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In Microsoft Access 2002, are a grid of fields and records in which data is viewed,
entered, edited, and deleted.
Data Access Pages
Tables are used to view, enter, edit, and delete data in Microsoft Access 2002.
A field is defined as .
Individual rows that make up one complete set of information
A grid of columns and rows that is used to store information
The individual columns or categories of the table
None of the above
Fields are individual columns or categories of the table. For example, in a table consisting
of students at a school, First Name, Last Name, Parent's Work Number, etc. would all be examples of individual fields.
A record is defined as .
Individual rows that make up one complete set of information
A grid of columns and rows that is used to store information
The individual columns or categories of the table
None of the above
A record is one complete row of information in a table about a specific entity. For example, in a table consisting of employees in a business, a record would contain all of the
information about one employee, such as First Name, Last Name, Address, Date of Hire, etc.
are used to extract records from a table that meet specific criteria.
Data Access Pages
A query is used to extract records that meet a specific criteria or set of criteria from a table.
Queries enable you to view and manipulate small subsets of data.
_ are used to publish information to the Internet
Data Access Pages
A Data Access Page is used to publish information to the Internet, and saves information from a table or query in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language. format, which is the file
format the Internet uses.
are on-screen documents used to view or enter data in a table.
Forms are used to view, enter, or edit data in a table, and are easier to use and more professional in appearance than using the table datasheet.
A Crosstab query is used when .
A summary table which displays totals, averages, highs, lows, and other calculations of a large datasheet is needed
Records that show relationships to other records in other tables are needed
A query is needed that will update data in a record
You wish to view identical records have been created in the same table
A Crosstab query is used to summarize information in a table and can be created by using
the Crosstab Query Wizard.
The default Field Size when using the Text data type is _.
You cannot type any field entry that exceeds 50 characters in length, unless you adjust the
field size by clicking the field you wish to change and entering the desired field size number in the Field Size field in the Field Properties section of the Design view window
Microsoft MOS-AXP Exam (Access 2002 Core) Detailed Information
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Learn more about Microsoft account.
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MOS-AXP Access 2002 Core
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Access 2002 Core certification
Can the legislations be copyrighted? | MOS-AXP Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
UpCodes wants to repair probably the most constructing trade’s biggest headaches via streamlining code compliance. but the Y Combinator-backed startup now faces a copyright lawsuit filed towards it by way of the overseas Code Council, the nonprofit organization that develops the code used or adopted in constructing laws by all 50 states.
The case might also have ramifications beyond the building trade, together with for compliance know-how in other sectors and even people who want to reproduce the legislations. At its core are a couple of essential questions: Is it feasible to copyright the legislations or textual content that contains the burden of legislation? as a result of legal guidelines and codes are sometimes written via deepest individuals or corporations instead of legislators, what rights do they proceed to have over their work? a couple of important cases, together with ones involving building codes, were determined by using different circuits within the united states courtroom of Appeals, which capacity the UpCodes lawsuit may probably be heard via the Supreme court.
Brothers Scott and Garrett Reynolds founded UpCodes in 2016. while working as an architect, Scott says he realized how laborious code compliance is for builders, who are required with the aid of legislations to observe codes that determine issues like the height of handrails from the ground, minimal width of openings for bedroom home windows, placement of light switches or how many electrical retailers to have in a hallway.
These details are crucial to be sure structures are secure and accessible and an oversight might also field builders and property owners to felony penalties, fines and costly rebuilding. establishments that may manage to pay for to achieve this employ code consultants, however on an trade-wide stage, the system of code compliance has been cited as a key cause of reduced productivity within the building trade and rising domestic expenditures.
Scott decided to depart architecture to increase equipment that could simplify the system, and become joined via his brother Garrett, then a application engineer at development management software enterprise PlanGrid. both completed Y Combinator’s accelerator application in 2017 and thus far have announced $785,000 in funding from angel buyers, Y Combinator and foundation Capital.
Brothers Scott and Garrett Reynolds, who established UpCodes to streamline constructing code compliance
UpCodes’ first product, an online database, gives free access to codes, code updates and local amendments from 32 states, in addition to ny metropolis. For constructing gurus and others who desire more superior search tools and collaboration elements, UpCodes sells individual and crew subscriptions. In 2018, UpCodes launched its 2d product, referred to as UpCodes AI. Described as a “spellcheck for buildings,” the plug-in scans 3D fashions created with constructing suggestions modeling (BIM) statistics and highlights expertise mistakes in real time.
just as expertise has dramatically streamlined the compliance system in different tremendously regulated sectors, including finance and healthcare, Scott and Garrett Reynolds say equipment like UpCodes’ can enhance productiveness within the building business. The startup presently has more than 200,000 month-to-month active clients, and has served over 10 million web page views and a pair of million clients on the grounds that launch.
