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The least difficult and most ordinary method to safety for carrier-oriented structure (SOA) is to route service requests over a virtual deepest community (VPN). This provides satisfactory security for fundamental, coarse-grained requirements, it really works with soap, leisure, and non-net capabilities protocols, and it is adequate even for many external integration situations. Yet not all protection scenarios are primary, and for extra complex wants and satisfactory-grained SOA security, architects need to do significantly greater planning and design. To craft a complete strategy and structure for SOA protection, architects ought to believe a large variety of safety necessities, company scenarios, and software infrastructure, weaving collectively varied products, necessities, and customized-constructed add-ons into a versatile and mighty SOA security solution.
[ For timely data center news and expert advice on data center strategy, see CIO.com’s Data Center Drilldown section. ]
at the least 10 product categories can play an element in SOA protection structure, and there are foremost areas of functional overlap amongst them. The constructing-block structure of SOA and net capabilities security specifications means architects need to plan carefully for which standards they're going to use and when to make use of them. enterprise eventualities with distinct security necessities might also require distinctive mixtures of requisites and items. including even further to the complexity, the specifications and requisites are still maturing, so there is little trade journey with optimum practices for many of the necessities. Architects can also face extra challenges together with divergent SOA infrastructure, dissimilar SOA messaging alternate patterns, the deserve to federate protection throughout dissimilar environments, and the should propagate identity throughout layers as one carrier calls one more. here is no longer to mention average considerations like organizational friction, cost, and difficulties with architecture governance.
as a result of these complexities, few can come up with the money for to make investments upfront to construct an entire and complete SOA safety answer that addresses all future requirements, which capacity that architects last problem is to conform a finished answer over time. To support in pursuing an incremental strategy, here is a continuum of 4 broad solution patterns that reveal how to combine distinctive items into an SOA security answer for today’s wants in addition to how nowadays’s answer can leave a direction open for day after today’s wants.
scenario No. 1: standard VPN offers A fundamental solution In a short time
As a typical beginning point, some SOA clients have instant situations that require them to at once find an appropriate - in spite of the fact that suboptimal - SOA protection solution. In these eventualities, SOA requests and responses are secured the usage of simplest transport-degree safety. With soap and rest, this is usually accomplished by way of two-manner relaxed socket layer (SSL). With VPN connections, even requests over the general public internet are personal and relaxed. often, simple VPN methods use implicit authorization: Any request that is available in over the VPN is allowed to entry the obtainable services. besides the fact that children a simple VPN can help identification of particular person users, here's rare as a result of the executive overhead of managing certificates for every consumer. a simple VPN is regularly configured as an immediate transport-level connection between the service customer’s platform and the service platform, which can be both an application server or a simple internet server environment. In a Forrester survey, two-thirds of SOA users talked about that the use of most effective a simple VPN is a crucial alternative in their SOA protection arsenal.
scenario No. 2: application-Server-based Fulfills Audit And Compliance requirements
The core of the continuum divides between two procedures, single intermediary and software-server-based mostly, each of which is able to address authentication and authorization of individual users. The application-server-based method builds on the SOA safety aspects in provider implementation systems (e.g., software servers, integration servers, packaged functions, and application-as-a-carrier). by way of allowing service structures to retain safety contexts based on the actual conclusion user, this approach facilitates implementation of superior authorization thoughts. It additionally enables audit logs to record actual end-person service request undertaking, which may also be important for precise auditing and compliance for privateness and different laws. whereas it has the knowledge of requiring no money outlay for brand spanking new SOA strong point products, if one has distinct platforms, the configuration and integration work required can cause the answer’s charge in work hours to equal or exceed the charge of purchasing and configuring SOA uniqueness items.
application-server-based mostly SOA protection will often use an easy VPN connection as a basis. a likely extension of this state of affairs may encompass the usage of an SOA or utility server security plug-in from a single signal-on or id management ambiance to supply for consistent safety between SOA capabilities on an utility server and different software assets controlled by means of the id management product.
state of affairs No. three: Single middleman Consolidates protection Processing
The different side of the core of the continuum is the single intermediary method, which concentrates SOA protection functions right into a policy enforcement element that sits in front of ones service implementation systems. This simplifies SOA safety, presenting a single solution (which includes the intermediary and its administrative tools) that may deliver security throughout any and all SOA functions (at the least for the message codecs and protocols the intermediary helps). despite the fact, in the pure implementation of this strategy, service systems, in essence, turn off user-stage SOA protection facets in favor of trusting the intermediary for all SOA safety. The middleman may be offered by products from several diverse classes including SOA home equipment, SOA administration options, business service buses (ESBs), integration-centric business system management suites (IC-BPMSs), or specialized SOA protection items.
A single middleman approach may additionally use a simple VPN connection as a groundwork. The intermediary handles all SOA security processing; for this reason, provider systems are not required to have any specific SOA protection aid, which allows the answer to aid a wide range of provider systems.
state of affairs No. 4: Brokered, Layered, Federated offers comprehensive SOA safety
on the a long way advanced end of the continuum, the SOA safety answer is deeply integrated throughout numerous layers of provider calls, guaranteeing that each provider platform has access to the consumer’s id, and it helps advanced protection eventualities equivalent to federation and token change. nowadays, few corporations even approximate this class of answer. youngsters, as SOA safety options, specifications, and products mature and as privateness and fiscal laws get more stringent, superior SOA security solutions will turn into extra feasible (both financially and technically) and, certainly, may be necessary for some eventualities. A brokered, layered, federated SOA safety solution will use distinctive specifications, integrate distinctive products, and extremely possible require custom-constructed integration to drag all of the items collectively.
To account for evolution of your SOA security method over time, bake into your design as a whole lot consistency as viable between easier SOA protection patterns and more-complicated ones. besides the fact that children your organization can be aware of making security compromises to prevent the cost of an superior brokered, layered, federated safety strategy, an advanced method will develop into both less complicated to achieve and more necessary additional time as SOA protection matures and as requirements for cyber security boost.
