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|Updated On||:||February 22, 2019|
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LOT-832 exam Dumps Source : Developing Websites Using IBM Workplace Web Content Mgmt 6
Test Code : LOT-832
Test Name : Developing Websites Using IBM Workplace Web Content Mgmt 6
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 88 Real Questions
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The paintings Of The Hybrid Cloud
Cloud computing is insatiably gobbling up greater of the backend functions that power organizations. but, some corporations have apps with privateness, safety, and regulatory demands that forestall the cloud. right here's how to find the correct mix of public cloud and private cloud.
The properly cloud providers for 2019 have maintained their positions, however the topics, thoughts, and strategies to the market are all in flux. The infrastructure-as-a-provider wars had been mostly determined, with the spoils going to Amazon net features, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform, but new technologies equivalent to synthetic intelligence and computing device learning have opened the field as much as other players.
in the meantime, the cloud computing market in 2019 could have a decidedly multi-cloud spin, as the hybrid shift with the aid of gamers akin to IBM, which is buying pink Hat, may exchange the panorama. This 12 months's edition of the correct cloud computing suppliers also features software-as-a-service giants that allows you to increasingly run greater of your enterprise's operations via expansion.
One aspect to notice concerning the cloud in 2019 is that the market isn't zero sum. Cloud computing is driving IT spending average. for instance, Gartner predicts that 2019 international IT spending will boost three.2 % to $3.76 trillion with as-a-provider fashions fueling everything from records middle spending to business utility.
truly, or not it's fairly viable that a large commercial enterprise will eat cloud computing services from every seller during this e book. The precise cloud innovation can be from purchasers that mix and fit right here public cloud companies in exciting ways.
Key 2019 topics to monitor among the excellent cloud suppliers encompass:
To that end, we're taking a unique strategy to our cloud buying book and breaking the avid gamers into the big 4 infrastructure providers, the hybrid avid gamers, and the SaaS crowd. This categorization has pushed IBM from being a huge infrastructure-as-a-provider participant to a tweener that spans infrastructure, platform, and application. IBM is greater deepest cloud and hybrid with hooks into IBM Cloud in addition to different cloud environments. Oracle Cloud is basically a software- and database-as-a-service company. Salesforce has become about means more than CRM.have to study
AWS sees 2019 as an funding yr, as it ramps its expertise buildout as well as add income personnel. Amazon did not quantify the higher investment, but said it might update throughout the yr.
On a convention name with analysts, CFO Brian Olsavsky pointed out 2018 become a lighter than anticipated 12 months for capital expenses. "AWS maintained a really amazing growth expense and persevered to convey for purchasers," he pointed out. "2018 became about banking the efficiencies of investments in individuals, warehouses, infrastructure that we had put in vicinity in 2016 and '17."
The cloud company is the leader in infrastructure-as-a-provider and moving up the stack to everything from the internet of issues to synthetic intelligence, augmented fact, and analytics. AWS is far more than an IaaS platform nowadays. AWS grew 45 percent within the fourth quarter -- a clip that has been stable for the last year.
When it involves developers and ecosystem, AWS is complicated to excellent. The business has a wide range of partners (VMware, C3, and SAP) and builders growing to be the ecosystem. AWS is customarily the first beachhead for enterprise players earlier than they extend to a multi-cloud approach.
The massive question is how a ways AWS can prolong its attain. AWS will also be a probability to Oracle on databases in addition to a bevy of other organizations. via its VMware partnership, AWS additionally has a robust hybrid cloud strategy and may meet commercial enterprise wants distinct methods.
AWS' strategy changed into evident at its re:Invent conference. The show featured a barrage of services, new products, and developer candies that become complicated to track. synthetic intelligence is a key area of increase and a core sales pitch for AWS because it becomes a computer studying platform. in response to 2nd Watch, AWS consumers are going for these high-boom areas and seeing the cloud provider as a key cog for their machine getting to know and digital transformation efforts.should examine
2nd Watch found that AWS' 2018 fastest growing capabilities have been right here:
based on 2nd Watch utilization, the most well-known AWS features are:
additionally: What serverless architecture definitely skill, and the place servers enter the photograph
Analytics and forecasting can be one enviornment price watching for AWS. As AWS rolls out its forecasting and analytics services, it be clear that the business can turn into more intertwined with precise business features.(picture: ZDNet)
AWS' attain continues to extend in diverse instructions, however possibly the one to monitor essentially the most is the database market. AWS is taking pictures extra database workloads and has emphasized its client wins. A movement to launch a totally managed document database takes direct intention at MongoDB. should AWS capture more business records, it might be entrenched for many years to come back as it continues to conform services and sell them to you.
Microsoft Azure is the strong No. 2 to AWS, however's elaborate to without delay evaluate the two organizations. Microsoft's cloud company -- dubbed commercial cloud -- includes every little thing from Azure to workplace 365 business subscriptions to Dynamics 365 to LinkedIn functions. however, Microsoft's robust business heritage, utility stack, and records center tools like windows Server supply it a familiarity and hybrid strategy that wears smartly.
For differentiation, Microsoft has concentrated heavily on AI, analytics, and the cyber web of things. Microsoft's AzureStack has been a different cloud-meets-records middle effort that has been a differentiator.should study
CEO Satya Nadella, on Microsoft's 2d quarter earnings conference call, talked about the company's cloud unit is honing in on verticals corresponding to healthcare, retail, and financial functions. This approach comes appropriate out of the business utility promoting playbook.
Nadella spoke of:
From a mixture of services, it starts always with, i would say, infrastructure. So this is the aspect and the cloud, the infrastructure getting used as compute. definitely, you could say the measure of an organization going digital is the quantity of compute they use. So it's the bottom. Then on proper of that, of path, all this compute capability or not it's being used with data. So the records property, one of the vital biggest issues that happens, is people consolidate the records that they have got and for you to cause over it. and that's the reason the place issues like AI services all get used. So we definitely see that course the place they are adopting the layers of Azure.
without problems put, Microsoft is selling a wide array of cloud items, however's difficult to break out application-as-a-carrier versus Azure, which might more at once compete with AWS.
Macquarie estimates that Azure revenue in Microsoft's fiscal second quarter turned into $2.seventy five billion for an annualized run price of about $eleven billion. Sarah Hindlian, an analyst at Macquarie, stated in a analysis note:
Microsoft has been capable of differentiate Azure in a few important ways, such because the business being both enterprise friendly and aggressive in layering in interesting and incremental features similar to artificial Intelligence, Azure Stack, Azure Sphere, and a extensive center of attention on facet computing and more advanced and sophisticated workloads.
indeed, Microsoft's potential to target industries has also been a win. principally, Microsoft has won over massive retailers that do not want to accomplice with AWS in view that they compete with Amazon. Microsoft also all started highlighting more consumer wins including gap in addition to Fruit of the Loom.
That take changed into additionally echoed elsewhere. Daniel Ives, an analyst at Wedbush, referred to AWS continues to be the large dog, but Microsoft has some interesting benefits within the box -- particularly a strong company and ground game. Ives wrote:
whereas Jeff Bezos and AWS proceed to evidently be an important force within the rising cloud shift over the arrival years, we trust Microsoft with its army of companions and committed income force have a major window of opportunity in 2019 to transform organizations to the Azure/cloud platform based on our contemporary in-depth discussions with companions and clients.
quite simply put, Microsoft can couple Azure with its other cloud features corresponding to workplace 365 and Dynamics 365. With Azure, Microsoft has a smartly-rounded stack, ranging from infrastructure to platform to purposes to run a business.need to read
Google Cloud Platform has been winning higher deals, has a new leader with Oracle veteran Thomas Kurian and is considered as a superior counterweight to AWS and Microsoft Azure. youngsters, Google is rarely divulging annual income run expense or proposing much assistance on its cloud financials.
On Google's fourth quarter profits convention name, CEO Sundar Pichai stated numerous records points for Google Cloud Platform (GCP). besides the fact that children, analysts have been annoyed by means of the lack of earnings disclosed. To kick off 2018, Pichai observed Google's cloud income was $1 billion a quarter evenly break up between G Suite and GCP.
In 2019, Pichai held lower back on his run price chatter, so it's uncertain even if GCP is gaining on AWS or Azure or just turning out to be because the standard cloud pie is becoming. exceptionally, Pichai outlined here:
CFO Ruth Porat pointed out:
GCP does continue to be probably the most quickest-starting to be corporations throughout Alphabet. As Sundar mentioned, we have doubled the number of GCP contracts more suitable than $1 million. We're additionally seeing early great uptick in the number of offers that are more suitable than $one hundred million, and really completely happy with the success and penetration there. At this point, not updating extra.
Add it up, and GCP appears to be a superb No. 3 to AWS and Azure, however how distant it falls behind those two remains to be considered. Wall street enterprise Jefferies is predicting that GCP will profit share over time.
One flow that could enhance Google's cloud revenue is a move to raise G Suite fees for some users. G Suite, which competes without delay with Microsoft's office 365, is raising its prices for the primary time. G Suite primary will lift fees from $5 per person per thirty days to $6. G Suite enterprise will go from $10 per person per thirty days to $12. in line with Google, G Suite commercial enterprise, which runs $25 per person a month, isn't impacted by means of the rate enhance.
Competitively, the pricing strikes are in line with workplace 365.
Alibaba is the leading cloud company in China and an option for multi-national groups constructing infrastructure there.
In its December quarter, Alibaba delivered cloud earnings increase of eighty four p.c to $962 million. The enterprise has swiftly delivered customers and is presently in the cloud buildout part. To wit:
Add it up, and Alibaba has a powerful home-box potential in China, however it also has global ambitions. Alibaba launched 678 items within the December quarter. Relationships with the likes of SAP are more likely to put it on the radar for greater firms with operations in China.
whereas the huge cloud providers add greater to their stacks with AI as the differentiator, there's a market being carved out to control dissimilar cloud suppliers. This crowd of cloud avid gamers used to focal point on hybrid structure to bridge data centers with public provider suppliers, but now aim to be the infrastructure management airplane.
also: What Kubernetes in fact is, and the way orchestration redefines the data middle
analysis by Kentik highlighted how essentially the most average cloud combination changed into AWS and Azure, but there are customers working in Google Cloud Platform, too. in line with the Kentik survey, ninety seven p.c of respondents suggested their companies use AWS, but 35 percent also said they actively use Azure too. Twenty-4 p.c use AWS and Google Cloud Platform collectively.
also: What a hybrid cloud is in the 'multi-cloud era,' and why you can also have already got one
IBM's cloud method and its method to AI have a lot in commonplace. big Blue's plan is to allow shoppers to manipulate distinct systems, functions and providers and become the administration console. IBM wants to be part of your cloud ambiance as well as support you run it. In 2018, IBM launched OpenScale for AI, which is designed to control diverse AI equipment probably provided by means of the most important cloud suppliers. IBM also launched multi-cloud equipment. suppose of IBM as the Switzerland of cloud adoption and computing functions innovations.
