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S90-03A - SOA Design & Architecture - Dump Information

Vendor : SOA
Exam Code : S90-03A
Exam Name : SOA Design & Architecture
Questions and Answers : 100 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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S90-03A Questions and Answers

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S90-03A SOA Design & Architecture

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S90-03A exam Dumps Source : SOA Design & Architecture

Test Code : S90-03A
Test Name : SOA Design & Architecture
Vendor Name : SOA
Q&A : 100 Real Questions

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SOA SOA Design

Microservices vs. SOA | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

download the authoritative guide: Cloud Computing 2019: the use of the Cloud for aggressive advantage

Microservices and application oriented structure (SOA) are two componentized architectures for application development. because the cloud computing period has received steam, the more extremely granular microservices structure (MSA) has evolved from the prior SOA. Yet each tactics continue to be commonplace. where SOA is commercial enterprise-focused, microservices is application-concentrated.

First we are going to analyze each and every of those technologies, then we will compare and contrasts the two.

realizing provider Oriented structure 

A SOA is a set of functions that use a messaging middleware component for communications between capabilities. The middleware layer also supports interoperability of assorted protocols. services can latitude in size the entire way up to subsystems used commercial enterprise-extensive.

SOA is commonly regarded because the most suitable option for integrating disparate systems in a large combined ambiance operating distinct OS, equivalent to Linux and home windows.

knowing Microservices

In microservices, however, every software is structured as a set of small features, modeled around a business area. This architecture makes use of an utility programming interface (API) layer as an alternative of middleware, and protocols are light-weight. Microservices most reliable practices requires builders to build with the API within the forefront of the design.

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Microservices work improved for constructing small, well partitioned net-primarily based methods which supply appreciable manage to the developer. each carrier is designed to fulfill a particular purpose -- such as a web provider for activating an order or proposing searching cart services -- and to excel in supplying on that purpose.

comparing Microservices vs. SOA

SOA and microservices both ease application construction with the aid of replacing older monolithic buildings with greater comfortably manageable modular accessories. however, SOA and MSA differ markedly alongside lines that include normal structure, provider features, techniques to component sharing, database help, and more.

listed below are some key modifications:

common structure

SOA defines each a  issuer layer, comprising all functions in the system, and a customer layer, or the point at which consumers similar to human clients or other services interact with the gadget. The enterprise carrier Bus (ESB) makes it possible for for numerous factor-to-aspect connections between service suppliers and repair buyers. features can also be created with the aid of assorted construction groups, however every team must be privy to the usual verbal exchange mechanism.

In MSA, nonetheless, small, impartial methods speak with each other inside enormously granual and agile functions. each service is independently deployable, that means that it can also be shut down when not in use without impacting the complete equipment. MSA additionally makes it less demanding and sooner to strengthen new versions of current capabilities, suiting this architecture smartly to DevOps foremost practices. also, services may also be scaled independently, depending on load necessities.

service characteristics

SOA and microservices both rely on features as their leading element, yet both architectures fluctuate significantly around provider features. 

SOA defines 4 basic provider varieties:

  • SOA's functional features, also called business functions, are coarse-grained capabilities used for outlining core company operations. practical functions are represented through protocols equivalent to eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and company procedure Execution Language (BPEL).
  • enterprise functions put into effect the functionality defined by means of enterprise services, the use of each software features and infrastructure services to satisfy company requests.
  • software services are excellent-grained functions used best within the context of particular purposes. services may also be invoked via a committed user interface (UI).
  • Infrastructure functions put into effect non-useful initiatives like logging, authentication, auditing and protection. These services will also be invoked from both utility features or business features.
  • In contrast, MSA defines only two basic service kinds: 

  • In MSA, useful features aid selected business operations. These services are accessed externally and aren't shared with different capabilities.
  • As in SOA, MSA's infrastructure capabilities are used to aid projects akin to logging, auditing, and security. MSA’s infrastructure capabilities, although, are not shared with different capabilities, and are only accessible internally.
  • Middleware vs. APIs

    SOA's middleware offers many capabilities absent from the API's used for communications between provider providers and patrons in MSA.

    merits of the middleware layer include protocol transformation, message enhancement, and mediation and routing. as a result of MSA doesn't guide middleware, and MSA applications are so small and primarily purposed, SOA is often regarded because the choicest structure for massive and complicated business techniques.

    Database assist

    In SOA, all features use the identical underlying database. services usually help ordinary relational databases.