Randy Heffner is a vp at Forrester research, serving commercial enterprise structure specialists. he is a leading professional on architectures and design strategies for building commercial enterprise functions which are cozy and resilient in the face of continuous company and expertise trade.
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Microservices and software oriented structure (SOA) are two componentized architectures for utility building. because the cloud computing period has gained steam, the more highly granular microservices structure (MSA) has developed from the earlier SOA. Yet each strategies stay typical. where SOA is enterprise-concentrated, microservices is application-focused.
First we are going to study each and every of those applied sciences, then we are going to evaluate and contrasts both.understanding service Oriented architecture
A SOA is a group of features that use a messaging middleware part for communications between services. The middleware layer additionally supports interoperability of distinctive protocols. functions can range in measurement all of the manner as much as subsystems used commercial enterprise-extensive.
SOA is generally regarded as the most suitable option for integrating disparate methods in a large blended atmosphere operating distinctive OS, equivalent to Linux and home windows.realizing Microservices
In microservices, however, each and every application is structured as a collection of small features, modeled round a company domain. This structure makes use of an utility programming interface (API) layer as an alternative of middleware, and protocols are light-weight. Microservices most advantageous practices requires builders to construct with the API in the forefront of the design.https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204651744;s=9478;x=7936;f=201802271700250;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403940;e=i
Microservices work improved for building small, smartly partitioned web-based mostly systems which give considerable manage to the developer. every provider is designed to satisfy a specific intention -- similar to an internet carrier for activating an order or offering browsing cart features -- and to excel in supplying on that aim.comparing Microservices vs. SOA
SOA and microservices both ease software development by way of replacing older monolithic structures with more without difficulty manageable modular components. although, SOA and MSA range markedly alongside strains that include widely wide-spread structure, service characteristics, approaches to part sharing, database aid, and extra.
listed below are some key transformations:popular architecture
SOA defines both a provider layer, comprising all capabilities inside the equipment, and a buyer layer, or the element at which patrons comparable to human users or other functions interact with the gadget. The commercial enterprise provider Bus (ESB) allows for various point-to-point connections between carrier suppliers and service patrons. capabilities may also be created through varied building teams, however each and every crew has to be privy to the average communication mechanism.
In MSA, nonetheless, small, unbiased approaches speak with each different inner incredibly granual and agile applications. every provider is independently deployable, which means that it may also be shut down when now not in use devoid of impacting the entire device. MSA also makes it simpler and faster to strengthen new models of existing services, suiting this architecture neatly to DevOps most useful practices. additionally, features will also be scaled independently, depending on load requirements.carrier features
SOA and microservices each rely on functions as their leading part, yet both architectures fluctuate considerably around service qualities.
SOA defines 4 fundamental carrier kinds:
In contrast, MSA defines simplest two simple service types:
SOA's middleware offers many capabilities absent from the API's used for communications between service suppliers and consumers in MSA.
advantages of the middleware layer include protocol transformation, message enhancement, and mediation and routing. as a result of MSA would not support middleware, and MSA functions are so small and principally purposed, SOA is commonly considered because the most effective structure for colossal and complicated commercial enterprise programs.Database guide
In SOA, all services use the same underlying database. functions customarily assist average relational databases.
MSA is also greater agile and versatile in this method. A database can either be dedicated to a selected microservice or shared among dissimilar microservices. MSAs are also extra likely to use newer nonrelational databases. unlike relational databases, which handiest help structured records, nonrelational databases additionally aid semi-structured statistics similar to emails and XML documents and unstructured information comparable to Microsoft home windows files, internet pages, social media messages, and video info.element Sharing
SOA is designed to advertise company performance reuse by bettering element sharing. basically, element sharing is the main function of SOA's business capabilities. capabilities are often implemented as complete subsystems. youngsters, as a result of SOA makes use of distinctive components to meet business requests, SOA functions can also be less productive than microservices.
Microservices, nevertheless, minimizes element sharing through “bounded context." A element and its statistics are coupled as a single unit with minimal dependencies. An software is required to access a persistent information store by means of a service implementation-supplied API.Contract Decoupling
a major tenet of SOA is contract decoupling, which offers the maximum diploma of decoupling between service provider and buyer.
MSA, besides the fact that children, would not help contract decoupling.Containers
Containers and microservices are a natural suit. Containers corresponding to Dockers and Linux Containers work somewhat smartly with microservices architectures however are used less often in SOA.
via encapsulating a lightweight runtime atmosphere for functions, containers give a consistent utility environment as a microservice software strikes in the course of the continual development, trying out, and deployment cycles of DevOps. Containers may also be run on each digital machines (VMs) and physical machines, and with excessive server utilization charges.web features
SOA and MSA both supply aid for web capabilities. in fact, some however not all MSA microservices can also be characterized as web capabilities.
Like internet features, microservices are agnostic to programming languages similar to Java, Perl, Ruby, and C++.far off access Protocols
SOA architectures customarily use primary Object entry Protocol (cleaning soap) and messaging protocols reminiscent of Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) and the open usual advanced Message Queing Protocol (AMQP) as their leading faraway entry protocols. despite the fact, representation State transfer (relaxation) is once in a while used with SOA.
MSA often makes use of the extra streamlined relaxation API, along with AMQP messaging, for faraway entry.Fault Tolerance
SOA's ESB can current a single element of failure (SPOF) for the whole gadget. If one provider slows down, the the ESB can turn into overwhelmed through requests for that carrier.
MSA is greater fault tolerant. for instance, a memory leak is one microservice will handiest have an impact on that particular microservice. other microservices might be capable of keep it up managing requests.Threading
SOA is multi-threaded, with greater overheads to tackle inputs/outputs (IOs).
MSA is single-threaded. however, microservice architectures usually consist of an adventure loop for handling I/Os.Systematic changes
In SOA, a systematic trade requires enhancing the entire gadget.
