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I10-003 exam Dumps Source : XML Master Professional Database(R) Administrator
Test Code : I10-003
Test Name : XML Master Professional Database(R) Administrator
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Agile construction begins to build earlier than the effect is totally understood, advertjusts designs and plans as empirical knowledge is won while constructing, trusts the judgment of those closest to the issue, and encourages persistent collaboration with the optimum buyers. architecture establishes a technology stack, creates design patterns, enhances satisfactory attributes, and communicates to all fascinated events. The mixture of these two areas is agile structure - an strategy that makes use of agile ideas to pressure towards respectable structure. successful agile structure requires an architect who understands agile development, interacts with the crew at well-defined facets, influences them using important skills comfortably tailored from architectural adventure with other tactics, and applies architectural capabilities which are impartial of challenge methodology.Architectural interaction elements
determine 1 suggests a simplified hybrid of scrum, Extreme Programming, and sequential assignment management that I’ve discovered constructive for steering architectural work on 14 agile projects over the ultimate eight years.
determine 1. A hybrid framework for agile structure work. The architect’s involvement right through assignment execution helps achieve project objectives. table 1 extra explains the framework’s points: interplay features (eco-friendly), essential skills (gold), and architectural functions (red).
table 1 in short describes determine 1’s aspects; the architectural services are ones an architect customarily performs on initiatives, although the listing isn’t exhaustive.
desk 2 indicates how architectural functions intersect with interplay elements and an architect’s main concerns at that intersection. Taken collectively, the three classes and their four gadgets create a framework helpful for knowing and guiding agile architecture that’s extensible by means of adding extra categories or gadgets on the foundation of different priorities or preferences.
every architectural characteristic begins in an agile project with up-entrance planning, a whole lot as it does in any mission, even with methodology. The architect
although a great deal of this is comparable to the actions of a nonagile approach, up-entrance architectural work with agile building includes a refined but important change. The architectural path should still consist of a variety of alternate options in place of a specific solution. A looser set of architectural probabilities is suitable in accordance with the agile assumption that the empirical expertise gathered via all individuals whereas building the equipment will make stronger alternate options greater evident. An architect does neatly to not ever lock in a solution too early, of route, however warding off this entice is peculiarly advantageous with agile development. Agile’s use of iterations, building of working software, and encouragement of collaboration seasonedduces a comments loop that offers gigantic opportunity for all members to locate more desirable options later that they couldn’t have understood sooner.
for instance, on an information warehouse mission, the query arose of even if to feed data without delay to another enviornment or to construct an intermediate statistics mart. a right away feed turned into extra advanced, leading to lower maintainability and operational efficiency. However, a data mart used more room, leading to larger charge for the lifetime of the gadget. The architects accompanied that both option might meet the business ambitions, that we couldn’t investigate the better design, and that we had self belief in the crew to make the right resolution within the architectural bounds. because the undertaking executed, the reply became self-evident, the group quantified it properly, and the architects signed off on it. Defining ranges and bounds is extra agile than pointing out certain solutions, but the architects ought to nevertheless define the ranges and bounds up front.Storyboarding and Backlogs
Up-entrance planning moves right away into storyboarding and building the product/sprint backlogs, with the architect being a key stakeholder. The architect have to attend the early storyboarding classes and contribute architectural user stories which have significant foundational or directional have an impact on. he or she should additionally attend the ongoing storyboarding between sprints to make a contribution architectural consumer studies that excellent-tune the structure or appropriate unfascinating deviations. The architect need to work with the product proprietor to prioritize these reviews with the company consumer reviews and build them in conjunction with enterprise performance in sprints.
The architect commonly becomes a driving force in storyboarding on the basis of his or her comprehensive expertise of each the business and technology. I’ve found that a superb architect is neatly positioned to draw necessities out of the enterprise in storyboard kind, explain technical constraints to the enterprise, and restate company needs in technical phrases for the crew. as the architect does this, he or she can assist all parties be triumphant whereas easily integrating architectural consumer experiences into the storyboard and product backlogs.
