKK Glavno Upravlenie po Geodezia I Kartografia y Kadaster (Bulgaria) GUI Graphical User Interface GUID Globally unique identifier GUIDE Geomatics Utilization Inventory and Design Environment GUNI Goteborgs Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen GUNO Glavnoe Upravlenie Navigatsii i Okeanografii (USSR) GVF Goodness of variance fit GVI Green vegetation index GVis Geographic Visualization GVIS Geographic Visualization GW Gas well (natural); Ground water GWE Global Weather Experiment GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network (U.S.) GWSI Groundwater site inventory GXL-A GeoImaging Accelerator Aerial (PCI Geomatics and Vexcel Imaging GmbH) GZD Grid Zone Designation h. hoch = high H. Hohe = height; Howitzer ha. Hectare; Hektar HA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas or Hydrologic Atlas (USGS) HABS Historic American Buildings Survey HAC Harbor and Approach Chart HALS Hawaii Assn. of Land Surveyors HANDGPS High Accuracy Nationwide Differential GPS HARN High-Accuracy Reference Network (U.S.) Hauptm. Hauptmann = Captain HAZUS Hazards U.S. HAZUSMH Hazards U.S. multihazard version Hbf Hauptbahnhof = main railway station HBCA Hudson Bay Company Archives HBF Herbert Bismarck Foster HBGN Hawaii Board on Geographic Names HBM Hydrologic bench mark HBMN Hydrologic Bench Mark Network HC Hard copy HCC Heat Capacity Mapping Mission HCDN Hydroclimate Data Network HCFCD Harris County (Texas) Flood Control District HCMM Heat-capacity Mapping Mission HCMR Heat-capacity Mapping Radiometer HCRS Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (U.S.) HD Hydrographic Dept. (Great Britain) HDDT High-Density Digital Tape HDLD Headland HDOP Horizontal Dilution of Precision HDS High-Definition Surveying (Leica Geosystems) HDT High density tape HDT-A High density tape (not geometrically corrected) HDTR High density tape recorder HDTV High-definition television HEIRS Historic Environmental Reporting System (IAO) HEPS High Energy Particle Sensor HeRMIS Heritage Resource Management Information System (PAA) Herst. Herstellung HE/S Hardcopy Exploitation Segment HF High frequency HFA Hydrologic field assistant HFI Hall & Foreman, Inc. Hfn Hafen = port, harbor H-GAC Houston-Galveston Area Countil Hgbf Hauptgueterbahnhof HGCSD Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (U.S.) .HGL Newlett-Packard Graphics Language format HGML Hyper Graphic Markup Language HGS Halliburton Geophysical Services HHG Household goods (Rand McNally MileMaker) HI Hawaii HIA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HID Historical Imagery Declassification (NIMA) HIF Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility Hind. Hindustan HIND Geographical Section General Staff (India [Headquarters India]) HIRAN High Range Navigation HIRS High-resolution Infrared Sounder HIS Hydrologic Information System; Hyperspectral imagery HISS Heritage Information Statistical System HIT Horizons Technolgy Inc. HIU Hydrologic Information Unit HJW Hammon, Jensen, Wallen & Associates; HJW GeoSpatial, Inc. HKGA Hong Kong Geographical Assn. HLAB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLfB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLL Hill HLLS Hills HLR High level radiation; High level radioactivity HLRS Highway Location Reference Standard HLS Hue, lightness and saturation HLVA Hessisches Landesvermessungsamt HLW High level waste (radioactivity) Hm. Bgs. Hermann Berghaus HMCK Hummock HMGS Hellenic Military Geographical Service HMSO Her/His Majesty's Stationery Office (Great Britain) H.O. Hochofen = blast furnace HOGG History of Geology Group HOM Hotine oblique Mercator Hon. Honorable Hp Haltepunkt = stopping place HP Hewlett-Packard (corp.) HPFS High pressure fire service HPGL Hewlett Packard Graphics Language HPGN High-Precision Geodetic Network HPP High Precision Photogrammetry HPRASA High Plains Regional Aquifer System HQ Headquarters HR House of Representatives; High resolution HRB Highway Research Board HRD High-resolution data HRDB High-resolution Data Base HRDI High-resolution Doppler Imager HRFRS High-resolution Film Recorder Subsystem HRGA High Rate Geographical Areas HRIR High-resolution Infrared Radiometer Hrm. Bghs. Hermann Berghaus HRMSI High Resolution Multispectral Stereo Imager HRV High Resolution Visible HRVIR High Resolution Visible Infrared (scanner) HS High school H.S. H. Schleifmann HSB Humidity Sensor for Brazil (JPL) HSDL High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line HSGT Hitachi Software Global Technology, Ltd. HSI Horizontal Situation Indicator; Habitat Suitability Index HSRC Hydrographic Science Research Center HSRP Hydrographic Services Review Panel (US) H. St. Eisenbahn Haltstelle = railway stop HSV Hue Saturation Value HTC Hydrographic Topographic Center (USDMA) H., T.C. Thomas Campanius Holm HTDP Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning HTI Horizons Technology, Inc. HTML Hypertext (or HyperText) Markup Language HTS Human terrain systems HUA Hydrologic Unit Area HUC Hydrologic Unit Code HUD Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.) Hund. Hundred HURRDAT Hurricane Data Set HVC Hue-Value-Chroma H.W. Hochwasser H/W Hardware i Infantry I. Island IA Infrastructure Analyst (BaySys Technologies Inc.); Iowa IACWD Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data IADO Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAEG International Assn. of Engineering Geologists IAEGS Institute for Advanced Education in Geospatial Sciences IAG International Assn. of Geodesy IAGS Inter-American Geodetic Survey IAH International Association of Hydrogeologists IAHS International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences = Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques IAHWG Intergovernmental Ad Hoc Working Group IAKAR Inertially aided kinematic ambiguity resolution IALA International Assn. of Lighthouse Authorities IALS Idaho Assn. of Land Surveyors IAMA International Antiquarian Mapsellers Association IAO Insurers' Advisory Organization IAOO International Assn. of Assessing Officers IAS Image Assessment System IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASSIST International Association for Social Science Information Service & Technology IAT Image Annotation Tape; International Atomic Time IATO Italian atlas assembled to order IAWPRC International Assn. for Water Pollution Research and Control IB Isobar IBC International Boundary Commission (U.S.