The circulate by means of organizations to make use of distinctive public cloud providers is wonderful and gives the intent for IBM's acquisition of purple Hat for $34 billion. IBM has its personal public cloud and may convey everything from platform-as-a-provider to analytics to Watson and even quantum computing through it, but the large bet is that massive Blue with pink Hat can make it a number one cloud administration player. For its part, IBM is taking its core intellectual property -- Watson, AI administration, cloud integration -- and delivering it via multiple clouds.
The pink Hat acquisition is a bet the farm circulation with the aid of IBM. It remains to be seen how the IBM and red Hat cultures come together. On the brilliant side, the two groups were hybrid cloud partners for years.have to examine
certainly, IBM CFO James Kavanaugh on the company's fourth quarter salary convention name reiterated the red Hat reasoning and stated huge Blue is seeing extra offers for IBM Cloud deepest and its strategy to "hybrid open" cloud environments. Kavanaugh introduced:
Let me pause here to remind you of the value we see from the combination of IBM and purple Hat, which is all about accelerating hybrid cloud adoption. The customer response to the announcement has been overwhelmingly high-quality. They have in mind the energy of this acquisition and the aggregate of IBM and red Hat capabilities in assisting them move past their preliminary cloud work to in fact transferring their enterprise applications to the cloud. they are involved about the comfortable portability of data and workloads across cloud environments, about consistency in management and security protocols throughout clouds and in fending off supplier lock-in. They be mindful how the combination of IBM and red Hat will assist them address these concerns.
additionally: The AI, machine discovering, and records science conundrum: Who will control the algorithms?
IBM's as-a-service profits run rate exiting the fourth quarter become $12.2 billion to make it a powerful cloud company, but now not comparable to the likes of AWS and Azure today. it's reasonably viable that the options of all the colossal cloud providers sooner or later converge.
the new hybrid and multi-cloud panorama can be one of the more essential things to monitor within the cloud wars for 2019.
listed below are some key players to agree with:
VMware: It is a component of the Dell applied sciences portfolio, and it has had natural statistics centers within the fold for years. The company emerged as a virtualization supplier after which adopted everything from containers to OpenStack to something else emerged. possibly, the most useful movement for VMware turned into its tight partnership with AWS. This hybrid cloud partnership is a win-win for each events and both agencies have endured to construct on their preliminary efforts. The partnership is so unique that VMware is assisting to deliver AWS on premises. To wit:
Of path, VMware also has its vRealize Suite, vCloud Air, VMware HCX, Cloud management Platform, vSphere, and networking items.
Dell technologies and HPE: both of these companies have diverse items to operate information facilities and are plugging into cloud providers.
HPE's plan boils right down to multi-cloud, hybrid infrastructure that extends to the part.
and then, there may be Cisco, which by way of acquisitions has built out a huge utility portfolio. Cisco outlined a data center any place imaginative and prescient that revolves round plugging its utility centric infrastructure (ACI) into assorted clouds. No rely how you slice the hybrid cloud video game, the end state is an identical: diverse suppliers and private infrastructure seamlessly linked. Cisco additionally has partnerships with Google Cloud. Kubernetes, Istio, and Apigee serve as the glue within the Cisco-Google effort.
while the hybrid cloud market become commonly panned as legacy companies cooking up new the way to sell hardware, the brand new multicloud world has greater acceptance even among the former upstarts who desired to turn the likes of IBM, VMware, Dell, and HPE into dinosaurs.
The SaaS market also highlights how companies and their altering concepts and acquisition plans make cloud classification extra intricate. within the 2018 version of our cloud rankings, Oracle become lumped into the AWS, Azure, and GCP crowd largely because it become trying to play within the IaaS market.
while CTO Larry Ellison nevertheless appears to be captivated with AWS, Oracle is well-nigh a utility- and database-as-a-service company. perhaps Oracle's efforts to automate the cloud and prepare dinner up subsequent-gen infrastructure pay off, however for now, the enterprise is in reality about software. Salesforce via the acquisition of MuleSoft has additionally changed its stripes a little bit and delivered an integration spin to the cloud method (and even slightly of normal application licensing). SAP has grown into a sizable cloud participant and Workday has opened its ecosystem.
masking every SaaS participant is beyond the scope of this overview, however there are a gaggle of vendors that may be called SaaS+. These cloud carrier suppliers extend into platforms and all of these companies have diverse SaaS products that may run your enterprise.
In Gartner's 2018 Magic Quadrant for IaaS, the analysis company narrowed the container to simply cloud corporations. Oracle made the cut. It would not be outstanding if Oracle became reclassified in 2019 out of the infrastructure race.
Let's get actual: Oracle is a SaaS provider and there is no disgrace in that. in reality, Oracle is damn decent on the SaaS video game and has everything covered from small- and mid-sized agencies by means of NetSuite to large corporations migrating on-premise software to the cloud.
but the actual differentiation with Oracle is its database. The business has a massive installed base, an self sufficient database that goals to eliminate grunt work and the expertise to position its expertise on more clouds past its personal. Oracle is pitching itself as a Cloud 2.0 player.
For now, Oracle is a little bit obsessive about AWS. consider:
Andy Mendelsohn, government vice president of database server technologies at Oracle, stated or not it's very early within the cloud migration of databases. "within the SaaS world or not it's a mature market the place enterprise consumers have accredited they can run HR and ERP in the cloud," he stated. "Database in the cloud has little or no adoption."
Mendelsohn talked about what Oracle sees extra of is valued clientele the usage of functions like Cloud at client and a personal cloud approach to relocating databases. Initiatives like Oracle's self sustaining database may be extra about a personal cloud strategy, he said.
amongst smaller companies, databases are greater widespread in the cloud as a result of there's much less funding necessary.
"The big battleground will revolve across the records. it be the core asset at each enterprise obtainable," he talked about.
Cloud at client is a part of how Oracle sees its multi-cloud strategy. Analysts have raised concerns that Oracle should still run its software and databases on extra clouds.
Following Oracle's 2nd quarter income in December, Stifel analyst John DiFucci noted:
while we continue to suppose Oracle is smartly-positioned within the SaaS market, we stay extra cautious round PaaS/IaaS, each when it comes to accurate-line revenue and associated cap-ex implications.
whereas there is no doubt in our intellect that Oracle's installed base is extremely at ease, we consider that a large element of net new database workloads are going to non-Oracle structures (hyperscale solutions, NoSQL, open source, and so forth).
We remain cautious on Oracle's IaaS efforts and help the suggestion of Oracle expanding support for different clouds.
Mendelson said that Oracle has worked with distinct vendor techniques all the way through its historical past, so it be no longer a good deal of a stretch to see multi-cloud emerge over time.
Salesforce begun as a CRM business twenty years in the past and has expanded into every thing from integration to analytics to marketing to commerce. Woven all through the Salesforce clouds are add-ons corresponding to Einstein, an AI equipment.
easily put, Salesforce wants to be a digital transportation platform that is targeting fiscal 2022 goal of salary between $21 billion to $21 billion.
Most cloud carriers -- public, deepest, hybrid or otherwise -- will let you know the online game is shooting records beneath management. Salesforce also sees the promise of being the statistics platform of checklist.
Enter Salesforce's customer 360. The grasp plan is to use consumer 360 to allow Salesforce purchasers to connect all their information into one view. The idea is rarely precisely common, however Salesforce's argument is that it may well execute more advantageous and put the customer at the center of the records universe.
Add it up, and Salesforce is fitting a platform bet for its valued clientele. Salesforce co-CEO Keith Block stated the enterprise is touchdown extra offers worth $20 million or greater and recently renewed a 9-figure win with a monetary capabilities company. Marc Benioff, co-CEO and chairman, observed that Einstein AI is being brought into the entire business's clouds.ought to study
Salesforce has also partnered smartly with the likes of Apple, IBM, Microsoft (in some areas), AWS, and Google Cloud.
The go-to-market method for Salesforce revolves round selling distinctive clouds and developing industry certain applications such because the business's economic features Cloud.
I've traveled around the world meeting with greater than one hundred CEOs and world leaders. The dialog is consistent in every single place i am going. it's about digital transformation. it's about leveraging our know-how. it's about our lifestyle, and or not it's about our values. This C-level engagement is translating into greater strategic relationships than ever.
For 2019, there's little on the radar -- wanting a extensive economic downturn -- that might derail Salesforce's momentum. yes, Oracle and SAP continue to be fierce competitors with the latter actively pitching its next-gen CRM equipment, but Salesforce is seen as a digital transformation engine. Microsoft is a different competitor worth looking at, considering that it also wants to present a single view of the client. Dynamics 365 is fitting greater competitive with Salesforce. With its advertising Cloud, Salesforce competes with Adobe. As Salesforce continues to extend so will its competitive set.extra on Salesforce:
SAP has a sprawling cloud software enterprise that runs from ERP and HR to costs (Concur) as well as Ariba. The business is simple business software, however customers are migrating to the cloud. SAP's method rhymes with Oracle's approach, however there is a key difference: SAP will run on distinctive clouds.
CEO invoice McDermott noted the SAP cloud partners on the enterprise's fourth quarter earnings name. "SAP has powerful partnerships with Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Alibaba, and others to embrace this value advent probability," he noted. "shoppers can run on-premise, in a non-public cloud or within the public cloud. or not it's their option."
The SAP cloud lineup contains here:
in the end, SAP is a mixture of historically licensed application and cloud models. CEO invoice McDermott also outlined some huge boom goals. For 2019, SAP is projecting cloud subscription and support income between €6.7 to €7.0 billion.
Going ahead, SAP is projecting cloud subscription and help salary of €eight.6 to €9.1 billion. by using 2023, SAP desires to triple cloud subscription and assist income from the 2018 tally.extra on SAP:
Workday made its identify with human capital management, elevated into financials and ERP, and is including analytics via a series of acquisitions.
earlier than AWS grew to become an Oracle obsession, Workday turned into a primary target of Larry Ellison's rants. these verbal barbs from Ellison grew to be a tell that Workday turned into faring well.
Most of Workday's profits derives from HCM, but the company is starting to promote financials together with it. In other words, Workday is attempting to enhance that multi-cloud playbook that Salesforce has going. That noted, Workday additionally has lots of runway for HCM. Workday hasl half of the Fortune 50 as customers and about forty p.c of the Fortune 500.
The analytics enterprise for Workday is being developed by the use of acquisition. Workday obtained Adaptive Insights, a company planning player, and may target analytics workloads.
while Workday fared smartly on its own, the enterprise become slow to develop its ecosystem and run on infrastructure from the general public cloud giants. Workday has opened up to permit clients to run on AWS and that is the reason a large flow that might pay dividends sooner or later.
