|Exam Name||:||Developing Websites Using IBM Lotus Web(R) Content Management 7.0|
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|Updated On||:||April 19, 2019|
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LOT-913 exam Dumps Source : Developing Websites Using IBM Lotus Web(R) Content Management 7.0
Test Code : LOT-913
Test Name : Developing Websites Using IBM Lotus Web(R) Content Management 7.0
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 85 Real Questions
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French commercial courtroom clerks will use a blockchain-based mostly platform to checklist adjustments in corporationsâ€™ felony reputation in the nation. The construction turned into published in an professional announcement on March 14.
The blockchain community turned into collectively developed with the aid of IBM and the countrywide Council of Clerks (NCC) and should reportedly be deployed beginning in 2019 by using the clerks operating in business courts across France. The blockchain platform is developed on the Hyperledger textile framework and aims to increase transparency and efficiency in criminal transactions linked to the lifecycle of corporations in the registry.
especially, the answer will be used to checklist and share data involving â€śthe exchanges of regulatory advice related to groups' difficulties,â€ť as well as â€śthe alterations of popularity of the business registered on the French territory.â€ť That contains such information as trade of corporate name, registration court docket workplace, institution of department places of work, and enterprise dissolution.
In a pilot, NCC reportedly managed to shorten the time vital to update the registry from a few days to a single day. Vincent Fournier, Senior manager Blockchain at IBM France, noted that "blockchain's qualities are perfect for this use, enhancing the Clerks' company strategies and adapting to the ever-altering nature of their missions."
IBM has released quite a few business blockchain items and filed a few blockchain-linked patents. furthermore, IBM reportedly presents the finest variety of blockchain jobs, according to fresh analysis by The next net.
This week, IBM partnered with blockchain consortium and credit union carrier company CULedger to strengthen new blockchain-based solutions for the credit union business. These options can reportedly improve functions corresponding to digital identity authentication, recognize Your customer compliance, lending and funds capabilities, and different consumer strategies that require authentication.
additionally this month, IBM published two new patents targeting community protection using blockchain know-how and focusing on database management the use of the tech.
IBM researchers have found a a catalytic chemical procedure that digests plastics into a substance which can be fed at once lower back into plastic manufacturing machines with a view to make new products. the manner, known as VolCat recycling, collects plastic bottles, containers, and PET-based mostly fabric, grinds them up, and combines them with a chemical catalyst in a drive cooker set to above 200 degrees celsius.
images courtesy of IBM
VolCat starts by means of heating PET and ethylene glycol in a reactor with the catalyst.Â after depolymerization is comprehensive, the catalyst is recovered by means of distillation from the reactor the usage of the warmth of response. the solution is filtered, purified, and then cooled, and the solid monomer product is recovered through filtration. the recovered liquid, together with the catalyst, is then reintroduced into the depolymerization reactor in an power-effective cycle.
with heat and a small quantity of drive, the catalyst is able to digest and clean the ground-up plastic. the method separates contaminants like food residue, glue, dirt, dyes, and pigments from the fabric it's useable for new PET. the useable matter (referred to as a monomer) takes the kind of a white powder, which can be fed without delay into a polyester reactor to make brand new plastics.
advancements like VolCat will make recycling plastics greater productive and extra versatile in treating more fabric kinds than its predecessors. not like natural mechanical recycling, future plastics recycling will damage down both colored and clear plastics, as well as dirty and clear containers, producing a great remaining product it's 100% recyclable.
IBM believes thatÂ in the subsequent half decade, plastic recycling developments like VolCat may be adopted all over the world to fight international plastic waste.Â in area of mechanical recycling that can best be used on clear, pre-cleaned containers, future recycling developments will imply no more sorting, rinsing, and setting apart used containers, wrappers, or plastics.
kieron marchese I designboom
feb 20, 2019
Hadoop, the Apache Hadoop developed through Apache application groundwork, is an open-supply software framework for storing facts and operating purposes on clusters of commodity hardware. It offers massive storage for any type of facts, enormous processing vigour and the potential to address practically limitless concurrent projects or jobs.
the base Apache Hadoop framework is composed of the following modules. Hadoop allotted File equipment (HDFS) â€“ a dispensed file-system that retailers information on commodity machines, featuring very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster; Hadoop YARN â€“ a platform responsible for managing computing supplies in clusters and using them for scheduling clients' applications; and Hadoop MapReduce â€“ an implementation of the MapReduce programming model for significant-scale information processing.The main transforming into market is Asia Pacific, similar to China, India, Japan, Korea, SEA, and so forth. united states of america and Europe are the mature market with notably reduce growth rate.
Request for sample of this record@ www.supplydemandmarketresearch.com/home/contact/201563?re...
North the united states is the greatest Hadoop market on earth these years, and united states is the biggest country of Hadoop market on earth during the past few years and it will maintain expanding within the following couple of years. country market took up about 50% the world market in 2016 (ninety% of North the usa Hadoop market), while Europe become about 23.three%, and Asia-Pacific is followed with the percentage about 14.8%.
u . s . is now the most key developers of Hadoop distributions. There are some vendors with terrible best or introduced items, but the chinese language market is still managed with the aid of the overseas companies. And the excessive first-rate items are certainly supplied through remote places suppliers.
Cloudrea, Hortonworks, MapR Tech, Dell/EMC/Pivotal, IBM, Microsoft, Amazon net capabilities are the key suppliers within the international Hadoop market. appropriate three took up about 56% of the world market in 2016. Cloudrea, Hortonworks and MapR Tech are the most conventional Hadoop distributions on the earth.
the important thing players covered during this analyzeâ€˘ Cloudreaâ€˘ Hortonworksâ€˘ MapR Techâ€˘ Dell/EMC/Pivotalâ€˘ IBMâ€˘ Microsoftâ€˘ Amazon web features
Market section by means of category, the product will also be cut up intoâ€˘ Cloud-primarily basedâ€˘ On-premises
Get speedy cut price on this research file@ www.supplydemandmarketresearch.com/domestic/contact/201563?re...Market phase by way of application, break up intoâ€˘ Manufacturingâ€˘ Retailâ€˘ economicâ€˘ govtâ€˘ Others
Market phase by means of regions/international locations, this report coversâ€˘ united statesâ€˘ Europeâ€˘ Chinaâ€˘ Japanâ€˘ Southeast Asiaâ€˘ Indiaâ€˘ primary & South the united states
The examine pursuits of this report are:â€˘ to research world Hadoop reputation, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.â€˘ To existing the Hadoop building in u.s., Europe and China.â€˘ To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their construction plan and strategies.â€˘ To define, describe and forecast the market by using product class, market and key areas.
