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SC0-411 - Hardening the Infrastructure - Dump Information

Vendor : SCP
Exam Code : SC0-411
Exam Name : Hardening the Infrastructure
Questions and Answers : 574 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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SC0-411 Questions and Answers

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SC0-411 Hardening the Infrastructure

Study Guide Prepared by SCP Dumps Experts SC0-411 Dumps and Real Questions

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SC0-411 exam Dumps Source : Hardening the Infrastructure

Test Code : SC0-411
Test Name : Hardening the Infrastructure
Vendor Name : SCP
Q&A : 574 Real Questions

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SCP Hardening the Infrastructure

three years of Go in production | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

For the final three years, my microservices in construction were divided into right here systems:

  • Core: Ruby and JRuby with Rails and Sinatra
  • Satellites, scale: Node.js, Clojure and later: Go
  • A “core” toolset would are living long. it will additionally flow quick. it could depict the domain of the enterprise and the core product solution that gives uncooked price.

    frequently, its efficiency profile doesn’t truly introduce any infrastructural issues. The satellites and “scale” toolset exhibits use situations the place we bumped into scalability considerations and needed to tear apart a chunk of the core, and rebuild it on exact of a greater performant stack.

    It also characterize a pure infrastructural concern; comparable to a push infrastructure, or analytics features. these items don’t alternate as quick because the issue area, and that they do deserve to be strong, quick and dependable.

    I need to discuss that “scale” toolset and share a little of my own event. Let’s start on the end. while migrating from Node to head, here are the issues I have seen to be distinct.


    Node preferred to crash when coping with sudden performance, ordinarily as a result of huge use of connections and the overhead in managing them and holding their resources in assess. real, this is often solved by appropriate ability planning, and usage of hardening patterns like circuit breaker, and throttling.

    however, the usage of these, my Node capabilities appeared like forced concoctions that crashed difficult and had a horrible GC profile of minutes per collection (here is early Node days I’m speaking about the place you had to patch V8 to guide a bigger heap). It stored reminding me V8 became at first developed to be run on the laptop.

    Even in its early days, Go didn’t have any of that, and it was adequate. And when it did crash, it recovered loopy fast, and i liked that property, and made use of it; failing approaches crashed fast.


    round 2011–12, Node became on the apex of performance, and Go wasn’t. it is, except Go 1.1 combined up that equation. I first seen it throughout the wonderful TechEm benchmarks:

  • circular 1, March 2013 (pre Go 1.1): Go at 13k req/s, Node at 10k req/s. No huge deal.
  • round 10 (newest): Go at 380k req/s Node at 225k req/s. round a hundred seventy five% increase in choose of Go, and if you compare that to Node with express, you get 145k req/s for Node, which is 260% enhance in favor of Go.
  • although these are a simply however a really good variant of a micro benchmark, suppose in regards to the overhead of the web framework (express) superimposed on the host platform (Node). When Go is straddled with a standard web framework (Gin), it doesn’t react that hysterically and the discount in performance is within the 1–three% range, Node however had a dramatic response.

    It stands to trace which stack you’d need to pack infrastructure on. think about it. is that this why lots of full-on infrastructure projects (Docker, Kubernetes, Vagrant and so forth.) had been constructed on Go (trace: yes)?


    To installation Node or Ruby, you need to contend with dependencies. equipment equivalent to Bundler, rubygems, and npm were created to beat dependency hell, and provided us with an ever valuable layer of abstraction, which break up our products into two:

  • Product (essence)
  • Product (dependencies)
  • basically we may photo our deps, and ship our product. however note, with Bundler and npm, we picture a description of our deps (except we choose to vendor. IMHO, with npm — individuals usually don’t).

    every installation may have modified the dependency tree of the product, and servers hosting these products had to reflect that. For those desirous to solve this difficulty, they had to ask these questions:

  • Is that the accountability of the Configuration management infra?
  • should the deployment procedure or framework focus on dependencies?
  • if you bundle dependencies together with your product?
  • What occurs when your dependencies die? (i.e. pulled off from Rubygems)
  • And their answers would usually be:

  • Configuration management may still do something about the servers. resources are not items.
  • yes. The deployment procedure may still focus on deps.
  • No, bundling dependencies is an anti-sample. At worst case make our personal local cache or proxy.
  • When dependencies die, we will use a native cache. Or: dependencies in no way die.
  • Docker

    Docker seals these questions shut — every thing is snapshotted into an image, and also you deploy that. This offers a layer of abstraction on appropriate of the dependencies conception — snapshot the entire things.

    but still, for what’s written here, we’re talking pre-construction-docker period here (which is, handiest a 12 months and a half ago).


    Even devoid of Docker, Go packs a binary which is self-contained. And the answers to the above questions, are:

  • Go builds its dependencies into the binary, making a self-inclusive deliverable
  • Deployment framework caring about dependencies doesn’t be counted anymore
  • Bundling dependencies doesn’t depend anymore
  • death dependencies doesn’t rely, dependencies are living within your supply tree
  • And even with Docker, we have no drama. A 5mb graphic plus your binary dimension, makes pulling an new graphic and setting out (and failing, when essential) crazy quick.

    The surprise component

    Go makes moveable Code. Java made that viable too. besides the fact that children, Go makes for a distinct sort of portability. It doesn’t collect to every platform beneath the sun (yet), nonetheless it does build for x86 and ARM.

    constructing for ARM skill constructing for mobile, and Raspberry Pis.

    My tipping factor for the usage of Go became after I regarded into Python and C, for building my a couple of concepts for home initiatives. I had to examine Python because it appears like that’s what the entire RPi community used, and i needed to study C as a result of I discovered that a regular Python app took 27Mb of RAM blank.

    certainly for the primary Raspberry Pi model I had, I didn’t have lots of reminiscence. So, I determined to try Go, and that i cleared up a day to try this, as a result of I guessed move compilation and ARM had been going to be a nightmare and that i definitely desired to use Go (greater yet, I didn’t want to use C as unhealthy).

    the first 5 minutes handed and that i pass-compiled and developed a hiya world Go binary, SCP’d it to the Pi, and it printed a ‘hello world’ and exited. This turned into Go 1.0 or something of the form.

    now not making peace with how smooth everything went — I spent right here 10 minutes making certain, and double-making-sure, that I copied the correct binary, and it basically changed into my very own Go program that turned into working.

    I had a day to spare as a result of every thing labored completely, so I all started working on what eventually became floor handle.

    Go is ready Forgiveness

    Let me let you know a narrative about forgiveness, and Go code.

    Go is verbose. It lacks generics, it adopts code generation as an get away hatch for a lot of things the core language lacks.

    To all and sundry with event — code technology is a nasty smell, and here's an issue; and it'll be.

    although, coming from Node.js code bases, with the dreaded callback hell and a very low pleasant factor for neighborhood applications (early Node days) a Go code base appears like heaven. So we forgive.

    simply should you are starting to get used to punching out very verbose Go code, you start noticing these verbosity concerns you've got not noted; they computer virus you on a daily groundwork, and they are all over the place. but then, this kind of codebase would constantly indicate you’re a bit of more severe with Go. My guess is that you simply’d be at the identical stage the place you wish to start doing concurrency work.