The business additionally launched the Workday Cloud Platform, which permits customers to write purposes inside of Workday via a group of software programming interfaces. The Workday Cloud Platform, launched in 2017, makes its platform greater flexible and open.
In 2019, that you may expect Workday to discover enlargement ito greater industries past schooling and executive. Healthcare can be an alternative for a broader effort.
Robynne Sisco, CFO of Workday, spoke of at an investor conference in December:
for those who believe about increasing in terms of business operational systems, there is really plenty that we may do going ahead. We may do retail. We may do hospitality. As of presently, we now have obtained loads of issues we're engaged on. So we're staying the place we are. but business does become very critical if you discuss promoting financials.
Workday is additionally targeting more mid-sized agencies with Workday Launch, a set-fee, preconfigured software package.
The competitive set for Workday is Oracle and SAP for HCM and Financials. additionally watch Salesforce, which is a Workday partner and competencies foe in the future. one more wild card for Workday can be Microsoft, which is integrating LinkedIn more for HR analytics.greater on Workday: extra on cloud management: more on vendor administration: greater on information superhighway of issues: more on cloud vs records middle:
HUNT VALLEY, MD. — McCormick & Co. is participating with IBM to “pioneer” the software of synthetic intelligence (A.I.) for taste and food product building, the companies talked about.
the usage of IBM research AI for Product Composition, McCormick’s product builders could be capable of extra effectively discover flavor territories, McCormick spoke of. The business will additionally use IBM A.I. to foretell new taste combos from thousands and thousands of statistics facets throughout the areas of sensory science, client preference and taste palettes.
“IBM analysis’s collaboration with McCormick illustrates our dedication to helping our shoppers and partners power innovation throughout industries,” mentioned Kathryn Guarini, vice-president of trade research for IBM. “via combining McCormick’s deep records and competencies in science and style with IBM’s A.I. capabilities, we're working collectively to free up the bounds of creativity and radically change the food and taste building technique.”
McCormick plans to launch its first A.I.-enabled product platform, “ONE,” by means of mid-2019. The platform changed into developed to bring standard flavors with the capacity to season each protein and vegetables, McCormick noted. initial choices will encompass a group of one-dish recipe mix flavors corresponding to Tuscan chicken, Bourbon Pork Tenderloin and New Orleans Sausage.
“McCormick’s use of artificial intelligence highlights our commitment to perception-pushed innovation and the application of probably the most ahead-searching technologies to constantly enhance our items and convey new flavors to market,” stated Lawrence Kurzius, chairman, president and chief govt officer of McCormick. “this is one in all a few initiatives in our pipeline the place we’ve embraced new and emerging technologies.”
McCormick & Co. Inc. plans to make use of artificial intelligence to create new flavors and products through a analysis collaboration with IBM, the spice maker noted Monday.
The conception is to pair IBM’s advantage in machine discovering with McCormick’s greater than forty years of sensory science and taste data, the corporations observed. McCormick’s data comprises no longer simplest past product formulation however thousands and thousands of records points that relate to purchaser style preferences and palettes.
“One,” the first product line developed through artificial intelligence, might be on U.S. retail shelves by means of late spring and in the beginning encompass a set of one-dish recipe mix flavors, equivalent to Tuscan chicken, Bourbon Pork Tenderloin and New Orleans Sausage. The “One” platform is designed as seasoning for both proteins and greens.
McCormick’s product developers will use artificial intelligence to be trained and predict new flavors, making the system quicker and extra effective, the business stated. The know-how can be utilized in constructing each customer and commercial market items.
“McCormick’s use of synthetic intelligence highlights our commitment to insight-driven innovation and the utility of essentially the most forward-searching technologies to continually enhance our products and bring new flavors to market,” pointed out Lawrence Kurzius, McCormick’s chairman, president and CEO, in an announcement Monday.
He talked about the venture is amongst several within the pipeline the usage of new and emerging technologies.
“IBM research’s collaboration with McCormick illustrates our dedication to helping our valued clientele and companions power innovation across industries,” pointed out Kathryn Guarini, vp for industry analysis for IBM, in the announcement. “by using combining McCormick’s deep statistics and skills in science and taste, with IBM’s AI capabilities, we're working together to liberate the limits of creativity and transform the meals and flavor building process.”
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IBM Corporation has not been immune to the phenomenon described so far in this chapter. However, by better understanding client needs, IBM has been able to develop a career framework, a structure that defines the capabilities employees need to provide value to their clients. This framework is supported by a career development process that provides guidance to employees on how to advance in their careers. But this did not happen overnight. In fact, it was only after multiple studies and an evolution of interventions over a period of years that IBM was able to achieve this goal.The Transformation Begins
Internal surveys from 2003–2004 showed that some IBM employees felt they were not given an opportunity to improve their skills. Additionally, exit surveys revealed that perceived lack of career growth was one of the prime reasons employees voluntarily left the business. In 2004, IBM conducted a research project designed to better understand the challenges facing employees around their career development. Discussions with hundreds of IBM employees and managers, HR executives, review of existing IBM data such as exit surveys, and external benchmarking studies were reviewed. Additionally, input was obtained from an online global event called WorldJam, whereby thousands of IBM employees, managers, and executives collaborated for 72 hours and engaged in discussions on management effectiveness, workplace environment, and other matters. Collectively, input from these various studies and discussions led to a conclusion that IBM had a need for a “new day” in developing its people. These various studies pointed to five key themes that reflected the obstacles and critical success factors:11
The study uncovered a huge gap between the corporate view of career development and the employee experience. Employees felt that the business focus on attaining short-term results consistently compromised development plans and activities. Furthermore, findings suggested that while many best-of-breed development resources were already available in IBM, the key challenge was that of execution. The underlying conclusion was that business priorities get in the way of development. While management can improve development practices and continue to create award-winning learning programs, in the end, none of it will make any difference unless career development becomes a business priority and employees have the time and opportunity to stretch their skills and learn new ones.
This conclusion was later validated by a 2005 study, sponsored by senior executives. The objective of this study was to recommend a strategy and implementation plan for professional development that would help IBM achieve growth and innovation and help employees attain career growth and success in a fast-changing business environment.
Based on these research findings, IBM put forth a call to action for a new day for career development that would span several years of iterative development and implementation. The new day would require redefining the roles of the employee, manager, and IBM in developing its employees and would focus the company’s efforts on ensuring effective execution of development best practices. The overarching goal of the new day was to align IBM’s values and business agenda with the passion of its great workforce to provide value to the client. It was about responding to employees’ hunger to make a difference, to feel connected to IBM, to be recognized for their contributions, and to realize their potential. An engaged, challenged, and expert workforce would be the key to IBM’s growth and innovation.Career Programs Initiated
The following represent some of the programs IBM put into place from 2005 through 2007 as part of the first phase of this transformation of career development:
Between the time the initial analysis began in 2004 through 2007, when these programs were fully deployed and functioning, IBM enjoyed a six-point gain in employee satisfaction on a periodic survey that asked employees about their satisfaction with their ability to improve their skills at IBM. While many factors could contribute to this gain, surely the significant career development programs put in place by management would have had a positive impact on employee perception—and reality.
In 2006, an IBM study conducted with clients and business partners to better understand how the company could better serve its clients revealed a need to ensure IBM employees have the appropriate skills required to provide value to the client. One of the major outcomes of this study was the need for a common career framework that could benefit all IBM employees. As a result, in 2007, IBM embarked upon an initiative to create an enterprise-wide career framework that would enable career advancement for employees. At the time of this writing, the career framework is in the process of being implemented across IBM in a phased deployment that will take several years to complete. It will ultimately support the majority of job roles across the company. This is described later in this chapter and at length in Chapter 6, “Building Employee and Organizational Capability.”
International Business Machines Corporation (NYSE:IBM) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference Call January 22, 2019 5:00 PM ET
Patricia Murphy – Vice President-Investor Relations
Jim Kavanaugh – Chief Financial Officer
Conference Call Participants
Wamsi Mohan – Bank of America Merrill Lynch
Toni Sacconaghi – Bernstein
Katy Huberty – Morgan Stanley
Tien-tsin Huang – JPMorgan
David Grossman – Stifel
John Roy – UBS
Jim Schneider – Goldman Sachs
Joseph Foresi – Cantor Fitzgerald
Jim Suva – Citi
Keith Bachman – BMO
Welcome and thank you for standing by. At this time, all participants are in a listen-only mode. Today’s conference is being recorded. If you have any objections, you may disconnect at this time.
Now, I will turn the meeting over to Patricia Murphy with IBM. Ma’am, you may begin.
Thank you. This is Patricia Murphy, Vice President of Investor Relations for IBM, and I’d like to welcome you to our fourth quarter earnings presentation. I’m here today with Jim Kavanaugh, IBM’s Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.
The prepared remarks will be available within a couple of hours, and a replay of the webcast will be posted by this time tomorrow. I’ll remind you that certain comments made in this presentation may be characterized as forward-looking under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
Those statements involve a number of factors that could cause actual results to differ materially. Additional information concerning these factors is contained in the Company’s filings with the SEC. Copies are available from the SEC, from the IBM web site, or from us in Investor Relations.
Our presentation also includes certain non-GAAP financial measures, in an effort to provide additional information to investors. All non-GAAP measures have been reconciled to their related GAAP measures in accordance with SEC rules. You will find reconciliation charts at the end of the presentation, and in the Form 8-K submitted to the SEC.
So, with that, I’ll turn the call over to Jim.
Thanks Patricia, and thanks to all of you for joining us. The fourth quarter capped off a year where we grew revenue, operating pre-tax income, and operating earnings per share. We stabilized our margin as we moved through the year, and we expanded gross and pre-tax margin in the fourth quarter. We continued to invest and take actions to shift our business toward higher-value areas like hybrid cloud and AI, including the announcement of our acquisition of Red Hat.
And we again generated solid free cash flow, which enables this continued investment and shareholder returns. In the fourth quarter, we delivered $21.8 billion of revenue, which was down 1% at constant currency, though down 3% with the impact of currency translation.
As always, I’ll focus on constant currency results. Our operating pre-tax income was $5 billion, and we had $4.87 of operating earnings per share. We had strong performance in software, and in services we had revenue growth and gross margin expansion. This was offset by the expected impact of our IBM Z product cycle dynamics.
Our total software revenue was up 2%. We entered the quarter with a good pipeline of software opportunities, and we executed well, driven by hybrid cloud adoption and strong demand for analytics and AI offerings.
Total services revenue was up 2%. We had steady improvement in Global Business Services throughout the year, with 6% growth in the fourth quarter and revenue growth and gross margin expansion across all three of our GBS business lines.