-Canada) IBDF Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal IBG Inst. of British Geographers IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estadistica IBIS Image-Based Information System IBM International Business Machines (corp.); International boundary marker IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) IBSP Idaho Bureau of State Planning IBWC International Boundary and Water Commission (Mexico-U.S.) IC Integrated circuit(s) I.C. Johannes Condet (engraver) ICA International Cartographic Assn. = Assn. Cartographique Internationale ICACET International Cartographic Assn. Committee on Training ICAITI Instituto Centro Americano de Investigacion y Tecnica Industrial ICAO International Civil Aviation Organiztion ICA-USNC International Cartographic Assn. U.S. National Committee ICC Institut Cartografic de Catalunya; Interstate Commerce Commission (U.S.); International Cartographic Conference ICCP Inst. for Certification of Computer Professionals ICE Information Center for the Environment (UCD); Imagery Cooperative Exchange ICED Intraprofessional Council on Environmental Design ICES Institution of Civil Engineers (UK); Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications ICEX Ice and Climate Experiment ICGC Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografia ICGI Interagency Committee on Government Information (US) ICGRS Internet-Enabled Continuous Geodetic Reference Station ICGWM International Clearinghouse for Ground Water Models ICHC International Conference on the History of Cartography ICIS Integrated Cadastral Information Society ICITV Institut de la Carte International du Tapis Vegetale ICM Instituto Cartografico Militar ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol ICMSSR Interagency Committee on Meteorological Services and Supporting Research ICONA Instituto Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza (Spain) ICP Interactive closest points ICR Intelligent Character Reader ICRSE International Center for Remote Sensing Education ICT Information and communication technologies ICW International Computer Works, Inc. ID Identification; Interface device; Idaho; Island IDAS Image Data Analysis Systems IDC International Data Corp. IDCCC Interior Digital Cartographic Coordination Committee (U.S.) IDD Information and data dissemination; Initiative de democratisation des donnees de Statistique Canada IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics IDEN Identification module IDFG Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game IDIMS Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System IDIQ Indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity IDL Idaho Dept. of Lands; Interactive Data Language; Interface Definition Language IDLH Immediately dangerous to life and health IDLS Internet Data Library System (Univ. of Western Ontario) iDNA Integrated Dataset for North America (Rand McNally) IDOT Illinois Dept. of Transportation IDR Interface drawing IDS Information Decision Systems (firm) IDWO Intelligence Div., War Office (U.K.) IDWR Idaho Dept. of Water Resources IEGDR Initial Experimental Gridded Data Record(s) IEMVT Institut d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux IENC Inland Electronic Navigation Charts (USCE) IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System IEP Independent electric plant IERS International Earth Rotation Service IES Inst. for Environmental Sciences IF Frame identification IfAG Institut fur Angewandte Geodasie IFF Interchange Format File (Commodore Amiga) IFLA International Assn. of Library Asociations and Institutions IFN Service de l'Inventaire Forestier National (France) IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IFP Institut Francais de Pondicherry; Institut Francais du Petrole IFR Instrument Flight Regulation IFREMER Institut francais de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer iFS Internet File System (Oracle Corp.) IFSAR Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar IFSARE Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar for Elevation IG Instytut Geologiczny (Poland) IGA Istituto Geografico de Agostini IGAC Instituto Geografico "Agustin Codazzi" IGBF Institut Geographique de Burkina Faso IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IGC International Geologic Congress; Intelligent Graphics Controller; Informative Graphics Corp. IGCI Institut Geographique de la Cote d'Ivoire IGCP International Geological Correlation Program; Instituto Geografico e Cadastral (Portugal) IGDC Interagency Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) IGDS Interactive Graphics Design System (software); Intergraph Design Software IGEBU Institut Geographique de Burundi IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification; International Graphics Exchange System IGF Inset Graphics Format IGFCOT Institutul de Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie, Cartografie