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low in cost: $320 (shortest track)
abstract:for people who've potential of the terminology and primary concepts of TOGAF 9 and have in mind the core ideas of commercial enterprise structure and TOGAF. earning the TOGAF groundwork certification is the primary degree of the TOGAF Practioner application.
initial necessities:You need to move the TOGAF 9 part 1 exam ($320). The examination carries forty questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing rating of 55% is required.
continuing necessities:You must recertify every 2 years by way of paying a $300 fee.
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more than 25,000 individuals have earned certification below the Open neighborhood's TOGAF 9 program, the group said recently, marking a milestone for what has become a standard framework and components for enterprise structure (EA).
Andrew Josey, director of standards for The Open community, introduced the milestone in his weblog. The number of certifications, he wrote, become facts of "a big surge within the popularity of open necessities over the final few years." He additionally credited the recent financial downturn.
"…considering that the financial disaster begun," he wrote, "open necessities have helped by proposing a framework that enables commercial enterprise Architects to shop their agencies cash, maintain and enhance profitability and drive company efficiencies. And, on knowledgeable level, certification has helped enterprise Architects to differentiate themselves, delivering improved job security and employment prospects via trying out instances."
TOGAF, which stands for The Open neighborhood architecture Framework, is designed to deliver organizations with a structured procedure for governing their implementations of know-how, primarily software. it be according to the U.S. branch of defense Technical architecture Framework for tips management (TAFIM), and turned into developed with the aid of a diverse neighborhood of member organizations, together with PG&E, Oracle, Rolls Royce and Microsoft. the primary version changed into launched in 1995, and TOGAF 9 was introduced in 2009.
"This framework is a synthesis of stuff that has labored for lots of people in lots of diverse contexts," Leonard Fehskens, the Open community's vice chairman of capabilities and capabilities, instructed ADTmag in an prior interview.
The Open neighborhood certifies individuals, service providers, equipment, and practising around TOGAF. In 2006 about 1,000 people were TOGAF-certified; that quantity had grown to well-nigh 9,000 via the beginning of 2009.
presently in version 9.1, TOGAF comes with a group of assisting equipment, referred to as the TOGAF useful resource Base, but at its coronary heart it's a description of a step-with the aid of-step approach to the technique called the structure building components (ADM).
The certifications are available in two flavors: "TOGAF 9 foundation," which demonstrates knowledge of the terminology, constitution, and simple ideas of TOGAF 9, in addition to an knowing of the core ideas of EA and the TOGAF normal; and "TOGAF 9 licensed," which validates an potential to investigate and apply the foundation capabilities.
The Open community is a dealer- and expertise-neutral consortium focused on open necessities and "global interoperability inside and between businesses." The organization changed into shaped from the merger of the Open programs basis and XOpen within the mid-1990s. The community's initial focus became the building of Unix specifications and certification of Unix implementations. Over time, as the individuals' issues moved away from Unix as a strategy for multiplatform integration and into the realm of enterprise architecture, the neighborhood's actions and center of attention also shifted.
Posted on 09/09/2013 at eleven:22 AM
©The Open group August 2006, The Open community All rights reserved. No part of this e-book could be reproduced, kept in a retrieval equipment, or transmitted, in any form or by means of any skill, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording or in any other case, devoid of the prior permission of the copyright homeowners.
refer to situations of Use for particular situations of Use concerning TOGAF version eight.1.1.
Any feedback relating to the cloth contained during this doc can be submitted to The Open neighborhood at:
The Open GroupThames Tower37-45 Station RoadReadingBerkshire, RG1 1LXUnited Kingdom
or by electronic message to:
The Open community architecture Framework (TOGAF) - edition 8.1.1, commercial enterprise edition - is an open, industry consensus framework and method for commercial enterprise structure.
TOGAF may be reproduced freely with the aid of any firm wishing to make use of it to develop an business architecture to be used inside that corporation.This document
There are four leading components to the TOGAF document:part I (Introduction) This half gives a excessive-stage introduction to one of the most key concepts in the back of commercial enterprise architecture and in selected the TOGAF strategy. half II (architecture development components) here is the core of TOGAF. It describes the TOGAF structure construction formulation (ADM) - a step-by means of-step approach to developing an commercial enterprise architecture. part III (enterprise Continuum) This half describes the TOGAF commercial enterprise Continuum, a digital repository of architecture belongings, which contains the TOGAF groundwork structure, and the built-in advice Infrastructure Reference mannequin (III-RM). part IV (materials) This part comprises the TOGAF resource Base - a collection of tools and techniques attainable to be used in applying TOGAF and the TOGAF ADM.
Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, together with a printable PDF file, are available beneath license from the TOGAF suggestions internet site (www.opengroup.org/structure/togaf). The license is free to any firm wishing to use TOGAF absolutely for interior purposes (for example, to improve an guidance system structure for use within that company).