Global Technology Services had a modest revenue decline, with solid gross margin expansion. We had a great signings quarter, reflecting strong demand for hybrid cloud implementations and our value prop to deliver productivity. Our hardware revenue was down. You’ll recall in 2017 we had a terrific fourth quarter in IBM Z, and so our decline reflects a wrap on that performance.
This continues to be a very successful Z program and remains ahead of our prior cycle. Once again, we had strong growth in Power, with POWER9 now introduced throughout our portfolio.
As you know we provide technology and industry expertise to help run our clients’ most important processes, which puts us in a unique position to help them transform their businesses. As we exit 2018, we’re continuing to see a few themes across our engagements. First, our clients continue to look to turn data into competitive advantage by applying analytics and AI, with an industry lens.
Second, clients are increasingly looking to cloud to drive business value. As they move more mission-critical workloads to the cloud, they need to securely move data and workloads across multiple cloud environments and that requires a hybrid and open-cloud strategy.
And third, clients are focused on productivity and predictability in their spend. Now, IT has always been about driving both technology innovation and productivity, with the balance shifting over time. We’re recently seeing increasing interest in productivity as clients look forward to the next couple of years.
And so our results this quarter reflect our ability to deliver innovation and productivity you see this in our strong results in analytics and AI, in our as-a-Service cloud revenue, and in strong signings in our services business that deliver technology solutions and economic value, all through our integrated value proposition. That’s why companies such as Vodafone and BNP Paribas are leveraging the IBM Cloud, where they benefit from our hybrid multi-cloud capabilities and access to the most advanced technologies. And it’s why Bradesco Bank made a software, hardware and services multi-year commitment to the IBM Z platform, to take them to the next level in AI and hybrid IT, with more predictability in their operating cost.
Across our segments, our strategic imperatives revenue for the year was up 9% to about $40 billion. Within that, our cloud revenue is over $19 billion, and we exited the year with an annual run rate for cloud-delivered-as-a-Service of over $12 billion, which is up 21% over last year. This is a solid base of cloud and cognitive capabilities, and we’re continuing to deliver innovation in these high value areas. For example, in the fourth quarter we introduced AI OpenScale, a platform to manage the lifecycle of all forms of AI models, and Multicloud Manager, a service to deploy and manage complete applications, in any cloud environment.
We’re adding innovative services, like the world’s first commercial quantum computer available on the IBM Cloud. You may have seen that ExxonMobil is already using it to help address its most complex business challenges, such as energy exploration and chemicals manufacturing. The number of new clients using IBM Cloud Private accelerated in the fourth quarter, and adoption is growing for our IBM Cloud Private for Data platform, which was named a leader in the first quarter 2019 Forrester Wave report on Enterprise Insight Platforms. All of this is a validation of our hybrid, open approach to cloud, and we have a strong foundation from which to drive synergies across the business with the addition of Red Hat.
Let me pause here to remind you of the value we see from the combination of IBM and Red Hat, which is all about accelerating hybrid cloud adoption. The client response to the announcement has been overwhelmingly positive. They understand the power of this acquisition, and the combination of IBM and Red Hat capabilities, in helping them move beyond their initial cloud work to really shifting their business applications to the cloud.
They are concerned about the secure portability of data and workloads across cloud environments, about consistency in management and security protocols across clouds, and in avoiding vendor lock-in. They understand how the combination of IBM and Red Hat will help them address these issues.
We see the strong bookings Red Hat recently reported as further evidence of clients’ confidence in the value. Remember, the quarter ended a month after the transaction was announced. From a value perspective, in addition to the growing Red Hat business itself, we see an opportunity to lift all of IBM by selling more of our own IBM Cloud and by selling more of our analytics and AI capabilities on OpenShift across multiple platforms.
As clients proceed on their journey to get more business value from the cloud, they need more services help from the digital design, to app modernization, to native app development, to management of hybrid cloud environments. You saw last week the results of Red Hat’s shareholder vote, with very high participation, and over 99% voting in support.
We are moving through the regulatory process and continue to expect to close in the second half of 2019. We’ve had a decade-long partnership with Red Hat and extended it nearly a year ago around hybrid and multi-cloud. And now, after the announcement in late October, we’ve begun the internal enablement planning so we can hit the ground running post closing.
So now, I’ll go through the details of the fourth quarter, wrap up with a summary of the full year, and our view of 2019. As I said, our revenue in the quarter was $21.8 billion. This includes a currency hurt to revenue of over $500 million, which is 150 million more than mid-October spot rates suggested, as the dollar has continued to strengthen. Looking at our margin dynamics, we expanded both our gross and pre-tax operating margins.
Our gross margin was up 10 basis points, with strong performance in the services businesses, together up 190 basis points. This was mitigated by the expected mix headwind from the IBM Z cycle dynamics. Our operating expense was better 5%. When currency impacts the top line, it generally helps expense, due to both translation and the benefit of hedging contracts.
And so, with the strengthening of the dollar, currency helped our expense by nearly five points. Remember, the majority of our hedges are reflected in expense, and these hedging gains mitigate the currency impacts throughout the P&L. We’ve been focused on driving productivity in our business, implementing new ways of working, like using agile methodologies, and leveraging automation and infusing AI into our processes. This provides flexibility to drive innovation in areas like hybrid cloud, AI, security and blockchain, while also delivering operating leverage.
Within our expense decline, we also had a lower level of IP income. At the beginning of the year we said we expected IP income to be down year-to-year, and it has been tracking lower, down $165 million year-to-year in the fourth quarter, and nearly $450 million for the full year. Putting this expense performance together with our gross margin expansion, pre-tax margin was up 50 basis points.
Looking at operating tax, at the beginning of 2018, we provided a range for our full year tax rate of 16% plus or minus two points and that was without discrete items. With our final geographic and product mix, the full year rate without discretes was about 15%, within the expected range. Including the discrete items in the first and third quarters, our full year operating tax rate was 8%, which is a headwind year-to-year. The resulting tax rate in the fourth quarter was 12%, which is up about six points year-to-year.
Regarding our GAAP tax rate, you saw in our press release that our fourth quarter rate also reflects a charge for a GILTI tax election, associated with the implementation of 2017 U.S. tax reform. This charge impacts GAAP net income and GAAP earnings per share.
And so, turning back to our operating results, operating earnings per share of $4.87 was driven by solid operating leverage, offset by an expected headwind from tax.
Looking at our cash metrics, we generated $6.5 billion of free cash flow in the quarter with $11.9 billion for the year, in line with our expectations. Our realization of GAAP net income is 111% for the year, normalizing for the non-operating tax reform charge. This supports a high level of investment and shareholder returns. So now let me move on to the segments.
Cognitive Solutions revenue was up 2%, with 3% growth in Solutions Software and 1% growth in Transaction Processing Software. We expanded pre-tax margin by nearly three points, delivering operating leverage on this revenue growth, from both operational efficiencies and mix, while still investing at high levels.
In the quarter, we continued to deliver innovation to our clients and scale our platforms and solutions, resulting in growth in our transactional revenue and SaaS signings. In Transaction Processing Software, we capitalized on the strong pipeline of larger transactions we discussed entering the fourth quarter, driven by our clients’ buying cycles. Our fourth quarter performance reflects these clients’ commitment to our platform for the longer term, given the value we provide in managing their mission-critical workloads and predictability in their spending.
In Solutions Software, growth was led by analytics and AI offerings, with several other high-value areas growing as well. In our underlying analytics platform, we had broad-based growth across our Db2 portfolio including analytics appliances, and Data Science offerings.
Demand for our IBM Cloud Private for Data offering accelerated, and now over 100 clients have adopted the platform, and that’s since launching just over six months ago. New clients include the Korea Internet and Security Agency, which is developing an app on ICP for Data that leverages a variety of data sources and machine learning models to find and thwart new cyber threats.
In addition, we’re scaling our newest Watson services running on IBM Cloud Private for Data, like AI OpenScale. In Security, we continued to have solid demand for our integrated security and services solutions, including strong growth in our security intelligence and orchestration offerings, QRadar and Resilient. Within our industry verticals, Watson Health had growth across Payer, Provider, Imaging and Government and IoT once again had strong growth in our core offerings, Maximo and Tririga, where we lead the market in asset management and facilities management.
In the emerging blockchain area, we announced several new clients this quarter, including our work with Smart Dubai on the Middle East’s first government-endorsed blockchain platform. We introduced an on-prem offering in November, the IBM Blockchain Platform for IBM Cloud Private, and signed several new deals this first month. We see a strong pipeline as clients are interested in the benefits of blockchain behind their firewall.
Now, over the last few quarters, I called out offerings within our Solutions Software, which address horizontal domains where we’ve faced secular shifts in the market, specifically collaboration, commerce and talent. We’ve been taking actions, and last month we announced the divestiture of our collaboration and on-prem marketing and commerce products to HCL. After closing, which is currently expected to be mid-year, this action will improve our Cognitive Solutions revenue performance, normalizing for the divested content, and reflects our commitment to disciplined portfolio management.
So now moving on to services, before getting into the two segments, I want to provide a view of the total services business. As I said earlier, revenue was up 2%, and gross margin expanded 190 basis points. Looking at our signings, on our last earnings call we talked about the strong pipeline of deals we had going into the fourth quarter. And we executed well, delivering signings of $15.8 billion, which is up 21% at constant currency.
This results in a backlog which is now $116 billion. Since it’s measured at year-end spot rates, currency is obviously impacting the backlog. But at constant currency, the backlog is down 60 basis points year-to-year, which is about a two-point improvement versus last quarter’s performance.
Customers are increasingly looking to leverage digital for growth and innovation, while at the same time increasing efficiencies and reducing cost within their businesses. IBM Services can deliver this value by leveraging its breadth across GBS and GTS. A recent example is at the Bank of the Philippine Islands, where we’ll provide IT infrastructure services as well as Digital Experience Solutions to support the bank’s ongoing digital transformation, increasing their IT efficiency and scale, and enabling them to seize opportunities in an increasingly digital financial sector.
So now turning to Global Business Services, we again, delivered solid performance, building on the momentum throughout the year. The GBS team has done a really nice job repositioning this business, and you can see it in the results. Revenue grew 6%, with growth across all business lines, and gross margin expanded 300 basis points.
Consulting revenue growth accelerated to 10%. This is validation of our success in bringing together technology and industry expertise to help our clients on their digital journey. We had continued strong growth in Digital Strategy, fueled by our Digital Commerce and CRM offerings. We are also accelerating growth in next generation Enterprise Applications led by strong demand in our consulting and implementation services in areas like S4/HANA, Salesforce, and Workday.