si Organizarea Teritoriului (Romania) IGG Institutul de Geologie si Geofizica (Romania) IGGSP Instituto Geografico e Geologico de S~ao Paulo IGIF International Geographic Information Foundation IGIS Integrated Geographic Information System; Intelligent GIS IGL Interactive Graphics Library IGLD 85 International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 IGM Instituto Geografico Militar IGME Inst. of Geology and Mineral Exploration (Greece); Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espa~na IGMI Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano IGN Institut geographique national; Instituto Geografico Nacional IGNB Institut Geographique National (Belgium) IGNC Institut Geographique National Congolaise IGNTG Instituto Geografico Nacional "Tommy Guardia" (Panama) IGPT Interagency Geospatial Preparedness Team (US) IGS Information & Graphics Systems Inc.; International GPS Service; Idaho Geological Survey; Indiana Geological Survey; Geological Survey of Israel I.G.S. John Gaspar Scheuchzer IGSN71 International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 IGT Integrated GPS Technologies Inc. IGU International Geographical Union; Instituto Geografico Universitario (Dominican Republic) IGUG Intergraph Graph Users Group IGWMC International Ground Water Modeling Center IGY International Geophysical Year IGZa Institut Geographique du Zaire IHA Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada (Chile) IHAC Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada, Chile IHB International Hydrographic Bureau IHD International Hydrological Decade IHDC Iowa Heritage Digital Collection IHGC International Health Geographics Conference IHO International Hydrographic Organization IHP International Hydrologic Program IHSI Institut Haitien de Statistique de d'Informatique IIAF Idaho Image Analysis Facility IICT Instituto de Investigac~ao Cientifica Tropical (Portugal) IIGS Initial Image Generating System IIPL Interactive Image Processing Laboratory IIS Internet Information Server IJAGR International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research IJC International Joint Commission (U.S. & Canada) IKCS I.K. Curtis Services, Inc. IKU Institutt for Kontinentalsokkelundersokelse (Norway) IL Illinois ILC Interim Library Catalog ILEX Interactive Landsat Executive (NASA software) ILH Internationales Landkartenhaus (Stuttgart) ILI Inst. for Land Information ILIM Inst. for Land Information Management (University of Toronto) Ill. Illinois ILLIAC Illinois Institute for Advanced Computation ILMF International LiDAR Mapping Forum ILRIS-3D Intelligent Laser Range Imaging Scanner (Optech) ILS Intelligent Library System (Lockheed Martin) ILWIS Integrated Land and Water Information System (ITC) IM Information management IMA Intermap Analytic IMACS Integrity Monitoring and Control Software (Javad Positioning Systems) IMACUAC Information Management and Computer Utilization Advisory Committee IMADS Interactive Map and Data Server (USFWS) IMAG Information Management Advisory Group IMAGE Integrated Mapping and Geographic Encoding System IMAGE 100 Interactive Multispectral Image Analysis System (GE) IMAN Image Analysis (system); Intermap Analytic Nucleus IMAP Input, Management, Analysis, and Presentation IMC Image Motion Compensator IMCoS International Map Collectors Society IMDA International Map Dealers Assn. .IMG ADRG image format (USDMA) IMGW Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej (Poland) IMLS Institute of Museum and Library Services (US) IMO International Maritime Organization IMP Integrated Micro Products Inc. IMPAC Image Analysis Computer Package (Egbert Scientific) IMS Intermediate map scale; Image Manipulation System; Internet Map Server (ESRI) IMSI International Microcomputer Software, Inc. IMT Information Management Technologies (Firm); Internet Media Type IMTA International Map Trade Assn. IMU Inertial measurement unit IMW International Map of the World in. Inch; inches IN Indiana INC Institut National de Cartographie INCA Indian National Cartographic Society INCG Institut National de Cartographie du Gabon; Institut Geographique National Guineen INCITS International Committee for Information Technology Standards Ind. Indiana INDEC Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos (Argentina) INE Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (Ecuador, Guatemala) INEAC Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, Geografia e Informatica (Mexico) INETER Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales INFORM Information Network for Operational Resources Management (Arizona) INGEMMET Instituto Geologico Minero y Metalurgico (Peru) INGEO- MINAS Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (Colombia) INGM Instituto Nacional de Geologia INLT Inlet INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite (organization) INMG Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (Portugal) INMH Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia y Hidrologia (Ecuador) INPE Instituto das Pesquisas Espaciais (Brazil) INQUA International Union for Quaternary Research INRA Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) INRAT Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie INS Inertial Navigation System InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar INSEE Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (France) INSIDE Interactive Numeric Spatial Information Data Engine (Univ. of Idaho) INSMAP International Symposium on Marine Positioning INSPIRE Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe Inst. Institute INSTAAR Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research (Univ. of Colorado) INTA Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (Argentina) INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite (organization) InterPARES International Research on Permanent Authentic Records Electronic Systems INTRISCA Integrated Resource Inventory for South-Central Alaska INUPAL Informaciones Unidas para America Latina (Chile) IO Input/output; Interior orientation I/O Input/output IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; Initial operational capability ION Institute of Navigation IOP International Organisation of Palaeobotany; Interagency Operating Picture (USGS) IOS Institute of Oceanographic Science (Great Britain) IP Internet protocol; Image point IPA Imagery Product Archive (USDMA) IPAM Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPCS Image Production Control System IPE Image processing engine IPF Image Processing Facility (GSFC) IPGP Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPRG Inst. for Petroleum Resources and Geophysics (Israel) IPLSA Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Assn. IPOSTEL Instituto Postal Telegrafico (Venezuela) IPP Integrated Plotting Package IPS Image processing system; Inertial Positioning System IPT Informatica per il Territorio; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (Sao Paulo, Brazil); Integrated Product Team IPX Internet Packet Exchange IPY International Polar Year IR Imaging Radiometer; Infrared I.R. Imperiale Reale IRAT Institut de Recherches en Agronomie Tropicale (France) IRC Intergraph Registered Consultant IR. CH. Iron chimney IR. CH.S.A. Iron chimney with spark arrestor IRD Information Resources Division (Arizona) IRDB Integrated regional database IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System IRF Internal Raster File; Internal Raster Format IRG Inter-Record Gap IRICC Interagency Resource Information Coordination Council IRIS Infrared Interferometer/Spectrometer; Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State); Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology IRIS R&A Research and Analysis Branch, Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State) IRLSA Illinois Registered Land Surveyors Assn. IRRI International Rice Research Inst. IRS Internal Revenue Service (U.S.); Information retrieval system; Indian Remote Sensing (Satellite) IRSA Inst. of Remote Sensing Applications IRWA International Right of Way Assn. IRWD Irvine Ranch Water District Is. Island IS International Standard I.S. John Speed ISA Institute of Surveyors of Australia; Internet Starter Applications; Integrated Survey Area (British Columbia) ISABU Institut des Sciences Agronomiques au Burundi ISAMS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder ISAPI Internet Server Application Programming Interface ISBD(CM) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials ISBD(ER) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources ISC Information Systems Council ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ISCEM International Society of Curators of Early Maps ISD Information Services Div. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISEA Icosahedral Snyder equal area (projection) ISERT Institut Superieur pour les Etudes et Recherches Scientifique et Techniques (Djibouti) ISGS Illinois State Geological Survey ISHM International Society for the History of the Map ISI Image Subsystem Interface; Information Systems Inventory (EPA); Interpretation System, Inc. I-SITE Intelligent Screening of Imagery for Teleophthalmology Isl. Island ISL Island; Illinois State Library ISLP Land-tied island ISLS Islands ISM Interpretive Structural Modeling ISMS International Society for Mine Surveying ISO Imaging Spectrometer Observatory; International Standards Organization ISP Internet service provider ISPI Intermediate-scale Product Inventory ISPLS Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISR Information Storage and Retrieval ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation IS&T Information Systems and Technology ISTAT Istituto Centrale di Statistica (Italy) ISTD Inter-Services Topographical Dept. (Great Britain) ISTH Isthmus ISU International System of Units ISURL Indiana State Univ. Remote Sensing Laboratory IT Information technology; Integration Technologies Inc. I.T. Idaho Territory ITA Intelligent Traverse Adjustment ITAA Information Technology Assn. of America ITC International Inst. for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands; formerly International Training Centre for Aerial Survey); International Trade Commission ITCA International Topographic Composition Assn. ITD Interim Terrain Data ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Great Britain) ITF INTERLIS Transfer Format ITFE Inductive terrain feature extraction ITRF International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF00 International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 ITRM Information Technology Resouces Management (standard, Virginia) ITRS International Terrestrial Reference System ITS Intelligent transportation system ITSA Independent Travel Stores Assn.; Ingeneria y Topografia, S.A. de C.V. ITU Image Transfer Unit; International Telecommunications Union IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics IUGS International Union of Geological Sciences IUSM International Union for Surveying and Mapping IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems IW Information Warfare IWARDS Iowa Water Resources Data System IWIS International Water Information System IWPC Inst. of Water Pollution Control IWRA International Water Resources Assn. I2S International Imaging Systems Inc.