It argues that its use of building codes is lined by fair use. The ICC, having said that, claims that products like UpCodes’ database hurt its potential to make revenue and proceed developing code. The ICC desires UpCodes to take down the constructing code on which it claims copyright, and has also sued for damages.
Making constructing codes more available
Served on UpCodes in September 2017 by means of the ICC and the American Society of development Engineers (ASCE), the lawsuit additionally names each of the brothers as a defendant. (UpCodes settled out of court with the ASCE).
‘we have a extremely lengthy tradition that in a society ruled through the rule of legislations, people have the appropriate to entry the legislation through which they are ruled.’ Corynne McSherry, legal director of the digital Frontier groundwork
The brothers say they had been greatly surprised because they believed they had been lined with the aid of the fair use doctrine. in the US, reasonable use is determined using 4 elements: the intention and character of the use, the nature of the copyrighted work, the volume and substantiality of the element taken and the effect of the use on the capabilities market for or value of the copyrighted work. in one of the circuit court circumstances that worried building code, Veeck v Southern building Code Congress international (2002), the judges ruled that once model codes are enacted into legislations, they enter the general public domain.
“The people who're impacted are definitely architects, engineers, business specialists, but additionally any homeowners or people living in a residence or condo are affected, too,” says Scott Reynolds. “if you need to do a renovation or circulation a wall or add an extension to your apartment, it's the actual same legislation that governs these as well. It’s a pretty unhealthy precedent to set, copyrighting law in a democracy.”
The brothers see their database as an easy-to-use resource for anybody who desires to analysis constructing code. as an example, they are saying they heard from an older couple who used UpCodes’ free entry to confirm that they had the right to demand a broken elevator of their building be fixed inside a certain timeframe.
fashioned in 1994 by the merger of three regional model code companies, the international Code Council is a nonprofit with 64,000 contributors headquartered in Washington DC. Its model codes and specifications are developed via committees made from volunteers from its membership and ICC team of workers. The ICC lobbies for the code to be enacted into law, and earns revenue by using selling code books and running accreditation programs.
Some locations, together with Michigan, direct people who need to analysis building codes to purchase the books from the ICC’s web site. The ICC’s site has code posted for gratis viewing, however replica and paste, highlighting, printing and other features are disabled unless users pay a subscription fee. Scott and Garrett Reynolds say this makes it more tricky to research code compliance, notably for non-authorities. UpCodes uploads building codes from various sources, together with executive websites, the ICC’s web site and ICC code books ordered on-line, scanned and put into its database. The ICC argues that this violates its copyright and hurts the company’s potential to elevate earnings through code ebook revenue.
“what's definitely at the crux of this lawsuit is that we develop the highest quality codes which are adopted and used by using governments at nearly no charge to the taxpayers and UpCodes is misappropriating ICC codes to generate their for-income business,” says Mel Oncu, ICC’s popular tips.
When adopting code, many jurisdictions look at what others are doing, which has helped enhance using ICC’s code. however codes still range between cities and states, with the Economist reporting in 2017 that American counties and municipalities use a combined complete of ninety three,000 distinct building codes, and are up to date generally, including one other layer of complexity to the compliance method.
Corynne McSherry, legal director of digital liberties advocacy community the electronic Frontier foundation, says at stake in the case is the precept of entry to the legislations.
“many people don’t consider about this enviornment of law, however it’s one of the crucial influential to our every day lives. We think of legislations in terms of what we see onscreen, but now not too many people continuously need to have interaction with an important constitutional issue like those portrayed in films. expectantly most of us don’t have to encounter crook legislations that a great deal. but constructing codes basically form our daily lives in incredibly concrete techniques,” McSherry says.
because the codes are legally binding, “that makes gigantic difference below copyright law and below basic constitutional law. we have a really lengthy lifestyle that in a society ruled by way of the guideline of law, americans have the correct to access the law in which they are governed,” she provides.
an issue that’s come up before
Questions surrounding copyright and access to the legislations had been litigated a number of times within the united states courts of appeals. Two cases in specific may additionally support UpCodes’ argument: constructing officials and Code Administration (BOCA) v Code expertise (1980) and Veeck v Southern building Code Congress overseas (SBCCI) (2002). Two more contemporary cases involving Public.resource.org, a nonprofit group that publishes public domain materials to its web page, might also additionally bolster UpCodes’ place: Code Revision fee v Public.useful resource.org (2017) and American Society for testing and materials et al. v Public.resource.org (2018).