In Application Management, we grew 4%. This quarter we returned to growth with strong performance in cloud migration factory and cloud application development, mitigated by continued declines in traditional application management engagements, as our clients move to the cloud. The 4% growth also reflects the achievement of significant milestones across a few accounts. We’ve been also improving our revenue profile in Global Process Services.
Revenue grew 5% as we reinvent industry workflows by leveraging automation and infusing AI. And earlier this month, we announced the sale of our mortgage servicing business. The transaction is expected to close in the first quarter and will result in improving revenue and margin profile, normalizing for the divested content. So, this action, like the divestiture of select software assets, is about portfolio optimization. We’re focusing on higher-value offerings that are important to our integrated value proposition.
Turning to GBS gross profit, there are a number of drivers of our 300 basis point expansion, including the operating leverage we get on the revenue growth, our mix towards higher-value offerings, and capturing the price for value, a help from currency, given our global delivery mix, and the yield on our productivity and utilization initiatives, including the re-alignment of our skills pyramids to key growth areas.
In Technology Services and Cloud Platforms, we delivered $8.9 billion of revenue, which is flat versus last year, and gross margin expanded approximately 150 basis points. We continued to have strong growth in cloud revenue in the segment, this quarter up 22% year-to-year. We had a strong signings quarter, with 16 transactions over $100 million each. Both new and existing clients are looking to IBM to manage their critical infrastructure and deliver innovation, while simultaneously achieving predictable spending. We continue to see momentum in our open hybrid multi-cloud approach.
I mentioned BNP Paribas earlier. BNP Paribas has selected IBM to strengthen its cloud environment, with a hybrid multi-cloud approach, bringing together the IBM Cloud, private clouds, along with existing infrastructure. Leveraging IBM’s technical and industry expertise, BNP Paribas will accelerate its digitization to offer its clients the best services, while respecting the security and confidentiality of their data.
Looking at the revenue by line of business, Infrastructure Services revenue was flat. As we prioritize our portfolio, we are exiting some lower value content, which slightly impacts near-term revenue performance, but results in higher margins.
In Technical Support Services, revenue was down 3%. TSS continues to be impacted by the hardware product cycle dynamics, partially off-set by continued growth in our core multi-vendor services offerings. And, finally, Integration Software growth accelerated to 4%. This performance was driven by continued strong adoption of IBM Cloud Private, where we added 200 new clients. That brings our total number of clients using this innovative platform to 600 in just over a year, as they continue to modernize traditional workloads.
We also now have over 100 IBM software offerings integrated with IBM Cloud Private, including Blockchain, Watson, IoT, and Analytics. We are continuing to deliver innovation in this space, with new offerings to enable clients in an open, hybrid, multi-cloud world, like IBM Multicloud Manager which I mentioned earlier.
Turning to profit for the segment, gross margin improvement is driven by the lift of our productivity initiatives. This includes infusing AI and automation in our delivery processes, such as by leveraging IBM Services Delivery Platform with Watson, and embedding agile thinking into our service delivery processes. We’re also leveraging productivity and talent optimization efforts, where we continue to optimize business processes, reskill our expert workforce and leverage our global scale. PTI margin was flat, reflecting continued investments to expand our go-to-market capabilities and develop new offerings to capture the hybrid market opportunity.
So, to wrap up services at the beginning of 2018, we said we expected an improving trajectory in our services revenue and profit, and we delivered on that throughout the year, with a strong fourth quarter.
In systems, revenue was down 20% this quarter. I’ll remind you that this is compared to a very strong performance in the fourth quarter last year, where we grew 28%. Systems pre-tax margin was down 6.5 points, reflecting the mix headwind from the IBM Z product cycle.
I’ll walk through the different dynamics across the hardware portfolio. In IBM Z, we are six quarters into the z14 cycle. Z revenue declined 44%, while margins expanded modestly, in line with where we are in the cycle. The program continues to track ahead of the prior program, with broad client adoption across industries and countries. We continued to add new clients and new workloads to the platform. Since launching the z14 program, our MIPs capacity has increased nearly 20%, with new workload MIPs growing twice the rate of our standard MIPs.
So, we’re taking advantage of the secular shifts in the market, and now over 55% of our installed MIPs inventory is in emerging workload areas. And while there is volatility in the hardware due to product cycles, as we continue to grow our install base, up roughly 3.5 times over the last decade, this provides stability in our related software, services and financing business across IBM. Power revenue was up 10% driven by Linux and continued strong adoption across our new POWER9-based architecture.
In the fourth quarter, we completed the release of our next generation POWER9 processors in the high end, and we had strong adoption in both the low and high-end systems. Our Power9 systems are designed for handling advanced analytics, cloud environments and data-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets and we now have extended HANA certification to our Power9 high end.
In the fourth quarter, we had strong initial traction with our new offerings that optimize both hardware and software for AI, such as PowerAI Vision which we introduced in the second half of 2018. And we’ve essentially completed the deployment of our supercomputers at the U.S. Department of Energy labs in the quarter.
Storage hardware was down, with declines in midrange, mitigated by continued strong growth in All Flash Arrays. The storage market remains very competitive, with ongoing pricing pressures. We’re continuing to introduce new innovations and functionality. For example, in December we extended our next generation NVMe technology into the midrange, with strong initial client adoption. We will continue to roll out NVMe across the storage portfolio in the first half of 2019.
So now turning to cash, we generated $7.3 billion of cash from operations in the quarter, excluding our financing receivables. With nearly $900 million in capital expenditures, we generated $6.5 billion of free cash flow in the fourth quarter. This capped off a year with $15.6 billion of cash from operations, also excluding financing. We invested $3.7 billion in CapEx this year, mainly in our services and cloud-based businesses, and that’s up $400 million from
And so, we generated free cash flow of $11.9 billion for the year, and as I mentioned, our normalized free cash flow realization was 111%. You’ll recall that we expected our free cash flow to be about $12 billion for 2018. The year-to-year decline reflects the headwinds we anticipated from CapEx, working capital and cash taxes. We returned over $10 billion to shareholders in the year, including dividends of $5.7 billion. We’ve now increased our dividend per share for 23 consecutive years, and we remain committed to continued dividend increases. We also bought back just under 33 million shares, reducing our
average share count by over 2%. At the end of the year, we had $3.3 billion remaining in our buyback authorization.
Now looking at the balance sheet, we ended the year with a cash balance of $12.2 billion, which without the impact of currency is consistent with a year ago. Total debt was $45.8 billion, down a $1 billion year-to-year, with 68% in support of our financing business. The leverage in our financing business is in line with the target of 9 to 1, and the credit quality of our financing receivables remains strong at 55% investment grade, a point better than a year ago. And so, our balance sheet remains strong, and we are committed to maintaining a strong investment grade credit rating.
As we typically do at the end of the year, I want to provide a quick update on our retirement-related plans. Our U.S. plan has been frozen for over a decade, and over the last several years we’ve moved our asset base to a lower risk, lower return profile. At the end of 2018, in aggregate, our worldwide tax-qualified plans are nearly fully funded, with the U.S. at 104%, consistent with a year ago. So, despite the volatility in the markets, our plans are in really good shape.
So, let me start to wrap up with some thoughts on 2018, and then I’ll move on to expectations for 2019. As we opened the year, we talked about the work we had done to reposition our business to help move our clients to the future, shifting our portfolio, changing our operating model and the way we work, and reallocating our capital.
And in our earnings call last January, we talked about how that drove our expectations for 2018, in revenue, in margin, and in earnings per share. First, we said we expected to grow revenue at then-current spot rates. We did in fact grow revenue for the year, and that’s despite the U.S. dollar appreciation since early 2018, reducing our revenue growth by about two points, or $1.7 billion.
Second, we said we’d stabilize gross margins. While we fell a bit short for the full year, we stabilized gross margin in the third quarter, and expanded both gross and pre-tax margin in the fourth quarter and second half, that’s for the first time in over three years. We said tax would be a headwind for the year. And it was a headwind to us, for the year, and in the fourth quarter. We continued to return value to shareholders, with share repurchases contributing to earnings per share growth.
And finally, we said we expected operating earnings per share of at least $13.80 and free cash flow of about $12 billion and we achieved both of these. So, looking back on 2018, we grew revenue, operating profit and operating earnings per share for the year, with strong free cash flow realization. We had good momentum in GBS, with particular strength in consulting, led by our digital and cloud application offerings. We executed well in software in the fourth quarter, finishing the year strong, led by analytics and AI, and our hybrid cloud software.
As we execute our strategy to help our clients implement hybrid cloud, our total cloud revenue grew to over $19 billion. Across software and services, we continued to build our as-a-Service revenue, and we exited the year with a $12 billion annual run rate, which is up 21%. We continued our very successful IBM Z program and strong performance in Power, with our Power9 architecture roll-out. We repositioned our operating model and drove productivity, which improved our margin profile.
We also continued to prioritize our investments and took actions to optimize our portfolio. We announced the sale of select software and services businesses, actions that not only improve our go-forward revenue profile, but allow us to increase our focus and investment in the high value segments of IT in areas like hybrid cloud, AI, and blockchain.
All of this provides a solid business and financial foundation for the addition of Red Hat. And it gives us confidence in our expectation for full year 2019 operating earnings per share of at least $13.90. Before we go to Q&A, I want to be clear about what is, and is not included in our expectations.
As I mentioned earlier, Red Hat is expected to close in the second half, and given the financial implications to 2019 are heavily dependent on the timing of the closing, Red Hat is not included in our expectations. We’ll update our view of the year at the time of closing.
In the last month and a half, we’ve also announced two divestitures, the sale of our collaboration and on-prem marketing commerce software and the sale of our Seterus mortgage servicing business. For these businesses, when we consider the combination of the foregone profit, the gain on the sale of software assets, the actions to address structure and stranded costs and the resulting benefits from these actions, we expect there to be minimal impact to our profit and earnings per share for the year.
And unlike the Red Hat acquisition, the timing of the closing does not have a significant impact on the financial implications for the year, though it may affect the quarterly skew. As a result, our guidance assumes these divestitures. Said another way, because the divestitures are essentially neutral to our profit for 2019, they don’t impact the Operating EPS guidance for the year, though they do have a benefit to our financial profile over the longer term.
Turning to free cash flow, we expect about $12 billion in 2019, with a realization rate of about 100%. This reflects our expected operational profit performance and continued working capital efficiency, partially offset with a cash tax headwind. We have also taken into account the estimated free cash flow impacts of the software and services divestitures.
Note that while these are relatively neutral to earnings, they are a headwind to our free cash flow, because the gain proceeds flow into the investing section of our cash flow statement. Finally, while we haven’t included Red Hat, we have taken into account an estimate of the pre-closing financing costs associated with the acquisition. So, when you put it all together, we see free cash flow of about $12 billion, which is roughly flat year-to-year, even after absorbing the headwind from the portfolio actions.