Copyright � 2011 The Regents of the University of California.All rights reserved. Document maintained on server by: Earth Sciences & Map Library1996. Last updated 2/09/2011.

High-Flux Solar-Driven Thermochemical Dissociation of CO | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


Because solar energy is available in large excess relative to current rates of energy consumption, effective conversion of this renewable yet intermittent resource into a transportable and dispatchable chemical fuel may ensure the goal of a sustainable energy future. However, low conversion efficiencies, particularly with CO2 reduction, as well as utilization of precious materials have limited the practical generation of solar fuels. By using a solar cavity-receiver reactor, we combined the oxygen uptake and release capacity of cerium oxide and facile catalysis at elevated temperatures to thermochemically dissociate CO2 and H2O, yielding CO and H2, respectively. Stable and rapid generation of fuel was demonstrated over 500 cycles. Solar-to-fuel efficiencies of 0.7 to 0.8% were achieved and shown to be largely limited by the system scale and design rather than by chemistry.

Long-term storage and long-range transport of the vast, yet intermittent and unevenly distributed, solar energy resource is essential for a transition away from fossil energy (1). Chemical fuels, derived from CO2 and/or H2O, offer exceptional energy density and convenience for transportation, but their production using solar energy input has remained a grand challenge (2–9). Solar-driven thermochemical approaches to CO2 and H2O dissociation inherently operate at high temperatures and use the entire solar spectrum; as such, they provide an attractive path to solar fuel production at high rates and efficiencies in the absence of precious metal catalysts (10). In contrast to direct thermolysis of CO2 and H2O, two-step thermochemical cycles using metal oxide redox reactions further bypass the CO-O2 or H2-O2 separation problem (11). Among candidate redox materials, ferrite-based oxides exhibit relatively slow reaction rates, degradation in rates because of sintering, and losses because of uncontrolled volatilization, whereas ZnO, SnO2, and analogous volatile oxides that sublime during decomposition require rapid quenching of gaseous products to avoid recombination (10–18). Cerium oxide (ceria) has emerged as a highly attractive redox active material choice for two-step thermochemical cycling because it displays rapid fuel production kinetics and high selectivity (17, 19–24), where such features result, in part, from the absence of distinct oxidized and reduced phases. However, ceria-based thermochemical studies to date have largely been limited to bench-top demonstrations of components or individual steps of the solar fuel production cycle; assessment of cyclability has been limited, and the energy conversion efficiency has remained uncertain because of the relatively low gravimetric fuel productivity inherent to the nonstoichiometric process. Here, we demonstrate high-rate solar fuel production from both CO2 and H2O using a solar reactor subjected directly to concentrated radiation under realistic operating conditions relevant to large-scale industrial implementation, without the need for complex material microstructures and/or system design (e.g., additional quench or separation steps). The results provide compelling evidence for the viability of thermochemical approaches to solar fuel generation while clarifying the efforts required to transform the concept into a central technology in a sustainable energy future.

Thermochemical H2O-CO2-splitting cycles over a nonstoichiometric oxide are described by the following pairs of reactions:

Higher temperature, TH

1δMO2→1δMO2-δ + 12O2(g)(1)

Lower temperature, TL

H2O(g)+​1δMO2-δ→1δMO2 + H2(g)(2a)

Lower temperature, TL

CO2(g) + ​1δMO2-δ→1δMO2 + CO(g) (2b)

Net H2O dissociation


Net CO2 dissociation


where M in the present case is Ce or a combination of Ce and a dopant element. At the relatively high temperatures of the present study (>800°C), equilibria of reaction (2b) involving carbonaceous species can be neglected (21).

The solar reactor constructed for the purposes of demonstrating these cycles is schematically shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a cavity receiver with a windowed aperture through which concentrated solar radiation enters. The selected dimensions ensure multiple internal reflections and efficient capture of incoming solar energy; the apparent absorptivity exceeds 0.94, approaching the ideal blackbody limit (25). Porous, monolithic ceria, assembled from quarter-circular-arc pieces in the form of a cylinder (325 g in mass, 35 mm in outer diameter, 102 mm in height, and 80% in porosity as fabricated), is placed inside the cavity and subjected to multiple heat-cool cycles under appropriate gases to induce fuel production (Fig. 2). No additional support or absorber was used. With this arrangement, the porous ceria cylinder is directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation impinging on its inner walls. An annular gap between the ceria cylinder and the alumina insulation tiles suppresses undesired reactions between the two components. Reacting gases are injected into this annular gap and directed to flow radially across the porous ceria cylinder toward the cavity inside, whereas product gases exit the cavity through an axial outlet port at the bottom. Complete experimental details, including procedures for estimating uncertainty, are given in (25). Post situ x-ray diffraction showed that, with the exception of the portion in direct contact with the insulation material, the ceria remained phase-pure and free of detectable alumina incorporation (fig. S1).

Fig. 1

Schematic of the solar reactor for the two-step, solar-driven thermochemical production of fuels. It consists of a thermally insulated cavity receiver containing a porous monolithic ceria cylinder. Concentrated solar radiation enters through a windowed aperture and impinges on the ceria inner walls. Reacting gases flow radially across the porous ceria toward the cavity inside, whereas product gases exit the cavity through an axial outlet port at the bottom. (Inset) The scanning electron micrograph of the porous ceria tube after 23 cycles. Blue arrows indicate ceria reduction (Eq. 1); red arrows indicate oxidation (Eqs. 2a and 2b).