for example, a knowledge-warehousing software sought to obtain a high degree of business records integration. The architects endorsed the usage of dimensional modeling because the basic method. They additionally advocated the usage of the bus matrix as the basic device for organizing statistics work since the bus matrix facilitated problem decomposition and work new release. The business (and many of the technical neighborhood) had not ever used the bus matrix, so the architects had to provide huge facilitation in the first storyboarding session. by using the third session, the product owners got here in with their stories printed out in bus matrix kind. by way of the fifth session, the team expressed problem that success turned into being judged only via the bus matrix add-ons. So, we had to back off a bit and emphasize the cost of much less visible work comparable to reusable code accessories, solving facts first-rate considerations, and getting new tools to work. The strategy had obviously gathered its own momentum, however the architects’ early facilitation received it all started.sprint Participation
Writing code is a powerful method to make certain that the architect utterly is aware the structure being produced, however we’ll count on that the organization derives high value from spreading architects around, cutting back their potential to be entirely hands-on. fortunately, agile offers a solution—have confidence the crew. This requires the architect to collaborate heavily with the team all over the dash, realizing the aims, and helping with challenging design issues. To address diverse initiatives during this means, the architect ought to depart many of the specifics to the team. provided that the architect’s overview of the working software continues to indicate excessive architectural great, the architect can depart the particulars to the group participants, assured that their mixed technical skills and proximity to the work will retain things on target. That said, accomplishing fingers-on implementation can turn into justified when sprints seem to be going astray, architecturally and in any other case. At such instances, the architect turns into a hands-on contributor, collocated with the group, with full accountability to the team for the completion of his or her assigned work.
as an example, there’s a protracted-standing query in facts warehouse structure about when to make use of normalized versus dimensional modeling and to what degree. The architects addressed this dispute early in a selected agile records warehouse undertaking through recommending that both be finished of their fullest form for optimum performance. After several sprints, the mission pace wasn’t songing to the necessary timeline - a standard circumstance inspite of methodology. to see even if architectural adjustments might help pace up the assignment, I participated in a arms-on position for the primary time in the fourth sprint. On the groundwork of each the fingers-on work and spirited input from seven experts on two teams, it without delay grew to become apparent that relocating the entire data via a normalized model to land it in a dimensional mannequin wasn’t indispensable to fulfill the company pursuits (for this specific undertaking, not necessarily in widely wide-spread). We’d been planning the normalized layer for over a year; then on the basis of this new insight, we dropped it in under 30 days. extensive discussions with management and architectural governance were crucial, however the trade became made via the subsequent sprint and gave the project an excellent velocity raise.Working application
After each and every sprint, the crew and product owner need to latest the working application in a formal dash assessment so that all stakeholders, certainly one of whom is the architect, can take a look at ordinary progress and provide feedback. sprint stories are inclined to last best a few hours with many stakeholders vying for conversation time, so the architect may still delivery reviewing the working software a couple of days earlier than the legit overview. It may nevertheless have some work-in-growth points, however with a formal sprint conclusion approaching, the utility should still be strong ample for a significant evaluation. smartly-run agile projects require the iterative start of documentation with the working utility, together with architectural documentation - undocumented code and gadget functionality shouldn’t be regarded working application. Reviewing this documentation as it emerges from every dash is a helpful form of architectural overview. What’s extra critical, the architect should still assessment the working application with the aid of getting deep into the code and system performance.
as an instance, over the past decade, I’ve accumulated a number of hundred scripts that automate the architectural analysis of a data warehouse platform or data-processing application. When my teams rerent working utility, I run my scripts. inside minutes, I even have stories that absolutely describe the fitness of the platform, schema, statistics mannequin, statistics best, and different points of the facts architecture. Any considerations found may also be addressed within the existing sprint or queued in the appropriate backlog. To aid the manner scale, I offer the teams my scripts if you want to perform automated architectural inspection with out me. Inevitably, they have got some useful script that checks something crucial that I overlooked. collectively we develop the system’s architectural high-quality as we are attempting to 1-up each different with the slickest technique to automate architectural inspection.An Agile Architect’s potential
jumping into these interaction features as an architect can be a turbulent experience. every person’s busy, developers might view architects with skepticism, and there always seems to be a business priority that justifies bypassing respectable structure. Minimizing the turbulence requires many refined expertise that only grueling experience can optimize, however four true the listing.Decomposition into Sprintable kind
Agile building requires the product proprietor to decompose person reviews until they’re small sufficient to be done in a dash whereas nevertheless being substantial ample to exhibit company value. Likewise, the technical group decomposes person reports to a kind that may also be effectively constructed within sprints. The architect’s contribution to decomposition consists of opting for the boundaries of architectural significance and working with the product proprietor and technical group to make sure that the ordinary decomposition of work follows these boundaries. An architecturally gigantic boundary exists between any two collections of enterprise or technical functionality whose hardware and software, design patterns, or best attributes are nontrivially different. agree with the two examples in determine 2.