    MSA is additionally greater agile and flexible in this way. A database can either be committed to a selected microservice or shared amongst multiple microservices. MSAs are also more likely to use newer nonrelational databases. not like relational databases, which handiest aid structured records, nonrelational databases also assist semi-structured data akin to emails and XML documents and unstructured information akin to Microsoft home windows documents, internet pages, social media messages, and video info.

    part Sharing

    SOA is designed to advertise business performance reuse through enhancing element sharing. truly, element sharing is the main role of SOA's enterprise features. features are often carried out as finished subsystems. although, as a result of SOA uses diverse accessories to satisfy enterprise requests, SOA features will also be much less effective than microservices.

    Microservices, then again, minimizes component sharing through “bounded context." A element and its data are coupled as a single unit with minimal dependencies. An utility is required to access a persistent facts save via a provider implementation-supplied API.

    Contract Decoupling

    a big tenet of SOA is contract decoupling, which gives the highest degree of decoupling between carrier issuer and customer.

    MSA, however, would not aid contract decoupling.

    Containers

    Containers and microservices are a herbal fit. Containers such as Dockers and Linux Containers work reasonably neatly with microservices architectures but are used less often in SOA. 

    by encapsulating a lightweight runtime atmosphere for functions, containers supply a constant software atmosphere as a microservice utility moves through the continual construction, checking out, and deployment cycles of DevOps. Containers may also be run on each digital machines (VMs) and actual machines, and with excessive server utilization quotes.

    internet features

    SOA and MSA both give support for net capabilities. definitely, some however now not all MSA microservices can also be characterized as internet services.

    Like internet functions, microservices are agnostic to programming languages similar to Java, Perl, Ruby, and C++.

    far off access Protocols

    SOA architectures usually use simple Object entry Protocol (soap) and messaging protocols similar to Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) and the open ordinary advanced Message Queing Protocol (AMQP) as their main far flung entry protocols. youngsters, illustration State switch (relaxation) is every now and then used with SOA.

    MSA commonly uses the greater streamlined relaxation API, along with AMQP messaging, for remote entry.

    Fault Tolerance

    SOA's ESB can current a single point of failure (SPOF) for the complete device. If one carrier slows down, the the ESB can become overwhelmed with the aid of requests for that provider.

    MSA is more fault tolerant. as an example, a memory leak is one microservice will only have an effect on that certain microservice. other microservices can be able to keep on dealing with requests.

    Threading

    SOA is multi-threaded, with extra overheads to address inputs/outputs (IOs).

    MSA is single-threaded. however, microservice architectures customarily encompass an adventure loop for coping with I/Os.

    Systematic alterations

    In SOA, a systematic trade requires enhancing the entire system.

    In MSA, a systematic alternate may also be completed by means of creating a new provider.

    Microservices and SOA linked phrases
  • API: An API enables software construction by means of providing a set of capabilities and approaches for accessing statistics or facets of a different software, an OS (operating system), or other software capabilities.
  • net carrier: a web provider is an API which makes use of a standardized way of proposing interoperability between purposes for consumers and servers over the internet. a web provider communicates over Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) the usage of technologies which may encompass leisure, soap, XML, internet service Definition Layer (WSDL), and regular Description, Description, and Integration (UDDI).
  • relaxation  API: A relaxation API is an API which follows the rules of leisure, an architectural style now getting used to replace older architectures corresponding to soap as a less complicated, sooner formula of having access to internet features. The rest API makes use of Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests to indicate favored movements on the web. The main suggestions of rest are the 4 rules of uniform interface for shoppers and servers: providing entry via substances, representing components via representations, changing self-descriptive messages, and connecting components via hyperlinks. 
  • Middleware: Middleware is a layer of utility living outdoor of the OS presenting capabilities to functions which can not be got through the kernel. It materials uniform, excessive-degree interfaces for building purposes which can run interoperably across distinctive methods and a set of normal services for improving collaboration between applications. used in SOA however no longer MSA, middleware hides the heterogeneity of OS, hardware, and protocols moreover the complexities of dispensed applications.

  • The next integration evolution — blockchain | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    right here is a technique to examine distributed ledger technologies (DLT) and blockchain within the context of integration evolution. over the years, companies and their techniques are becoming extra built-in, forming trade-specific trustless networks, and blockchain expertise is in the groundwork of this evolutionary step.

    enterprise integration

    big corporations have a large number of functions running in separate silos that deserve to share information and performance as a way to operate in a unified and consistent way. The procedure of linking such purposes inside a single corporation, to permit sharing of facts and business methods, is called business application integration (EAI).

    similarly, corporations also should share facts and performance in a controlled approach among themselves. They need to integrate and automate the important thing company approaches that lengthen backyard the walls of the organizations. The latter is an extension of EAI and done by means of changing structured messages using agreed upon message specifications referred to as enterprise-to-enterprise (B2B) integration.

    fundamentally, each phrases refer to the manner of integrating facts and performance that spans throughout numerous methods and infrequently events. The methods and enterprise processes in these groups are evolving, and so is the know-how enabling B2B unification.