And with that, let me turn it back to Patricia for the Q&A.
Thank you, Jim. Before we begin the Q&A, I’d like to mention a couple of items. First, we have supplemental charts at the end of the slide deck that provide additional information on the quarter and the full year. This includes the 2018 performance and year-end assumptions for our retirement-related plans, and supporting information on the 2019 implications of our divested businesses.
And second, as always, I’d ask you to refrain from multi-part questions. So, operator, let’s please open it up for questions.
Thank you. We will now start the question-and-answer session of this conference. [Operator Instructions] Our first question is coming from Wamsi Mohan of Bank of America Merrill Lynch. Your line is open.
Yes, thank you. Jim, IBM delivered a nice profit trajectory here exiting 2018. In this weaker macro backdrop, it looks like you've a pretty robust 2019 guidance. And I was hoping that you can help talk through what the profit trajectory looks like and gross and PTI level in 2019 and some color on the broader puts and takes embedded in your 2019 guide including the IP income and taxes. That would be helpful. Thank you.
Okay, Wamsi. Thank you very much for the question. And it's probably a good place to start given we just concluded the prepared remarks and we talked about some of the dynamics of what's in our guidance. But as always, you would expect we run multiple scenarios here across our business and we're looking at the trajectory of our business, the macroeconomic environment, what our enterprise clients are telling us. And we also take into account our own operational indices in front of us and our business plans and strategies.
And when we put all that together this is what gives us confidence in and expectation of our operating EPS of at least $13.90 for 2019. Now, as I just stated, this guidance excludes Red Hat just given to the timing sensitivity and the financial implications I want to close as, but it includes the announced divestitures. And we'll talk about that through all these Q&As with regards to any forward-looking guidance.
But we enter – from my perspective, we enter 2019 with a much improved business profile in terms of one driving operating leverage and you saw how that played out in the second half. And it's right to the core of your question. And two, I mean, our strategic imperatives right now, the high value emerging segments in the IT industry are now consistently over 50% of IBM's business.
So we don't give guidance on revenue. Let me give you a little color behind that and then I'll go to operating leverage and gross and pretax margin and tax, as we move forward. But first I'll start with a tailwind. We have a solid annuity base in our business, today it's about 60% of IBM and that builds resiliency into our model.
And we got good momentum in our as-a-Service as you heard. We exited the year with an annualized exit run rate of $12.2 billion and that's up 21% year-over-year. You combine that with the strength within our services business, we accelerated throughout the year and we exited the year with a very strong performance by GBS team who is just doing excellent with regards to continuing to win in front of the marketplace and deliver value to their clients.
And we also captured significant signings in the fourth quarter that positions our GTS business, and really instantiates our value around hybrid cloud and how we're winning. And then you couple that with solid execution on software. We talked 90 days ago about where we were at in the third quarter around software and we made some forward-looking projections and we turned our software business around to growth growing 2% in the fourth quarter, and we have a strong portfolio lineup so we would expect that to continue.
And in hardware, yes, we’re on the back end of our mainframe cycle. And I would tell you it's the most successful mainframe we’ve had in quite a bit of time. But we continue to bring new innovation to market to deliver value for our clients in our POWER9 architecture, which is resonating well in the marketplace and we got great acceptance, grew 10% in the fourth quarter. We expect that will continue to play out in 2019. So we've got a good book of business here and some tailwinds at us.
And from a headwind perspective, you talked about macro. Well, the first thing I would call out is currency. The U.S. dollar continues to strengthen throughout 2018. Especially even since our last earnings call 90 days ago, the U.S. dollar continued to appreciate. And right now you saw in the supplemental charts we provide you with transparency, we expect about a one to two point headwind on currency. And then finally, we are taking very disciplined portfolio actions across our business where they don't align to our integrated value play and where we can reprioritize and focus our investment to drive the value around the IBM company that divested contents is going to be about a one point headwind.
So when you put it all together, we've got some pluses and minuses at the top line. But really, this year, in 2019, it's going to be predicated on operating leverage. We made good progress through 2018 and it positions us very well into expand margins in 2019. So amongst all of our scenarios, our guidance model and our expectations indicate that we will expand gross and pre-tax operating margin in 2019 as we continue to deliver value. And that's going to come out of scale efficiencies, that's going to come out of our services momentum and the mixed shift and productivity, which will offset – more than offset the product cycle mix, we still have in the divested content.
And one last thing that I would call out is tax. We're guiding to an all-in rate of about 11% to 12%, which by the way is a headwind year-to-year that we're going to have to overcome, a finishing with a printed rate of about 8% in 2018. Now this rate assumes estimated potential discretes. This is a change we're doing this to provide enhanced transparency into our guidance as we move forward. But I will tell you discretes by nature, vary in timing. They vary in amounts and will be recorded when they occur in 2019.
But you put all that together, we've got headwinds and tailwinds on revenue, strong portfolio line-up in our high value services and software. We got expanding operating leverage that we expect, the tax rate all-in of about 11% or 12%. This gives us confidence in our full year EPS of at least $13.90 and a free cash flow of about $12 billion.
Great. Thanks. Thanks Wamsi. Can we go to the question, please?
Here our next question is coming from Toni Sacconaghi of Bernstein. Your line is open.
Yes. Thank you. And thank you for the clarification on the previous question. I just wanted to know if you could clarify what the size of the expected gain is on the sale of assets to Red Hat, excuse me to HCL. And then whether you expect directionally Red Hat to be accretive or dilutive to free cash flow and EPS this year?
And then on software, could you comment on the strength that you saw, was it a push out? Do you feel like you captured large enterprise license agreements or is this sort of a more normalized book? And should we expect cognitive to grow in Q1 and Q2 at a similar pace to what we saw in Q4? Thank you.
Okay, Toni. Thank you very much. Very good questions. Let me try to take each of these piece by piece. First of all as you saw from our last earnings, we continue to take disciplined portfolio prioritization efforts around – our portfolio both in terms of an announcement of the acquisition of Red Hat and also the announcement of sale of certain assets within our cognitive and GBS business.
Red Hat, as we talked about, expected was – we're working through regulatory right now. We expect to close that in the second half. But with regards to your specific question on divestitures, we included in our guidance the sale of our collaboration in non-prem marketing and commerce business and the sale of our Seterus mortgaging business.
Both of these will drive headwinds as you can imagine in revenue for the year. We expect the mortgage business to close later in the first quarter. That will be a headwind this year to GBS revenue. But on a sustainable basis, this improves both our revenue profile in GBS and our margin profile as we continue to shift the higher value as we move forward.
In terms of our Cognitive assets that we sold, with regards to collaboration in non-prem, those businesses generated roughly a little bit over $1 billion of revenue over the last 12 months. We said we expected to close that by mid-year. The transaction price was $1.8 billion, but the expected gain, I will tell you, will be a lot less than that $1.8 billion as we're working through the acquisition accounting right now with regards to goodwill and how much goodwill will be applied to that. But we still expect a sizable gain, nowhere near $1.8 billion, but a sizeable gain.
And as we said, we've got to overcome; one, the foregone profit of these businesses, the stranded cost of these businesses, and we will take that gain and as you would expect, we're going to utilize a portion of that gain to address that stranded costs and structure and we’ll get return on that.
All of that put together is minimal impact to our profit. So we included that in our guidance. It has minimal impact to our profit and EPS, but it does have an impact to free cash flow. Just given what I said a little while ago in the prepared remarks, on the gain, on the asset sale, we’ll end up in the investing section, our free cash flow. So we've overcome that and still guided our free cash flow, that's roughly flat at about $12 billion.
Now your second question was on Cognitive. We obviously executed well. You dial back 90 days ago and we had some pretty frank discussions about our portfolio, how we had confidence in our portfolio, the competitiveness and the value we bring to clients. And we didn't execute in third quarter and we came back, we executed on strong pipelines.
Software was up 2% overall. Our transact – we had strong transactional performance. But probably what I'm most proud about is it was pervasive. We grew in hybrid cloud integration software 4%, we grew in solutions software 3% across many of our offerings led by data and AI and analytics, also in many offerings in our industry verticals around Watson Health, and we grew in transaction processing software, which we said that business’s mission-critical, high value to our clients and a foul client-buying cycles.
So if anything in our overall portfolio software that’s tied to skew, it’s really the transaction processing software business, where we close strong pipeline, which we talked about 90 days ago. So we feel very good about the competitiveness and value of our portfolio. We’re going to feel even better when we close the Red Hat acquisition, and what that does to provide us an acceleration in a leadership position on a hybrid multi-cloud and we’re excited and looking forward to that.
Thanks, Tony. And can we please go to the next question?
Thank you. Next question is coming from Katy Huberty of Morgan Stanley. Your line is open.
Thank you. Good afternoon. Congrats on the nice numbers in the fourth quarter. Question around linearity in 2019, there’s a lot going on with tax, grade, divestiture, another Red Hat numbers are in the guidance yet. But how should we think about linearity given that the timing of some of these discrete items may change the walkthrough in the year?
Okay. Thank you, Katy. And thanks on behalf of the entire IBM team, really just deliver the solid fourth quarter here. But if you take a look at, it’s very good question. Why don’t I just address it by trying to get some visibility into first quarter? It’s right in front of us right now. If you take a look at first quarter again, we guided full year EPS of at least $13.90. If you look at first quarter, first of all, on an EPS perspective, we would expect the operating EPS skew to be around 16% of the full year $13.90.
So when you take a look at that, it gets us off to a good start. It does acknowledge that we are on the back end of a mainframe product cycle, but we got acceleration in our services and our software base of business. And we feel confident in at least that 16% starting out the year. Now, if you look at that compared to the last three years, it will show that it’s a little bit less attainment.
But to your – heart of your question, the last few years we had substantial discrete tax items in the first quarter. If you go back to 16%, we closed on the Japan audit. If you go back to last year, we closed on the U.S. audit settlement. We do not see anywhere near the level of discretes in the first quarter. And I would project somewhere around 11%, 10%. There might be something within the first quarter, but we’re not talking substantial amount.
So that is really EPS. On revenue, which we probably have the best visibility just given our operational indices, the mixed differential of our revenue base between annuity and transactional, when we move from a fourth quarter and the first quarter. That seasonality, the transactional businesses have a more muted effect on 1Q versus 4Q. And as the mix of more annuity content, which plays out in the first quarter, this should contribute about a 1 to 2 point sequential improvement and our growth at constant currency. We just came off our fourth quarter with many different dynamics that produce a down 1 at constant currency.
So we do see an improvement just given the mixed shift in the strength of our annuity content as we move forward. The last thing that I’ll bring up about first quarter is, I talked a little bit about currency for the year, we have our toughest compare on currency in the first quarter, just given last year the dollar weakened throughout the first quarter and then dramatically accelerated or strengthen as we move through 2Q to 4Q.