figure 2. everybody contributes to decomposing user studies to sprintable form. The architect contributes through leveraging the boundaries of architectural significance, as shown in these examples. The numbers signify sprints or clusters of sprints, counting on the quantity of labor.
in the first illustration, we necessary to build an enterprise internet service for third-birthday celebration information using carrier-oriented architecture (SOA) practices. The carrier task group used a nine-sprint method structured around the three principal areas of technical functionality - the service interface, the persistence layer, and the external records retrieval. in the first few sprints, the group published the service interface. a shopper call to the service returned just one hard-coded checklist, however the transaction turned into via a totally useful carrier call with a neatly-defined contract. Architecturally, this tackled Java, net services requirements, XML, and calling patterns whereas giving the client device a checklist for building displays to exhibit the company. in the second cluster of sprints, the team enabled the service to returned about one hundred facts from the native database but now not from the external supplier. This tackled the database atmosphere, data model, and object-relational mapping layer whereas displaying more cases for company evaluation. within the third sprint cluster, the group made the carrier call the external seller. This tackled the firewall considerations, vendor records structure, and latency necessities. From early on, the becoming functionality of the service supplied a concrete measure of development based on working application, letting the group center of attention on a narrow set of technical challenges while giving the enterprise seen value.
in the second example, we crucial to convey a big statistics warehouse ambiance. From a business view, statistics warehouse deliverables lend themselves properly to decomposition at the level of records topics, which are inclined to map properly to smartly-defined desk structures. but from a technical view, attributes within a desk can have large architectural alterations. for instance, premiums and losses are fundamental coverage advice that come straight from source programs, but rerated premiu.s.a.and developed losses are complex calculations that may warrant entire systems unto themselves. From a business view, premiums are one class and losses are a different. From an architectural view, fundamental statistics attributes are one category and complicated calculations are a different. To balance these ameliorations, the crew decomposed the work in response to complexity, permitting the primary attributes to be delivered right away whereas seasonedgressively building more advanced attributes greater slowly.
For every of these examples, and in universal, the team essential to give as plenty consideration as viable to making enterprise-centric decomposition the basic approach. however for efficient challenge start, the architectural boundaries have to on occasion be triumphant as a result of iterating throughout architectural boundaries can open too many simultaneous challenges, inflicting risk to the task. If we had tried to decompose the issue across the information within the SOA instance the style we did in the records warehouse difficulty - for example, with the aid of moving one-ninth of the attributes end-to-conclusion throughout nine sprints - the crew would have needed to address many new technologies at once. this is able to have brought about exceptional drawback, even if the business favorite to look are living statistics a whole lot sooner than it did.
Likewise, if we had tried within the records warecondo illustration to decompose the problem throughout technology layers the manner we did within the SOA issue, it would have slowed simple attributes to the pace of the tricky attributes. this is able to have led to severe underdelivery, however the business preferred to peer its most complicated attributes as quickly as feasible. The inability of those two examples to use each other’s decomposition approach also suggests that the decomposition have to fit the nature of the deliverable.Advocacy with the Product owner
The path from decomposed issue to working utility runs through the product owner, requiring the architect to advertise the architectural work’s cost with that person. both most critical features of this relate to creating and refactoring the gadget design and stating the value of fine attributes in terms of business value. every requires time from the team if you want to compete with business performance. If the product owner doesn’t understand the architectural work’s price, the work will always get low priority in the product backlog and influence in an inferior structure.
fortunately, pretty much all design work contributes without delay to first-class attributes and very nearly all quality attribute advancements translate into business price. Maintainability effects in business functionality being built sooner in later sprints with faster enhancement turnaround for the lifetime of the gadget, resulting in quicker pace to market. Scalability results in the device nevertheless providing fast efficiency when it encounters a major spike on the height of a crucial advertising campaign, combating the lack of company at critical instances. and so forth. Naturally, this connection from first rate structure to company price isn’t unique to agile building. however the vigor that agile building gives the product proprietor makes it notably critical to clarify the value often, with probably the most important advocacy taking region within the first few sprints when there’s high cost in building architecturally heavy and hard-to-reverse add-ons that tend to produce less visible working utility.