    Evolution of integration

    There isn’t a year when definite integration technologies grew to become mainstream; they regularly evolved and developed on correct of each different. as opposed to focusing on the specific expertise and yr, let’s try to observe the development that happened over the many years and notice why blockchain is the next know-how new release.

    Evolution of integration applied sciences

    next we will explore in short the leading technological advances in each evolutionary step listed in the table above.

    information integration

    here's one of the oldest mechanisms for guidance access across distinct techniques with right here two fundamental examples:

  • normal database strategy is used for gadget integration within businesses.
  • File sharing system is used for inside and pass-company records trade. With everyday protocols corresponding to FTP, file sharing allows alternate of software records operating throughout machines and working methods.
  • however each techniques are non-true-time, batch-based integrations with limitations round scalability and reliability.

    functionality integration

    while records integration supplied non-actual-time statistics change, the strategies described here enable true-time facts and importantly performance trade:

  • far off technique name offers huge advancements over low-level socket-based mostly integration by means of hiding networking and statistics marshaling complexity. nonetheless it is an early technology, language-based, factor-to-aspect, client-server structure.
  • Object request broker structure (with CORBA, DCOM, RMI implementations) introduces the broker element, which allows for assorted purposes in different languages to reuse the identical infrastructure and discuss with each and every other in a peer-to-peer trend. additionally, the CORBA model has the proposal of naming, protection, concurrency, transactionality, registry and language-impartial interface definition.
  • Messaging introduces temporal decoupling between purposes and ensures certain asynchronous message start.
  • thus far we now have viewed many technology advancements, however they're essentially concentrated on equipment integration in place of utility integration facets. From batch to true-time records trade, from point-to-aspect to see-to-peer, from synchronous to asynchronous, these methods don't care or control what's the type of facts they alternate, nor force or validate it. nevertheless, this early technology integration infrastructure enabled B2B integrations with the aid of replacing EDI-formatted statistics as an example, however without any knowing of the records, nor the enterprise method, it is part of.

    With CORBA, we now have early makes an attempt of interface definitions, and functions which are useful for software integration.

    provider-oriented structure

    The leading features of SOA which are primary for our intention are internet functions necessities. XML presenting language-independent structure for change of statistics, cleaning soap featuring commonplace message structure and WSDL proposing an impartial layout for describing carrier interfaces, form the foundation of net features. These standards, mixed with ESB and BPM implementations, made integrations focus on the business integration semantics, whereas the prior applied sciences had been enabling equipment integration primarily.

    internet features allowed programs no longer to alternate records blindly, however to have laptop readable contracts and interface definitions. Such contracts would allow a device to keep in mind and validate the data (as much as a level) before interacting with the different equipment.

    I additionally include microservices architectural trend here, as in its core, it builds and improves over SOA and ESBs. The basic evolution all through this section is round disbursed system decomposition and transition from WS to rest-based interaction.

    In abstract, here is the section where, on good of common protocols, allotted systems additionally obtained usual standards and contracts definitions.

    Blockchain-based integration

    whereas exchanging information over typical protocols and specifications helps, the service contracts do not provide perception about the business processes hidden behind the contracts and running on faraway methods. A request might be legitimate in response to the contract, however invalid reckoning on the enterprise tactics’ current state. it is much more difficult when integration is not between two events, as in the customer-server model, but among dissimilar equally involved events in a peer-to-peer mannequin.

    every now and then distinct parties are part of the identical enterprise process, which is owned by means of nobody birthday party but all events. A prerequisite for a correct functioning of the sort of multi-birthday celebration interaction is transparency of the usual enterprise manner and its latest state. All that makes the blockchain expertise very eye-catching for implementing dispensed company approaches among varied events.

    This mannequin extends the use of shared protocols and repair contracts with shared business techniques and contained state. With blockchain, all taking part entities share the same enterprise process in the kind of smart contracts. however with a purpose to validate the requests, process and come to the equal conclusion, the business processes want also the same state, and that is executed during the dispensed ledger. Sharing all of the previous states of a smart contract isn't a intention by way of itself, however a prerequisite of the shared company procedure runtime.

    checked out from this attitude, blockchain can also be viewed because the next step within the integration evolution. As we are able to see below, blockchain networks act as a kind of allotted ESB and BPM equipment that aren't contained within a single enterprise entity, however spanning dissimilar agencies.