In MSA, a scientific change can be achieved through developing a new service.Microservices and SOA linked terms
Mark O'Neill is CTO at Vordel and creator of the ebook web services safety.
in this article, we assess how protection applies to service Oriented structure (SOA). earlier than we discuss security for SOA, let's take a step back and assess what SOA is. SOA is an architectural strategy which contains functions being uncovered as "functions". firstly, capabilities in SOA had been linked to a stack of applied sciences which protected cleaning soap, WSDL, and UDDI. youngsters, many grassroots builders then confirmed a alternative for light-weight rest (Representational State switch) functions as opposed to the more heavyweight cleaning soap messages, with the effect that leisure is now an approved part of SOA. the upward push of net 2.0 has cemented RESTss vicinity in the SOA world, considering that rest is conventional in web 2.0. extra recently, Cloud services such as Amazon's simple Queuing carrier (SQS) may well be used alongside local functions, to create a "hybrid" SOA atmosphere. The outcome of all this is that SOA now encompasses the common cleaning soap/relaxation/UDDI stack, rest features, and the Cloud. From a protection professional's point of view, all of it have to be secured.
it's tempting to launch into an outline of SOA safety devoid of first asking "Why?" Why apply safety to SOA? One glaring answer is to protect the SOA infrastructure towards attack. here is a legitimate cause, but there are additionally enabling, positive explanations for making use of security to SOA, such as the capability to monitor usage of features in a SOA. We begin via inspecting the assaults towards SOA technologies, both soap and relaxation. Then we check how specifications akin to WS-safety permit policies to be applied to SOA, for this reason permitting controlled utilization and monitoring and finally examine the protection ramifications when an business integrates local on-site applications with cloud computing services.Countering SOA Threats
What are the content material-based mostly threats affecting XML and leisure functions within an SOA? within the case of XML, there had been a couple of publicized attacks akin to XML Entity-expansion, and SQL Injection.
In a SOA, SQL Injection assaults involve the insertion of SQL fragments into XML data to come back inappropriate information, or to supply an error which displays database access information.
A successful SQL Injection assault in SOA has two necessities:
- facts bought by using a service within the SOA is inserted at once into a SQL commentary
- The SQL commentary is run with sufficient privileges to execute the attack.
To counter this assault, it's vital to make certain that statistics bought from untrusted clients isn't without delay positioned into SQL statements. This will also be executed via imposing content-validation and threat-detection rules over incoming content.
imagine this situation: a carrier in an SOA is covered with the aid of a coverage which ensures that carrier requests are digitally signed. This seems at ease, however is it? The answer is that this equipment is liable to a replay attack which with ease replays a sound signed message, consequently gaining unauthorized entry.
The answer to this difficulty involves the usage of timestamps. The WS-security average contains aid for timestamps, and WS-coverage may also be used to mandate that a signed timestamp is latest in incoming messages. A replayed message will hence be detected in keeping with its "stale" timestamp. The timestamp believe interval ought to be decided carefully. It have to be short adequate so that an attacker wouldn't have time to catch, decrypt, and replay a valid message. nevertheless it ought to be long sufficient in order that moderate discrepancies between the gadget clocks of the web service and the internet service requester do not effect in legitimate messages being blocked. [Editor's note: For more on the critical role of system clocks, see Simson Garfinkel's Right on Time?]
be careful now not to confuse replay attacks with brute-drive "flooding" Denial-of-carrier (DoS) assaults. although each contain a message being replayed, the DoS assault is designed to crush and disable the goal device, whereas the replay assault exploits a flaw in the target programs authentication scheme.
XML external Entity assault
The "XML external Entity" assault which takes capabilities of the undeniable fact that outdoor records can be embedded into an XML document by way of a DTD [Document Type Definition] entry. by using specifying a native file, some XML engines may well be made to entry unauthorized counsel from the native file system. notice that soap isn't allowed to use DTDs.
It is likely that XPath Injection, which is similar to SQL Injection, may also be used to "harvest" counsel from an XML database. XPath injection can also be blocked through guaranteeing that facts handed into an XPath expression does not itself comprise XPath.
XML Denial-of-provider (XDoS)
This assault exploits a characteristic of DTDs, namely the capacity to drag in entities which might be defined in a DTD. via pulling in entities recursively, an attacker can make an XML message which explodes in memory (therefore the term "XML bomb") and factors a denial-of-service.
harmful soap attachments
just like e mail messages, cleaning soap messages may additionally contain attachments. These attachments may well be threatening in the event that they are very significant and tricky to process (e.g. a "clogging attack"), or in the event that they harbor viruses. The answer is to make certain that cleaning soap attachments are either (a) blocked, (b) filtered in keeping with MIME-classification, or (c) passed via a virus scanner.
XML Signature dereference assaults"XML signature applications have to be capable of parse URI syntax. We suggest they be capable of dereference URIs within the HTTP scheme." [RFC3075 - XML-Signature Syntax and Processing ]. however, this introduces a vulnerability, if the referenced facts is bogus, or effortlessly a way to waste recipient equipment components knocking down a huge file.
An XML Signature comprises a "Reference" element pointing to the signed facts. The parsing application have to "dereference" (i.e. pull down) the reference URI. The XML Signature common states that:relaxation, web 2.0 and SOA
within the net 2.0 world, it is the again-end web functions which become a key point of assault. here is every now and then termed the "giant assault floor" of internet 2.0. An attacker can try to attack an software through its client interface, or they can quite simply skip the interface and simply go straight after the again-end web features in its place.
At this factor, some readers can be considering "here's not all that distinct from normal net purposes, so why is it secured differently?" in any case, in internet 2.0, internet browsers are used, web Servers are used, and a person is worried. certainly, when information is being despatched between a web Browser and a web Server, it does make experience to scan the records for evidence of attempts to function assaults like SQL Injection or go-web page scripting. also, when XML is on the community, it does make feel to scan it for assaults such as XML Denial of service or XPath Injection. additionally, relaxed coding practices nonetheless follow right here. wealthy purposes on browsers latest more advantageous cozy coding tasks.