for instance, we had been producing an intranet application slated to have about 300 facts entry displays. We might have produced as many screens as possible within the first few sprints to show quick progress and inspire stakeholder self belief. Instead, we persuaded the product owner to let the team build a flexible enter field-modifying design with excessive reusability throughout all displays. This resulted in fewer monitors within the early sprint reports, however it increased the device’s maintainability. towards the conclusion of the project, it allowed monitor construction at a cost now not possible had we now not carefully explained to the product owner the early architectural work’s value and received approval to do it.structure Backlog
like several stakeholders, the architect will are looking to put performance into the product greater quickly than task velocity will permit. This requires some functionality (during this case architectural) to be positioned on the product backlog. as with all use of the product backlog, the work is placed in precedence order; and if there isn’t ample time or money to get to the work, it might now not get completed. You might argue that this results in a compromised architecture. definitely if architectural work receives any such low priority that it in no way gets finished, the architecture will degrade. however appropriate use of product backlog concepts and proper advocacy with the product proprietor should outcome in totally positive architectural work getting completed, with much less helpful architectural work potentially no longer going on before the venture stops.
To maintain a clear focus on structure and to facilitate architectural scoring, a separate however connected product backlog called the structure backlog should music the structure work. According to most literature, there’s only a single product backlog. In practice, I’ve found it effective to hold a couple of actual product backlogs, every focused on their aim however all together serving as the one logical product backlog. The out-of-scope backlog clarifies what isn’t the aim, the wish listing backlog lists work so that it will probably never get achieved, and so forth. Such modularization helps keep the clarity of the leading backlog as high as feasible devoid of losing a full viewpoint. So it is with the structure backlog. It’s maintained via the architect, communicated to the product proprietor and team on the acceptable times and areas, and has its objects moved to the main backlog on the basis of the product proprietor’s judgment as influenced by way of the architect. I’ve discovered it especially constructive to supply the items a weight and ranking that provide a grade of the venture’s architectural first-class as it executes. Such scoring offers a transparent, measurable mechanism for encouraging the product owner to circulation studies from the structure backlog to the leading backlog and get them performed.Incremental commercial enterprise architecture
The method to structure I’ve advocated to this point focuses wholly on venture execution on the idea that the architect’s single finest opportunity to circulate device architecture within the correct course comes from guiding the increments of working software built during sprints. a great deal of this directional influence focuses on meeting the task’s business objectives, however maximum price to the greater firm requires supplementing this tips with an enterprise structure (EA) point of view.
the use of the four services we’re limiting ourselves to right here, I define EA because the procedure of making certain that architects
The intersystem requirement is in keeping with the observation that system interaction probably introduces a brand new layer of design patterns and may shift the ordinary best attributes - as an example, two methods can scale individually but don’t scale when they interact. Most of this definition of EA is independent of agile, however from an agile viewpoint, the key element is the communique and collaboration it requires among the many architects and from the architects to the technical groups and product homeowners.
communique among the many architects is gold standard completed by way of having a centralized EA practice and formal EA strategies. Senior management have to create this observe, make sure that it facilitates and measures conversation among the many architects, and fund it to the degree they’re inquisitive about reaching first rate EA. once formed, this observe ought to establish formal techniques and tools, akin to an architectural guidance committee that publishes uniform architectural ratings, a peer assessment process that tests for considerations and provides motionin a position improvements, and stewardship of a transforming into body of necessities derived from task work. but invariably, two core agile concerns must dominate. First, here's a group of collaborating individuals, now not only a process or a group of artifacts. second, the energy of this technique isn’t its formal authority however the legitimacy it derives from its architects’ talents and their direct participation in undertaking work.
verbal exchange to the agile teams and product owners is most suitable executed by means of physically decentralizing architects and having them incorporate EA issues at the interaction elements. The centralized activities I’ve advocated to date are a crucial, however now not primary, part of the architect’s time. An architect may still spend as much time as is cost effective physically collocated with the crew and product proprietor to maximize opportunities for direct communication. because the architect advocates aspects of the structure for the project work, he or she need to incorporate EA considerations. as an instance, when advocating a certain hardware and application stack, base it on no longer just the challenge’s needs however additionally the favored EA route - likewise with design patterns and pleasant attributes. this is particularly vital for intersystem issues. The architect is uniquely positioned to take into account intersystem dynamics that the team and product proprietor could not, giving the architect a unique accountability to make hidden problems clear or determine broader opportunities that others might now not see. most of the focus, for all and sundry including the architect, will seemingly continue to be on the company functionality for which the mission turned into funded and on the brief-time period execution challenges that emerge on any project. but with a reasonably strong vision of the EA’s dreams and useful incorporation of good architecture in each dash on each venture across time, the EA state should still continuously enhance.