during this analyze, the years considered to estimate the market measurement of Hadoop are as follows:â€˘ history yr: 2014-2018â€˘ Base 12 months: 2018â€˘ Estimated yr: 2019â€˘ Forecast year 2019 to 2025
This record includes the estimation of market dimension for cost (million US$) and quantity (k Pcs). each excellent-down and bottom-up processes have been used to estimate and validate the market dimension of Hadoop market, to estimate the dimension of a lot of other stylish submarkets in the average market. Key avid gamers available in the market were recognized via secondary analysis, and their market shares have been determined through basic and secondary analysis. All percent shares, splits, and breakdowns have been decided the use of secondary sources and demonstrated primary sources.
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we now have a robust community of excessive powered and experienced global consultants who have about 10+ years of adventure within the particular industry to bring exceptional analysis and analysis.Having such an experienced network, our services now not simplest cater to the customer who needs the primary reference of market numbers and related high boom areas within the demand aspect, however also we deliver unique and granular counsel the usage of which the customer can definitely plan the suggestions with respect to each give and demand facet.
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By Samuel Greengard
If content is king, then most organizations eventually come to recognize that they are servants to information and knowledge. Despite sophisticated servers and storage devices crammed with terabytes of data, relatively few companies are adept at harnessing the content and knowledge tucked away in all corners of the enterprise.
Â â€śThere is a tremendous amount of valuable information that is never put to use,â€ť observes Stephen Powers, vice president, research director at Forrester Research.
The situation isnâ€™t getting any easier. Today, organizations find themselves buried in unstructured dataâ€”including audio and video files, meeting notes and e-mail messages. And as the use of mobile tools and social networking spreads, thereâ€™s a growing need to capture, manage and share content and knowledge in new ways.
â€śBusinesses are looking to unlock the full value of their content,â€ť says Erik Larson, a senior executive in Accentureâ€™s Process and Information Management Practice. â€śUnfortunately, many organizations lack the systems to do so.â€ť
Achieving success is not east. Thereâ€™s no single tool or software package that can capture, store and manage all the content and knowledge that resides in computers and people. Thereâ€™s also no single way to share information and content among employees and with customers and business partners.
Best-practice organizations understand that an effective strategy requires cross-functional planning and expertise, the right information technology, and an eye on processes and workflows.
The idea of capturing and sharing expertise is nothing new. To a certain extent, businesses have always looked for ways to manage content and knowledge more effectively. But the advent of computersâ€”and particularly the Internetâ€”has changed things in a significant way. Beginning in the late 1990s, organizations began looking for ways to share everything from existing files and snippets of information to insights and experiences.
Knowledge management (KM) and enterprise content management (ECM) aim to provide content, expertise and knowledge where and when theyâ€™re needed. Forresterâ€™s Powers defines KM as the governance model and ECM as the system that supports an initiative.
ECM can take many forms, including collaboration tools, Web- or server-based file- and document-sharing technology, social media systems and more. â€śIt makes sense from both a strategic and cost point of view to reuse the best content and share knowledge,â€ť Accentureâ€™s Larson says.
Electrolux Believes in Sharing
One company that has fully embraced the concept is Electrolux, the worldâ€™s second-largest manufacturer of appliances. The companyâ€”based in Stockholm and with 50,000 employees spread across 60 countriesâ€”has turned to KM to share key content across half a dozen business units, including its Frigidaire and Eureka brands. â€śWe realize that we can work smarter together than apart,â€ť says Ralf Larsson, director of online employee engagement and development.
In 2009, Electrolux identified a need to move away from what Larsson describes as a â€śtraditional, corporate-drivenâ€ť approach to sharing content and knowledge. It turned to Microsoft SharePoint as well as IBMâ€™s Connections, Lotus Notes and Sametime software, so that employees could access content and collaborate on the fly through an intranet, online communities and microblogs. More than 100 portals now exist, including 1,100 collaboration spaces with upward of 8,500 members.
The system offers a platform for knowledge sharing and collaborative problem solving. For example, last year, when the organization created a mobile-based social Internet capability that didnâ€™t function as intended, IT professionals in Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom began working on a fix. â€śWithin two hours, the problem was resolved,â€ť Larsson says. â€śIn the past, we would have had dozens of phone calls and struggled for hours to address the problem.â€ť
Electrolux also uses the platform for onboarding new hires. Employees use the system to learn about job functions and the company by accessing an array of content. In the past, updating content was complex and somewhat unwieldy. Today, authorized human resources managers and others can share insights, collaborate and rewrite content on the fly.
In addition, community membersâ€”typically top managersâ€”can respond to questions posted by the companyâ€™s CEO or another high-ranking executive. This serves as a way to spark new ideas and innovation. Says Larsson: â€śWeâ€™re seeing open dialogue and knowledge sharing in areas as diverse as R&D and customer service.â€ť
Instrument of Change
Three primary areas of KM and ECM exist, Forresterâ€™s Powers says. These encompass internal content, transactional content and so-called â€śpersuasiveâ€ť content that targets the outside world. The last one represents a significant opportunity that many organizations do not fully exploit.
â€śOutward facing initiativesâ€”including Websites, mobile and social initiativesâ€”are very different from traditional document management systems,â€ť he says. â€śYou can dictate formats and devices internally, but you have little control over customers.â€ť
One company attempting to ratchet up externally facing KM and ECM initiatives is National Instruments (NI), a leading manufacturer of testing equipment used by engineers, scientists and other technical specialists. The Austin, Texas, company, with annual revenues exceeding $1 billion and more than 6,000 employees, sells a software programming platform, LabVIEW, that uses a graphical system design and virtual instrumentation to automate testing processes for equipment.
â€śOur success is based on the ability of our customers to become proficient with our tools,â€ť says John Pasquarette, vice president of e-business. â€śThe community of users takes the platform to places we hadnâ€™t envisioned. In many instances, they know how to use it better than we do.â€ť
As a result, NI turned to the Jive Engage Platform to enable socially focused knowledge and content sharing both internally and externally. â€śThe community approach, including discussions about how to get the most out of LabVIEW and solve various issues, â€śdrives better solutions and ultimately sells our products,â€ť he says.