    You find Go’s channels, its concurrency model, and its nonblocking I/O.

    once again, you gain knowledge of to admire it and turn into forgiving. by means of this time, the methods you’re constructing are complicated (in a great way), and they also need to be accepted.

    You want to birth constructing infrastructure for your self.

    Generics, and lack of language abstractions delivery to hit you, complicated. And once once more, on the same time, you notice that your production atmosphere is quiet. So quiet that it lets you even contemplate this stuff.

    You’re noticing everything you construct is very potent, performant, with out a unique effort on your half. additionally, you bear in mind that the closing commits and fixes you made had been distinctly handy as a result of everything turned into tremendous spelled out.

    You settle for Go

    At this element, you settle for Go.

    Code technology, its CSP concurrency mannequin, its simplicity, its hyper-focused single-intention equipment reminiscent of go-vet, go-fmt, and the likes and make peace with the fact that through the use of Go, you’re building and getting acquainted with a colorful, vivid, device set.

    You become forgiving, as a result of unusually, you doubted Go at every crossroad, and it didn’t will let you down.

    Bastille Linux: Hardening your machines | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    One may ask "Why is hardening necessary? My machines don't seem to be more likely to be attacked; we're simply a bit company (or small non-earnings, etc.)" The fact is that beneath these cases, it's unlikely that your corporation might be centered for attack. besides the fact that children, most attacks don't seem to be the influence of deliberate focused on, however reasonably outcome from senseless, automatic probing by way of scripts.

    practically, these assaults outcome from somebody (typically not very subtle, technically speakme) surroundings off an automatic application that churns via a variety of web addresses. if your laptop simply occurs to be in that range, and is prone, it might be attacked and perhaps compromised. Then the nasty company of recovering starts off -- and recuperating is all the time extra work than prevention! for this reason, hardening machines is a crucial a part of any company's protection plan.

    As you could imagine, hardening a computing device accurately is an in depth and time-consuming process for a system administrator. it's effortless to fail to spot one or greater important steps, which can not only go away the computing device vulnerable, however also create a false feel of safety in regards to the chance profile of a computer.

    Bastille makes it viable to handle the total range of hardening activities whereas holding towards missing key steps. It also makes the manner drastically more efficient. Bastille accomplishes this by means of a GUI-based, interactive manner. (For a monitor shot of what Bastille looks like, please see this page.)

    What areas does Bastille tackle in hardening a device? here's a partial listing:

    File PermissionsAccount SecurityBook SecurityInetd SecurityMiscellaneous DaemonsSendmailDNSApachePrintingFTPFirewall

    All of these objects may still be purchasable if crucial, but offer chance for attack if unused. Bastille helps in the method of identifying whether the performance is needed, and, if no longer, configuring it to be made unavailable.

    As a aspect observe, once the machine is configured with Bastille, the computing device should still be probed with vulnerability scanner like Nessus. A scanner will verify if the remaining services and purchasable ports are configured adequately and applied with the appropriate software patches.

    Bastille's goodness isn't limited to 1 desktop, however. Configuring distinct machines, even with a device like Bastille, can nevertheless be time-consuming. also, performing the same moves repetitively can result in carelessness, so the competencies Bastille offers in helping avoid overlooking one or more crucial steps will also be negated if a couple of machines must be hardened.

    Bastille addresses this difficulty, enabling a policy file to be created on one machine and utilized to at least one or extra others. The policy file is instantly created through an interactive session, so the system of applying it couldn't be more convenient:

    #scp /and so on/Bastille/config root@anotherhost:/and so forth/Bastillessh root@anotherhost "bastille -b"

    surely, you must change "anotherhost" with the name of your target computer(s). also, Bastille ought to be put in on all of the machines you are looking to auto-configure. Nothing can be simpler, appropriate? although you handiest have one other computing device that you should configure, using this feature of Bastille is a no-brainer.

    Bastille is written in Perl, so extending it is convenient. many of the exact functions (like altering file permissions) can be set up with a simple declarative setting which Bastille will practice as part of its configuration work.

    if your immediate response is that, while this product is exquisite for hardening machines, you have already got a set of machines put in and aren't sure how they are deploy, you'll be satisfied to understand that an upcoming release of Bastille will have an audit ability so one can provide you with a examine out on what your installed infrastructure seems like.

    in brief, Bastille may still be in each sysadmin's or safety guru's bag of hints. It can make your lifestyles an awful lot less difficult.

    Taking the informed track | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the e-book 

    We incredibly advocate that you simply follow the guidelines and system offered in this part to set up, configure, and execute the utility. by using following the suggested strategy, you are going to be guided throughout the method, including downloading further protection application, with certain guidelines, advantageous examples, and constructive concepts.

    however the Solaris safety Toolkit utility is a standalone product, it is most positive when used with the additional protection software we recommend and provide for downloading. This software includes the newest recommended and safety Patch Cluster from SunSolve online, cozy Shell application for Solaris OE releases that don't encompass it, permission and possession modification application to tighten Solaris OE and third-party software permissions, and integrity validation binaries to validate the integrity of sun info and executables.

    This area carries right here tasks:

  • "perform Planning and Pre-installation tasks" on web page 41

  • "determine Which Mode to use" on web page forty two

  • "download protection software" on page 43

  • "personalize security Profiles" on web page fifty one

  • "set up and Execute the utility" on page fifty one

  • "Validate the equipment adjustments" on page 61

  • operate Planning and Pre-setting up initiatives

    correct planning is essential to effectively the use of the Solaris security Toolkit utility to relaxed programs. consult with Chapter 2 for detailed suggestions about planning and different projects informed prior to installing the application.

    if you are installation the software on a deployed system, discuss with Chapter 2, "perform Pre-installation tasks" on web page 33, for tips about performing pre-installation projects to install the application on deployed methods.

    determine Which Mode to make use of

    We suggest that you harden systems either all through or automatically after installing, to limit the length a equipment can be uncovered to attack while in an unsecured state. earlier than the use of the Solaris security Toolkit application to at ease a device, configure the Solaris security Toolkit utility to run competently on your environment.

    The Solaris safety Toolkit software has a modular framework. For shoppers not yet the usage of the JumpStart product, the flexibility of the Solaris protection Toolkit software's framework allows them to successfully put together for the use of JumpStart later. clients with latest JumpStart installations benefit from the Solaris safety Toolkit application's skill to combine into latest JumpStart architectures.

    here sections describe each mode.

    Standalone Mode

    The Solaris protection Toolkit software runs at once from a Solaris OE shell on the spot in standalone mode. The standalone mode permits you to use the Solaris protection Toolkit utility on programs that require safety changes or updates, yet cannot be taken out of service to re-installation the OS from scratch. Ideally, youngsters, we suggest that programs be reinstalled from scratch to at ease them.