The TOGAF documentation is freely attainable for viewing on-line with no license. on the other hand, the comprehensive TOGAF documentation set could be downloaded and kept under license, as explained on the TOGAF suggestions net site.
In either case, the TOGAF documentation can be used freely by any organization wishing to accomplish that to strengthen an structure for use within that organization. No part of it could be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any potential, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or in any other case, for any other purpose together with, but now not by the use of hindrance, any use for business gain, without the prior permission of the copyright house owners.intended viewers
TOGAF is meant for IT architects and any one answerable for the structure characteristic within a firm.key phrases
structure, structure framework, architecture building method, architect, architecting, enterprise architecture, business structure framework, business architecture components, components, methods, open, neighborhood, technical reference model, requirements, requisites tips baseconcerning the Open group The Open community
The Open community is a dealer-impartial and know-how-neutral consortium, whose vision of Boundaryless suggestions flow will permit entry to built-in assistance within and between companies in line with open requirements and global interoperability. The Open group works with customers, suppliers, consortia, and different necessities bodies. Its position is to capture, bear in mind, and handle present and rising necessities, establish policies, and share superior practices; to facilitate interoperability, strengthen consensus, and evolve and integrate necessities and Open supply technologies; to offer a finished set of services to enhance the operational efficiency of consortia; and to function the business's premier certification provider, together with UNIX certification.
additional suggestions on The Open neighborhood is accessible at www.opengroup.org.
The Open neighborhood has over 15 years' adventure in developing and working certification courses and has wide journey establishing and facilitating trade adoption of verify suites used to validate conformance to an open normal or specification.
greater assistance is accessible at www.opengroup.org/certification.
The Open neighborhood publishes a big range of technical documentation, the leading part of which is focused on construction of Technical and Product requisites and guides, however which also contains white papers, technical stories, branding and checking out documentation, and enterprise titles. Full particulars and a catalog can be found at www.opengroup.org/bookstall.
as with any reside files, Technical requisites and standards require revision to align with new traits and associated foreign standards. to distinguish between revised necessities which might be utterly backwards-compatible and those which aren't:
Readers should note that Corrigenda may also apply to any publication. Corrigenda counsel is published at www.opengroup.org/corrigenda.trademarks
AdobeTM, AcrobatTM, and Acrobat ReaderTM are emblems of Adobe programs incorporated.
Boundaryless advice move TM is a trademark and UNIX® and The Open neighborhood® are registered logos of The Open neighborhood within the u.s. and different nations.
Java® is a registered trademark of solar Microsystems, Inc.
here are registered trademarks of the application Engineering Institute (SEI):
The Open neighborhood acknowledges that there may well be other company names and products that might be covered by way of trademark coverage and advises the reader to check them independently.Acknowledgements
The Open group gratefully acknowledges:
members of The Open community structure discussion board.Referenced files
here files are referenced in this e book:
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Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, are available beneath license from the TOGAF tips web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to make use of TOGAF entirely for inner purposes (as an instance, to boost an assistance system architecture for use within that organization). A hardcopy e-book is also available from The Open group bookstall as doc G063.
Copyright © 1999-2006 The Open community, All Rights ReservedTOGAF is a trademark of The Open community
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Skill Level: Foundation Status: Active
Low Cost: $320 (shortest track)
Summary:For individuals who have knowledge of the terminology and basic concepts of TOGAF 9 and understand the core principles of Enterprise Architecture and TOGAF. Earning the TOGAF Foundation certification is the first level of the TOGAF Practioner program.
Initial Requirements:You must pass the TOGAF 9 Part 1 exam ($320). The exam consists of 40 questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing score of 55% is required.
Continuing Requirements:You must recertify every 2 years by paying a $300 fee.
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Never trust a discipline that is not able to predict its own demise.It seems that every system integrator, consultancy and analyst house has its own “maturity model.” They help organizations measure how far along they are in certain disciplines, such as in systems administration, security, content management, integration and so forth. These models typically start with a stage called ad hoc or reactive, then go through stages such as departmental or focused, then almost invariably there is a stage indicating some kind of integration, and finally the situation is optimized.There is No Such Thing as “Optimized” The appeal of these models is easy to spot. Wouldn’t we all want to be in the optimized stage? And if there are consultants who can help us spot where we are, where we want to be, and plot how we get there, isn’t this the groundwork for any good strategy? Still, I think these models simply miss the mark. I don’t think that at one moment you can say that you’re done, that you have reached a state of being a high-performance organization, or being optimized in any way. I don’t believe that there is any steady state, for that matter. Progress comes with ebbs and flows. At most moments in time, you will reach some kind of equilibrium, where the system, process, program or whatever supports what it needs to support. Then something changes again, disturbing the equilibrium. Technology moves on, user requirements progress, competitors raise the bar, customer demands shift, economic circumstances change, the regulatory environment tightens, and so forth. The list of potential changes is endless. These changes disrupt the current balance, and then you try to create a new equilibrium. Sometimes this is an improvement, and sometimes it is a step back, like with many things in life.1 And if we must think in stages, where are the stages of decay and death? Technologies get absorbed into other ones, and some user requirements simply disappear. When was the last time you sent a fax?