For instance, a customer with a problem can post a question and receive input from users all over the world. â€śHistorically, we had a traditional approach of feeding content into the Website,â€ť Pasquarette says. â€śTech support engineers, R&D specialists and product marketing managers created content to support LabVIEWâ€”including [sample] programs and white papers.
â€śThese new collaborative technologies are shifting the publishing role toward the customer. Participants like to share their expertise, and they have a great deal of credibility with their peers. Itâ€™s a winning situation for everyone involved.â€ť
The content is also plugged into a knowledge base thatâ€™s used by customers. The result? NI has reduced phone support and call center costs and improved its support metrics. Says Pasquarette: â€śCustomers that are active on these sites display higher loyalty rates, they buy more products and they make more recommendations to peers.â€ť
Not surprisingly, the challenges of building effective KM and ECM tools multiply as organizations confront a growing tangle of systems and formats containing document files, spreadsheets, Web content, social media feeds, databases and more. The ability to understand governance issues and business contextâ€”and map out a strategyâ€”is paramount.
â€śThereâ€™s no single software package that can address the full spectrum of ECM needs,â€ť Powers notes. â€śAn enterprise may require a portal, a document management system, a digital asset management system and numerous other components.â€ť
Itâ€™s also important to recognize that a KM or ECM system is only as good as the search results it generates. In some cases, the use of tags can help manage the crush of content, although these tools present problems at the enterprise level because people label things differently.
Accentureâ€™s Larson suggests tweaking and fine-tuning search capabilities by examining how users search and access content. â€śYou can change the hypothesis a bit to gain insight into what works best.â€ť In addition, the best systems take into account a personâ€™s job category or role when delivering results.Â
In the end, the growing complexity of managing enterprise content is both an opportunity and a challenge. Organizations that harness the full power of KM and ECM are able to work faster, smarter and better. Theyâ€™re able to connect to content and distribute it in new and innovative ways.
Says Larson: â€śOrganizations must view information management in a broad way and understand the full value of what knowledge management and enterprise content management provide.â€ťÂ
Samuel Greengard is a freelance writer for Baseline.
Firefox is often paired with its open source sibling, Thunderbird, a free email client that competes with Microsoft's Outlook in the enterprise.
ON 80 Windows PCs, Mr Robertson uses Firefox downloaded from the web; on 20 Linux desktops he installed Firefox as part of a customised system that runs from read-only DVDs. It's safe from accidents and is replaced with a simple hardware swap.
Mr Robertson used these systems at new sites with heavy demand, and where existing Windows users weren't affected.
Firefox is used to access any information displayed in a web browser from the company's intranet, to the World Wide Web and web-based email delivered by Lotus Domino's Web Mail application. Staff use it to access De Bortoli's enterprise resource planning application server - MFG/PRO, a commercial product from QAD Inc - and an open source content management system based on Typo3.
Barry McGee, MFG/PRO account manager at QAD, says Firefox support is "a priority business issue" because of demand from customers such as De Bortoli.
"Our R&D group is committed to removing the few Explorer-specific features that crept in (to MFG/PRO) by accident," Mr McGee says. "The total cost of ownership arguments that surround Firefox and open source are important to our customers, and so to us."
De Bortoli has been making wine since 1928. It crushes more than 70,000 tonnes of grapes for an annual turnover of $120 million. Mr Robertson says De Bortoli's requirement for a long-term vision gave him a chance to analyse how the browser integrates with the back-end systems.
"We are masters of our own destiny, and we can run a lean and efficient operation," says Mr Robertson. "Neutral standards support our decisions when we select free products and empower us in the marketplace when we buy."
Standards in the computing industry define how systems should interact with each other. They determine the rules of the computing road.
Mr Robertson, based in Griffith, NSW, doesn't understand why his peers elsewhere choose to be locked in to Microsoft's strategy. "I'm staggered and close to offended that some businesses choose the risk of vendor lock-in, and I'm staggered by the timidity of some IT managers," he says.
Mr Robertson mandated De Bortoli use free software productivity suite OpenOffice for tasks such as word processing after reading open standards studies from around the world.
He cites the OASIS OpenDocument technical committee recommendations for office document formats and the World Bank's infoDev project's Open Source Software - Perspectives for Development report as two examples of standards-oriented analysis that support strategic IT decisions. The OpenDocument initiative promulgates OpenOffice file formats for ordinary office documents rather than Microsoft Office formats because they are completely transparent.
On standards, Firefox has an advantage over Explorer. That gives organisations latitude to commit to standards rather than to products. That in turn reduces the leverage that vendors have over customers.
Microsoft has hampered standards support in Explorer for five years with its go-slow campaign against the web. Standards-oriented page layout is not possible on most versions of Explorer (CSS box model). Explorer has never met standards for web document identification (HTTP MIME content types), or if one is supported, then simultaneously the other is not. Microsoft has shown an antipathy to web standards, because in the view of many they provide an alternative to the Windows desktop - Microsoft's core business. The success of web-based applications such as Amazon, Google, eBay, the open source Wikipedia encyclopedia and online banking point to the decreasing importance of Windows in a world where a web browser is sufficient.
Microsoft recently announced a future Explorer 7.0, and participates in standards bodies, but its browser still lags on open standards.
Mr Robertson says Firefox's development community of more than 900 software engineers worldwide - many in Australia - was key when it came to selecting Firefox.
"Firefox has the best pedigree, with an active engineering community, wide community support and long history," he says. "It run(s) on most popular platforms. It has a consistent and stable interface, nice features like tabbed browsing and can be extended should we need to modify it or add to it."
Tabbed browsing lets users open several webpages at once without filling the screen with a clutter of separate windows.
Firefox has been downloaded nearly 40 million times since its release last November. Web metrics analysts OneStat and WebSideStory say usage globally and the US, respectively, hovers around 8.5 per cent, up from 2 per cent just nine months ago - dangerously close, from Microsoft's perspective, to the 10-15 per cent "tipping point" needed to gain a critical mass. Once Firefox has that level of support - equal to about 100 million users - businesses must seriously consider supporting the technology or risk losing customers.
Such an outcome further erodes Microsoft's ability to mandate the shape of the web, and opens the door wider to alternative operating systems such as Apple's OS X and Linux.