    Standalone mode is principally useful when hardening a system after installing patches. that you can run the Solaris safety Toolkit utility numerous times on a device and not using a unwell results. Patches might overwrite or adjust files the Solaris protection Toolkit application has modified; by way of rerunning the Solaris security Toolkit utility, any security changes undone by way of the patch setting up will also be reimplemented.

    In creation environments, we suggest that patches always be staged in look at various and construction environments before installing in live environments.

    The standalone mode is among the top-quality options to harden a deployed equipment as right away as feasible. No particular steps are required to combine the Solaris protection Toolkit application into a non-JumpStart structure, aside from those supplied within the downloading and installing directions offered in "download protection utility" on page forty three.

    JumpStart Mode

    JumpStart know-how, which is sun's community-based mostly Solaris OE installation mechanism, can run Solaris protection Toolkit scripts right through the installation method. This publication assumes that the reader is conventional with JumpStart expertise and has an present JumpStart environment available. For extra counsel about JumpStart know-how, consult with the solar BluePrints booklet JumpStartTM know-how: advantageous Use in the SolarisTM working environment.

    for use in a JumpStart atmosphere, the Solaris security Toolkit source in either the JASS_HOME_DIR (for tar downloads) or /decide/SUNWjass (for pkg downloads) needs to be copied into the base listing of the JumpStart server. typically, here's /jumpstart on the JumpStart server. After this project is performed, JASS_HOME_DIR becomes the base listing of the JumpStart server.

    most effective a couple of steps are required to integrate the Solaris protection Toolkit application into a JumpStart architecture. check with Chapter 5 for guidance on the way to configure a JumpStart Server.

    download safety utility

    the primary stage in hardening a system requires downloading further utility protection packages onto the device you need to relaxed. This section covers the following initiatives:

  • "Downloading Solaris protection Toolkit application" on page 44

  • "Downloading advised Patch Cluster application" on web page forty five

  • "Downloading FixModes utility" on page forty seven

  • "Downloading OpenSSH application" on page 48

  • "Downloading the MD5 utility" on web page 50

  • Of the application described in this area, the Solaris security Toolkit software, advised and safety Patch Cluster, FixModes, and MD5 software are strongly counseled. as an alternative of OpenSSH, which you could exchange a commercial edition of comfy Shell, attainable from plenty of vendors. We strongly advocate that you simply set up and use a comfortable Shell product on all programs. With the free up of Solaris 9 OE, a edition of Solaris cozy Shell is protected. If using Solaris 9 OE, we strongly recommend using this cozy Shell version.

    Downloading Solaris safety Toolkit application

    The Solaris safety Toolkit software need to be downloaded first, then put in on either the server on which you're using the Solaris safety Toolkit software in standalone mode or on a JumpStart server for JumpStart mode.

    The primary function of the Solaris security Toolkit utility is to automate and simplify constructing secured Solaris OE methods in accordance with the recommendations contained in this e book and protection-connected solar BluePrints on-line articles.

    right here guidance use filenames that don't reference the version number. at all times down load the latest version attainable from the internet web page.

    all over the rest of this book, the JASS_HOME_DIR ambiance variable refers back to the root directory of the Solaris protection Toolkit software. When the Solaris protection Toolkit software is put in from the tar archive, JASS_HOME_DIR is described to be the direction as much as, and including, jass-n.n. if you install the tar version of the distribution in the /decide directory, the JASS_HOME_DIR atmosphere variable is defined as /opt/jass-n.n.

    The Solaris safety Toolkit application is dispensed in Solaris OE equipment structure, in addition to the average compressed tar archive. The equal software is included in each archives.

    select the structure most applicable to your condition. typically, the pkg layout is top-quality for consumers and the tar is most fulfilling for JumpStart methods and for setting up customized programs.

    approaches for downloading and installing these two diverse archive varieties are supplied in the following sections.

    To download the tar version
  • download the application distribution file (jass-n.n.tar.Z).

    The supply file is discovered at the following internet website:

  • Extract the software distribution file into a directory on the server using the zcat and tar instructions as shown:

    # zcat jass-n.n.tar.Z | tar xvf -

    where n.n is probably the most latest version that you're downloading.

    Executing this command creates the jass-n.n subdirectory within the present working directory. This subdirectory incorporates the entire Solaris protection Toolkit directories and associated information.

  • To download the pkg edition
  • download the utility distribution file (SUNWjass-n.n.pkg.Z).

    The source file is observed at:

    if you stumble upon issue downloading the application, use your browser's built-in keep As option.

  • Extract the application distribution file right into a listing on the server through the use of the uncompress command:

    # uncompress SUNWjass-n.n.pkg.Z
  • set up the application distribution file right into a listing on the server using the pkgadd command as shown:

    # pkgadd -d SUNWjass-n.n.pkg SUNWjass

    the place n.n is essentially the most present version that you're downloading.

    Executing this command creates the SUNWjass listing in /decide/jass-n.n. This subdirectory carries all the Solaris protection Toolkit directories and associated info.

  • Downloading suggested Patch Cluster application

    Patches are released through solar to provide Solaris OE fixes for performance, balance, performance, and protection. it is crucial to the safety of a equipment that the most recent patch cluster is put in. To make certain that the newest Solaris OE recommended and security Patch Cluster is installed in your device, this section describes a way to down load the newest patch cluster.

    follow average finest practices to all patch cluster installations. before installation any patches, evaluate and verify them on nonproduction methods or during scheduled upkeep windows.

    To down load recommended Patch Cluster utility

    before you install a patch cluster, we advocate that you simply overview particular person patch README information and other information supplied. The suggestions commonly consists of counsel and information effective to grasp earlier than installing a patch cluster.

  • down load the latest patch cluster from the SunSolve on-line net web site at:

  • click on on the Patches link on the excellent of the left navigation bar.

  • click on the informed and safety Patches link.

    The license contract is displayed.

  • opt for the appropriate Solaris OE version in the recommended Solaris Patch Clusters field.

    In our illustration, we select Solaris 8 OE.

  • select the surest down load choice, both HTTP or FTP, with the linked radio button, then click Go.

    A keep As dialog container is displayed on your browser window.

  • shop the file in the community.

  • circulation the file securely to the device being hardened by using the scp command, or a different formulation that provides at ease file switch.

    The scp command used should be akin to right here:

    # scp target01:
  • flow the file to the /choose/SUNWjass/Patches directory and uncompress it.

    as an example:

    instance three-1. moving a Patch File to /decide/SUNWjass/Patches directory # cd /decide/SUNWjass/Patches # mv /<directory by which file turned into saved>/ . # unzip Archive: growing: 8_Recommended/ inflating: 8_Recommended/CLUSTER_README inflating: 8_Recommended/copyright inflating: 8_Recommended/install_cluster [. . .]