BOCA (one of the most three agencies that merged into ICC in 1994) developed a mannequin building code that changed into adopted by means of Massachusetts, with some minor changes, which BOCA then published because the Commonwealth of Massachusetts State building Code. When private writer Code know-how started publishing and selling its own edition of the code, BOCA sued. The case made it to the first Circuit, which ruled in Code technology’s want, declaring that it was “removed from persuaded that BOCA’s virtual authorship of the Massachusetts constructing code entitles it to implement a copyright monopoly over when, where and how the [code] is reproduced and made publicly purchasable.”
Then greater than two decades later, another case resulted in an identical ruling. The Southern constructing Code Congress international, yet another one of the most three regional agencies that formed the ICC, published a mannequin constructing code adopted with the aid of local governments, including the towns of Anna and Savoy in Texas. Peter Veeck, who ran a website with free assistance about North Texas, bought copies of the code from the SBCCI, then scanned and uploaded them.
When the SBCCI demanded he stop, Veeck spoke back in a court docket submitting that posting the code did not violate the Copyright Act and become covered by using fair use. The SBCCI counterclaimed for copyright infringement. while the district court docket dominated in the SBCCI’s desire, the enchantment made it to the Fifth Circuit, the place choose Edith Jones wrote in her opinion for the nine-decide majority that “as legislation, the mannequin codes enter the public domain and don't seem to be discipline to the copyright holder’s exclusive prerogatives.” The SBCCI’s try and appeal to the Supreme court became denied.
The Economist reports there are ninety three,000 constructing codes in use between American jurisdictions and municipalities
constructing codes and copyright had been additionally on the middle of both circumstances involving Public.aid.org. A lawsuit filed by the state of Georgia’s Code Revision commission in 2015 sought to stop it from publishing the reliable Code of Georgia Annotated (OCGA) after founder Carl Malamud bought a hard reproduction of the OCGA, scanned it and despatched copies on USB sticks to Georgia legislators. The Code Revision commission argued that the annotations they wrote placed it below state copyright, but the Eleventh Circuit dominated in Public.aid.org’s choose last year.
In an additional recent case, six industry businesses, including the American Society for testing and materials, sued Public.useful resource.org for scanning and publishing constructing, fire and protection codes they considered their copyrighted property. After the District court for the District of Columbia ruled towards Public.aid.org, the case went on appeal to the DC Circuit. In July 2018, a three-decide panel reversed the resolution, and sent the case returned to the district court docket for extra consideration, declaring that “in lots of cases, it may well be reasonable use for pro to breed half or all of a technical typical so as to inform the general public in regards to the legislations.”
One change between the general public.resource.org circumstances and UpCodes’ is that Public.resource.org is a non-industrial neighborhood, a proven fact that strengthens their reasonable use argument. UpCodes, in spite of this, is a business company, so one can become part of the reasonable use evaluation if their case makes it to trial. however that is not a decider, says McSherry, who represented Public.aid.org in each instances, and the judges are prone to consider the general public.resource.org cases, as well as the Veeck and different building code cases.
because the Veeck case by no means made it to the Supreme court, that ability it hasn’t heard a case on the copyright availability of prison codes, or codes with the force of legislations, in a very long time, says Joe Gratz, a legal professional who has litigated a couple of high-profile information superhighway copyright and trademark disputes and is representing UpCodes and the Reynolds brothers. This opens the probability of the ICC lawsuit making it to the Supreme courtroom.
“So now you've got at least three of the circuits — DC, Fifth and Eleventh — all completely lined up, effortlessly asserting that Veeck become appropriate,” Gratz adds.
The ICC’s argument
however the ICC’s place is that the Veeck case is “dangerous legislations,” says Oncu, adding that the determination became made two decades ago, earlier than trends in know-how allowed the firm to host free access to codes by itself web page.
The ICC’s attorneys note that the firm additionally works with third-celebration distributors that license the code. “UpCodes could have come to ICC at any point and asked to lawfully reproduce the codes that we own. The thought that they could’t accomplish their mission with out violating our copyright doesn’t make tons sense to me,” says Oncu.
(In response, Garrett Reynolds says “It’s absurd to license the legislations. ICC thinks they’re the gatekeepers and anybody desirous to share the legislations must pay their toll. ICC doesn’t get to come to a decision who’s allowed to create new improvements to aid americans follow the legislation.” UpCodes did not ask ICC to license the code.)
There are two copyright instances, determined in circuit court, that guide ICC’s place, says lawyer Kevin payment, a Morgan Lewis associate who's representing the corporation: CCC information functions v. Maclean Hunter Market reviews (1994) and practice management tips v. American scientific association (1998).