Such is the case with the Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, which serves 8000 users through a mixed fleet of Apple iMacs and Windows PCs at more than 250 sites. CIO Greg Carvouni says Mozilla web browser deployment saved the government department 20 per cent of its annual budget - about $2 million - through a reduction in software licences and staff reductions.
"Firefox is clearly where we should be," Mr Carvouni says. "We'll roll it out either in our next standard operating environment (a desktop update), or the one after. Firefox makes the (desktop) a bit more lightweight and customisable, and we're able to lock it down against user tampering."
For large organisations, Firefox supports enterprise management technologies such as a configuration system for managing user preferences, specification of rules for web access (WPAD), digital certificate security rules (OSCP), and automatic user login to servers (NTLM). These make centralised administration of large Firefox deployments possible.
"Because we have both Macintoshes and PCs, we wanted something truly cross-platform," Mr Carvouni says. "We don't feel locked-in because there are other standards-oriented free browsers also available for the Macintosh."
Despite its open source deployment, the authority is committed to proprietary technologies from Microsoft, where it has seen the relationship prosper: "Microsoft is keen to be competitive . . . They don't want us moving more desktops away from Windows. They are cheaper to deal with now than they used to be."
Both Mr Carvouni and Mr Robertson will continue to support Windows - Mr Carvouni's accountants and analysts are wedded to Microsoft Excel, while Mr Robertson has a single Windows kiosk at each of De Bortoli's seven sites for legacy web applications that can only run on Internet Explorer.
Richard Tan, IT manager at Deakin University in Victoria, has resisted Explorer for years but doesn't have the luxury of removing Windows desktops. The university provides information services to students, most of which operate through the web for remote home use and also on-campus. That includes in-house content management systems delivering course information and web point-of-presence.
"We are extremely sympathetic to the cause of open systems," Mr Tan says. "We did not dump Netscape when Explorer was announced because we were wary of the tactics of Microsoft. We thought that we would end up paying for Explorer in Windows upgrades." The most recent update to Explorer requires purchase of Windows XP.
Chris Hofman, Mozilla Foundation director of engineering, says the short-term goal is to give "the absolute best consumer experience with the Firefox web browser and the Thunderbird email client".
People are learning to love the browser and email suite at home, and want that experience at work, he says, while IT managers are glad to see that they have a choice. He urges IT managers to work with their systems' integrators when it comes time to build the software into their systems.
Firefox's developers goal is to create an easier-to-use web where the surfer does not have the burden of extra training or software that slows to a crawl.
"People are more comfortable driving a well-designed, modern car than an old rattler. The same is true of web browsers," says expatriate Kiwi, Ben Goodger, who is employed by Google to enhance Firefox.
Working hard at making Firefox a better browser than Microsoft's is a trans-Tasman collaboration between Dr Robert O'Callahan, employed by Novell New Zealand, and Dr Roger Sidje, a mathematics researcher at the University of Queensland. Together, they work on Gecko, the layout engine inside Firefox responsible for displaying webpages.
Dr O'Callahan urges IT managers to feel confident about open source projects. "Open source business models are still evolving, but many open source companies are profitable, so I expect current sources of funds will persist and new ones to appear," he says.
Mozilla's Hofman points out: "With closed source, commercial software, you're pretty much at the mercy of the company that owns the technology."
Firefox and Thunderbird have had success over Explorer in the area of security. The US Computer Emergency Readiness Team found Explorer had 63 security holes, of which 21 still require a fix. Firefox and Mozilla had 11 security flaws, of which two remain to be fixed. Rival assessor Secunia puts Explorer at 20 of 79 flaws unfixed and Firefox at four of 12 flaws unfixed. CERT went as far as to recommend last July, in vulnerability note VU#713878, that to get around Explorer's insecurity, organisations should "use a different web browser".
Microsoft says its systems are targeted because they are popular, and that any system attacked as much as Windows would need as many fixes.
A Microsoft spokesman says the software maker is aware of Secunia's reports and will "continue to investigate these through the security response process and are actively engaging with Secunia on this issue."
But Mozilla's Hofman points to the success of the Apache web server "where higher market share doesn't mean more security vulnerabilities".
The Firefox business argument is built out of shades of grey: better standards, better interface, better security.
Bill Robertson says deploying Firefox is "far less complex" than some of the other open standards, free software projects De Bortoli has attempted, but it was "one of our important first steps".
"When we recently conducted content management system training using Firefox many users were completely unaware that the desktop operating system wasn't Windows. That is how central Firefox is to our strategy."Bugzilla software puts open source to the test
The Firefox project uses free Bugzilla software to stomp on problems and debate the browserâ€™s development. Evidence of Bugzilla use is an important quality test for organisations considering open source products such as Firefox. Open source products that use Bugzilla generally deliver new features regularly. They have an eye for quality control, supported by rigorous public review.
Bugzilla is a defect-tracking, change-management and workflow system; a web-based application that sits atop the free MySQL relational database. It is best suited to software engineering but can be fitted to other tasks, such as automated software testing and customer support centres.
Bugzilla's strength is that an issue is thrown up into the public view and then all interested parties can collaborate to find a solution. Firefoxâ€™s Bugzilla database, with its 2.5 million remarks, is an important piece of equipment that co-ordinates the changes to Firefox, Mozilla and related products.
Bugzilla is not as flexible as some commercial defect-tracking systems, such as Census from metaquest.com or ClearQuality by Clarify Inc. But Bugzilla has flags and keywords that make it easy to track problems.
Bradley Baetz, Byron Jones and Matthew Tuck are Australians who work intensively on Bugzilla to build the application that exposes the database of issues to the public. "There were some enhancements I wanted as a user, so I added them," says Mr Baetz, 24, a software developer and system administrator for an ISP in Sydney. He did volunteer work at the Mozilla Foundation in California in 2001 following an exchange year at McGill University in Canada. Mr Jones, 29, a programmer in the health sector in Perth, says he was drawn to the project because he is a "stickler for processes and quality control, and Bugzilla fits into that mould".
Bugzilla is so useful that other software projects, including the Linux operating system, adopted it. Most Australian universities use it and the Bugzilla website notes nearly 400 adopters, including NASA.
At the Mozilla Foundation, Bugzilla tracks defects in the quality-oriented systems that support Firefox.
The full set of systems is equivalent to the engineering infrastructure of big software vendors such as Microsoft, IBM or Oracle but with one key difference: anyone can assess the quality of goods produced. - Nigel McFarlane
Rules make the technology world go round
Standards in this context are rules that define how systems interact.