    Later, the patch cluster application is installed automatically after downloading all the different safety packages and executing the Solaris safety Toolkit utility.

  • if you do not place the informed and security Patch Cluster software into the /choose/SUNWjass/Patches directory, a warning message shows when you execute the Solaris protection Toolkit software. that you may safely ignore this message if no patch clusters observe, as is often the case with new releases of the OS.

    Downloading FixModes application

    FixModes is a software package that tightens the default Solaris OE directory and file permissions. Tightening these permissions can enormously improve overall security. greater restrictive permissions make it much more difficult for malicious clients to profit privileges on a system.

    With the Solaris 9 OE free up, adjustments were made to improve the default permissions of objects up to now altered by way of the FixModes application. youngsters, the FixModes software is still vital, because third-celebration and unbundled application usually requires tightening of file and listing permissions.

    To download FixModes application
  • down load the FixModes precompiled binaries from:

    The FixModes application is dispensed as a precompiled and compressed equipment edition file formatted for Solaris OE methods. The file identify is SUNBEfixm.pkg.Z.

  • once downloaded, circulate the file securely to the device being hardened by using the scp command, or an extra system that gives relaxed file transfer.

    The scp command used should still be similar to here command:

    # scp SUNBEfixm.pkg.Z target01:
  • keep the file, SUNBEfixm.pkg.Z, within the Solaris security Toolkit applications directory in /opt/SUNWjass/programs, with here commands:

    # cd /opt/SUNWjass/packages # mv /<directory by which file was saved>/SUNBEfixm.pkg.Z .

    Later, the FixModes software is put in instantly after downloading all of the different safety packages and executing the Solaris safety Toolkit application.

  • Uncompress the pkg file with right here command:

    # uncompress SUNWBEfixm.pkg.Z
  • Downloading OpenSSH software

    In any secured environment, the use of encryption in combination with potent authentication is required to offer protection to consumer-interactive classes. At a minimum, network entry must be encrypted.

    The tool most commonplace to enforce encryption is at ease Shell utility, even if a edition bundled with the Solaris OE, a 3rd-birthday party industrial, or freeware version. To put in force all the security modifications performed by using the Solaris safety Toolkit application, you must encompass a relaxed Shell application product.

    With the liberate of Solaris 9 OE, a version of relaxed Shell is covered. If the usage of Solaris 9 OE, we strongly suggest the use of this comfortable Shell version as a result of its integration with different Solaris OE protection features such as the primary safety Module (BSM) as well as its assist by way of solar's assist firm.

    counsel on where to achieve business models of at ease Shell is provided within the Preface below "connected resources" on web page xxix.

    The Solaris protection Toolkit utility disables all nonencrypted person-interactive functions and daemons on the gadget, in certain daemons reminiscent of in.telnetd, in.ftpd, in.rshd, and in.rlogind.

    access to the device can be gained with secure Shell in a similar fashion to what is supplied by way of Telnet and FTP.

    To down load OpenSSH application

    If the server is operating Solaris 9 OE, that you could use the bundled at ease Shell utility and pass the OpenSSH installation steps in this part.

  • reap right here sun BluePrints online article, and use the guidelines within the article for downloading the application.

    A sun BluePrints online article about the way to assemble and install OpenSSH titled "constructing and Deploying OpenSSH on the Solaris operating atmosphere" is obtainable at:

    Or, attain the solar BluePrints publication comfortable Shell in the business, which is available at book stores.

    Later, the OpenSSH utility is installed automatically after downloading the entire other security programs and executing the Solaris safety Toolkit application.

  • symbol01_icon.gif

    don't assemble OpenSSH on the gadget being hardened and don't installation the compilers on the equipment being hardened. Use a separate Solaris OE system—running the same Solaris OE edition, architecture, and mode (for instance, Solaris 8 OE, Sun4UTM (sun4u), and sixty four-bit)—to assemble OpenSSH. in case you put in force a commercial version of SSH, then no compilation is required. The purpose is to restrict the availability of compilers to knowledge intruders. remember, despite the fact, that refraining from installation compilers in the community on a device does not provide colossal insurance plan against determined attackers, as a result of they can nevertheless deploy pre-compiled equipment.

    Downloading the MD5 utility

    The MD5 software generates MD5 digital fingerprints on the device being hardened. Generate the digital fingerprints, then compare them with what sun has posted as proper, to notice equipment binaries which are altered or trojaned (hidden interior anything that seems protected) via unauthorized clients. by way of enhancing gadget binaries, attackers supply themselves with backdoor entry onto a system; they conceal their presence and could cause techniques to operate in unstable manners.

    To download the MD5 application
  • download the MD5 binaries from right here net web page:

    The MD5 programs are dispensed as a compressed kit edition file.

  • circulate the file SUNBEmd5.pkg.Z securely to the system being hardened with the scp command, or an additional method that gives comfortable file switch.

    The scp command used may still be comparable to here command:

    # scp SUNBEmd5.pkg.Z target01:
  • flow the file, SUNBEmd5.pkg.Z, to the Solaris protection Toolkit packages directory in /opt/SUNWjass/packages with a command similar to the following:

    # cd /opt/SUNWjass/programs # mv /listing through which file turned into saved//SUNWBEmd5.Z .

    After the MD5 application is saved to the /choose/SUNWjass/packages directory, the execution of the Solaris security Toolkit utility installs the software.

    After the MD5 binaries are installed, you could use them to verify the integrity of executables on the gadget in the course of the Solaris fingerprint database. more suggestions on the Solaris fingerprint database is attainable within the solar BluePrints on-line article titled "The SolarisTM Fingerprint Database - A protection tool for Solaris utility and files."

  • (not obligatory) down load and installation Solaris Fingerprint Database companion and Solaris Fingerprint Database Sidekick utility from the solar BluePrint web site at:

  • We strongly suggest that you just deploy these optional equipment and use them with the MD5 utility. These tools simplify the procedure of validating system binaries in opposition t the database of MD5 checksums. Use these tools commonly to validate the integrity of the Solaris OE binaries and files on a secured device.

    These equipment and instructions for downloading them are in the solar BluePrints on-line article titled "The SolarisTM Fingerprint Database - A safety tool for Solaris utility and files."

    The integrity of the protection equipment downloaded should be established. On the down load page of the Solaris safety Toolkit, MD5 checksums are available for this intention. before installing and running the Solaris protection Toolkit utility and additional security utility, validate integrity by using MD5 checksums.

    customize protection Profiles

    a whole lot of security profile templates are blanketed with the Solaris safety Toolkit application distribution as drivers. As mentioned within the outdated chapter, the default protection profile and alterations made by way of these drivers can also not be acceptable in your techniques. usually, the security profiles carried out by these drivers are "high-water" marks for safety. by using this, we mean that they disable features that are not required, and they enable optional protection points disabled by means of default.

    earlier than operating the Solaris safety Toolkit utility, overview and customize the default protection profiles to your environment, or enhance new ones. ideas and recommendations for customizing security profiles are offered in Chapter 10.

    install and Execute the application

    it's crucial that the following preliminary tasks be achieved earlier than executing the Solaris security Toolkit application. lots of the hardening is executed instantly if you happen to execute the Solaris protection Toolkit utility.