In short, everything you don’t put energy into decays – buildings, living creatures, friendships, relationships, systems, processes, everything. If you keep putting effort in, there may be improvement along the way, but you’re never done. There is no such thing as optimized. Every manager knows that if you move your attention to one area, another area suffers. To use a metaphor, there is always one more plate turning than you can manage.
There is an underlying law of nature called entropy. Everything in nature flows from a concentrated form into some kind of disorder. In fact, entropy is a force of evolution. Evolution is based on a number of principles. First, there needs to be genetic variation. Every plant or animal, although belonging to a species, needs to be slightly different. Otherwise, there is no competitive advantage. Then, it needs to be possible to create new random permutations, based on inheritance. Lastly, there needs to be a competitive natural environment, in which only the most adaptive survive and in which the random permutations that do not have an environmental fit die. In a way, entropy drives change in nature and, at the same time, allows random permutations to occur.Evolution and Enterprise Architecture Evolution and enterprise architecture are very much related. From a cynical point of view, you could say that the forces of evolution have shaped most enterprise architectures. To quote one famous analyst2: “Most of you have an accidental architecture. I mean, I can only hope you didn’t deliberately design what you have in place.”
Enterprise architecture (EA) can formally be defined as “a rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g., the behavior) between them. EA describes the terminology, the composition of enterprise components, and their relationships with the external environment, and the guiding principles for the requirement (analysis), design, and evolution of an enterprise. This description is comprehensive, including enterprise goals, business process, roles, organizational structures, organizational behaviors, business information, software applications and computer systems.”
This definition already contains the word “evolution.” When we focus on that, we can define enterprise architecture as all activities to counter the forces of entropy and keep our enterprise focused and composed. Enterprise architecture maintains order and battles the decay and chaos that entropy causes. This means an enterprise architecture needs to be resilient to resist entropy. In many cases, this is done by building a rigorous and robust enterprise architecture that will stand the test of time. Obviously, an enterprise architecture is a reference model. It takes time to get there, and practicalities under way may force you to make decisions that are not supported by the enterprise architecture. For instance, certain business applications may have their own workflow or content management, or come with their own reporting tools. But the goal of the enterprise architecture is to come as close as possible to an ideal state. Again, like with maturity models, we think in states.Aristotle has the Answer This thinking in states is deeply rooted in Western philosophy. Parmenides (5th century BC), a Greek philosopher predating Plato, felt that any motion and change in nature were nothing more than manifestations of an unchanging reality. In reality, everything “is.” If something changes, it needs to move from what it is to something else that “is.” In between, change would mean a mix between “to be” and “to not be.” Impossible, according to Parmenides. Plato continued on this path. Real knowledge about objects in this world is universal too, and doesn’t change. Plato felt the process of such objects becoming was not accessible to human beings. The idea of the underlying truth of being has dominated Western philosophy ever since. Heraclitus (535 – 475 BC) took a different approach. He is most famous for his words “panta rhei, kai ouden menei,” meaning “everything flows, and nothing remains still.”3 Heraclitus didn’t think in states, but rather much more in terms of continuous movement. Unfortunately, the work of Heraclitus has been less influential.
But Aristotle (384–322 BC) argues that we can also observe all the changes in the world around us. Aristotle starts, like Plato and Parmenides, by pointing out that the most important characteristic of any object is its existence. But change and movement – in other words the becoming of the object – is a transition from its potential to be to the act of being, with a certain degree of perfection. This transition has a certain internal or external cause. In short, Aristotle suggests for each change or movement, we should ask four questions. What did change? What caused that change? What is the result of the change? What is the purpose of the change?
To answer these questions, Aristotle identified four “causes.” Causes are best translated as "explanatory conditions and factors." The four causes are the material cause (causa materialis), the efficient cause (causa efficiens), the formal cause (causa formalis) and the final cause (causa finalis).
It turns out that these causes are a very useful framework for a resilient enterprise architecture. Not resilient in terms of being robust, but built in terms of cause and effect. Not based on an ideal state that is to be pursued, but built on the assumption of continuous change and movement.The First Two of the Four Causes Aristotle was not the first to ask the question “why” in trying to understand the world. In fact, “why” is one of the most important philosophical questions one can ask. Others before Aristotle had explored the “why” of things. Although, according to Aristotle, others had come up with all elements of causality that Aristotle mentioned but Aristotle was the first to describe the four causes as a comprehensive theory.