Fig. 2

Thermochemical cycling of ceria (325 g) using the solar reactor with (A) CO2 and (B) H2O as oxidant. The oxygen and fuel evolution rates as well as the total volume of gas evolved are shown. Temperatures were measured at three positions along the height of the ceria tube. Maximum temperatures (Tmax) attained in the reactor are shown. Conditions for (A) were as follows: Ar sweep gas at a flow rate of 0.0062 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria reduction half-cycle, and CO2/Ar at pco2 = 0.78 atm and a flow rate of 0.035 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria oxidation half-cycle. Conditions for (B) were as follows: Ar sweep gas at a flow rate of 0.023 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria reduction half-cycle, and H2O/Ar at ph2o = 0.78 atm and a flow rate of 0.035 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria oxidation half-cycle.

To drive oxygen evolution (Eq. 1), we purged the solar reactor with flowing argon [partial pressure of O2 (po2) = 10–5 atm] and ramped the incident radiation power to about 1.9 kW at a mean solar flux intensity over the aperture of 1500 suns (1 sun = 1 kW m−2), typical of a commercial solar dish or a tower concentration system. The temperature of the ceria tube rose to values between 1420° and 1640°C, with the exact temperature dependent on the position within the reactor and on the cycle (Fig. 2A). The rise in temperature was rapid below 1250°C, averaging 140°C min−1, but slowed to about 8°C min−1 as the temperature approached a steady-state value because of increasing heat dissipation by re-radiation through the aperture and conduction heat transfer through the insulation. Oxygen evolution from ceria was observed at an onset temperature of about 900°C, consistent with equilibrium thermogravimetry measurements (fig. S2). The rate of evolution increased with temperature, reaching a peak value of 34 ± 2 ml min−1 (STP, standard temperature and pressure) and an average value of 16 ± 1 ml min−1 (averaged over the time required to reach 90% of the extent of reaction) on the first cycle (Fig. 2A). When the rate dropped to 20% of the peak value, the evolution reaction was terminated by decreasing the intensity of the incident radiation flux. Upon cooling to ~900°C, CO2 was injected into the solar reactor. Production of CO was immediately observed, reaching a remarkable peak rate of 1.5 × 103 ± 0.1 × 103 ml min−1 (STP) and an average rate of 5.9 × 102 ± 0.4 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) (Fig. 2A). Consistent with the fact that there was no water present in the reactant stream, no gas-phase C1, C2, or C3 hydrocarbons were detected by the gas chromatograph. Carbon-neutral balance (<3% C unaccounted for, well within error) was achieved by summing the flow rates of CO2 in the reactant stream and CO2 and CO in the product steam. As verification, temperature-programmed oxidation was performed on the ceria after the CO2 dissociation reaction by flowing oxygen into the solar reactor while ramping the temperature to 1000°C (26). Both CO and CO2 levels were below the detection limit, confirming that no appreciable amount of carbonaceous species was deposited onto ceria during CO2 dissociation and that a 100% selectivity toward CO production was achieved. Upon the termination of CO production, the radiation flux was increased and the entire cycle repeated. A slight decline over the four cycles in the nominal reactor temperature attained during the O2 release step (from 1624° to 1581°C) is responsible for the observed slight decline in O2 release and CO yield. An analogous set of experiments was also performed for H2O dissociation, with H2 production rate reaching a peak value of 7.6 × 102 ± 0.8 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) and a maximum average value of 3.1 × 102 ± 0.3 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) (Fig. 2B). A total of 23 cycles were performed. An experimental run performed without the ceria confirmed the absence of O2, CO, or H2 evolution under corresponding reaction conditions.

The characteristics of solar-thermochemical fuel production from ceria reveal several important features of the cycling process. Although the behavior is generally reproducible between cycles, some run-to-run variations are evident. The oxygen evolution reaches a peak value between 17 and 34 ml min−1, whereas the total amount evolved ranges from 0.54 to 0.94 liter for 325 g of ceria. As noted, these differences are correlated with the peak reactor temperature obtained (Fig. 2), variations in which are attributed to unsteady heat transfer. Taking this temperature variability into account, the total oxygen evolution is found to be generally consistent with thermodynamic expectations (fig. S2). Mass balance considerations further dictate a 2-to-1 molar (and hence volumetric) ratio of fuel produced to oxygen released for full utilization of the ceria nonstoichiometry. For CO2 dissociation, the CO:O2 ratio ranged from 1.6 ± 0.2:1 to 2.0 ± 0.2:1, whereas for H2O dissociation, the H2:O2 ratio was 1.6 ± 0.2:1. The slight deviation from the ideal value is attributed to small leaks in the system and to the accuracies of the electronic mass flow controller and measured gas composition.