    Integration technology moving into the house between techniques

    First the protocols (equivalent to FTP), then the API contracts (WSDL, soap) and now the business methods themselves (smart contracts) and their data are relocating backyard of the businesses, into the general shared house, and become part of the combination infrastructure. In some recognize, this fashion is similar to how move-slicing duties of microservices are moving from inside functions into the supporting structures.

    With blockchain, ordinary facts fashions and now enterprise approaches are relocating out of the corporations into the shared company networks. something to observe is that this movement is not universally relevant and it isn't prone to become a mainstream integration mechanism. the sort of stream is only feasible when all members within the community have the identical knowing of data fashions and enterprise strategies; therefore, it is applicable handiest in certain industries where the techniques may also be standardized, equivalent to finance, supply chain, fitness care, and many others.

    Generations of integrations

    Having finished some chronological expertise progression follow-up, let’s have a extra broad look on the B2B integration evolution and its main ranges.

    First generation: device integration protocols

    this is the era of integration technology before CORBA and SOA, enabling especially data alternate over usual protocols however devoid of an figuring out of the information, contracts and enterprise strategies:

  • Integration model: customer-server, where the server element is managed through one birthday party most effective; examples are databases, file servers, message brokers, and many others.
  • specific, shared infrastructure: low-degree system protocols and APIs akin to FTP.
  • Implicit, not shared infrastructure: software contracts, facts codecs, business tactics now not a part of the normal integration infrastructure.
  • second technology: application integration contracts

    This generation of integration know-how uses the system protocols from outdated years and permits purposes to share their APIs within the variety of regularly occurring contracts. here is the subsequent level of integration, the place both applications remember the statistics, its structure, viable error conditions, but now not the enterprise procedure and existing state in the back of it in the different programs:

  • Integration model: client-server model with APIs described with the aid of contracts.
  • specific, shared infrastructure: protocols, application contracts, and API definitions.
  • Implicit, no longer shared infrastructure: enterprise tactics and faraway state are nevertheless deepest.
  • Third technology: dispensed business processes

    The blockchain-primarily based technology, which nonetheless has to show itself as a achievable business structure, goes a step additional. It uses peer-to-peer protocols, and shares company methods with state throughout distinct programs that are controlled by way of parties no longer trusting every other. while old integration generations required shared figuring out of protocol or APIs, this depends on commonplace understanding of the complete company system and its current state. handiest then it makes sense and pays off to kind a cross-corporation disbursed business method network:

  • Integration mannequin: multi-party, peer-to-peer integration, by means of forming enterprise networks with disbursed company methods.
  • specific, shared infrastructure: enterprise system and its required state.
  • Implicit, now not shared infrastructure: other non-manner related state.
  • there are many blockchain-primarily based tasks which are taking different procedures for solving the company integration challenges. In no selected, order here are some of the most generic and interesting permissioned open-source blockchain projects concentrated on the B2B integration space:

  • Hyperledger material is one of the most typical and superior blockchain frameworks, originally developed through IBM, and now a part of Linux groundwork.
  • Hyperledger Sawtooth is a different Linux groundwork allotted assignment developed at first by way of Intel. it is regularly occurring for its modularity and whole part replaceability.
  • Quorum is an commercial enterprise-focused distribution of Ethereum.
  • Corda is one other venture that builds on precise of existing JVM-based middleware applied sciences and allows businesses to transact with contracts and trade price.
  • There are already many company networks constructed with the above tasks, enabling community member companies to combine and have interaction with each other the use of this new integration model.

    besides these full-stack blockchain initiatives that provide community nodes, there are also hybrid techniques. as an instance, Unibright is a venture that goals to join interior enterprise procedures described in typical requisites corresponding to BPMN with present blockchain networks by means of instantly generating wise contracts. The wise contracts can also be generated for public or private blockchains, which may act as one more integration pillar amongst companies.

    these days, there are many blockchain experiments in many fields of life. while public blockchains generate all of the hype via promising to trade the area, deepest and permissioned blockchains are promising much less, however are advancing incessantly.

    Conclusion

    enterprise integration has multiple nuances. Integration challenges within a firm, where all techniques are controlled by one entity and contributors have some degree of have confidence to each other, are broadly speaking addressed by means of contemporary ESBs, BPMs and microservices architectures. however when it involves multi-party B2B integration, there are further challenges. These programs are controlled by using distinctive agencies, haven't any visibility of the business approaches and don't have confidence every different. In these situations, we see groups experimenting with a brand new breed of blockchain-based expertise that depends no longer only on sharing of the protocols and contracts but sharing of the end-to-end enterprise procedures and state.

    And this vogue is aligned with the customary route integration has been evolving through the years: from sharing the very minimal protocols, to sharing and exposing more and more within the sort of contracts, APIs and now business tactics.