Every software program, computer and peripheral device (such as a printer, MP3 player or digital camera) relies on standards to work, guaranteeing they "speak the same language". Innovation and growth falter when standards are not readily accessible and understood. Web browsers are especially sensitive to standards because they must access a potentially limitless variety of content governed by different standards.
Standards roughly fall into two camps - closed or proprietary, often only understood by a particular vendor, such as a file format; and open standards, freely available to all without discrimination and usually with no fee.
The MPEG video, PNG graphic and HTML webpage file-types are open standards. The internet would not exist without its open standard lingua franca, TCP/IP ("internet protocol"), which allows different parties to innovate on its base transmission system.
Free and open standards are preferred because the market grows rapidly once there is certainty about their use. A "de facto" standard often begins life as a closed standard before the market adopts it. Microsoft Office files such as Word and Powerpoint are examples of closed standards that through heavy use became the de facto way to share content. De facto standards may lock users into the application that generated them, and can be lucrative for the owning vendor. A technology maker can increase its profit by making small changes to the standard, forcing everyone to buy new software.
But the most broadly accepted standards are generally defined and ratified by not-for-profit standards-setting bodies - organisations such as the World Wide Web Consortium and Internet Engineering Task Force, which determine the evolution of the web and the internet respectively. Other influential bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the International Organisation for Standardisation, and the UN's International Telecommunication Union. They may also work with national bodies, such as Standards Australia, to publish and promote these standards around the world. - Nathan Cochrane
CSS: Cascading style sheet; describes how a web document is displayed or printed.
HTTP: Hypertext transfer protocol; the method by which web pages are sent over the net.
MIME: Multi-purpose internet mail extensions; extends the email format for non-US ASCII text, non-text messages, and multi-part message bodies.
Tipping point: The point at which a trend hits critical mass and is irreversible. A turning point or watershed.
Open source consultant and analyst Nigel McFarlane is the author of an upcoming book for browser power users, Firefox Hacks.
They're changing the way we do business (and not always for the better). Don't miss features on Twitter CEO Evan Williams, Google's gambit with the power grid, and an essay about CEO Steve Jobs' leave of absence from Apple.
March 9, 2009 15+ min readBrought to you by Portfolio.com
1. Eric Schmidt, Larry Page, Sergey Brin,
Governing Tribunal, Google
Major Impact: Google towers over the internet era. It controls 64 percent of Web searches, and search is most people's gateway to what they want to do on the Net. Google owns 57 percent of the market for placing ads on websites. The company operates three dozen massive data centers around the world-giving it, by some estimates, more computing power than any single entity on earth. As if that weren't enough, Google keeps using its brand, power, and $15.8 billion in cash to stomp like colonialists into other companies' businesses. Its Android cell-phone operating system encroaches on Apple's and BlackBerry's territory. This year, Google is expected to try to grab market share from Microsoft's Internet Explorer with its Chrome browser and invest heavily in alternative-energy businesses. Wherever Google aims its guns, industries go on red alert.
Unusually, Google is run not by one person but three. Schmidt is officially CEO, and Page and Brin are the co-founders. But they confer with one another on almost everything, so we could not separate them.
Achilles' Heel: Google's very reliance on search. Someday, a new invention will make search less important, just as the Web has made Microsoft's PC operating systems less important, sapping Microsoft's power.
Eccentric Project: They're everywhere at Google. One employee wrote code so that people can search in pirate language. Another created a hidden joke: Try typing "Find Chuck Norris" in the search box and click I'm feeling lucky.
2. Jeff BezosCEO, Amazon
Major Impact: Internet, advertising
When Time named Jeff Bezos its Person of the Year, in 1999, he had his greatest impact on Barnes & Noble and Kmart. That all changed a few years ago when Amazon launched Amazon Web Services and follow-ons like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud-"computing power by the sip," as Bezos calls it. Others call it by its red-hot buzz phrase: cloud computing. (Companies or individuals can lease varying amounts of computing power, data storage, and software, and access it over the internet.) Bezos showed that it could be a real business; Google and Microsoft have followed.
Bezos also turned Amazon.com into a devicemaker with the kind of design chops and user adoration usually reserved for Apple-and made publishers rethink their business models. In late 2008, Oprah gave Amazon's Kindle an on-air endorsement, momentarily sending its shares skyward.
Secret Sauce: Daring. Bezos is more willing than most big-company CEOs to try risky ventures.
Eccentric Project: Blue Origin, which is building rockets for space tourism. First scheduled flight: 2010. Speculation is that it will be possible to hear Bezos' laugh from space.
3. Steve Jobs
Major Impact: Mobile communications
Such is his influence that Steve Jobs stays on the list even during his absence from Apple. He is to the tech industry in the 2000s what the Beatles were to popular music in the 1960s. The iPod changed the music business, and the iPhone and App Store continue to shake up the mobile-phone industry. Before the iPhone, the cell-phone business was all about the size and form of the device. Now the emphasis is shifting to software and what the handset can do.
For now, Apple has the momentum to thrive without its CEO, but the question is whether that can continue if Jobs does not return in June from his leave to deal with his serious health issues. Apple doesn't seem on the verge of taking on another industry or coming out with a radical new product, and no one is sure whether it could pull off a new revolution without Jobs' help.
Bragging Rights: Around 100 million devoted Apple customers worldwide, to whom it has sold about 15 million iPhones, 30 million Macs, and 125 million iPods.
Achilles' Heel: His health - problems are more complex than originally thought.
4. Joe Rospars
The Obama campaign's tech guru, Blue State Digital
Major Impact: Politics
For more than a decade, pundits have predicted that the Web would transform politics. Joe Rospars finally did it. Rospars, still in his 20s (who over 30 would know how to do all this?), served as new-media director for the Obama campaign and used Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Twitter, text messaging, and electronic fundraising to interact with supporters. Rospars got his start working the Web for Howard Dean's 2004 presidential bid, then used that knowledge to co-found Blue State Digital. After Obama, campaigns are knocking on the company's door.
Power Base: Legions of wanna-Bamas looking for better ways to use the internet to get elected-before their opponents do.