Perhaps the most obvious feature of the cycling behavior in Fig. 2 is the much faster rate of fuel production than that of O2 release. It was observed that lowering the purge gas flow rate during ceria reduction by a factor of 4 had negligible impact on the oxygen evolution rate (Fig. 2), indicating that the convective transport of oxygen gas in the reactor is not likely the rate-limiting step. Furthermore, the substantial difference in the O2 evolution and CO2 dissociation rate suggests that gas-phase transport through the pores of ceria is probably not rate-limiting. We considered, as an alternative, that the oxygen evolution kinetics in the solar reactor are limited by the heating rate, a factor that does not affect fuel production because this step occurs isothermally. If the heating rate is slow relative to the surface reaction and solid-state diffusion steps involved in oxygen release, we can express the oxygen evolution rate as dδ/dt≈(dδ/dT)T=T(t)(dT/dt), where δ is ceria oxygen nonstoichiometry (Eq. 1), T is temperature, and t is time. By using the spatially averaged temperature profile in the first cycle in Fig. 2A, we compute a maximum oxygen evolution rate of 65 ml min−1, which, given the approximate nature of the calculation, is comparable to the observed rate.

To eliminate the effect of gas-phase mass and heat transfer, we carried out thermochemical cycling of ceria by using identically prepared monolithic porous samples (annealed for 50 hours to simulate cycling conditions) in a smaller-scale infrared imaging furnace that uses only a 0.4-g sample. Such an experimental setup permitted thermochemical cycling under high-flow, differential reactor conditions, in which the sample temperature could be changed rapidly (average ramp rate of 1700°C min−1) and the gas composition approached uniformity. Under these ideal conditions in which only surface chemical reactions and solid-state oxygen diffusion in ceria limit the overall reaction rate, oxygen evolution (Fig. 3) attained a peak instantaneous rate ~80 times faster than in the solar reactor and an associated average rate of 2.2 ± 0.2 ml min−1 g−1 of ceria; CO2 and H2O dissociation reactions were about two and four times faster (although the reactant partial pressures, temperatures, and initial extents of reduction differ slightly between the differential and solar reactor), with rates of 5.1 ± 0.4 and 5.3 ± 0.4 ml min−1 g−1 of ceria, respectively. These rates support the proposition that oxygen evolution kinetics in the solar reactor are limited predominantly by the heating rate.

Fig. 3

Comparison of (A) O2, (B) H2, and (C) CO evolution between the solar reactor (dotted lines) and the differential reactor (solid lines). Experimental conditions for the solar reactor are the same as those for Fig. 2. In the differential reactor, 0.429 g of CeO2 was cycled between 1500°C (Ar sweep gas flow rate = 2.3 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 20 min) and 800°C (for CO2 splitting, pco2 = 0.50 atm, flow rate = 1.2 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min; for H2O splitting, ph2o = 0.44 to 0.52 atm, flow rate = 2.1 to 2.5 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min).

The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency is defined asη=rfuelΔHfuelPsolar+rinertEinert(4)where rfuel is the molar fuel production rate, ΔHfuel is the higher heating value of the fuel, Psolar is the incident solar radiation power, rinert is the flow rate of the inert gas during oxygen evolution, and Einert is the energy required to separate the inert sweep gas from air (usually N2; Ar was used in this work entirely for reasons of experimental convenience). Based on the experimental data, the peak instantaneous efficiencies for CO2 and H2O dissociations reached 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively [for detailed calculation procedures, see (25)]. No heat recuperation strategy was used. Upon averaging the efficiencies over the time required to produce 80% of the fuel, the efficiencies become 0.4% (for both CO2 and H2O dissociations). These experimentally measured efficiencies reflect the cycle irreversibilities resulting from intrinsic material properties as well as solar reactor design and operation. An energy-balance analysis (25) reveals that 50% of the energy loss resulted from heat conduction through the reactor wall and 41% resulted from reradiation through the aperture. The former energy penalty can be dramatically reduced by improving thermal insulation and by scaling up to increase the volume-to-area ratio. The latter can be minimized by augmenting the solar flux such that the aperture size can be reduced. Decreasing heat loss also has the added benefit of increasing the temperature ramp rate. As shown in the earlier comparison of the oxygen evolution kinetics under slow and rapid heating rates, the oxygen evolution kinetics and conversion efficiency are closely coupled to the rates at which the active ceria materials can be heated and cooled.

Beyond efficiency, material stability is an essential criterion for a viable thermochemical process. With use of the differential reactor system, which enables rapid access to multiple cycles, 500 cycles of water dissociation were performed without interruption. The results (Fig. 4), reported in part in an earlier work (21), indicate that, after an initial stabilization period of ~100 cycles, both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution rates remain essentially constant for a subsequent 400 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy examination of samples of porous ceria that underwent heat treatment under similar conditions (fig. S3) revealed that the decrease in reaction rate is accompanied by an increase in particle size. The morphology stabilized after 24 hours of heat treatment at 1500°C, much as the fuel production rate stabilized after an initial period. That ceria can be cycled between two oxidation states without substantial loss of activity can be attributed to its sufficiently large change in oxygen nonstoichiometry at moderate homologous temperatures (<0.6×Tm).