"Freemium" and the possibility of statistics harvesting
So-called "Freemium" web capabilities comprises basic capabilities being provided for gratis, while charging a top rate for advanced or special aspects. The note "freemium" itself is a portmanteau which combines both features of the company mannequin: free and top rate.
enabling some services in a SOA to operate in the freemium model is compelling, seeing that it presents a direction to a paying business mannequin. despite the fact, the practicality is more advanced. The mannequin presupposes a SOA security framework which detects overuse and enforces price for top class service utilization. usage should be authenticated so that the over-use of the provider via a particular consumer is detected, and consequences in the person being asked to pay the premium price. always this is accomplished the usage of so-referred to as "developer tokens". These are tokens which might be embedded into the net service invocations sent as much as the carrier which is being offered. So, as an example, a consumer can use a search service as much as a definite point, however they can't facts-mine search phrases without being detected, and then required to pay the premium fee.
When enforcing the freemium mannequin for features in a SOA, an organization has the choice of writing customized code to enforce it, or to make use of an off-the-shelf product corresponding to an XML Gateway. An XML Gateway offers advantages via allowing alterations to be made to the parameters in the mannequin without a requirement to alternate specific code. The XML Gateway also scans for the assaults which we now have discussed previous, similar to malicious code injection.id and specifications
it is crucial to know who is the usage of the features of a SOA, and to use this tips to manage entry and to keep information within an audit path. The assignment of controlling access to the functions makes use of a whole lot of requisites, some dependent equivalent to X.509 certificates, and a few new reminiscent of SAML and WS-security. it's crucial no longer to be blindsided with the aid of the specifications, above all when they are composed collectively in a complex method.
The old and the brand new: Passwords, X.509 Certificates, and WS-safety
Passwords were around given that time immemorial. they are nevertheless common within SOA security. in lots of situations, it is without difficulty a case of HTTP Authentication, despatched over SSL so that the password is not despatched within the clear. certainly, in spite of the fact that Digest Authentication is used, where the password isn't sent within the clear, SSL may still nonetheless be used with the intention to block certain trap-replay attacks. despite the fact that HTTP Authentication over SSL is "old" know-how, it nonetheless is typical for point-to-element authentication within an SOA.
X.509 certificates are used within the context of SSL authentication, where an internet service can prove its identity to a shopper, or, within the case of two-means SSL, the client additionally proves its identification to the service. during this case "id" is amorphous, considering internet capabilities interactions commonly contain applications speaking to functions, and not using a human being concerned. So the "identity" is the identification of an application. And, as is the case in all utilization of X.509 certificates, the have confidence is in response to the issuer of the X.509 certificates (a certificates Authority, commonly abbreviated to "CA").
as well as SSL, X.509 certificates are often used within the context of digital signatures. XML Signature is a typical which defines how XML data will also be digitally signed the usage of the deepest key which corresponds to an X.509 certificates, in order that any individual who holds the signatorys X.509 certificates can validate the signature.
XML Encryption is a typical which, as you can also bet, defines how XML statistics may well be encrypted. You can also ask "what is distinct about encrypting XML statistics, versus encrypting some other variety of facts?" The reply is that XML statistics can also be selectively encrypted, allowing for eventualities corresponding to selectively encrypting a patient identify in a medical checklist. considering that the messages in an SOA are basically XML (aside from leisure and JSON for net 2.0 capabilities), XML Encryption is very useful as a way to observe privateness suggestions.
Kerberos is also a mature know-how, which remains used within SOA security. In certain, Kerberos is regularly used in a home windows atmosphere, considering the fact that it continues to underpin authentication and single sign-on in windows networking.
All of those pre-present protection applied sciences continue for use for SOA safety.
WS-protection is a more recent expertise which turned into standardized in 2004. It builds on what has come before. It defines how XML Encryption and XML Signature follow to soap, in order that a cleaning soap message may well be encrypted and/or signed. moreover, it defines where passwords and X.509 Certificates are positioned in a cleaning soap message, and how soap may additionally function with Kerberos. This allows for for interoperability between different applications which use WS-protection.
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In automotive cyberscecurity news there were anouncements from ZF, Trend Micro and Luxoft. ZF AI & Cybersecurity
ZF is establishing a Technology Center for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cybersecurity in Saarbrücken. As part of a worldwide network, the technology group is already developing AI applications for systems and components as well as for making production and services safer, more intelligent and efficient. With the new “ZF AI & Cybersecurity Center,” ZF will now expand its activities in the area of AI research and will coordinate and control the company’s future AI activities from here. Wolf-Henning Scheider, Chief Executive Officer of ZF Friedrichshafen AG, announced the location for the Technology Center today in the presence of Saarland Minister-President Tobias Hans. Scheider also announced that as a new shareholder of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) and strategic partner of the Helmholtz Center for Information Security (CISPA), ZF will cooperate closely with these leading research institutions in the future. This deal is expected to be finalised in the second quarter of 2019 and is subject to formal approval of all current shareholders.
“With the new Technology Center for Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity, we are taking our Group-wide expertise in these key digital technologies to a new level. We are also in close proximity to the most respected research institutions in these disciplines which will strengthen our cooperation,” explained Wolf-Henning Scheider. “We plan to recruit around 100 new, highly qualified people in Saarbrücken – and work with them to drive forward sophisticated developments for new, digitally connected and automated mobility solutions,” continued Scheider.