  • down load the additional safety utility and the Solaris security Toolkit application on the device you need to harden or on the JumpStart server. (discuss with "down load security utility" on web page 43.)

  • Configure your equipment for standalone or JumpStart mode. (check with "investigate Which Mode to make use of" on web page forty two.)

  • If applicable, customise the Solaris safety Toolkit software to your environment.

  • before installation and running the Solaris safety Toolkit software and additional safety utility, validate integrity by utilizing MD5 checksums.

  • that you could execute the Solaris safety Toolkit software at once from the command line or a JumpStart server.

    For command line alternate options and other advice about executing the utility, check with considered one of right here:

    Executing the utility in Standalone Mode

    illustration command line usage in standalone mode:

    # jass-execute [-r root_directory -p os_version ] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m graphics/ccc.gif e-mail_address ] -d driver

    table three-1 lists the command line alternatives available and describes every.

    desk three-1. using Command Line options With jass-execute




    Determines if a gadget is in compliance with its safety profile.


    Specifies the driving force to be run in standalone mode.


    displays the jass-execute support message, which offers an overview of the accessible alternate options.


    provides a simple mechanism to determine how repeatedly the Solaris security Toolkit utility has been run on a equipment.


    offers a mechanism to examine the most contemporary run.


    Mails output to an e mail address.


    Directs output to a file.


    Prevents the monitor of output to the screen. often known as the quiet option.


    Specifies the root listing used all through jass-execute runs.


    Runs undo option with interactive prompts that ask you what motion you wish to take when exceptions are encountered.

    For detailed tips in regards to the alternate options accessible with jass-execute command in standalone mode, refer to here sections:

  • "Audit choice" on page 54

  • "reveal help alternative" on page fifty five

  • "Driver option" on page fifty five

  • "e-mail Notification option" on web page 56

  • "Execute history option" on page 57

  • "Most contemporary Execute alternative" on page fifty seven

  • "Output File alternative" on web page 58

  • "Quiet Output choice" on page 58

  • "Root listing option" on web page fifty nine

  • "Undo alternative" on web page fifty nine

  • For an entire record of available drivers, check with the Drivers listing. newer versions of the application may include additional drivers.

    To Execute the software in Standalone Mode
  • Execute the at ease.driver (or a product particular script equivalent to sunfire_15k_sc-secure.driver) as follows.

    instance 3-2. Executing the application in Standalone Mode # cd /choose/SUNWjass # ./jass-execute -d comfy.driver [NOTE] Executing driver, comfy.driver ========================================================== comfortable.driver: Driver began. ========================================================== ========================================================== JASS version: 4.0 Node identify: ufudu Host id: 8085816e Host tackle: hundred fifteen MAC address: 8:0:20:85:81:6e OS edition: 5.9 Date: Tue Dec 31 sixteen:28:24 EST 2002 ========================================================== [...]

    For a complete record of obtainable drivers, consult with the Drivers listing. more moderen types of the utility may also contain extra drivers.

  • After running the Solaris security Toolkit utility on a gadget, reboot the system to put into effect the alterations.

    right through hardening, numerous modifications are made to the configuration of the client. These changes may encompass disabling startup scripts for services, disabling alternate options for capabilities, and installing new binaries or libraries via patches. unless the client is restarted, these modifications could not be advantageous.

  • After rebooting the system, check the correctness and completeness of the modifications. (check with "Validate the device adjustments" on page 61.)

  • If any errors are encountered, fix them and run the Solaris safety Toolkit utility once more in standalone mode.

  • Audit option

    throughout the -a option, the Solaris protection Toolkit utility can operate an audit run to investigate if a device is in compliance with its protection profile. This run validates no longer simplest if device file modifications made are still active, but also if previously disabled approaches are running or eliminated utility applications are reinstalled. For more tips on this function, discuss with Chapter 6.

    example usage to audit a equipment towards a security profile:

    # jass-execute -a driver [ -V verbosity ] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m e-mail_address ] reveal help option

    The -h choice displays the jass-execute assist message, which offers a top level view of the obtainable options.

    The -h option produces output corresponding to here:

    instance 3-3. sample -h option Output # ./jass-execute -h To practice this Toolkit to a system, using the syntax: ./jass-execute [-r root_directory -p os_version ] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m e-mail_address ] -d driver To undo a old utility of the Toolkit from a equipment: ./jass-execute -u [ -n ] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m e-mail_address ] To audit a device towards a pre-described profile: ./jass-execute -a driver [ -V verbosity ] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m e-mail_address ] To reveal the heritage of Toolkit applications on a device: ./jass-execute -H To screen the last utility of the Toolkit on a device: ./jass-execute -l To screen this assist message: ./jass-execute -h Driver alternative

    The -d <driver> alternative specifies the driving force to be run in standalone mode.

    You must specify a driver with the -d alternative. The Solaris protection Toolkit application prepends Drivers/ to the name of the script delivered. You should enter only the script identify on the command line.

    You can not use the -d option with the -u, -H, -h, or -a alternate options.

    A jass-execute hardening run the use of the -d <driver> alternative produces output corresponding to right here:

    example 3-4. pattern -d <driver> option Output # ./jass-execute -d cozy.driver [NOTE] Executing driver, comfortable.driver ========================================================== at ease.driver: Driver started. ========================================================== ========================================================== JASS edition: four.0 Node name: ufudu Host identity: 8085816e Host address: 10.eight.31.a hundred and fifteen MAC tackle: 8:0:20:85:eighty one:6e OS edition: 5.9 Date: Tue Dec 31 sixteen:28:24 EST 2002 ========================================================== [...] e-mail Notification alternative

    The -m <electronic mail address> alternative provides a mechanism in which standalone hardening and undo output can be emailed immediately by way of the Solaris security Toolkit application when the run completes. The electronic mail record is apart from any logs generated on the system the usage of other alternate options.

    A Solaris security Toolkit run calling sunfire_15k_sc-config.driver the usage of the email option can be akin to the following:

    # ./jass-execute -m root -d sunfire_15k_sc-config.driver [...] Execute heritage alternative

    The -H option provides a simple mechanism to investigate how many times the Solaris safety Toolkit utility has been run on a device. All runs are listed despite no matter if they have been undone.

    The -H option produces output akin to here:

    instance three-5. sample -H alternative Output # ./jass-execute -H be aware: This information is just relevant for applications of the Solaris protection Toolkit beginning with edition 0.3. right here is a listing of the applications of the Solaris safety Toolkit on this equipment. This listing is supplied in reverse chronological order: 1. December 31, 2002 at 12:20:19 (20021231122019) (UNDONE) 2. December 31, 2002 at 12:10:29 (20021231121029) three. December 31, 2002 at 12:04:15 (20021231120415)

    From the output, it is apparent that the Solaris safety Toolkit application turned into run on this device 3 times and that the final run become undone.