    This shared integration infrastructure makes it possible for new transparent integration fashions the place the up to now private company techniques at the moment are collectively owned, agreed, built, maintained and standardized using the open-supply collaboration mannequin. this may encourage businesses to share company tactics and kind networks to improvement additional from joint innovation, standardization and deeper integration in typical.


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    Microservices vs. SOA | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Download the authoritative guide: Cloud Computing 2019: Using the Cloud for Competitive Advantage

    Microservices and software oriented architecture (SOA) are two componentized architectures for software development. As the cloud computing era has gained steam, the more highly granular microservices architecture (MSA) has evolved from the earlier SOA. Yet both approaches remain widely used. Where SOA is enterprise-focused, microservices is application-focused.

    First we'll look at each of these technologies, then we'll compare and contrasts the two.

    Understanding Service Oriented Architecture 

    A SOA is a collection of services that use a messaging middleware component for communications between services. The middleware layer also supports interoperability of multiple protocols. Services can range in size all the way up to subsystems used enterprise-wide.

    SOA is generally regarded as the best choice for integrating disparate systems in a large mixed environment running multiple OS, such as Linux and Windows.

    Understanding Microservices

    In microservices, on the other hand, each application is structured as a collection of small services, modeled around a business domain. This architecture uses an application programming interface (API) layer instead of middleware, and protocols are lightweight. Microservices best practices requires developers to build with the API in the forefront of the design.

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    Microservices work better for building small, well partitioned web-based systems which give considerable control to the developer. Each service is designed to fulfill a specific purpose -- such as a web service for activating an order or providing shopping cart services -- and to excel in delivering on that purpose.

    Comparing Microservices vs. SOA

    SOA and microservices both ease software development by replacing older monolithic structures with more easily manageable modular components. However, SOA and MSA differ markedly along lines that include general architecture, service characteristics, approaches to component sharing, database support, and more.

    Here are some key differences:

    General Architecture

    SOA defines both a  provider layer, comprising all services within the system, and a consumer layer, or the point at which consumers such as human users or other services interact with the system. The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) allows for various point-to-point connections between service providers and service consumers. Services can be created by multiple development teams, but each team needs to be aware of the common communication mechanism.

    In MSA, on the other hand, small, independent processes communicate with each other inside highly granual and agile applications. Each service is independently deployable, meaning that it can be shut down when not in use without impacting the entire system. MSA also makes it easier and faster to develop new versions of existing services, suiting this architecture well to DevOps best practices. Also, services can be scaled independently, depending on load requirements.

    Service Characteristics

    SOA and microservices both rely on services as their main component, yet the two architectures differ considerably around service characteristics. 

    SOA defines four basic service types:

  • SOA's functional services, also referred to as business services, are coarse-grained services used for defining core business operations. Functional services are represented through protocols such as eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and Business Process Execution Language (BPEL).
  • Enterprise services implement the functionality defined by business services, using both application services and infrastructure services to fulfill business requests.
  • Application services are fine-grained services used only within the context of specific applications. Services can be invoked through a dedicated user interface (UI).
  • Infrastructure services implement non-functional tasks like logging, authentication, auditing and security. These services can be invoked from either application services or enterprise services.
  • In contrast, MSA defines only two basic service types: 

  • In MSA, functional services support specific business operations. These services are accessed externally and are not shared with other services.
  • As in SOA, MSA's infrastructure services are used to support tasks such as logging, auditing, and security. MSA’s infrastructure services, though, are not shared with other services, and are only accessible internally.
  • Middleware vs. APIs

    SOA's middleware provides many capabilities absent from the API's used for communications between service providers and consumers in MSA.

    Advantages of the middleware layer include protocol transformation, message enhancement, and mediation and routing. Because MSA doesn't support middleware, and MSA applications are so small and specifically purposed, SOA is generally regarded as the best architecture for large and complex enterprise systems.

    Database Support

    In SOA, all services use the same underlying database. Services typically support traditional relational databases.

    MSA is also more agile and flexible in this way. A database can either be dedicated to a specific microservice or shared among multiple microservices. MSAs are also more likely to use newer nonrelational databases. Unlike relational databases, which only support structured data, nonrelational databases also support semi-structured data such as emails and XML documents and unstructured data such as Microsoft Windows documents, web pages, social media messages, and video files.

    Component Sharing

    SOA is designed to promote business functionality reuse by enhancing component sharing. In fact, component sharing is the main role of SOA's enterprise services. Services are often implemented as complete subsystems. However, because SOA uses multiple components to fulfill business requests, SOA services can be less efficient than microservices.