Two thirds of these 100 specialists based in Saarbrücken will focus on AI, the remaining third will focus on cybersecurity. These new colleagues will complement the more than 300 colleagues worldwide – based at the company’s headquarters for R&D in Friedrichshafen and at other locations in Germany and abroad – that are already developing solutions in the fields of Artificial Intelligence, Industry 4.0 and Cybersecurity and use them in products and services. In the future, these activities will be coordinated at the joint “ZF AI & Cybersecurity Center” and supplemented by the latest research and development results to support all ZF divisions worldwide. The objective is to create a common global AI platform for the optimization of existing or development of new applications, products, services and processes.Trend Micro & Luxoft
Trend Micro Incorporated a global leader in cybersecurity solutions, nnounced a strategic partnership with Luxoft Holding, Inc. , a global digital strategy and engineering firm. The two companies will jointly introduce and deploy the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), a comprehensive cybersecurity solution designed to detect, mitigate and respond to cyber-attacks on connected cars.
The automotive industry is rapidly evolving. In fact, Gartner estimates that by 2025 more than 1.1 billion connected consumer and commercial vehicles will be on the roads.1 Connected cars and mobility services offer a wealth of new opportunities, but with the introduction of always-on connectivity and on-demand services, new cybersecurity threats leave carmakers vulnerable to attack. Trend Micro continues to see increased interest from cybercriminals in attacking connected devices – and cars will be no exception.
“We’re delighted to be joining forces with Luxoft to tackle the growing challenge of securing connected cars,” said Akihiko Omikawa, executive vice president for IoT security at Trend Micro. “Connected devices of all kinds must be secured from the beginning, and this solution will allow car makers to build in the necessary mitigations to block cyber threats. By combining Luxoft’s automotive capabilities and expertise with Trend Micro’s leading expertise in cybersecurity, we will be able to tackle the new challenges brought by the digitalization of in-car systems.”
The upcoming IDPS solution developed specifically for cars, will be enhanced with machine learning techniques to identify anomalies in communication, behavior and the state of components. The machine learning will be fed by data collected from advanced detection mechanisms from the in-car technology. In addition, the solution will provide car manufacturers’ insights from Trend Micro’s global threat intelligence, with information on threats, vulnerabilities and remediation from the company’s expansive global data set. The IDPS will include a data collection and detection engine, offering another level of protection against intrusion for in-car systems.
Key features of the IDPS solution include:
T-Systems and Argus Cyber Security, an independent subsidiary of the technology company Continental, will work together on cyber defense for cars. This was announced by the companies at the Hanover Industrial Trade Fair. T-Systems is planning a Security Operations Center specializing in vehicles (Automotive SOC). The company announced this in mid-March. With Argus the company is now bringing an important partner on board.
The Israeli automotive cyber security specialist has a highly developed Information and Event Management System (SIEM) for cars as well as in-vehicle solutions. Car manufacturers (OEMs) and fleet operators use it to identify anomalies for connected vehicles. Attacks from the Internet are increasing rapidly. T-Systems CEO Adel Al-Saleh says: “We are currently seeing a new peak of 32 million daily attacks on our systems. Attackers don’t stop in front of our cars either. The connected vehicle needs a digital bodyguard and real-time cyber defense.”GuardKnox Guarding Networks, Services and EV Charging Grids
GuardKnox Cyber Technology is making moves in the connected and autonomous vehicle space. The company shared it’s lstest developments Palo Alto Networks, Patented Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and EV-ECU- a cybersecurity solutions for the EV Charging Grid.Palo Alto Network Partnership
Palo Alto Networks® and GuardKnox partnership recently formed a partnership that has come up with an end-to-end cybersecurity solution that combines secure in-vehicle communication lockdown with a secure communication channel between the vehicle and remote databases at OEMs, fleet management companies, car dealerships and mobile app stores.
External network security between the vehicle and the OEM cloud is provided by the Palo Alto Networks GlobalProtect™ secure communication channel while in-vehicle network security is provided by the GuardKnox Secure Network Orchestrator™ solution. Palo Alto Networks’ shared network ownership model reduces the operational burden of deploying its GlobalProtect security to connected cars. Palo Alto Networks® manages the cloud network infrastructure, ensuring reliability, scalability and availability while the OEM, fleet management company or dealership focuses their efforts on deploying their OTA updates.
A key milestone on the way to fully autonomous vehicles is securely connecting cars to the Internet. These vehicles, connected vehicles offer a variety of operational benefits and cost-savings to OEMs and fleet management companies such as:
The potential risks of OTA updates are two-fold:
As such it is imperative to have an end-to-end cybersecurity system that can ensure the integrity and security of both the internal and external vehicle networks.
GuardKnox’s Communication Lockdown™ methodology provides the highest level of in-vehicle security by permitting only authorized communication, examining their routing, content, and contextual layers and locking every field in every message within the vehicle to prevent unauthorized manipulation. By utilizing these strict rule sets, only vetted communication is passed onto the in-vehicle network.
OEMs, fleet management companies, and providers of ride-sharing applications (to name a few examples) can save time and earn more money by integrating the combined Palo Alto Networks -GuardKnox end-to-end solution to provide cybersecurity for:
GuardKnox Services Oriented Architecture (SOA)
The GuardKnox Patented Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) Provides Foundation for Future of Secure Subscription-Based Services and Customization of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles
GuardKnox’s Secure Network Orchestrator (SNO™) product line includes SOA and Communication Lockdown methodology, enabling a multi-platform and multi-service approach with the ability to host multiple operating systems and services, mission and non-mission critical, on one ECU with secure separation and full permission control.
This is the 2nd patent GuardKnox has earned for its automotive Services Oriented Architecture The company has several other granted patents on its software and hardware automotive cybersecurity technologies- GuardKnox has earned 5 US patents over the past year for its cybersecurity and connecetd solutions.
GuardKnox’s SOA enables additional levels of connectivity and customization through access control and service level partitioning to maintain vehicle integrity while increasing driver personalization. The SOA has a secure separation (both hardware and software) between all resources, application groups, and operating systems, simplifying edge computing capabilities by providing ample processing resources with maximal flexibility both in interface support and provision for future software extensions/additional service being added.