    Most contemporary Execute option

    The -l choice gives a mechanism to assess the most fresh run. this is always the final run listed through the -H option as smartly.

    The -l alternative deliver outputs comparable to right here:

    instance three-6. sample -l option Output # ./jass-execute -l note: This tips is only relevant for purposes of the Solaris security Toolkit starting with edition 0.3. The remaining application of the Solaris security Toolkit became: 1. December 31, 2002 at 12:20:19 (20021231122019) (UNDONE) Output File alternative

    The -o <output_file> option redirects the console output of jass-execute runs to a separate file, output_file.

    This alternative has no impact on the logs stored in the JASS_REPOSITORY directory. This option is certainly positive when carried out over a slow terminal connection, because there is a big volume of output generated with the aid of a Solaris security Toolkit run.

    This choice may also be used with either the -d, -u, or -a alternate options.

    The -o option produces output comparable to here:

    illustration three-7. pattern -o choice Output # ./jass-execute -o jass-output.txt -d cozy.driver [NOTE] Executing driver, at ease.driver [NOTE] Recording output to jass-output.txt Quiet Output choice

    The -q choice disables Solaris security Toolkit output to typical input output (stdio) circulation all through a hardening run.

    This alternative has no effect on the logs saved within the JASS_REPOSITORY directory. comparable to the -o choice, this choice is exceptionally advantageous when operating the Solaris safety Toolkit application via a cron job or over sluggish community connections.

    This choice will also be used with both the -d, -u, or -a options.

    The -q alternative produces output akin to right here:

    example three-8. sample -q choice Output # ./jass-execute -q -d at ease.driver [NOTE] Executing driver, comfy.driver Root directory choice

    The -r <root directory> choice is for specifying the root directory used all through jass-execute runs. the use of the -r choice also requires the use of the -p option to specify the platform (OS) edition. The structure of the -p alternative is similar to that produced by using uname -r.

    with the aid of default, the basis filesystem directory is /. This root directory is described via the Solaris safety Toolkit atmosphere variable JASS_ROOT_DIR. The Solaris OE being secured is attainable via /. as an example, in case you are looking to comfortable a separate OS directory, quickly installed beneath /mnt, then use the -r alternative to specify /mnt, and the entire scripts are utilized to that OS photograph.

    Undo choice

    during the -u option, the Solaris safety Toolkit utility can undo device changes carried out all through hardening. each and every finish script will also be undone with the -u choice. additionally, the Solaris security Toolkit's undo ability is tightly integrated with the checksums generated all the way through every run. For more tips on this capacity, refer to Chapter 4.

    instance command line utilization of an undo command:

    # jass-execute -u [ -f | -b | -k] [ -q | -o output_file ] [ -m e-mail_address ] Executing the application in JumpStart Mode

    The JumpStart mode is controlled via the Solaris safety Toolkit driver inserted within the suggestions file on the JumpStart server.

    if you have not configured your atmosphere to make use of JumpStart mode, seek advice from Chapter 5.

    For extra tips on the JumpStart technology, discuss with the solar BluePrint book JumpStartTM technology: valuable Use within the SolarisTM working environment.

    To Execute the software in JumpStart Mode

    To execute the Solaris protection Toolkit utility in JumpStart mode, it need to be built-in into your JumpStart atmosphere and referred to as as part of the conclude scripts associated with a JumpStart installation. For advice about a way to integrate the Solaris security Toolkit utility into your ambiance, consult with Chapter 5.

  • After making the entire required modifications to the drivers, deploy the client the usage of the JumpStart infrastructure.

    This assignment is completed the use of right here command from the customer's ok instant.

    adequate> boot web - deploy

    as soon as the installation is accomplished, the system is rebooted via the JumpStart utility.

    The system may still be in its appropriate configuration. all over hardening, a number of changes are made to the configuration of the customer. These modifications could consist of disabling startup scripts for services, disabling alternate options for services, and setting up new binaries or libraries via patches. unless the client is restarted, these changes could no longer be effective.

  • After the equipment is rebooted, check the correctness and completeness of the modifications. (check with "Validate the device adjustments" on page 61.)

  • If any errors are encountered, repair them and reinstall the client's OE.

  • Validate the device adjustments

    After rebooting the equipment, validate the correctness and completeness of the adjustments as described in here sections.

    Performing QA checks of functions

    one of the crucial huge challenges worried in securing systems is choosing what OE functions need to be left enabled for the equipment to feature correctly. Solaris OE capabilities can be obligatory as a result of they're used directly, reminiscent of comfortable Shell to log into a device. Or, they can be used indirectly, such because the far off technique call (RPC) daemon for the graphical user interface of third-birthday celebration application administration equipment.

    every one of these necessities should be determined earlier than working the Solaris protection Toolkit application. (consult with Chapter 2, "examine software and service necessities" on page 23.) besides the fact that children, the most effective definitive mechanism is to install and comfy the system, then perform thorough testing of its required performance through excellent assurance (QA) testing. Ideally, there may still be a QA plan in area for any new device being deployed. if so, this plan may still be executed after the system is hardened. in a similar fashion, for deployed techniques being hardened, thorough testing should be carried out to make sure that all required and expected performance is existing.

    If the QA system uncovers any discrepancies, operate right here:

  • examine the difficulty enviornment, in line with the strategies in Chapter 2.

  • Validate that the application runs in the modified configuration.

  • Undo the Solaris safety Toolkit run.

  • modify the safety profile (driver), in response to the problem decision.

  • Run the Solaris safety Toolkit utility once again.

  • The end result should be a safety profile that can also be run on the gadget devoid of adversely impacting any required functionality.

    Performing protection Assessments of Configuration

    whereas validating that the device performs all required capabilities, additionally evaluate the protection configuration to determine if the device is secured to the preferred level. depending on what hardening or minimization became performed on the device, this may also contain diverse elements.

    At a minimal, the configuration of the device should be reviewed in here approaches:

  • make sure that all appropriate protection and advised Patches are installed.

  • determine that best required and acceptable strategies are running, and that they are operating with the applicable arguments.

  • make sure that only required daemons are running, and that they're operating with the appropriate arguments.

  • check that most effective required ports are open on the gadget by checking in the neighborhood (for instance, netstat -a) and remotely by using a port scanner such as Nmap, that could investigate which ports can be found on a community interface.

  • be certain that best required Solaris OE packages had been put in if the device become minimized.

  • This review should still be considered a minimal for newly constructed and secured programs. When hardening legacy systems, the underlying OE should be confirmed to examine if unauthorized adjustments were made. Integrity checking of this nature is most beneficial accomplished with the aid of mounting the device's file system in read-handiest mode and operating integrity checking software from a primary OE instance. The equipment described in the sun BluePrints on-line article titled "The SolarisTM Fingerprint Database - A security device for Solaris utility and files" are valuable in these scenarios.