    Microservices, on the other hand, minimizes component sharing through “bounded context." A component and its data are coupled as a single unit with minimal dependencies. An application is required to access a persistent data store via a service implementation-provided API.

    Contract Decoupling

    A major tenet of SOA is contract decoupling, which provides the highest degree of decoupling between service provider and consumer.

    MSA, however, doesn't support contract decoupling.

    Containers

    Containers and microservices are a natural match. Containers such as Dockers and Linux Containers work quite well with microservices architectures but are used less frequently in SOA. 

    By encapsulating a lightweight runtime environment for applications, containers provide a consistent software environment as a microservice application moves through the continuous development, testing, and deployment cycles of DevOps. Containers can be run on both virtual machines (VMs) and physical machines, and with high server utilization rates.

    Web Services

    SOA and MSA both provide support for Web services. In fact, some but not all MSA microservices can be characterized as Web services.

    Like Web services, microservices are agnostic to programming languages such as Java, Perl, Ruby, and C++.

    Remote Access Protocols

    SOA architectures typically use Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and messaging protocols such as Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) and the open standard Advanced Message Queing Protocol (AMQP) as their main remote access protocols. However, Representation State Transfer (REST) is sometimes used with SOA.

    MSA generally uses the more streamlined REST API, together with AMQP messaging, for remote access.

    Fault Tolerance

    SOA's ESB can present a single point of failure (SPOF) for the entire system. If one service slows down, the the ESB can become overwhelmed by requests for that service.

    MSA is more fault tolerant. For example, a memory leak is one microservice will only impact that specific microservice. Other microservices will be able to keep on handling requests.

    Threading

    SOA is multi-threaded, with more overheads to handle inputs/outputs (IOs).

    MSA is single-threaded. However, microservice architectures typically include an event loop for handling I/Os.

    Systematic changes

    In SOA, a systematic change requires modifying the entire system.

    In MSA, a systematic change can be accomplished by creating a new service.

    Microservices and SOA Related Terms
  • API: An API facilitates software development by providing a set of functions and procedures for accessing data or features of another application, an OS (operating system), or other software services.
  • Web service: A Web service is an API which uses a standardized way of providing interoperability between applications for clients and servers over the web. A Web service communicates over Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) using technologies which can include REST, SOAP, XML, Web Service Definition Layer (WSDL), and Universal Description, Description, and Integration (UDDI).
  • REST  API: A REST API is an API which follows the rules of REST, an architectural style now being used to replace older architectures such as SOAP as a simpler, faster method of accessing web services. The REST API uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests to indicate desired actions on the web. The main rules of REST are the four rules of uniform interface for clients and servers: offering access through resources, representing resources through representations, exchanging self-descriptive messages, and connecting resources through links. 
  • Middleware: Middleware is a layer of software residing outside of the OS providing services to applications which can't be obtained through the kernel. It supplies uniform, high-level interfaces for building applications which can run interoperably across diverse systems and a set of common services for improving collaboration between applications. Used in SOA but not MSA, middleware hides the heterogeneity of OS, hardware, and protocols in addition to the complexities of distributed applications.

  • The next integration evolution — blockchain | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Here is one way to look at distributed ledger technologies (DLT) and blockchain in the context of integration evolution. Over the years, businesses and their systems are getting more integrated, forming industry-specific trustless networks, and blockchain technology is in the foundation of this evolutionary step.

    Enterprise integration

    Large organizations have a large number of applications running in separate silos that need to share data and functionality in order to operate in a unified and consistent way. The process of linking such applications within a single organization, to enable sharing of data and business processes, is called enterprise application integration (EAI).

    Similarly, organizations also need to share data and functionality in a controlled way among themselves. They need to integrate and automate the key business processes that extend outside the walls of the organizations. The latter is an extension of EAI and achieved by exchanging structured messages using agreed upon message standards referred to as business-to-business (B2B) integration.

    Fundamentally, both terms refer to the process of integrating data and functionality that spans across multiple systems and sometimes parties. The systems and business processes in these organizations are evolving, and so is the technology enabling B2B unification.

    Evolution of integration

    There isn’t a year when certain integration technologies became mainstream; they gradually evolved and built on top of each other. Rather than focusing on the specific technology and year, let’s try to observe the progression that happened over the decades and see why blockchain is the next technology iteration.

    Evolution of integration technologies

    Next we will explore briefly the main technological advances in each evolutionary step listed in the table above.

    Data integration

    This is one of the oldest mechanisms for information access across different systems with the following two primary examples:

  • Common database approach is used for system integration within organizations.
  • File sharing method is used for within and cross-organization data exchange. With universal protocols such as FTP, file sharing allows exchange of application data running across machines and operating systems.
  • But both approaches are non-real-time, batch-based integrations with limitations around scalability and reliability.