The term that Aristotle used was aition, which is “an explanation for how something came to be.” This is a wider term than the English term “cause,” which comes the closest. Today “cause” is very much connected to “effect,” through cause-and-effect relationships. If we increase prices by x%, sales will go down by y%. If we bump our head, we get a bruise. If we leave the steak on the barbeque too long, it will burn. This is what Aristotle would call the efficient cause, but there are other causes as well.
The four causes are usually explained with the example of a statue. The material cause of the statue is marble, the material of which the statue is made. The efficient cause is the sculptor and his chisel, how the statue was made. The formal cause consists of what the statue portrays, for instance a woman. The final cause describes the purpose of the statue, such as depicting love or, more mundane, highlighting the center of a square.
Or take the example of mankind itself. A human being is made of flesh and bones, which constitutes the material cause. It is produced by its father and mother, which is the efficient cause. A human being is recognizable by its features. We all have legs and arms, a nose and the ability to reason, which is the formal cause. For what purpose, the final cause, is a question that has many different answers, ranging from simply sustaining the species (biological) to fulfilling your full potential (humanistic) to living a life worthy of deserving a place in heaven (religious).
Finally, let’s take another example, a little closer to enterprise architecture, by asking “Why did the house collapse?” The material cause might be the quality of the stones that were used. The efficient cause is that the builders didn’t do a good job using the materials or that bad weather caused the collapse. The formal cause might be the blueprint that contained errors. The final cause in this example is that cost was preferred over quality.
In all examples, multiple causes can play a role in the explanation of an object or an event. Leaving out one cause, or choosing a different explanation as a result of one of the four causes, would lead to different results.Material Cause There has to be an unmoved mover, the thing that comes first. In Aristotle’s view, what we can assume to be present are the materials of which the object is composed. We can define this broadly and refer to bronze as the raw material of a statue, or define multiple levels of material causes, where the bronze is caused by its elements, ultimately leading to the atomic level of the material. The statue is caused by its raw materials because without the bronze it wouldn’t be there. As Aristotle tries to describe change through his four causes, the raw material undergoes change as well. For instance, the bronze needs to be melted and molded to become part of the statue. The material cause is not limited to a single type of material. The material cause of the house, in the example I used, includes concrete, wood, glass and spikes (notice that a spike in itself has four causes as well – it consists of material, it was produced, it has a form, and a meaning). Materials can cause certain things, but others not. Bronze is only suitable for a certain type of statue; from the point of view of the other causes, another statue might benefit more from marble.
The link with enterprise architecture is pretty obvious. The material cause describes the technology level. All technologies in use by the organization together form the material cause. This includes business technologies such as content management and business intelligence; hardcore technologies such as development environments and integration tools; and supporting technologies taking care of systems management, security and so forth. If you lack certain technologies, it is not possible to create enterprise architectures that deem those technologies necessary. Some organizations may be able to invest in their own technologies, but for most organizations the technologies available are indeed the unmoved mover. They are assumed to be there.
Yet, it is not that simple. Others would argue that technologies are not the cause of an architecture. They are the effect. One would choose the technologies needed to compile a certain enterprise architecture. Still, they are the material cause, as Aristotle defined “cause” in a broader sense. The technologies, chosen or already available, form a description of the enterprise architecture envisioned or in place. Furthermore, enterprise architects work within certain paradigms as well. It is hard to include technologies you are not aware of. In strategy, this debate was summarized as “strategy follows structure,” or “structure follows strategy.” The only conclusion that remains in such a heated debate is that both are interdependent. New strategies come out of existing structures, and new structures are the result of new strategies. The relationship between enterprise architecture and technologies is the same.
I also include skills and organizational capabilities in the material cause. This seems to be in contradiction to Aristotle. He regarded the sculptor and his skills as the efficient cause. However, there is an important difference. In the case of a statue, the sculptor is external to the statue; he creates it. In the case of organizational capabilities, they are part of the enterprise architecture itself and therefore part of the material cause. Obviously, it is not enough to own technologies. It is equally important to master them or to know where to get the right skills. Another essential organizational capability in an adaptive enterprise architecture is being able to spot new and innovative technologies, and use them in a meaningful way. Consequently, organizations need to be able to absorb those new technologies into the architecture, as part of absorbing all external and internal change to existing systems and processes.Efficient Cause The efficient cause comes closest to what we today would call cause-and-effect. The bad weather causes the house to be flooded or the sculptor with his chisel creates a statue. To be more precise, according to Aristotle, it is the knowledge and the skills of the sculptor that form the efficient cause, the art of sculpting in general. The efficient cause is the primary source of change.
This cause is different from what I have seen in other enterprise architecture frameworks. Most frameworks take a closed-system approach, describing only the elements within the frameworks, all other things being equal. If the primary source of change is the efficient cause, then the external factors that shape and reshape the organization deserve quite some attention. Understanding the efficient cause of enterprise architecture can be accomplished through a stakeholder analysis. A very useful framework to do this is the Performance Prism that was developed at Cranfield University in the UK. This framework defines both stakeholder contributions and requirements. Stakeholders include customers, suppliers, employees, investors, authorities and society at large.