    Validating protection Profile

    After a device is secured and you validate its required capabilities and capabilities, use the audit feature to make sure that the safety profile was utilized adequately and absolutely. This task is critical for 2 motives. the primary is to be sure that the equipment is hardened as required. The 2nd is to be sure that the safety profile described for the equipment is properly reflected within the Solaris protection Toolkit configuration. This assess is important since the configuration assistance is used to keep the protection profile of the system over its entire deployed lifecycle.

    For extra assistance about the audit feature, refer to Chapter 6.

    perform put up-installing tasks

    if you put in the software on a deployed device, discuss with Chapter 2, "function put up-installation projects" on web page 34, for suggestions about performing submit-installing projects on deployed techniques.

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    Forget Trump's border wall. What about his concertina wire in Nogales? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The additional concertina wire can be seen on the border fence in Nogales, Ariz, on February 4, 2019. U.S. Army troops were back in downtown Nogales over the weekend to add more coils of the wire. (Photo: Mamta Popat /Arizona Daily Star)

    Forget, for the moment, about Donald Trump’s wall. What the heck is going on with Donald Trump’s concertina wire?

    The good people of Nogales would certainly like to know.

    It seems they don’t appreciate their latest downtown redevelopment project, courtesy of the U.S. military.

    Coil upon coil upon coil of flesh-slicing razor wire. The sort of stuff you’d find in a war zone, or around a concentration camp or a maximum-security prison …

    Or now, dripping from top to bottom of the 18-foot U.S.-Mexico border fence that runs through downtown Nogales.

    Last month, there was just one coil running along the top of the two-story fence, installed before the midterm elections. Nogales Mayor Arturo Garino told the Associated Press that he asked Sen. Martha McSally when she was in town last month to help the city get rid of it.

    Instead, over the weekend, troops strung five additional coils, layer after lay of barbed steel covering the fence from top to bottom in places.

    It’s dangerous, running, as it does, right down to the ground in close proximity to business and residential areas.

    It’s overkill, in that while Trump warns that the border is a “very dangerous area”, Nogales really isn’t.

    It’s also incredibly silly, as the Star’s excellent columnist, Tim Steller, notes:

    “East of Nogales, in the Kino Springs area, troops have put up concertina wire on the border fence within yards of where the fence stops at the Santa Cruz River floodplain. It makes no sense, because nobody would try to jump the border fence, with or without concertina wire, when they can walk 25 yards to the side and cross through a vehicle barrier — the only type of barrier that will stand when the river floods.”

    Then again, this isn't about practicality. It's about politics.

    Laying out coil upon upon of galvaized steel concertina wire is a crowd pleaser in Trumpland. Plus, it gives the troops on the border something to do.

    The Nogales City Council on Wednesday evening unanimously passed a resolution demanding that the concertina wire be removed, saying they don't wish to live in a war zone.

    “Placing coiled concertina wire strands on the ground is typically only found in a war, battlefield or prison setting, and not in an urban setting such as downtown Nogales, Arizona,” it said. “Placing coiled concertina wire that is designed to inflict serious bodily injury or death in the immediate proximity of our residents, children, pets, law enforcement and first responders is not only irresponsible but inhuman.”

    Don’t look for the wire to come down. U.S. Customs and Border Protection says it’s on federal land and outside the city's jurisdiction.

    “Hardening of current infrastructure specifically in high-risk locations of the urban area help reduce the illicit activity, to include violent criminals, in these areas and increase the public safety,” the agency said in a statement.

    Mayor Garino told the Washington Post that he met Wednesday with Customs and Border Protection officials, who waxed on about “rapists, murderers and drug dealers.”.

    “But that was strange, because the police chief, assistant chief and deputy city manager were there, and we don’t know of those things happening,” Garino said. “I don’t know where they’re getting their stats.”

    From Donald Trump, probably.

    No longer, apparently, is it enough to have just a wall. Now we need coil upon coil  of concertina wire as well.

    What’s next, electrification?

    Moats and alligators, anybody?

    Reach Roberts at


    Read or Share this story:

    If The Earth Is Warming, Why Is It So Cold In Chicago? Let Us Explain | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    January 31st, 2019 by Steve Hanley 

    As young activists gather in cities around the world to demand political leaders take meaningful steps to curb global warming, weather, forecasters are predicting in will be warmer today in Antarctica than in Chicago. The record cold temperatures have prompted the alleged leader of the free world to tweet America could use some good old fashioned “global waming.” Thanks, Donald. Good to know you are so well informed.

    Credit: NASA

    Weather And Climate Are Not The Same Thing

    The thing The Donald is incapable of comprehending is that weather and climate are two separate and distinct things. Weather is what happens over a period of days or months. Climate is what happens over a period of years, decades, or even centuries.

    Perhaps an analogy will help. Imagine the average number of home runs hit in a major league baseball game increases in 2019. Does that mean every player in the league will hit more home runs? No. For some, the number of home runs they hit may go down. For others, it may go up. But overall, the average will rise. Denying the evidence of the upward trend because one player has a lousy season demonstrates nothing but a poor understanding of statistics.

    While it may seem counter-intuitive that the Earth is getting warmer while some areas are experiencing colder temperatures, this is exactly what climate scientists have been predicting for years. Some parts of the world will get wetter, others will get drier. Some will get hotter, some will get colder. Forest fires will become more intense and more frequent. The same thing will happen with regard to hurricanes and typhoons. The words “climate change” are remarkably accurate. A warmer planet will lead to changes in climate, the scientific community suggests, and that is exactly what is happening.

    The culprit in the current surge of cold air flooding down from the Arctic is what climate scientists call the “polar vortex,” the upper atmosphere cyclonic winds that circulate around the area at the top of the world. Loss of sea ice may be responsible for a breakdown in the circulation pattern of those winds, allowing them to escape the Arctic and sweep down across Canada and into the Midwestern states.

    As the New York Times explains it, “The term [polar vortex] refers to circular bands of winds near the poles that are strongest in wintertime and well above the jet stream in the stratosphere. The stratosphere is an atmospheric layer that extends roughly seven to 31 miles above the earth.

    “Usually, those circular bands act as walls that keep the teeth-chattering cold air locked at the poles. But, every so often, the winds break down and allow the cold air to escape. That’s what happened at the beginning of January, when the polar vortex split into three separate bands.” See the graphic below by Zax Lawrence, a PhD candidate in the Physics department at New Mexico Tech, and an affiliate of NASA, JPL, and NorthWest Research Associates.

    A 2009 study published by Geophysical Research Letters found there were as many record lows as record highs in the US in the 50s. But today there are twice as many record high temperature events than cold temperature records. There may still be record cold periods but they are occurring less frequently, reports the New York Times.