So as you saw in the supplemental chart, our currency impact is going to be a 3 to 4 point headwind and based on what I looked that were dollar closed late today, it’s going to be probably closer to that 4 point headwind overall.
Okay. Thanks, Katy. Can we go to the next question, please?
Thank you. Next question is coming from Tien-tsin Huang of JPMorgan. Your line is open.
Thanks. I want to ask on services that improved, like you said, it would in 2018. I’m curious, your outlook is for 2019 within services, because there are some moving parts GBS is perform really well application management up into a nice place, so curious on a sustainability there. Just as a clarification away from the services, what strategic imperatives of 9%, there wasn’t as much talk about that in the prepared remarks. I’m curious, that still going to be a metric that’s going to be provided or attract going forward. Thanks.
Okay, Tien-tsin. Thank you very much for the question. We obviously are very pleased with our services business and how we’ve continued to reposition our portfolio both in GBS, but also in our GTS space of business as we move throughout 2018. But when you look at the trajectory of our business, we ended the year with an overall are absolute backlog of $116 billion, that’s down 60 basis points at constant currency and it’s a big improvement from where we started a year ago. If you remember our discussions here a year ago, we had a lot of discussion about your overall backlog is down 3% at constant currency and we talked a lot about what we saw play out in 2018 and the team’s just done an excellent job. We’re in a much better position. And we do see across our total services business in 2019 sustained revenue growth and margin profile.
Well, let me take the pieces and just give you a little bit of perspective. GBS, I couldn’t be more proud of the team about what they’ve done to reposition their portfolio and their offerings in capturing, in delivering growth to our clients, in digital, in cognitive and cloud. You saw in the fourth quarter, we exited GBS, I’ll get these numbers pretty close. Strategic imperatives growing mid-teens, cloud growing 30%-plus and our as-a-Service based business, exiting would over a $2 billion number, I think up 64% overall.
And we’ve got pervasive growth across all three lines of business led by digital. We did state an application management, where we finally returned back to growth in the fourth quarter. We are executing and delivering value and driving cloud migration services and cloud application development. We have a differentiated offering and we’re delivering value to our clients, but we also closed on many client specific milestones that caught up in the fourth quarter, but we still see good growth. It’s just not going to be at the level that you saw here in the fourth quarter.
With all that said, our margin and operating leverage, we feel comfortable. We grew GBS operating gross margins 300 basis points in the fourth quarter. That will dissipate throughout 2019, but we still see strong operating leverage led by our mix shift to higher value in the offerings, how we’re capturing that price realization and how we’re delivering real value and quality to our clients.
Now in GTS, we are obviously winning with our hybrid cloud momentum. We had a strong signings quarter, really led by GTS overall in the hybrid cloud value prop, delivered $15.8 billion of signings, up 21% that’s what improved their backlog position here at the end of the year, and we’re exiting with $8 billion as-a-Service annualized exit run rate which provides a strong annuity based content and resiliency in our model.
Now with that said, we are doing portfolio prioritization in GTS. We are constantly going to focus on where we can exploit and deliver value to our client and also make high value returns for the IBM shareholder. We are walking away from low value based content in GTS, you saw that in the fourth quarter where our GTS business overall was down I think, 50, 70 basis points.
And while you see that back – absolute backlog improve, we are going to continue prioritizing high value because we want to get prioritization of cash, profit and margin out of that business and leverage that business in the value of incumbency and moving our clients to the future in capitalizing on hybrid cloud.
So we’ll see continued margin expansion in GTS as we move forward and that’s going to come out of very similar scale efficiencies, productivity. And remember in both, we’re still going to get the second half of our productivity from our 2018 actions. So we feel pretty comfortable and confident in our services base of business as we walk into 2019.
Thanks, Tien-tsin. Can we go to the next question please.
Thank you. Next question is coming from David Grossman with Stifel. Your line is open.
Thank you. So Jim, you’ve announced two divestitures in the last six weeks, I think you mentioned in your prepared remarks, you are exiting some GTS business that was perhaps lower margin, slower growth. Obviously, without getting too specific, what else can you tell us about the other efforts that are underway to streamline the legacy core that may positively impact the agility of the organization as well as positively impact your growth rate.
Okay. David, thanks very much for the question. Let me take a big step back. Obviously I’ve been thinking about this as Jenny and everyone else. From my perspective, we constantly say IBM is a high value based company. We’re a high value to our clients. We’re high value to our shareholders. In the way we remain high value is through disciplined portfolio optimization. And whether you go over, what we just did the last 90 or 120 days or you go over the last three to five years, we have constantly focused on one, where is the market moving in terms of growth, high value offerings, client value, and most importantly profit pools. And you’re seeing us continue to do that as we move forward.
These latest actions really center around disciplined portfolio prioritization around market attractiveness, around differentiation and around how they really play to the integrated value of the IBM portfolio. Our differentiated hardware software services, and that was really at the heart of the divestitures that we just announced around certain assets in our Cognitive Solutions segment and in our global processing mortgage servicing unit, they were basically more and more sold as standalone only products and offerings that can be leveraged and delivered to our clients through a different partner, who will make the investment prioritization as we move forward.
I could tell you, we're always looking at portfolio optimization, and how we prioritize our investment and capital allocation and you see that with the announcement of Red Hat and you see that play out and what we just did with Cognitive and GBS. But as we go forward, we're going to continue to prudently managing our portfolio and operate what that financial discipline in terms of acquisitions. Our strategy hasn't changed. It's always been built around supporting high value.
And it's about built around leveraging the investment thesis and narrative of IBM innovative technology, deep industry expertise and trust and security all delivered through an integrated model of hardware, software services. And then finally, I would tell you, we have a strong balance sheet. We have great cash flow and we have enough financial flexibility to continue to invest in our business and returning value to our shareholders over the long term. So we feel pretty good.
Thanks, David. Can we go to the next question please?
Thank you. Next question is coming John Roy of UBS. Your line is open.
Great. Thank you so much. So, well, obviously, cloud is a trend that everybody is giving off more importance here in the enterprise space and yet, you have somewhat of a flat quarter. I was curious as to when you win cloud deals as to why and how would you see the Red Hat acquisition is changing the color around why you win and how much you win?
Okay, John. Thank you very much for the question. Let me try to put this in perspective around cloud. First of our cloud overall for the year, it was $19.2 billion. That was up 12%. And within that, as we always talk about the high value emerging areas of as-a-Service finished when an annualized exit run rate of $12.2 billion up 21%, which really clearly underlines our consistent execution in us capturing the high value secular shifts around cloud in that as-a-Service. Now, when you look at cloud in the quarter, the cloud number as printed really reflects the same fundamental headwind on the wrap of the product cycle or mainframe that we had to overcome.
Now that isn't new, we expected that. We've been talking about that all year long. Second half of the year, we knew we were going to be on the backend of our mainframe product cycle. Remember we came off a mainframe that grew 71% in the fourth quarter of 2017. And this is as I said before, the most successful mainframe product cycle in quite some time, which by the way generates and captures new emerging workloads around pervasive encryption, but also as capturing new workloads around cloud as we move forward.
So that cloud business without mainframe was actually up 19%. That's an acceleration underlying our software acceleration from 3Q to 4Q underlining our services acceleration from 3Q to 4Q and we see that as we move forward because remember, although we had a deal with the largest transactional quarter on mainframe, albeit in 2019, that starts to dissipate because we're through that biggest volume based quarter.
So we see cloud still resonating with our clients into your heart of your question about Red Hat, Red Hat and IBM together we see this movement of how we can deliver value in leading the second phase, Ginni calls this chapter two, the second phase around where clients are moving, very business critical business value lead workloads and that's about 80% of the workloads ahead of us.
So the value of bringing IBM and Red Hat together is going to be centered around hybrid open multicloud and us wrapping around our security, secure to the core and how we're going to deliver that differentiated value proposition. And we're just excited about what Red Hat is going to mean to the IBM company and our clients.
Thanks John. And can we please take the next question?
Next question is coming from Jim Schneider of Goldman Sachs. Your line is open.
Good evening. Thanks for taking my question. Jim, it's good to see the improvement in software and cognitive relative last quarter. I guess the question is on a go forward basis or you have a target of mid-single-digit growth long-term in cognitive, is it realistic to expect that you could achieve that, as we head throughout 2019 and maybe talk about the impact of any of the transactional business you may have seen this quarter that might affect that, and just kind of talk broadly about the macro environment for that product fit in general?
Yes. Jim, thanks very much for the question overall. We are pleased with our software performance exiting the year. As I talked about, I think it's really an instantiation that demonstrates our ability to deliver innovative solutions embedded with AI, that drives business value to our clients really through an industry lens that plays across the integrated value of IBM. What are services base of business in stacked on top of our hardware based platforms, but when you look at fourth quarter, we exited 2% growth.
We had good pervasive growth across the portfolio, as I said before, good, strong transactional growth, good SaaS signings, high renewal rates, and remember this cognitive solution segment is high value, high operating margins, and we continue to expand operating margins here in the fourth quarter and for the full year.
Now when you take a step back, U.S. long-term, well obviously in 2019 we're going to deal with the headwind I talked about what the domestic content, that will to cognitive solutions probably be, on a trailing 12 months we did a over a little over $1 billion. It'll be about a four, five point headwind in 2019 and that's pre Red Hat acquisition because Red Hat’s not in 2019 yet. But we're going to have right off the bat of four to five point headwind.
But the underlying fundamentals in our long-term sustainability around that. Yes, our long-term model has not changed. We still see the strength of our offering portfolio, one, even getting better around our hybrid integration software, two around our analytics portfolio, which just had a great quarter, a data AI, our industry based verticals our Watson Health had growth across many of its offerings as I talked about earlier.
And even in IoT we had growth around our core franchises, our facilities management and asset management, Maximo, Tririga. So we got a good, good lineup. It's going to be on us to execute here in 20 – 2019. We fully expect to do that.
Thanks, Jim. Can we go to the next question please?
Thank you. Next question is coming from Joseph Foresi of Cantor Fitzgerald. Your line is open.
Hi, it sounded like in your remarks earlier that you thought you could deliver sustainable organic constant currency growth in 2019. And so does that include or exclude Red Hat and then just as importantly, maybe you can give us some color around first half margins versus second half margins and maybe what the margin exit rate will be for 2019? Thanks.
Sure, Joe, thank you very much for the call. First of all, we don’t guide on revenue for the year. So, I don’t remember stating that we are going to grow the year at constant currency organically et cetera. Red Hat is not in any of the guidance as we talked about upfront. We do have the divestitures in here and divestitures are going to be about a point headwind as we move forward and as I stated, currency is going to be a one or two point headwind at actual rates. But we do feel confident in the book of business we have around our services and around our software as we move forward. But the underlying dynamics as I talked about, we got many different scenarios we’re running here.