Cybersecurity: the Foundation for services and personalization
GuardKnox’s SOA technology creates the secure environment which enables added services and applications by hosting downloads or upgrades on the SNO platform throughout the lifecycle of the vehicle. This enables mission critical and non-mission critical applications to run simultaneously without interference; if one application should be compromised, all others will not be affected. This in essence converts the driver of a vehicle to a subscriber of features and functions of the connected and/or autonomous vehicle.
According to Guardknox Shlisel, “Our SOA technology will take connected vehicles to the next level and serve as the foundational layer for added connectivity — enabling unlimited, secure customization and personalization. With GuardKnox’s SOA, OEMs and Tier 1s have ample opportunities to monetize their vehicles, while offering drivers customizable options that suits their lifestyles.”
He continued, “Think of temporary added traction for a snowy day in the south or added horsepower for towing on your mountain vacation. One day you will be able to change the style of your dashboard by downloading an app, like you change the background on your cellphone. But as we continue to add connectivity, we are making vehicles more vulnerable to potential attacks. GuardKnox is providing an in-vehicle secure landing point for hosting, processing, downloading and OTA updates. Furthermore, creating new markets and new revenue streams for OEMs.”
GuardKnox’s Central SNO™ Gateway/Domain Controller
GuardKnox’s Central SNO™ Gateway/Domain Controller serves as a high-powered vehicle cybersecurity platform, not only providing centralized protection to all ECUs in the vehicle, but also serving as the foundational layer for future personalization and customization of the vehicle. The SNO fits seamlessly into the automotive ecosystem, alleviating the need for any third-party or software only integration.
Shlisel added, “Importantly, unlike other cybersecurity options, our SNO is a full hardware architecture and software stack solution, completely autonomous and does not require any constant online connectivity. By its nature, it can defend against both known or unknown attacks.”
Furthermore, SOA enables seamless application switching, utility and processing without any interruptions in functionality. GuardKnox patented SOA and Communication Lockdown™ methodology enable the production of secured high-performance ECUs outside of the central domain controller, and are positioned within the vehicle for secured data processing and storage — enabling additional revenue streams for automotive manufacturers while providing a more extensive and personalized driver experience.
There is a sense of urgency to cope with this dangerous and expensive threat both within and outside the EV charging context. By 2020, the sales of BEVs are expected to quadruple—around 5% of the overall global light-vehicle market. By 2040, the sales of electric vehicles will comprise 54% sales worldwide.
The electric vehicle charging infrastructure is rapidly growing—although a single standard for supporting the infrastructure has yet to emerge, the electric vehicle market is dynamic high-growth market in which developing EVs for the mass market is still in its infancy. Manufacturing BEVs and the global deployment of the charging stations are just two of many pieces need to support the transportation revolution already underway.
Solutions for both challenges require hardware and software-based cybersecurity to protect from many of the same risks already associated with connected vehicles, including cyber-hijacking of billing systems, vehicles or the grid; ransomware; stealing personal data, financial information or energy; and tampering with communications between EVs, billing and financial systems and grid-related infrastructure.
With a full software stack and hardware architecture, GuardKnox’s patented technologies adhere to the most stringent security and safety standards. SNO™ solutions comply with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) and offer in vehicle protection from EV charging.
GuardKnox has created a complete Electric Vehicle Electric Control Unit (EV ECU), it integrates a large number of protocols (with overlapping features and capabilities) that are used for communication and control between various components of the electric grid. Most of the protocols were developed, tested and deployed over large periods of time and reflect the challenges and the threats at the time of their development.
Each country usually uses a specific set of communication and control protocols, not always identical with sets used in neighboring countries. This potentially creates a challenge for EVs roaming between different countries, presenting a challenge in the EV ecosystem. The adoption and deployment of the new communication and control protocols can better support the effort to cope with cyber-attacks from country to country. Guardknox’s EV ECU/V2G system tackles these challenges as well as:
Solutions for these challenges require hardware and software-based cybersecurity to protect from many of the same risks already associated with connected vehicles — including cyber-hijacking of billing systems, vehicles or the grid; stealing personal data, financial information or energy; and more.
GuardKnox offers a deterministic approach to cybersecurity that makes it uniquely suitable for use in a large ecosystem composed of millions of devices like EV charging networks. GuardKnox’s patented three-layer Communication Lockdown™ methodology examines all messages on the routing layer, the content layer and the contextual layer. It permits only allowed “legal” communication while dropping all unauthorized or improper communication.
GuardKnox’s patented Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) enables customization of the vehicle and secured on-board data storage and processing for automotive manufacturers. The high-performance Secure Network Orchestrator™ (SNO) platform houses SOA and allows unified communication as well as access control and service level partitioning.
The EV ECU product line is part of GuardKnox’s SNO product line.
While this product is currently not in a productions vehicle, GuardKnox is in the process of answering RFPs and RFQs for major OEMs, often time in conjunction with Tier 1 suppliers and has a have done and are continuing to do on-going projects with the VW group, DXC technologies, Porsche and Daimler.
Electric vehicles and the charging ecosystem, including the power grid, is a new territory for all players involved. The industry is still developing yet alone maturing. Automotive manufacturers and Tier 1 Suppliers are unsure how to effectively address the cybersecurity vulnerabilities in electric vehicles. There is a plethora of vulnerabilities when discussing EV charging from the payment applications, connectivity to the chargers as well as the grid, induction charging and much much more.
Employing an EV ECU with a Service-Oriented Architecture with secure separation and service level partitioning, will enables driver access to unlimited personalization without the vulnerabilities of malicious hacking attempts. Sensitive data, such as financial information, is protected. Furthermore, in conjunction with Palo Alto Networks, any transfer of data over the cloud or to OEM back ends is fully protected from end-to-end. This architecture will allow the revolutionary EV ECU to download, host and process applications, services and data with extra computing resources as the needs are developed and matured.