Fig. 4

O2 (black) and H2 (red) evolution rates for 500 water-splitting cycles. CeO2 was cycled between 1500°C (po2 =10−5 atm, flow rate = 3.2 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min, ramp rate = 100°C min−1) and 800°C (ph2o = 0.13 to 0.15 atm, flow rate = 0.75 to 0.76 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min). The gas evolution rate is calculated by averaging the instantaneous rate over the time required to reach 90% of the gas produced.

In sum, the feasibility of a solar-driven thermochemical cycle for dissociating H2O and CO2 using nonstoichiometric ceria has been demonstrated in terms of materials, reaction rates, cyclability, reactor technology, and energy conversion efficiency. Essential to this demonstration is a simple and scalable reactor design using porous ceria directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation that enables high-temperature heat transfer to the reaction sites, as required for performing both steps of the cycle. The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency obtained in this work for CO2 dissociation is about two orders of magnitude greater than that observed with state-of-the-art photocatalytic approaches (3, 9).The gravimetric hydrogen production rate exceeds that of other solar-driven thermochemical processes by more than an order of magnitude (27, 28). Both the efficiency and the cycling rates in the reactor were limited largely by thermal losses, resulting from conductive and radiative heat transfer. A thermodynamic analysis of efficiency based solely on the material properties of CeO2 indicates that values in the range of 16 to 19% are attainable, even in the absence of sensible heat recovery (21). Thus, with reactor optimization and system integration substantial increases in both efficiency and fuel production rates are anticipated. The material stability, showing stable fuel production over 500 thermochemical cycles, is already suitable for realistic applications. Furthermore, the abundance of cerium, which is comparable to that of copper (29), is such that the approach is applicable at scales relevant to global energy consumption (21).

References and Notes
  • S. M. Haile, W. C. Chueh, U.S. Patent application 20,090,107,044 (2009).

  • ↵ Materials and methods are detailed in supporting material at Science Online.
  • ↵ Fuel production rate is compared with other thermochemical processes by normalizing the average fuel production rate (as defined in the text) by the mass of the material, including inactive support used to prevent material sintering. The rate for oxygen evolution is not included.
  • G. B. Haxel, J. B. Hedrick, G. J. Orris, “Rare earth elements—Critical resources for high technology” (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 087-02, Reston, VA, 2002).

  • This work was funded in part by NSF (CBET-0829114), the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (under subcontract from the University of Minnesota), and the Swiss National Science Foundation (contract no. 200021-126512). Additional travel support was provided by the International Materials Institutes program of NSF under award no. DMR 08-43934. We thank the technical staff of the Solar Technology Laboratory of the Paul Scherrer Institute for supporting the experimental activities at the High-Flux Solar Simulator. W.C.C. designed the experiments, and C.F. designed the solar reactor. Samples were prepared by M.A. and D.S. W.C.C, C.F., P.F., and D.S. executed the experiments. S.M.H. and A.S. supervised the project.

  • Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

    References :

    Dropmark :
    Dropmark-Text :
    Blogspot :
    RSS Feed :
    Wordpress : :

    Back to Main Page

    Symantec ST0-149 Exam (Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment) Detailed Information


    Pass4sure Certification Exam Study Notes-
    Download Hottest Pass4sure Certification Exams - CSCPK
    Complete Pass4Sure Collection of Exams - BDlisting
    Latest Exam Questions and Answers -
    Pass your exam at first attempt with Pass4Sure Questions and Answers -
    Here you will find Real Exam Questions and Answers of every exam -
    Hottest Pass4sure Exam at
    Download Hottest Pass4sure Exam at ada.esy
    Pass4sure Exam Download from
    Pass4sure Exam Download from airesturismo
    Practice questions and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at linuselfberg
    Study Guides, Practice questions and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at brondby
    Study Guides, Study Tools and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at
    Study Guides, Study Tools and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at brainsandgames
    Study notes to cover complete exam syllabus - crazycatladies
    Study notes, boot camp and real exam Q&A to cover complete exam syllabus -
    Study notes to cover complete exam syllabus - carspecwall
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - cederfeldt
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - chewtoysforpets
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - Cogo
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - cozashop
    Study Guides, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - cscentral
    Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - diamondlabeling
    Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - diamondfp
    Updated Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers -
    New Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers -
    Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers -
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - Gimlab
    Latest Study Guides, Practice Exams, Real Questions and Answers - GisPakistan
    Latest Study Guides, Practice Exams, Real Questions and Answers - Health.medicbob
    Killexams Certification Training, Q&A, Dumps -
    Killexams Syllabus, Killexams Study Notes, Killexams Practice Test, Questions and Answers -
    Pass4sure Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers -
    Pass4sure Brain Dump, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - levantoupoeira
    Pass4sure Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers -
    Pass4sure Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers -
    Pass4sure study guides, Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - (c) 2017