    Functionality integration

    While data integration provided non-real-time data exchange, the methods described here allow real-time data and importantly functionality exchange:

  • Remote procedure call provides significant improvements over low-level socket-based integration by hiding networking and data marshaling complexity. But it is an early generation, language-dependent, point-to-point, client-server architecture.
  • Object request broker architecture (with CORBA, DCOM, RMI implementations) introduces the broker component, which allows multiple applications in different languages to reuse the same infrastructure and talk to each other in a peer-to-peer fashion. In addition, the CORBA model has the notion of naming, security, concurrency, transactionality, registry and language-independent interface definition.
  • Messaging introduces temporal decoupling between applications and ensures guaranteed asynchronous message delivery.
  • So far we have seen many technology improvements, but they are primarily focused on system integration rather than application integration aspects. From batch to real-time data exchange, from point-to-point to peer-to-peer, from synchronous to asynchronous, these methods do not care or control what is the type of data they exchange, nor force or validate it. Still, this early generation integration infrastructure enabled B2B integrations by exchanging EDI-formatted data for example, but without any understanding of the data, nor the business process, it is part of.

    With CORBA, we have early attempts of interface definitions, and services that are useful for application integration.

    Service-oriented architecture

    The main aspects of SOA that are relevant for our purpose are Web Services standards. XML providing language-independent format for exchange of data, SOAP providing common message format and WSDL providing an independent format for describing service interfaces, form the foundation of web services. These standards, combined with ESB and BPM implementations, made integrations focus on the business integration semantics, whereas the prior technologies were enabling system integration primarily.

    Web services allowed systems not to exchange data blindly, but to have machine readable contracts and interface definitions. Such contracts would allow a system to understand and validate the data (up to a degree) before interacting with the other system.

    I also include microservices architectural style here, as in its core, it builds and improves over SOA and ESBs. The primary evolution during this phase is around distributed system decomposition and transition from WS to REST-based interaction.

    In summary, this is the phase where, on top of common protocols, distributed systems also got common standards and contracts definitions.

    Blockchain-based integration

    While exchanging data over common protocols and standards helps, the service contracts do not provide insight about the business processes hidden behind the contracts and running on remote systems. A request might be valid according to the contract, but invalid depending on the business processes’ current state. That is even more problematic when integration is not between two parties, as in the client-server model, but among multiple equally involved parties in a peer-to-peer model.

    Sometimes multiple parties are part of the same business process, which is owned by no one party but all parties. A prerequisite for a proper functioning of such a multi-party interaction is transparency of the common business process and its current state. All that makes the blockchain technology very attractive for implementing distributed business processes among multiple parties.

    This model extends the use of shared protocols and service contracts with shared business processes and contained state. With blockchain, all participating entities share the same business process in the form of smart contracts. But in order to validate the requests, process and come to the same conclusion, the business processes need also the same state, and that is achieved through the distributed ledger. Sharing all the past states of a smart contract is not a goal by itself, but a prerequisite of the shared business process runtime.

    Looked at from this angle, blockchain can be viewed as the next step in the integration evolution. As we will see below, blockchain networks act as a kind of distributed ESB and BPM machinery that are not contained within a single business entity, but spanning multiple organizations.

    Integration technology moving into the space between systems

    First the protocols (such as FTP), then the API contracts (WSDL, SOAP) and now the business processes themselves (smart contracts) and their data are moving outside of the organizations, into the common shared space, and become part of the integration infrastructure. In some respect, this trend is analogous to how cross-cutting responsibilities of microservices are moving from within services into the supporting platforms.

    With blockchain, common data models and now business processes are moving out of the organizations into the shared business networks. Something to note is that this move is not universally applicable and it is not likely to become a mainstream integration mechanism. Such a move is only possible when all participants in the network have the same understanding of data models and business processes; hence, it is applicable only in certain industries where the processes can be standardized, such as finance, supply chain, health care, etc.

    Generations of integrations

    Having done some chronological technology progression follow-up, let’s have a more broad look at the B2B integration evolution and its main stages.