Most of the communication and control protocols in use today don’t keep pace with the rapid developments in the hacking industry and leave a large attack surface that can be exploited by multiple adversary players (from disgruntled workers to state-sponsored organizations) for cyber-attacks in a large set of formats culminating with the interference within the grid operation, governance, stability and availability (DDOS – Distributed Denial of Service, Ransomware, Exfiltration of Personal, Proprietary and Confidential Data, Steal of electricity from the grid, Worms/Viruses/ Trojans, etc. to name only a few).
There is a sense of urgency to cope with this dangerous and expensive threat both within and outside the EV charging context.
With a full software stack and hardware architecture, GuardKnox’s patented technologies adhere to the most stringent security (ISO 15408), safety (ISO 26262) and PLC (ISO 15118) standards. Additionally, the EV ECU complies with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation). By implementing the Service-Oriented Architecture in EV ECUs, manufacturers have the extra high-powered computing resources to securely adapt to whatever the future may bring in terms of added services and application
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By Bill Lydon
The RAMI 4.0, Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 (Industry 4.0), was developed by the German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association (ZVEI) to support Industry 4.0 initiatives, which are gaining broad acceptance throughout the world. Industry 4.0 (also termed Industrie 4.0) is a holistic view of manufacturing enterprises, started in Germany, with many worldwide cooperative efforts including China, Japan, and India. Industry 4.0 concepts, structure, and methods are being adopted worldwide to modernize manufacturing.Effective manufacturing
Throughout the world, there is a recognition that to be competitive, manufacturing needs to modernize. The Industry 4.0 movement in particular continues to accelerate defining the pattern of how all industrial automation can achieve the goal of holistic and adaptive automation system architectures. A driving force behind the development of Industry 4.0 is the realization that pursuing low labor rates is not a winning strategy. Remaining competitive and flexible can only be accomplished by leveraging advanced technologies, centering on automation to enable a successful transition. Germany's Industrie 4.0 initiative has ignited cooperative efforts in China, Japan, and India.
Industry 4.0 is interdisciplinary, where the standards applicable in mechanical engineering, electronics, electrical engineering, and communications and information technology need to be combined with the respective technologies needed for their implementation.Discrete and process industries
The development of RAMI 4.0 focused on industrial production as the primary area of application, including discrete manufacturing to process industries. Industry 4.0 concepts are being applied to process industries to achieve a holistic integration of automation, business information, and manufacturing execution function to improve all aspects of production and commerce across process industry value chains for greater efficiency. The "Process Sensor 4.0 Roadmap" initiated by NAMUR and VDI/VDE, in collaboration with several prominent leaders in the industry (including ABB, BASF, Bayer Technology Services, Bilfinger Maintenance, Endress+Hauser, Evonik, Festo, Krohne, Lanxess, Siemens, and Fraunhofer ICT), reflects the intent of creating fundamental building blocks to advance process automation system architectures. A number of NAMUR working groups are part of Working Area 2 (WA 2), Automation Systems for Processes and Plants.
Related to this activity, the OPC Foundation and FieldComm Group have an initiative to create a protocol-independent, process automation device information model (PA-DIM) specification based on the industrial interoperability standard OPC UA. PROFIBUS/PROFINET International is now participating in this vision, which is supported by NAMUR as part of its Open Architecture (NOA) initiative. The goal is enabling end users to dramatically reduce time to implement advanced analytics, big data projects, and enterprise cloud solutions that rely on information from thousands of geographically dispersed field devices using multiple process automation protocols.
RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional map showing the most important aspects of Industrie 4.0.It ensures that all participants involved share a common perspective and developa common understanding,” explains Kai Garrels, chair of the working groupReference Architectures, Standards and Norms at the Plattform Industrie 4.0,and head of standardization and industry relations at ABB (www.plattform-i40.de).RAMI 4.0 definition
The RAMI 4.0 Reference Architectural Model and the Industry 4.0 components give companies a framework for developing future products and business models. RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional map showing how to approach the deployment of Industry 4.0 in a structured manner. A major goal of RAMI 4.0 is to make sure that all participants involved in Industry 4.0 discussions and activities have a common framework to understand each other. The RAMI 4.0 framework is intended to enable standards to be identified to determine whether there is any need for additions and amendments. This model is complemented by the Industry 4.0 components. Both results are described in DIN SPEC 91345 (Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0). DIN (www.din.de) represents German interests within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Today, roughly 85 percent of all national standard projects are European or international in origin.
Putting the RAMI 4.0 model in perspective, in the glossary of the VDI/VDE-GMA 7.21 Industrie 4.0 technical committee, a reference model is defined as a model that can be generally applied and can be used to derive specific models. There are many examples of this in the field of technology. The most well known is the seven-layer ISO/OSI model, which is used as a reference model for network protocols. The advantage of using such models is a shared understanding of the function of every layer/element and the defined interfaces between the layers.Important characteristics
RAMI 4.0 defines a service-oriented architecture (SOA) where application components provide services to the other components through a communication protocol over a network. The basic principles of SOA are independent of vendors, products, and technologies. The goal is to break down complex processes into easy-to-grasp packages, including data privacy and information technology (IT) security.
ZVEI characterizes the changing manufacturing systems. The current "Old World Industry 3.0" manufacturing system characteristics are:
The "New World: Industry 4.0" manufacturing system characteristics are:
RAMI 4.0 consists of a three-dimensional coordinate system that describes all crucial aspects of Industry 4.0. In this way, complex interrelations are broken down into smaller and simpler clusters.
"Hierarchy Levels" axis
On the right horizontal axis are hierarchy levels from IEC 62264, the international standards series for enterprise IT and control systems. These hierarchy levels represent the different functionalities within factories or facilities. (Note that the IEC 62243 standard is based upon ANSI/ISA-95.) To represent the Industry 4.0 environment, these functionalities have been expanded to include work pieces, labeled "Product," and the connection to the Internet of Things and services, labeled "Connected World."