All the point to given us confidence in our expectation of at least $13.90 as we move forward. That is going to be a mixture of the mix of our portfolio, the revenue of our portfolio, the operating leverage of our portfolio, the tax structure IP, there are many different variables that go into that $13.90 overall.
We do see strong operating leverage continuing in 2019; both gross and pretax margin leveraging our scale efficiencies, leveraging our mixed shift, the higher value, leveraging our productivity initiatives.
And when you look at it, we’ve got great momentum exiting second half in particular on our services base of business. Second half services grew operating gross margins by 200 basis points. And I think you would expect a similar first half trend around that and in second half, we’ll start wrapping on a little bit tougher compares, but for the first, excuse me, for the full year, we would expect good operating leverage and that’s what we’re guiding to.
Thanks Joe. Let’s go to the next question please.
Thank you. Our next question is coming from Jim Suva of Citi. Your line is open.
Thank you very much. In your prepared slides, Slide number 10, it was very informative to help us bridge the two different years on our earnings. The question I have is, as we look forward to next year I know you have a lot of variables, are there any bridge items that you want to particularly call us out for most likely to happen to hit your $13.90, and how come cash flow wouldn’t be growing if your earnings growing? Thank you.
Okay, Jim. First of all, thank you for the question. Thanks for the compliment. Team does work very hard that you provide the right level of transparency. So our investors can understand the operating dynamics of our business. Chart 10 lays out that full year. You see how 2018 played out, strong operating leverage, tax headwind, revenue growth at actuals when you look at it and you go back to beginning of January last year, we stated what we saw for the year. We grew revenue. We grew operating leverage. We grew operating pretax income. We grew earnings per share and that played out well. If you look at 2019, as I stated many different scenarios, but what have we talked about already on this call?
One, we see continued operating leverage coming out of gross and pretax margin in 2019. Two, we do see tax being a headwind to us in 2019 and again, we tried to provide enhanced transparency, where we’re giving you an all in rate of at least 11% to 12%, but even with that, that’s a three to four point headwind. We’ll continue to buy back shares as we talked about.
I think that’s one level of confidence and we have in the long-term value of IBM, but it’s also a level of confidence that we have in the power of the IBM and Red Hat acquisition. So, I think you could see that continuing to play out. And then I guess last, we talked about currency on revenue; currency on revenue, the impact of one or two points and the divestiture. So, we will continue showing the transparency of the CPS bridge, helps our investors understand the operating dynamics as we move forward.
And then jim, on your question on cash, as jim said in the prepared remarks, we obviously have a headwind from the divested businesses, because we have the forgone – we’ll have forgone profit and we’ll have a gain, but the gain doesn’t go into free cash flow. We also will have some items that hit our free cash flow relative to some pre-closing costs for Red Hat. So, that’s the reason that our free cash flow is flat despite the fact that we have a couple of headwinds within them. So, operator, why don’t we take one last question.
Thank you. Our last question in queue is coming from Keith Bachman of BMO. Your line is open.
Hi, thank you. Jim, just a clarification first then a question on the clarification, you mentioned the impact of the divestitures. And the slide that indicates the impact is $1.5 billion, I think you said $1 billion was coming out of cognitive and I just wanted to see if you just clarify, where is the rest coming out of?
And then the question is on technology services and cloud platforms. I wanted to get your perspective as you look at 2019; this business continues to trail a little bit relative to GBS in terms of revenue performance. Would you expect or anticipate this business to grow and CY19? And therefore, would you expect operating leverage to also be demonstrated in this business? Thank you.
Yes. Thanks keith for the question overall. First of all, on your clarification, the impact of divestitures, we actually did provide a supplemental chart that hopefully each of you and our investors will appreciate on the transparency and the implications both on 2019 and then directionally on 2019. I think, I said a little over $1 billion, if you look at Chart 15 in the supplementals, the cognitive software assets of divesting collaboration and our on-prem marketing and commerce was about a $1.3 billion.
So that’s what I meant about a little over $1 billion. When you take a look at the GBS mortgage servicing divesture that’s about $200 million, so on a full year basis annualized it’s about $1.5 billion between the two of them. So hopefully that answers the clarification.
And then on your second question, TS and CP, we finished the year with strong signings growth, which really instantiates our hybrid cloud value proposition and also the value of incumbency that we provide with our clients of understanding their workloads, understanding their business processes, and enabling us to move them to the future and capturing that cloud backlog. In fact cloud backlog is up over 5 points year-to-year as a percent of our total outsourcing backlog.
But as I said earlier, GTS business, we are going to manage this business for profit, for cash and for leveraging our incumbency to move our clients in the future and provide better client value and delight them through loyalty as they move forward. And we are going to exit some low value content business. So for 2019, I would expect pretty similar performance in GTS overall on a top line, but in margin we are going to expand margin that’s in our expectations and you see that play out in the second half of 2018 and we expect that to continue.
So, all right, with that said, apologize for going a little bit long here, we wanted to get a lot in here, one about the quarter but two about wrapping up the year and what it means for 2019, so a few comments to wrap up.
We’re entering 2019 in a great position to help our clients whether they’re looking for innovation or productivity or both. We’ve got a solid base of business. You see this in our software and services results with strategic imperatives now consistently at about half of our revenue. And an operating leverage we’re driving and we expect that to continue. This gives us confidence in our expectation of at least $13.90 of earnings per share for the year and our hand-rolling gets stronger with the addition of Red Hat, which positions us as the leader in hybrid multi-cloud world.
So thanks for joining us today. We look forward to continuing the dialogue over the course of the year. Thank you very much.
Okay. And let me turn it back to you to wrap up the call.
Thank you for participating in today’s call. The conference has now ended you may now disconnect.
February 25, 2008 12:30 ET
ARMONK, NY--(Marketwire - February 25, 2008) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced that it is collaborating with nine business partners to help healthcare providers, clinics and hospitals improve productivity, increase quality and reduce costs through the use of service oriented architecture (SOA). These partners are all working to develop their latest healthcare applications using the IBM SOA Foundation and supporting a set of open technology and industry standards.
IBM's healthcare strategy is based on the adoption of an SOA approach and the use of open standards and standards-based electronic health records to provide secure and private exchanges of records between authorized healthcare provider and healthcare payer organizations. To achieve these goals, IBM is currently working with clients within the healthcare industry to transform the information delivery processes and related business processes to be more "patient-centric."
Clients who deploy infrastructures based on this strategy can improve the quality of healthcare delivered to their patents while reducing the costs and expenses of providing these healthcare services. SOA can also allow these healthcare providers to increase their agility to meet future changes as the healthcare industry adopts new regulations or embraces new methodologies in the delivery of care.
The nine partners announced today provide applications that support a growing healthcare community that currently includes more than 8,000 clients worldwide. Their applications encompass many of the specialty fields that impact the healthcare industry including: electronic health records (Blueware); clinical portal (Carefx); document management (CGI Solutions and Technologies and Ricoh); health analytics (Convergence CT); consent management (HIPAAT); health enterprise management (Lawson); communications (Nortel); and clinical and financial information management (Siemens Medical Solutions).
"Healthcare is going through a fundamental transformation where innovation will be driven by a healthcare provider's ability to achieve true interoperability," said Janet Dillione, CEO of the Health Services business unit of Siemens Medical Solutions. "IBM has based its SOA healthcare strategy on open standards, which is similar to our strategy. At Siemens, SOA is a core enabler of workflow technology that assists healthcare organizations in realizing the agility, interoperability, and efficiencies needed to drive healthcare quality up and costs down. This strategy has served as a guiding principle in our Soarian development efforts."
Since it is based on interoperability and supports numerous open standards within the industry(1), IBM's SOA healthcare strategy can help clients to significantly reduce development time and lower costs. Depending on need, various components of the IBM SOA Foundation can be used to connect and integrate existing systems and data repositories to unlock, access, and act on information across the enterprise. The IBM SOA Foundation is an integrated, open-standards-based set of software, best practices and patterns for SOA.
IBM's broad partnerships enable leading software providers to participate in the overall SOA strategy, giving healthcare providers full flexibility in choosing the business applications they need to address specific business processes and challenges.
One example of this is DirectConnect, an internal initiative to provide a streamlined workflow to clinicians within Catholic Healthcare West (CHW), the eighth largest hospital system in the nation and the largest not-for-profit hospital provider in California. Together, IBM teamed with Carefx to deliver a portal-based, aggregate view of real-time, patient-centric data that connects CHW clinicians to the information necessary to deliver care.
"DirectConnect's ability to aggregate patient data in one comprehensive and complete view improves the delivery of patient care and the work lives of our physicians," said Terry Ambus, M.D., chief of staff, Mercy Gilbert Medical Center and Chandler Regional Hospital. "With instant access to essential information such as vital signs, laboratory results, radiology exams and medication lists, our healthcare professionals can make more informed decisions and concentrate time on direct patient interaction."
SOA can also help healthcare companies build, extend, and transform their existing infrastructures incrementally over time, by allowing multiple systems to consume and re-use business services, and provide web-based collaboration throughout the healthcare community.
"Integration is one of the biggest problems facing healthcare today," said Ivo Nelson, Vice President, IBM Global Healthcare Provider. "IBM's SOA healthcare strategy provides clients with a smart and flexible infrastructure that takes advantage of existing and new technologies to support changing business operations and conditions."
IBM's SOA strategy incorporates aspects of several industry-leading product portfolios including WebSphere, Lotus, Tivoli, Rational and Information Management and is a critical component of IBM's Information on Demand initiative. These portfolios have been further strengthened by a series of key acquisitions such as Cognos, ISS and Watchfire.
SOA is among the fastest-growing segments of the information technology industry and IBM offers the most comprehensive portfolio of software, services and hardware for building, maintaining and extending SOA environments. IBM has the largest number of SOA clients, with more than 5,700 SOA engagements all over the world. IBM also has a community of more than 4,200 SOA Business Partners worldwide. For more information on IBM's SOA capabilities, visit www.ibm.com/soa
Visit the IBM website for more information on IBM healthcare solutions.
IBM will host IMPACT 2008, the industry's largest SOA conference, April 6-11 in Las Vegas. For more information go to: www.ibm.com/soa/impact2008
IBM, WebSphere, Lotus, Tivoli, Rational, SmartSOA, Cognos, DB2 and the IBM e-business logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. For a list of additional IBM trademarks, please see www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All other company, product or service names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of others. Statements concerning IBM's future development plans and schedules are made for planning purposes only, and are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Reseller prices may vary.
(1) Such as HIPAA EDI, HL7, and the IHE integration profiles.
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