    First generation: system integration protocols

    This is the generation of integration technology before CORBA and SOA, enabling mainly data exchange over common protocols but without an understanding of the data, contracts and business processes:

  • Integration model: client-server, where the server component is controlled by one party only; examples are databases, file servers, message brokers, etc.
  • Explicit, shared infrastructure: low-level system protocols and APIs such as FTP.
  • Implicit, not shared infrastructure: application contracts, data formats, business processes not part of the common integration infrastructure.
  • Second generation: application integration contracts

    This generation of integration technology uses the system protocols from previous years and allows applications to share their APIs in the form of universal contracts. This is the next level of integration, where both applications understand the data, its structure, possible error conditions, but not the business process and current state behind it in the other systems:

  • Integration model: client-server model with APIs described by contracts.
  • Explicit, shared infrastructure: protocols, application contracts, and API definitions.
  • Implicit, not shared infrastructure: business processes and remote state are still private.
  • Third generation: distributed business processes

    The blockchain-based generation, which still has to prove itself as a viable enterprise architecture, goes a step further. It uses peer-to-peer protocols, and shares business processes with state across multiple systems that are controlled by parties not trusting each other. While previous integration generations required shared understanding of protocol or APIs, this relies on common understanding of the full business process and its current state. Only then it makes sense and pays off to form a cross-organization distributed business process network:

  • Integration model: multi-party, peer-to-peer integration, by forming business networks with distributed business processes.
  • Explicit, shared infrastructure: business process and its required state.
  • Implicit, not shared infrastructure: other non-process related state.
  • There are many blockchain-based projects that are taking different approaches for solving the business integration challenges. In no particular, order here are some of the most popular and interesting permissioned open-source blockchain projects targeting the B2B integration space:

  • Hyperledger Fabric is one of the most popular and advanced blockchain frameworks, initially developed by IBM, and now part of Linux Foundation.
  • Hyperledger Sawtooth is another Linux Foundation distributed project developed initially by Intel. It is popular for its modularity and full component replaceability.
  • Quorum is an enterprise-focused distribution of Ethereum.
  • Corda is another project that builds on top of existing JVM-based middleware technologies and enables organizations to transact with contracts and exchange value.
  • There are already many business networks built with the above projects, enabling network member organizations to integrate and interact with each other using this new integration model.

    In addition to these full-stack blockchain projects that provide network nodes, there also are hybrid approaches. For example, Unibright is a project that aims to connect internal business processes defined in familiar standards such as BPMN with existing blockchain networks by automatically generating smart contracts. The smart contracts can be generated for public or private blockchains, which can act as another integration pillar among organizations.

    Recently, there are many blockchain experiments in many fields of life. While public blockchains generate all the hype by promising to change the world, private and permissioned blockchains are promising less, but are advancing steadily.

    Conclusion

    Enterprise integration has multiple nuances. Integration challenges within an organization, where all systems are controlled by one entity and participants have some degree of trust to each other, are mostly addressed by modern ESBs, BPMs and microservices architectures. But when it comes to multi-party B2B integration, there are additional challenges. These systems are controlled by multiple organizations, have no visibility of the business processes and do not trust each other. In these scenarios, we see organizations experimenting with a new breed of blockchain-based technology that relies not only on sharing of the protocols and contracts but sharing of the end-to-end business processes and state.

    And this trend is aligned with the general direction integration has been evolving over the years: from sharing the very minimum protocols, to sharing and exposing more and more in the form of contracts, APIs and now business processes.

    This shared integration infrastructure enables new transparent integration models where the previously private business processes are now jointly owned, agreed, built, maintained and standardized using the open-source collaboration model. This can motivate organizations to share business processes and form networks to benefit further from joint innovation, standardization and deeper integration in general.


    PlastiCert promotes Ben Ninas to vice president of operations | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    PlastiCert, a 38-year provider of innovative and service oriented composite injection mold design and injection molding services, recently announced that Ben Ninas was promoted to vice president of operations.

    Ninas, formerly the director of operations at PlastiCert, has proven himself to be capable of handling the company’s day-to-day operations, president and owner Craig Porter said.

    “When I promoted Ben last time, I commented that Ben is one of those gifted engineers that is technically knowledgeable, but also has keen business sense and communication skills” Porter said. “Ben reminds me of myself in many ways. I am quite comfortable having Ben get more involved in running the daily affairs of the business, freeing me up for long term planning and bigger picture strategizing. I’ll be looking to add some staff in materials management and sales management to help him continue to further our vision of providing our customers the composite injection molding expertise they require to design and market successful products.”

    Ninas graduated from Winona State, which has the only composites engineering program in the U.S.. Ben also has a minor in mathematics. He also holds a lean manufacturing certification through Winona State University Continuing Education and has completed the Winona Area Chamber of Commerce’s Leadership Winona course.

    PlastiCert was founded in 1981 and is a privately held corporation with headquarters and manufacturing in Lewiston. Initially a custom molder targeted at the electronics industry, today PlastiCert is a one-stop shop for all OEMs like industrial, telecom, computer, avionics and medical markets.



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