Number of Facebook friends: 977
5. Steven ChuU.S. Energy Secretary
Major impact: Oil, electricity
It seems like a no-brainer to redirect the Department of Energy from developing nuclear weapons to fighting global warming, and Steven Chu is the guy to do it. A bona fide scientist, Chu has Obama's go-ahead to make greentech a priority. Chu has run the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2004 and won a Nobel Prize for figuring out how to cool and trap atoms for examination. He's long worked on energy and climate-change projects. Last year, he told Reuters, "If I were emperor, I would put the pedal to the floor on energy efficiency and conservation."
Power Base: President Obama
Achilles' Heel: Maybe there's a reason there haven't been a lot of scientists in high government positions.
Childhood Eccentricity: Taught himself to pole-vault using bamboo poles from a local carpet store. Managed to clear eight feet.
6. Shigeru MiyamotoSenior managing director, Nintendo
Major impact: Videogames
Back in 1981, Shigeru Miyamoto created Donkey Kong, Nintendo's first smash hit. But that was nothing compared with the Wii, Miyamoto's brainstorm that came out in late 2006. By making videogames simple to control with hand gestures, the Wii revitalized the entire industry. Nintendo has sold more than 36 million Wii consoles, and Wii Sports recently became the bestselling game of all time. (It passedSuper Mario Bros., another game Miyamoto helped create.)
Over the coming year, Miyamoto will attempt to use the Wii to push videogaming deeper into people's lives. He's already planning a streaming, interactive TV channel through the Wii in Japan.
If successful there, Nintendo will consider going international with the channel in late 2009.
Achilles' Heel: The fickleness of gamers. The next cool thing could suck away the Wii's users.
Eccentric Project: Miyamoto plays the banjo and considers himself a semipro dog breeder.
7. Jason KilarCEO, Hulu
Major Impact: Television
In 2007, Jason Kilar, a preppy former Amazon.com executive, won the job of creating an online TV outlet for a Fox-NBC partnership. It seemed an impossible task, given the anemic results for all previous online-TV efforts. But Kilar coaxed NBC and Fox to post popular content like Saturday Night Live and The Simpsons, added some interactive bells and whistles, and made Hulu simple to use. Launched in March 2008, Hulu was, by fall, streaming more than 235 million videos a month, thanks to SNL clips of Tina Fey as Sarah Palin. Kilar is proving that professional content paid for by advertising has a place on the Web. The networks owe him a pile of gratitude, if not money.
Power Base: NBC Universal and News Corp.-and Hulu's $100 million in funding.
Achilles' Heel: Web-video monster YouTube-which is dabbling in offering professional content with advertising-is probably coming Hulu's way.
Eccentric Clothing Affectation: Always wears a dark T-shirt under an open-collar button-down dress shirt.
Number of Facebook friends: 159
8. Marissa MayerVice president of search products and user experience, Google
Major impact: All of us
Just about everything with the Google brand that consumers use goes through Marissa Mayer. Google Chrome, Maps, Docs, Gmail, Talk-all of that stuff needed Mayer's approval before it was funded or released to the public. That power gives her enormous sway over the ebb and flow of competition on the internet. Mayer was the first female engineer hired at Google and one of its first 20 employees, so she not only has the confidence of the presiding trio, she's rich as all get-out too.
Achilles' Heel: Google's lack of focus-it seems to throw a lot of spaghetti at the wall. Some sticks (Gmail, Google Maps), and much of it doesn't (Talk, Knol). Its social network, Orkut, is still big in, uh, Brazil.
Worth Watching: Rumor has it Mayer is soon leaving Google. (She says she's not.)
9. Ray OzzieChief software architect, Microsoft
Major impact: Software
Bill Gates retired. CEO Steve Ballmer is stuck in the muck of a failed Yahoo bid and a Vista operating system that users and critics hate. If any Microsoft executive is going to lead the company's renewal, it will be Ray Ozzie. The affable white-haired programmer is the driver behind Microsoft's slow move toward selling software as an internet-based subscription service instead of as a onetime purchase. If Ozzie gets software services right, Microsoft could leap into position to dominate computing for another generation.
Bragging Rights: Ozzie built Lotus Notes, one of the biggest-selling business applications ever. Gates calls him one of the best coders on the planet.
Achilles' Heel: Microsoft's legacy software and cultural inertia make it tough to turn this barge.
Eccentric Management Practice: Thinks deeply while in the shower, sometimes making notes on waterproof paper.
10. Jeffrey KatzenbergCEO, DreamWorks Animation SKG
Major impact: Movies, theaters
How does Hollywood lure consumers away from their big-screen TVs and YouTube and back out to the movies? Jeffrey Katzenberg preaches that theaters need to go home systems one better by showing 3-D films, and he's hell-bent on pushing the entire industry that way.
He's announced that starting in 2009, with the release ofMonsters vs. Aliens, every DreamWorks animated movie will be in 3-D. But that strategy will work only if most theaters can show digital 3-D, and right now, only a fraction have the proper and-at more than $70,000 a pop-expensive equipment. So Katzenberg, who has a long record of successes, including 1994's The Lion King at Disney, helped organize a consortium named Digital Cinema Implementation Partners to help theaters pay for the 3-D upgrades.
His push has energized companies ranging from makers of 3-D projectors (Real D, Dolby) to developers of 3-D moviemaking cameras and editing systems.
Achilles' Heel: The 3-D television sets that Philips, LG, and others are developing.
Eccentric Investment Decision: Lost millions to superscammer Bernie Madoff.
11. Sam PalmisanoCEO, IBM
Major impact: Infrastructure
IBM has miraculously surfaced with the right sales pitch at precisely the right moment. Economies around the world are in crisis, so governments are pouring money into modernizing infrastructure like roads and electrical grids to create jobs. Global warming is a serious concern, driving investment in energy efficiency. And here comes IBM with its new strategy, guided by CEO Sam Palmisano. IBM says it's the only tech company big enough and broad enough to remake an entire nation's electrical grid by infusing it with electronics that help save energy, or build a smart road system for cities that can charge cars more for driving during rush hour. So far, Palmisano's pitch is working. In a down time, IBM keeps reporting up earnings.
War Chest: IBM is a $100 billion-a-year company that makes computers, has a giant consulting arm, and runs one of the biggest corporate research labs in the world.
Achilles' Heel: It's tough to grow a $100 billion business-to increase by 7 percent would mean adding a company the size of Yahoo every year.