Stakeholders each have contributions. As a stakeholder, they have an interest in the success of the organization. By offering their business, opinions and trust, customers fuel the organization's growth. In addition to good products and services, suppliers should offer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, easy and leads to the right price. Employees offer their hands, their minds, their hearts and their voices in the market. Investors offer capital and their support, but also take credit risk. Authorities ensure there is a fair market, with clear rules, and can provide advice. Lastly, the community provides an infrastructure within which to do business. This includes access to skills and the means to create positive public relations through the media.
An enterprise architecture describes the impact of these contributions on the organizational structure, its systems and processes; and it describes how changing contributions affect the enterprise architecture. But there is more. In order to count on stakeholder contributions, we need to take stakeholder requirements into account as well.
Customers require what you demand from your suppliers. Next to good products and services, you should offer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, easy and leads to the right price. Suppliers require what you have to offer as a customer: profit, growth, your opinion and trust. Employees require pay and care, but also the opportunity to build skills and receive feedback on how their work is contributing to organizational success. Investors obviously expect a return, but also transparency so they can keep faith in their investment. Authorities expect organizations to obey the law, conduct business in a fair way, run safe operations and be truthful in their reporting. The community is looking for jobs, a share of the wealth that is created and a certain amount of fidelity.
As the Performance Prism describes these stakeholder contributions and requirements in great detail, the change that they bring can be detected, to a certain extent predicted, and taken into account to build an agile enterprise architecture. It is important to remember that relationships with the environment are reciprocal. Simply extracting value from the larger ecosystem is not sustainable.The Formal Cause and Final Cause The formal cause describes how the object of analysis looks – its form. A statue can depict a human being, a horse, or an abstract three-dimensional pattern called “happiness.” Understanding an object’s form is needed to describe that particular object. In order for something to be called a house, it usually has a roof, a door, windows and, in some houses, a chimney and a garden. Without this explanation and a clear blueprint, the house could look totally different or – in the absence of any formal cause – be just a collection of materials neatly packed on a piece of land.
With the knowledge we have today, the formal cause doesn’t have to be a static result, like a statue, a house or – in terms of an enterprise architecture – a description of all the organizational functions the architecture supports.
With the advent of service-oriented architectures, we can take the formal cause one step further and create an agile enterprise architecture that is continuously being recomposed. Service-oriented architecture may form the technology component, but the thinking behind it can also be applied to organizations, creating a service-oriented organization. If all activities are seen as a business service, not as a step in a process, they can be put together in multiple, probably countless, ways. A business service is a unit of work that leads to a transferable result: The result is sufficient for the next person to continue, even if the next person is the customer. Viewed from the IT perspective, a business service represents the functionality to be developed to support the task. From the perspective of the organization model, a business service represents the role an employee performs to complete the task. Business services are not focused on specific processes and products, but focused on competencies that can be used for a multitude of things. There are many business examples available. Since the beginning, breweries have realized that their distilling process can be used for other spirits as well, such as whisky. Amazon realized its infrastructure is not only capable of selling books, but also of selling second-hand books, goods other than books, and even IT capacity itself (cloud computing). Utility companies, such as the electricity company, sometimes offer invoicing services for other utilities, such as water and gas. The capability is at the center, not the product.4
Seen this way, it is not very interesting to define the formal cause as a full description of all business services. This can be done on an aggregated level, and other than that the enterprise architecture can declare to “let there be business services.” A far more interesting approach would be to describe how business services should look (the form they have!), how they can be standardized and how they can interact.
If you think this through, this approach actually reconciles the opposing forces of entropy and evolution on one hand and enterprise architecture on the other. Enterprise architecture is no longer fighting evolution and entropy, but rather embraces it. In fact, service orientation on any level is very much like evolution. In order for biological components to mix, they need extreme standardization on the DNA level too. Random variation is nothing other than trying all kinds of DNA combinations.
It should be said that you can argue whether evolution belongs in the formal cause. Evolution creates random variation and doesn’t concern itself with how something should look. And evolution certainly doesn’t seem to belong in the final cause, as there is no meaning to random variation. Aren’t the latter two causes more the territory of “intelligent design”? This argument is relatively easy to counter. Adaptation exists by the grace of evolution, and the form that fits its natural environment best will succeed and procreate.Final Cause The final cause is the most important. It describes the purpose of the object, the essence of its being. Once a final cause is in place, the material cause, efficient cause and formal cause can, in principle, be derived. They follow from the goal. If the final cause of a statue is to show the magnificence of the emperor going to battle on his horse, the first step is to make a wax model. Then the bronze is melted, poured, and further treated. Each and every step is bringing the idea of the statue closer to becoming reality.