"Life Cycle Value Stream" axis
The left horizontal axis represents the life cycle of facilities and products, based on IEC 62890, Life-cycle management for systems and products, used in industrial-process measurement, control, and automation. Furthermore, a distinction is made between "types" and "instances." A "type" becomes an "instance" when design and prototyping have been completed and the actual product is being manufactured. The model also combines all elements and IT components in the layer and life-cycle model.
The six layers on the vertical axis describe the decomposition of a machine into its properties, structured layer by layer, i.e., the virtual mapping of a machine. Such representations originate from information and communication technology, where properties of complex systems are commonly broken down into layers.
Within these three axes, all crucial aspects of Industry 4.0 can be mapped, allowing objects such as machines to be classified according to the model. Highly flexible Industry 4.0 concepts can thus be described and implemented using RAMI 4.0. The model allows for step-by-step migration from the present into the world of Industry 4.0.Benefits of RAMI 4.0
The model integrates different user perspectives and provides a common way of seeing Industry 4.0 technologies. With RAMI 4.0, requirements of sectors-from manufacturing automation and mechanical engineering to process engineering-can be addressed in industry associations and standardization committees. Thus, RAMI 4.0 brings a common understanding for standards and use cases.
RAMI 4.0 can be regarded as a map of Industry 4.0 solutions. It is an orientation for plotting the requirements of sectors together with national and international standards to define and further develop Industry 4.0. There is a refreshing interest with Industry 4.0 initiatives for various organizations to work cooperatively and overcome the compartmentalization of the national standardization bodies.The challenge
The influx of technology is starting to dramatically improve manufacturing. However, to do this effectively takes planning, and the RAMI 4.0 model is a focal point for understanding the entire manufacturing and supply chain.
NUREMBERG, Germany, Feb 26, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE via COMTEX) -- NUREMBERG, Germany, Feb. 26, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- (Embedded World 2019) - NXP Semiconductors N.V. NXPI, -0.57% the world's largest supplier of automotive semiconductors  , today announced a vehicle network processing chipset solution for high-performance service-oriented gateways, which enables automakers to unlock the value of connected vehicle data and offer new services. The MPC-LS chipset solution combines the proven NXP automotive MPC5748G microcontroller and enterprise networking LS1043A communications processor to offer the high levels of performance and networking required for service-oriented gateways. For development, evaluation and demonstrations, the chipset solution is supported by an evaluation board, enablement software and a growing ecosystem.
Vehicle data-driven services such as usage-based insurance, predictive maintenance and over-the-air upgradeable vehicles are projected to reach up to $750 billion in revenue by 2030  . These services and the information derived from connected vehicles are poised to transform the automotive industry with new revenue opportunities, improved user experiences, safety and security enhancements and cost reductions. To enable these new opportunities, centrally located service-oriented gateways must securely process and route massive amounts of data across the vehicle, which requires a vehicle network processing solution to meet the demand.
NXP helps automakers, suppliers and emerging global entrants develop new vehicle networking platforms of the future today. The production-ready MPC-LS vehicle network processing chipsetuniquely brings together real-time and applications processing, along with automotive and enterprise networking technologies.
Key features include:
A connected vehicle can generate terabytes of data daily from sensors, vehicle usage, and driver and passenger behaviors. A service-oriented gateway has the performance to conserve wireless network bandwidth by converting raw data into actionable information that can be sent to the cloud for additional analysis and storage with reduced cost.
"The powerful combination of automotive and enterprise network processing technology provided by the MPC-LS chipset for development of vehicle gateways can enable a new era of vehicle services and edge processing," said Jake Alamat, vice president of Automotive Connectivity and Security at NXP. "The value of the solution has been well-received by automakers and is scheduled to be deployed in volume vehicle production starting in 2020."
The automotive-qualified MPC-LS vehicle network processing chipset, comprised of the MPC5748G microcontroller and LS1043A communications processor, is available today.
An evaluation board (MPC-LS-VNP-EVB), with enablement software support for bare metal, and AUTOSAR(R) and Linux(R) operating systems to support development, evaluation, and demonstrations, is available in limited quantities. Contact your salesperson for more information.
More information is available at www.nxp.com/VNP
VEHICLE NETWORK DEMOS AT EMBEDDED WORLD 2019
Airbiquity is a partner in the growing MPC-LS ecosystem which will offer new services to carmakers. NXP will demonstrate the MPC-LS VNP Evaluation Board (EVB) integrated with Airbiquity's OTAmatic [TM] over-the-air (OTA) software and data management services at embedded world 2019.
"NXP's MPC-LS chipset enables Airbiquity's OTAmatic(TM) OTA software and data management solution to offer advanced features requested by carmakers with the capacity to support future services," said Keefe Leung, director of product management for Airbiquity, a service provider in the growing ecosystem. "The ability to run multiple concurrent edge analytics modules while providing secure OTA updates over multiple vehicle network interfaces creates new opportunities for our customers."
[1 ] Source: Strategy Analytics, 2017
 Source: McKinsey & Company, Monetizing Car Data, 2016
About NXP Semiconductors
NXP Semiconductors N.V. NXPI, -0.57% enables secure connections and infrastructure for a smarter world, advancing solutions that make lives easier, better and safer. As the world leader in secure connectivity solutions for embedded applications, NXP is driving innovation in the secure connected vehicle, end-to-end security & privacy and smart connected solutions markets. Built on more than 60 years of combined experience and expertise, the company has over 30,000 employees in more than 30 countries and posted revenue of $9.26 billion in 2017. Find out more at www.nxp.com
NXP and the NXP logo are trademarks of NXP B.V. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. Arm is a trademark or registered trademark of Arm Limited (or its subsidiaries) in the US and/or elsewhere. The related technology may be protected by any or all of patents, copyrights, designs and trade secrets. All rights reserved. (C) 2019 NXP B.V.
For more information, please contact:
Europe / U.S.Jason DealTel: +44 7715228414Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
(C) Copyright 2019 GlobeNewswire, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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