12. Evan WilliamsCEO, Twitter
Major Impact: Social networking
Twitter is nothing but 140-character-or-less broadcasts from users about what they're doing or thinking at any given moment. Yet it's one of the hottest properties on the Web-a way to keep track of friends but also a means by which marketers can reach customers or candidates can reach voters. Evan Williams is trying to guide this baby, but he's mostly hanging on as users find new things to do with the service. Williams is convinced that Twitter can be as big as Facebook-or maybe even bigger. Of course, it would helpif he could figure out a way for the company to make money.
Power Base: About 6 million Twitter users.
Achilles' Heel: Williams suspects that Microsoft, Google, and Yahoo are all working on Twitter-killing clones.
Time-Eating Hobby: Following 900 Twitterers.
13. Richard BookstaberAuthor; financial risk manager
Major Impact: Finance
Just about every science-fiction movie has a similar theme: The machines seem all-powerful, but in the end, they're no match for humanity. This is the message that Richard Bookstaber has hammered into hardheaded Wall Street financiers. After a long career as a wizard at an algorithm-driven hedge fund, Bookstaber wrote 2007's A Demon of Our Own Design, in which he argues that technology fostered a high-speed, high-risk financial system about as stable as nitroglycerin. In the autumn of 2008, he was proved right. Now Bookstaber's tome has become a must-read for those experts charged with rebuilding Wall Street to prevent computers from morphing a financial hiccup into another full-blown crisis. The difficulty, though, is similar to that nagging problem in sci-fi flicks: Everyone continues to build better and badder machines.
Power Base: Respect for calling the meltdown.
Achilles' Heel: What's the encore?
14. John YemmaEditor, Christian Science Monitor
Major Impact: Newspapers
Someone in this troubled industry had to jump off the cliff first. The internet has hacked away at the revenue of daily papers for years, yet editors and publishers have shied away from ditching the physical product. In October, the Christian Science Monitor made the leap, announcing that in April, the print edition would cease daily publication. The switch makes sense for the century-old CSM, explains John Yemma. Its national newspaper is delivered by mail to just 52,000 subscribers, while it operates a robust website with 1.7 million unique visitors a month. The rest of the industry is anxiously watching. In December, the Detroit News and the Detroit Free Press said they will end daily home delivery in favor of their websites. In January, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer said it may go Web-only.
More will follow. Yemma has a chance to set precedents for news and newsrooms. "We're hoping not to replicate the print paradigm, but we're trying to hold on to accuracy and standards," he says. "Because there is an ability to be immediate, there is a danger we'll default to immediacy, so we have to tilt against that."
Achilles' Heel: There's no precedent for a newspaper's making the transition to Web-only publication.
Number of Facebook Friends: 112. "Is that a little or a lot? I don't know."
15. James InhofeU.S. Senator, Oklahoma
Major Impact: Energy
Alternative-energy technology has a grinch, and he resides in the U.S. Senate. James Mountain Inhofe, an Oklahoma Republican, has said that global warming is "the second-largest hoax ever played on the American people, after the separation of church and state." From his position as the ranking minority member on the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Inhofe will work as a counterweight to the Obama administration's expected clean-tech initiative.
Power Base: His supporters in the oil and gas industries.
Superhero Ability: Fearless belligerence. Anyone whoÂ could suggest that the Weather Channel is a propaganda machine for global-warming alarmists.
Achilles' Heel: Even if he had a point, his outrageous statements would undermine it.
Eccentric Side Project: Maintaining a biblically correct family. Inhofe was quoted in 2006 as saying, "I'm really proud to say that in the recorded history of our family, we've never had a divorce or any kind of homosexual relationship."
16. Jon WellinghoffCommissioner, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Major impact: Power grid
Traditionally, a new FERC chief generates about as much excitement as a Captain & Tennille reunion tour. But President Obama's appointee-mathematician and longtime energy lawyer Jon Wellinghoff-will oversee a massive overhaul of the U.S. electrical grid. We're talking regulatory changes that affect billions of dollars in contracts and funding for new inventions. Turns out the 100-year-old way of moving electricity around is ridiculously inefficient. A smart grid loaded with chips that can sense supply and usage could negate the need to build more coal-burning electric plants. Companies like Google will be seeking Wellinghoff's approval for projects. Remember, the Federal Communications Commission was once a Washington backwater too.
Superhero Ability: Stealth. Who outside of policy wonksworries much about FERC?
Achilles' Heel: Dullness. If the public doesn't get excited about smart-grid technology, it may be hard to build momentum for it.
Number of Facebook Friends: "None. My teenagesons won't let me join."
17. Marc AndreessenInvestor in startups; chairman, Ning
Major impact: Startups
While he'll always be known for his first venture, Netscape Communications, Marc Andreessen has become Silicon Valley's mentor in chief. He gives guidance to Facebook wunderkind Mark Zuckerberg, who put Andreessen on the company's board, and he was one of the first investors in Evan Williams' Twitter. Andreessen and business partner Ben Horowitz pump smallish sums ($25,000 to $100,000) into one startup a month, spreading Andreessen's knowledge and influence among a young generation of entrepreneurs. Andreessen is also chairman and co-founder of the hot startup Ning, which gives people a way to create their own online social networks.
Power Base: Money and a track record from selling Netscape to AOL, for $4.2 billion in 1999, and another company, Opsware, to Hewlett-Packard, for $1.6 billion in 2007.
Derailed Side Project: His blog at blog.pmarca.com. Its torrid beginning, in 2007, made it a tech industry must-read, but then Andreessen abruptly quit writing last August.
18. Brad AndersonCEO, Best Buy
Major impact: Consumer electronics
Under Brad Anderson, Best Buy has come to reign over consumer-electronics retailing-even if that just means being the strongest among the weak in a horrendous economy. He's retiring in June, and president Brian Dunn will become CEO. Anderson, who will stay on as vice chairman until 2010, leaves Dunn a company that can decide the fate of electronic gadgets just by putting them on its shelves.
Representatives from tech giants like Microsoft and startups such as internet phonemaker Ooma trek to Minneapolis to lobby Anderson and his cohorts. Anderson, 59, took charge from founder Richard Schulze in 2002, bought Geek Squad, and helped his company drive chief rival Circuit City to its liquidation this year. But the diving economy has Best Buy making layoffs and cutting capital spending by half.superhero ability Listening. Best Buy has altered individual store offerings and layouts based on suggestions from the stores' sales-floor staff.