At first, it is a bit odd that the final cause is a cause. Isn’t it the result? The final effect? Aristotle maybe called the final cause the most important one because it is the initial idea that triggered the other causes. Because you wanted it to be reality, it becomes reality. Because you want to be an entrepreneur, you start your own business.
Still, the causality isn’t that simple. Let’s return for a second to the “structure follows strategy” debate. You may want to be the world’s best basketball player; but if you are not tall and athletic, it is unlikely it is going to happen. And if you don’t have an athletic posture, you probably would never have the idea to become the world’s best basketball player. The final cause closes the loop. It is what triggers change, and it is the result of change.
One of the best books I read on the subject, Enterprise Architecture as Strategy, by Jeanne Ross, Peter Weill and David Robertson, elaborates greatly on different business operating models (different final causes) and how that leads to different enterprise architectures. Ross et al describe a two-by-two matrix, with one axis describing an increasing integration of business processes and the other describing increased business process standardization. Low standardization and low integration mean a diversified business strategy and operating model. The key capability for any enterprise architecture is to provide economies of scale, without limiting independence.
A high level of standardization with low integration is the main characteristic of a business model based on replication. Business units share best practices, and the enterprise architecture focuses on creating, managing and disseminating standard components.
A high level of integration with a low level of standardization is the hallmark of a coordinated business, where various specialized business units need to collaborate. Enterprise architecture in this model is all about providing access to shared data and data exchange. Highly integrated and standardized businesses benefit most from an enterprise architecture that reinforces standard processes and enterprise systems.
Depending on the operating model you have, a certain enterprise architecture will follow. The final cause. Yet, new technologies and more agile enterprise architectures also enable new blends in operating models, and once in a while completely new business models. The final effect.The Ultimate Enterprise Architecture Framework? Aristotle aimed to explain all form and matter with his four causes. This includes enterprise architecture, even though obviously the concept didn’t exist in Aristotle’s time. Does this mean that the four causes are the ultimate enterprise architecture framework? Probably not. Existing leading frameworks such as Zachman and TOGAF are generic frameworks to cover all sorts of enterprise architectures, while at the same time being very specific in covering aspects of enterprise architecture only. They are not theories-of-everything. This makes existing enterprise architecture frameworks particularly valuable.
In fact, the Zachman Framework is almost structured in terms of causes. It introduces a number of levels (contextual, conceptual, logical, physical and detailed) and then introduces a series of questions for each level. These questions are: Why? How? What? Who? Where? When? This is a very structured approach toward creating a detailed explanation, very much like Aristotle’s causes but practically applied and offering much more guidance specifically toward creating an enterprise architecture.
Still, there is always room for improvement, even when the advice is 2500 years old. For instance, it took TOGAF until version 9 to become more business focused, and therewith introduce what we here call the final cause. Before version 9, TOGAF was really IT focused, architecture for its own sake. And although Zachman offers a comprehensive framework, it could do better in emphasizing the efficient cause. The “who” question is still very much about the material cause, identifying the roles and skills within the organization. The same goes for the stakeholders that are connected to the various levels in the framework – largely internal to the business. The contextual level could (should?) develop more into the direction of the efficient cause.
One thing is certain: Enterprise architecture and philosophy are very much related. One of the oldest fascinations in philosophy is about what defines beauty. Aesthetics. A fascination that most enterprise architects will share.
Frank's professional background in strategy, performance management and organizational behavior gives him a strong perspective across many domains in business and IT. He is an entertaining speaker at conferences all over the world, and was recently called an “intellectual provocateur” and described as “having an unusual warm tone of voice.” His work is frequently labeled as provocative, deep, truly original, and out of the box. More down to earth, his daughter once described it as “My daddy sits in airplanes, stands on stages, and tells jokes.” Frank is a former Gartner Research VP, and a seasoned IT executive. Frank is also a visiting fellow at Cranfield University School of Management, and author of various books, including Performance Leadership (McGraw-Hill, September 2008), and Dealing with Dilemmas (Wiley & Sons, August 2010). Frank's newest book, Socrates Reloaded, is now available and is highly recommended. Click here for more information on how to get your copy today.
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I was recently asked a very simple, but very important question: “What is the impact of setting SET ANSI_WARNING OFF in a stored procedure?”
My immediate reaction was to understand why the team was trying to set ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF because setting ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF can have an impact on the data quality and system behaviour. This article demonstrates how setting ANSI_WARNINGS of OFF impacts system behaviour.What is the SET option ANSI_WARNINGS?
The ANSI_WARNINGS controls the standard ISO behavior of the SQL Server database engine for various error conditions. When ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON, the engine follows the standard ISO behavior for the following situations:
When ANSI_WARNINGS is OFF, the engine follows a non-standard behavior, which reduces data quality and depending upon your business context, may generate bad data.