’The concept that they could’t accomplish their mission with out violating our copyright doesn’t make a good deal feel to me.’ Mel Oncu, international Code Council’s widespread counsel
In 1994, the 2d Circuit sided with Maclean, publisher of used vehicle valuation reference red booklet, which alleged CCC, an information and service company for the car trade, violated its copyright by uploading tips from the book to its online community. In its determination, the courtroom stated “We are not prepared to hang that a state’s reference to a copyrighted work as a felony typical for valuation effects in lack of the copyright.”
within the second case, practice management assistance, a medical coding products business, sued the American clinical association over using present Procedural Terminology (CPT), a medical code set it is required by using Medicare and HIPAA and looks within the Federal Register. apply management claimed that this intended AMA’s copyright changed into invalid, however the Ninth Circuit disagreed, writing in its 1997 choice that “the AMA’s appropriate under the Copyright Act to limit or forgo ebook of the CPT poses no practical probability to public entry.”
The ICC claims that its practicing and schooling certification enterprise isn’t adequate to fund code construction.
“Copyright coverage of our codes is simple to our capacity to continue to update our codes,” says Oncu. She adds that the ICC believes if the lawsuit is dominated in UpCodes’ favor, it could actually probably set a precedent that allows you to make it elaborate for it to have a income movement and proceed creating awesome codes.
Scott and Garrett Reynolds, however, say that the ICC appears to have match salary. In its 2016 annual file, the ICC mentioned its consolidated income in 2015 changed into $66 million, a rise of $four.three million compared to 2014, and that it “consistently records over $1 million in income per 30 days” through its online shop. Then from 2015 to 2016, ICC’s salary improved via $12 million, in accordance with a file presented by using chief executive officer Dominic Sims at an annual meeting. (The ICC didn't expose an amount for consolidated income in its 2017 annual report, and hasn’t released its 2018 annual file yet.)
The UpCodes founders additionally word that Sims, the ICC’s CEO, became paid $709,000 in 2016, based on a tax submitting, lots more than the $104,000 median annual earnings for nonprofit CEOs. (Oncu says that ICC’s salaries are comparable to other requirements organizations.)
abilities implications for innovation
one among UpCodes’ angel investors, Cyrus Lohrasbpour, decided to again the enterprise when he saw them current all over Y Combinator’s Demo Day. Lohrasbpour says he was impressed by means of the accessibility of the site and its crew collaboration tools.
“I immediately understood the price proposition of the company,” he says. “It became tough for me to be mindful why constructing codes didn’t have something like this already.” Lohrasbpour turned into one in all two investors deposed through the ICC as part of the lawsuit, however regardless of being puzzled for five hours by using lawyers, he says the event made him greater decided to aid UpCodes. “in case you invest in a corporation on the way to disrupt an incumbent, there is all the time an opportunity that anything like this occurs.”
Scott and Garrett Reynolds say that proceedings just like the one they are dealing with may additionally doubtlessly deter other developers from working on equipment to automate building and protection methods, akin to calculating fireplace resistance in partitions. The UpCodes go well with, and the other circumstances that got here earlier than it, aren’t simply principal to builders. expertise has been able to streamline the method of regulatory and prison compliance in several industries, but innovation might also gradual if would-be founders are uncertain about how copyright law applies to them.
The electronic Frontier basis takes on valued clientele like Public.useful resource.org professional bono as a result of “complaints can also be a method of shutting down innovation in its infancy,” says McSherry. “It may also be intimidating to americans trying to scan during this space.”
ICC’s stance is that it's already making its code greater obtainable by way of inserting it on-line.
“Code compliance has on no account been more straightforward. if you desired to entry the codes before the information superhighway, you had to buy a tough replica of the codes or go to the library to determine it out. Now ICC has made its codes obtainable on-line without charge. All you need is a cellphone to your hand or internet access to know what the codes say,” says charge.
but UpCodes’ argument is that a part of the cost of their product is its ease of use, including the capacity to reduce, paste and spotlight textual content, which ICC’s online codes lack except you pay a subscription fee. at the equal time, the executive web page of many municipalities direct residents to the ICC’s web page to examine or purchase code, including Michigan and California.
“I believe citizens being able to freely entry and talk about laws is important to democracy and to hold the government accountable,” says Garrett Reynolds. “If one inner most entity controls entry to the legislation and they get to come to a decision who can entry it when and how, it might possibly be applicable in a dictatorship, however now not in a democracy. The americans are the owners of the legislation.”
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