    A  Money Guy Explains The Concept Of Risk

    The alleged president may pooh pooh all this talk of climate change but Bob Litterman, a founding partner and chairman of the risk committee of Kepos Capital does not. Litterman was previously the head of risk management at Goldman Sachs and is on the board of the Climate Leadership Council, the sponsor of the Baker-Shultz carbon dividend plan.

    After the announcement this week that Pacific Gas & Electric is filing bankruptcy as a result of its liability for a number of deadly wildfires in California, he wrote an op-ed piece for the New York Times listing the financial risks the business community is facing from climate change.

    “Utilities aren’t alone in facing climate threats. For transportation companies, for example, it may require hardening infrastructure like port facilities or rail lines to protect them from floods or fires. Fossil fuel companies may be forced to deal with stranded assets like oil fields and coal seams that have been bought but won’t be developed as society moves away from coal and oil.

    “For society at large, and the government in particular, the most important and urgent action required is to minimize future warming by creating appropriate global incentives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. Economists generally agree that rather than regulate behavior, it is more effective to allow individuals to choose their actions, as long as the prices appropriately reflect the costs, including the risks posed by climate change.

    “To date prices of energy have not reflected the risk of future climate damages. This is a stupid mistake and has resulted in too much climate risk. Not pricing climate risk is a bug in the tax code. It can be easily and quickly fixed.”

    “But time is not on our side. Even if we take immediate action now to appropriately price emissions, it will take decades to reach a net carbon neutral world, and in the meantime the planet will continue warming. So we’ll also need to harden infrastructure, change building codes, protect fragile ecosystems and make farming and lifestyle choices that are compatible with the climate changes that will be occurring around us. We will also need to confront the very unequal impacts on people in this country and around the planet.

    “And while sadly these actions are all costs that will grow over time, the unfortunate reality is that the longer we wait to act, the greater the bill will be.”

    One would presume that a former risk manager for Goldman Sachs and founder of an investment company is a Republican. Yet here he is urging passage of a carbon tax and worrying about “unequal impacts on people in this country and around the planet. If only more of his Republican peers were as perceptive and concerned about their fellow human beings.

    The recent record low temperatures in the Midwest are not proof that climate change is a hoax. They are proof it is real and coming soon to your home town.  


    Tags: Baker Schultz carbon dividend, Climate change, Global Weirding, Polar Vortex, Zac Lawrence

    About the Author

    Steve Hanley Steve writes about the interface between technology and sustainability from his home in Rhode Island and anywhere else the Singularity may lead him. His motto is, "Life is not measured by how many breaths we take but by the number of moments that take our breath away!" You can follow him on Google + and on Twitter.

    The Very High Costs of Climate Risk | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Before the catastrophic Camp Fire destroyed Paradise, Calif., the Pacific Gas and Electric Company was worth more than $25 billion. Now its C.E.O. has stepped down and the company, which provides natural gas and electricity to 16 million people in California, has filed for bankruptcy as it confronts billions of dollars in potential liability claims following recent wildfires. It is perhaps not the first bankruptcy in which the changing climate played a role, but it is almost certainly the largest. And no doubt, it won’t be the last.

    Of course, it’s not easy to attribute any particular event to climate change, and it will take time to sort out all of the causes of the Camp Fire last November, add up the damages and assess liability. Last week, in a small bit of good news for the company, the state concluded that PG&E was not responsible for the 2017 Tubbs Fire in Sonoma County that burned nearly 37,000 acres, destroyed more than 5,600 buildings and left 22 dead. But the company says it still faces “extensive litigation, significant potential liabilities and a deteriorating financial situation” following the “devastating and unprecedented wildfires of 2017 and 2018.”

    Many fires in recent years have been caused by downed power lines. And even though the company took wildfires seriously and had a broad plan to protect equipment and trim branches — pruning or removing as many as 1.4 million trees a year — it wasn’t enough. The fires pushed the company over the edge.

    One message of the bankruptcy is that climate change is already creating calamitous conditions. As PG&E put it recently, “California faces an ever-increasing threat from catastrophic wildfires, extreme weather and higher temperatures.” In a statement, the company noted that the state’s most recent climate assessment “found the average area burned statewide would increase 77 percent if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise” and that “prolonged drought and higher temperatures will triple the frequency of wildfires.”

    This means that electric utilities, in particular, and other businesses more generally have to rethink how they prepare for dangerous fire conditions and other impacts of climate change. These impacts are only growing. The thousand-year flood is now a regular event. The future will also bring further sea level rise, stronger hurricanes, storm surges, droughts, heat waves and wildfires beyond historical precedent. PG&E has noted that more than half of the company’s vast service area of 70,000 square miles is now considered to be in “extreme or high fire-risk areas.” No doubt much of the considerable cost of girding against these conditions will fall on rate payers.

    So what should electric utilities threatened by the potential for wildfires do? It may require better protecting grid infrastructure and being more prepared to shut off power when wildfire risk is especially high. Homeowners and businesses must be prepared when the grid is turned off and will require backup sources of electricity for critical needs.

    But utilities aren’t alone in facing climate threats. For transportation companies, for example, it may require hardening infrastructure like port facilities or rail lines to protect them from floods or fires. Fossil fuel companies may be forced to deal with stranded assets like oil fields and coal seams that have been bought but won’t be developed as society moves away from coal and oil. For others, like insurance companies, it may provide business opportunities. And for many entrepreneurs it may lead to completely new products and services.

    Risk managers at these companies will need to consider scenarios that have never happened before. Investors will need to assess the climate risks embedded in their portfolios and must demand greater transparency from the managers of the companies that they own.

    However, for society at large, and the government in particular, the most important and urgent action required is to minimize future warming by creating appropriate global incentives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. Economists generally agree that rather than regulate behavior, it is more effective to allow individuals to choose their actions, as long as the prices appropriately reflect the costs, including the risks posed by climate change.

    To date prices of energy have not reflected the risk of future climate damages. This is a stupid mistake and has resulted in too much climate risk. Not pricing climate risk is a bug in the tax code. It can be easily and quickly fixed.

    Taxes are not popular in general, and with the president and most Republicans opposed to climate action, many political observers are pessimistic that a federal carbon tax can be passed anytime soon. But some ideas, such as the Baker-Shultz carbon dividend plan, which would return all carbon tax revenue to taxpayers, do have some bipartisan support.

    But time is not on our side. Even if we take immediate action now to appropriately price emissions, it will take decades to reach a net carbon neutral world, and in the meantime the planet will continue warming. So we’ll also need to harden infrastructure, change building codes, protect fragile ecosystems and make farming and lifestyle choices that are compatible with the climate changes that will be occurring around us. We will also need to confront the very unequal impacts on people in this country and around the planet.

    And while sadly these actions are all costs that will grow over time, the unfortunate reality is that the longer we wait to act, the greater the bill will be.

    Bob Litterman is a former head of risk management at Goldman Sachs and is on the board of the Climate Leadership Council, the sponsor of the Baker-Shultz carbon dividend plan.

    Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook, Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram.

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