The examples below demonstrate the standard and non-standard ISO behavior when ANSI_WARNINGS is ON v/s OFF for each of the scenarios mentioned above.Null value is eliminated by an aggregate or other SET operation
In our system, most aggregates are performed over revenue values, which would rarely be NULL. One would either have a 0, signifying no revenue, or some value (negative or positive), signifying a balance amount.
However, when aggregations (SUM, AVG, MAX, MIN, STDEV, STDEVP, VAR, VARP, or COUNT) are performed over columns that may contain NULLs (lap timings for example) a warning will be returned. This code sample demonstrates the issue.
In this example:
The results are shown below. While the aggregation worked, we also get a warning in the "Messages" tab of SSMS:
The warning simply notifies the user that the rows with NULL values were ignored when performing the aggregation, which should be expected because one cannot perform any mathematical operation on an unknown value (NULL indicates an unknown value). Therefore, this behavior is not an error, but a note that the system is actually working as expected.
However, when ANSI_WARNINGS is set to OFF, no warning is returned and SQL Server silently ignores the rows with NULL values. Here is the same code with the ANSI_WARNINGS set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO DECLARE @lapTiming TABLE (LapNumber INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), RunnerId INT NOT NULL, LapTime DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO @lapTiming (RunnerId, LapTime) VALUES (1, '1.10'), (2, '1.12'), (3, NULL ), --Assume this player is DNF (4, '1.05'); SELECT MIN(lt.LapTime) AS FastestLap FROM @lapTiming AS lt; GO
The results and Message tabs are shown here.
This is especially confusing when performing a COUNT on a column with NULL values and the result does not match the number of rows available in the result set. This is because the rows with NULL values would have been eliminated from the aggregation without any notification of the elimination.
Conclusion #1: As can be seen from the example above, setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as part of a nightly job. However, it may cause confusion when validating the results of the aggregation.Msg 8134 Divide by zero error encountered
Typically, a division by zero error is a classic indication of bad data. One would expect that the offending statement in the batch is terminated and that the transaction encountering the divide by zero error is rolled back.
This is the ISO standard behavior enforced when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are set to ON. ARITHABORT ON terminates the statement as soon as the divide by zero error is encountered and ANSI_WARNINGS ON takes care of reporting the error to the client application.
We can see this in the code sample below which performs a simple division operation on a set of values. One of the divisors is a zero and will result in a divide by zero error. When the error is encountered, the entire transaction will be rolled back because ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON and the client application will be notified accordingly.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; --Setting this to ON will automatically turn ARITHABORT to ON GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshot below confirms that none of the records were updated (the statement was indeed terminated and that transaction rolled back) with the following error message being returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8134, Level 16, State 1, Line 36Divide by zero error encountered.The statement has been terminated.
However, when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, the statement is not aborted. Instead of a rollback, what we see is that when a divide by zero is encountered, the output of the division is a NULL, i.e. unknown.
The setting of ARITHABORT to OFF prevents the statement from rolling back and the ANSI_WARNINGS causes a divide by zero to be evaluated as a NULL.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; --This will NOT set ARITHABORT to OFF SET ARITHABORT OFF; --Hence, manually setting it to OFF GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshots below show that the transaction completed successfully and the data condition resulting in a divide by zero error returned a NULL or an unknown. The client application only receives a warning message that it can discard (and most systems will).
The client application will therefore never realize that an erroneous data scenario just occurred and bad data will be persisted due to the success of the transaction.
Conclusion #2: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can cause the database engine to accept possibly bad data.
One of the things we see very frequently when exchanging data between systems is difference in the sizes of various fields. When trying to insert a string into a field in a table which is smaller than the length of the input string, the standard behavior with ANSI_WARNINGS ON is to return a string truncation error.
In the example provided below, we are inserting more than 10 characters (the author's surname) into a field that only allows 10 characters.
The insert fails and the statement is rolled back because we would want to either insert all of the data of the input string into the table, or none (I would not want my last name to be stored as incomplete in any database).USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
This following error message is returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8152, Level 16, State 14, Line 23String or binary data would be truncated.The statement has been terminated.
Now, when ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF, silent truncation of the input string happens when the input string is longer than the field into which it is being inserted or updated.
The example provided below is same as the one above, with the exception that ANSI_WARNINGS is explicitly set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
Notice the incomplete LastName in the screenshot above. The input data was silently truncated without the client system ever knowing about the truncation. Such silent truncation of string data can lead to data quality issues – which can go undetected when ANSI_WARNINGS are kept OFF untill end users notice names, addresses or other notes being frustratingly truncated and call the product support helpline.