Eccentric Management Tactic: Keeps a mock "retail hospital" in his office, with effigies of companies such as Kmart lying in beds as a warning about what happens when retail strategies become stale.
19. Arianna HuffingtonThis item was updated as January traffic information became available.Co-founder, The Huffington Post
Major Impact: News business
Chaotic and noisy, the Huffington Post comes off like an online mashup of British tabloids, American blogs, and a tailgate party. But Arianna Huffington's invention-she calls it an internet newspaper-is playing a huge role in redefining the news outlet. Huffington co-founded the site in 2005 with former AOL executive Kenneth Lerer. These days, about 2,000 professional and amateur writers contribute to it, including famous Huffington friends such as Larry David and Nora Ephron. HuffPo, as it's known, gets as many as 7 million unique visitors a month, and in December, it raised $25 million in a round of funding amid the worst credit crisis in decades. The site's worth, though, has stirred controversy of its own. Insiders allegedly pinned the number at $200 million. Bloggers analyzed HuffPo's numbers and gleefully came up with a different figure: about $2 million.
Power Base: A vast collection of high-profile friends, including the Clintons, Barry Diller, and Alec Baldwin.
Superhero Ability: Her willingness to dish anything and everything she hears from her famous friends.
Achilles' Heel: The site lost traffic after the election (though it spiked back up in January).
Ambitious Stalled Project: Local HuffPos for cities. So far, there's only one, for Chicago.
20. Rex TillersonCEO, Exxon Mobil
Major Impact Energy: Tillerson sits atop a company that brings in more than $100 billion in revenue each quarter. He has the power to exert enormous influence in energy technology, yet he's using his resources to make sure as little changes as possible. His intention, he has said in interviews, is for Exxon Mobil to be doing in 30 years pretty much what it does now. Tillerson is cagey, investing small sums in R&D for inventions like a long-life battery and playing it up in commercials. It's enough to mute critics, but not enough to actually affect the demand for oil.
Bragging Rights: More money than God.
Appropriately Effective Trait: Slickness. He's too savvy to get pinned down as an anti-environment ogre.
21. Jerry ShenCEO, Asus
Major impact: Personal computing
For 25 years, personal computing was driven by a constant march toward faster, more-whiz-bang machines. In late 2007, Jerry Shen, the CEO of Taiwanese electronics-maker Asus, turned that philosophy on its head. He and chairman Jonney Shih introduced the Eee PC, a shrunken laptop that cost $300. It runs on Intel's downscale Atom chip and has a fraction of the power of a high-end laptop. The trade press gushed and labeled the Eee PC the first of a new breed called netbooks. Since then, Asus has sold more than 5 million Eee PCs. Acer, Dell, and Hewlett-Packard followed with their own versions last year.
Power Base: Asus has long made computer parts, mobile phones, and laptops for other brands.
Achilles' Heel: If the Eee PC gets too popular and competes with Sony, Apple, and other companies Asus manufactures for, will they still want to do business with Asus?
22. Lawrence LessigProfessor, Stanford Law School
Major Impact: Internet law
Lawrence Lessig is to the Web what the professor was to Gilligan's Island. Lessig has brought intellect and reason to some of the Web's thorniest problems, chief among them copyright law. While Lessig hasn't solved the standoff between content owners and "pirates" who make free copies, he has offered a third path with his Creative Commons copyright license. He's influenced the debate about who should get radio spectrum for wireless internet and has the ear of his old friend President Barack Obama. (They taught together at the University of Chicago Law School.) In the past year, Lessig has focused on ways to use the Net to keep an eye on Congress and reduce corruption. This summer, he moves to Harvard.
Useful Talent: Drama. Watching a Lessig presentation is like viewing performance art.
Pop-Culture Moment: Lessig was portrayed in a 2005 West Wing episode by actor Christopher Lloyd.
23. David BohrmanWashington bureau chief, CNN
Major Impact: TV news
On election night, CNN suddenly appeared to be broadcasting from the set of a Star Trek episode. Anderson Cooper interviewed a "hologram" of rapper Will.I.Am, who was seemingly beamed onto the set like Spock in the transporter room. Correspondent John King used his fingers to move around graphics and election results on something called the Magic Wall. The flashy broadcast was credited to David Bohrman, a longtime network-TV news veteran who had taken a detour to become CEO of Pseudo Entertainment, an interactive-TV company. CNN hired Bohrman and put him in charge of election-night coverage. His toys made CNN the pioneer in using technology to tell news stories, even though the holograms received mixed reviews. Some critics said they were distracting tricks-as if that were new to TV newscasts.
Bragging Rights: CNN had more viewers on election night than any other cable channel.
Questionable Timing: Bohrman joined Pseudo in early 2000, right when the tech bubble burst.
Number of Facebook Friends: Zero. "Here's my confession: I have a lurking-only account."
24. Reid HoffmanFounder, LinkedIn
Major Impact: Social networking
MySpace and Facebook get most of the credit for making social networking into a phenomenon, but the force behind the trend is really the hyperconnected entrepreneur Reid Hoffman. He pioneered the form with SocialNet, in 1997. It didn't last, but Hoffman moved on to start LinkedIn, which claims 31 million members and is geared toward professionals. He's also invested in many of the hit websites that include a social aspect, including Digg, Flickr, Ning, and Facebook.
Eccentric Past: A master's in philosophy from Oxford in England.
Achilles' Heel: Time. Look at his rĂ©sumĂ© on LinkedIn: He can't possibly keep doing all that and remain sane.
Promising Side Project: Zynga, a new social-gaming site that Silicon Valley insiders believe will be huge.
25. Robert ZemeckisFilm director
Major Impact: Movies
Robert Zemeckis keeps changing the role of special effects in mainstream movies. In Forrest Gump, he used computers to drop the title character into historical footage. In The Polar Express, he pioneered motion capture, which uses sensors to record an actor's moves and translates them into animation. In 2007, his Beowulf combined motion capture and digital 3-D. Next up: His remake of Dickens' A Christmas Carol will be one of the first live-action movies shot in digital 3-D.
Power Base: Hollywood will fund any film he wants to make.
Achilles' Heel: Sometimes the effects are better than his movies.
VisitĂ‚Â Portfolio.comĂ‚Â for the latest business news and opinion, executive profiles and careers.Ă‚Â Portfolio.comÂ© 2007 CondĂ© Nast Inc. All rights reserved.
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