Conclusion #3: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can cause the database engine to silently generate bad data. Silent truncation of strings can go unnoticed unless cross-verification of stored data is done at each stage of a data transfer. Storing truncated strings ultimately results in poor data quality in cases where names, addresses, warning messages, incident reports or other notes and notices are being stored.Impact on Table Design and Index Management
So far, we have seen that setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can generate potentially bad data. Bad data conditions are generally silent and are not immediately detected. The impact of ANSI_WARNINGS on table design and index management is a more visible one - in the sense that indexes on computed columns or indexed views need ANSI_WARNINGS to be ON.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, attempting to manipulate data in tables with indexed computed columns or indexed views results in an error. The example provided below creates a table with a non-clustered index on a computed column. This is done with ANSI_WARNINGS set to ON. When inserting data, ANSI_WARNINGS are set to OFF for the purposes of this test.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is still ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Now, turn ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO INSERT INTO dbo.MathematicalTables (intA, intB) SELECT set1.intA, set2.intB FROM (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set1(intA) CROSS JOIN (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set2(intB); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
When the code provided above is executed, we receive the following error:
Msg 1934, Level 16, State 1, Line 34INSERT failed because the following SET options have incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are correct for use with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data type methods and/or spatial index operations.
As the error suggests, our INSERT failed because ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF. Keeping ANSI_WARNINGS OFF prevents us from XML and spatial data manipulation and working with filtered index in addition to issues with computed columns demonstrated above.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF at the time of index creation, the index creation itself will fail.This is demonstrated by the code provided below, which is same as the one above, but with an exception that ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF when the index is being created.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is still ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO --Now, turn ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
The following error is reported if ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF when an index is being created.
Msg 1934, Level 16, State 1, Line 31CREATE INDEX failed because the following SET options have incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are correct for use with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data type methods and/or spatial index operations.
Conclusion #4: Index creation on computed columns, filtered indexes, data manipulation of XML and Spatial data requires that ANSI_WARNINGS be set to ON in addition to other SET options (ARITHABORT, CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER, ANSI_NULLS, ANSI_PADDING, and ANSI_WARNINGS).Testing for ANSI_WARNINGS
The following code demonstrates how to check whether ANSI_WARNINGS is ON or OFF. The @@OPTIONS function returns a bitmap of the various SET options that can be turned ON or OFF, converted to a base 10 (decimal) integer. All we need to do is use binary AND operation to check whether the bit at the appropriate binary position is 1 (i.e. option is ON) or 0 (i.e. option is OFF).--Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO How to configure ANSI_WARNINGS for all sessions on the server?
We simply use the reverse logic used to test for a set option being ON. The system stored procedure sp_configure can be used to set the appropriate option by specifying the decimal representation of the appropriate bit position.
In case of ANSI_WARNINGS, the bitmap for decimal value 8 represents that the option is ON.EXEC sp_configure 'user options', 8 ; GO RECONFIGURE ; GO
The SET option ANSI_WARNINGS controls the ISO behavior of the SQL Server database engine. Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as part of a nightly job.
However, it may cause confusion when validating the results of the aggregation. When divide by zero or string length mismatch issues are encountered, the database engine may successfully accept, process, generate and commit data of a particular transaction with possibly poor data quality (i.e. data may be incorrect or incomplete).
Having poor quality data in a system may create problems when such data is migrated over to or integrated with another system (maybe another on-premise or a cloud system) and the target system enforces strict data quality standards. It may also cause dissatisfaction among users if an organization incorrectly addresses them or their shipments do not reach them due to silent truncation of their data.
In addition to data truncation, turning ANSI_WARNINGS OFF also has a serious impact on table design and index maintenance such that SQL Server prevents insertion of data in the affected tables.Further Reading Disclaimer
A few disclaimers about this information and code:
Nakul Vachhrajani is a Microsoft Certified Professional (MCTS: SQL 2008, MCP: SQL 2012), TOGAF 9 certified Technical Architect and systems development professional with Capgemini (formerly, IGATE) having a total IT experience of more than 12 years. He has more than a decade of dedicated experience on Data Quality, Data Management and Database Administration. He has a comprehensive grasp on data migrations to Salesforce.com, and product development, implementation and sustenance (including handling of production support escalations) on products using MS SQL Server and C, C++, Visual C++/C#.
Nakul is the author of 12 technical articles on database technologies (published worldwide in edited journals & communities) and 3 whitepapers (one of which has been published nationwide). Nakul is an active blogger (more than 370 blogs on https://nakulvachhrajani.com, also syndicated on ToadWorld - a software community by Dell), and can also be found on forums at SQLServerCentral and Experts-Exchange. He has been a guest columnist for SQLAuthority.com and SQLServerCentral.com. He has also presented a webcast in Microsoft Virtual Tech Days.
In addition to his passion about SQL Server, Nakul also contributes to the academia out of personal interest. He visits various colleges and universities as an external faculty to judge project activities being carried out by the students.
When not working occupied with work, Nakul likes to spend time with his family. His hobbies include travelling, listening to music and reading till late into the night.
Specialties: Microsoft SQL Server - Administration, Development, Data Quality & Data Management, migration of on-premise SQL Server data to Salesforce.comProduct Development, Sustenance & escalation management in an agile environment
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Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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