for example, in 2009 my company gained an industry award for “growing an Agile enterprise Intelligence Infrastructure.” The business funded the undertaking for company factors in 2008, but the EA community conceived the structure in 2006 - two years before any chance existed to deliver it. The problem changed into that the research community operated on a platform isolated from the main facts warehouse, leading to intense siloing, high facts redundancy, and insufficient operational procedures. at the equal time, the leading statistics warehouse used applied sciences that didn’t meet the researchers’ wants and had operating norms too restrictive for analysis work.
On the foundation of decades of working with the two departments and realizing their exciting cultures and environments, the architects proposed building a middle floor: a layer that used the analysis platform’s technologies together with the information warehouse’s operational techniques and centralized statistics belongings, however adapting each to stability researcher flexibility, device maintainability, and operational effectivity. The EA solution sat on the shelf for 2 years. once a mission introduced the possibility to circulation the EA answer forward, the architects leveraged the challenge, the success became identified in both the company and the business, and the structure’s reusability makes it fascinating for future projects.
Agility and structure aren’t at odds. Agile development offers the architect repeated opportunities to work closely with the business and technical teams to at all times book techniques in the direction of first rate architecture. Doing so gifts challenges, some inherent within the issue of achieving first rate structure despite methodology, some brought about by using having to force to long-time period outcomes the use of a collection of short-term routine. by means of simplifying agile a point of view such because the one introduced here and being influential on the essential interplay elements, a talented architect can adapt to agile construction whereas staying focused on the core architectural work. this will make sure that each individual methods and their combination commercial enterprise habits meet the needs of the company today, and are technically sustainable for years to return - an architectural cost proposition that’s unbiased of delivery methodology.in regards to the creator
James Madison is a senior guidance architect at a big assurance enterprise and the basic instructor for agile training in the commercial enterprise structure branch. His agile tasks consist of web, full-client, service-oriented structure, statistics warehousing, and tasks not historically agile corresponding to infrastructure constructing and platform migration. Madison has a grasp’s diploma in laptop science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Contact him at email@example.com.
 ok. Schwaber, Agile undertaking management with Scrum, Microsoft, 2004
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 E. Gamma et al., Design Patterns: features of Reusable Object-Oriented software, Addison-Wesley professional, 1995.
 L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, application architecture in observe, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley knowledgeable, 2003, pp. 71–98
 R. Kazman, M. Klein, and P. Clements, ATAM: components for structure assessment, tech. record CMU/SEI- 2000-TR-004, ESC-TR-2000-004, application Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., 2000.
 M. Poppendieck and T. Poppendieck, Lean application development: An Agile Toolkit for software building Managers, Addison-Wesley skilled, 2003, pp. 38–45, 103–111.
 ok. Schwaber and M. Beedle, Agile software construction with Scrum, Prentice corridor, 2002, pp. 23–30
 R. Kimball and M. Ross, The records Warehouse Toolkit: The comprehensive ebook to Dimensional Modeling,” John Wiley & Sons, 2002, pp. 78–88
 V. Subramaniam and A. Hunt, Practices of an Agile Developer: Working within the true World, Pragmatic Bookshelf, 2006, pp. a hundred and fifty five–157
 M. Fowler, “Who needs an Architect?” IEEE application, vol. 20, no. 5, 2003, pp. eleven–13
 M. Ross and R. Kimball, “variations of Opinion,” clever business, 6 Mar. 2004
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this text first appeared in IEEE application magazine. IEEE application's mission is to build the neighborhood of leading and future application practitioners. The journal promises authentic, beneficial, main-facet application development information to hold engineers and executives abreast of swift know-how alternate.
THE heritage situation
William sellers knew that the conclusion of the hand-tooled laptop age turned into nigh. So he grabbed the manufacturing elite via the nuts and bolts and dragged them into the mass production era. A case analyze in the vigour of requisites, by means of James Surowiecki
We reside in a standardized world. even if made by the hole or American Eagle, a pair of khakis with a 32-inch inseam and a 34-inch waist will fit you just concerning the equal. A Panasonic mobilephone will plug into the jacks on your domestic as without difficulty as a mobilephone from AT&T. a new CD from the smallest list label in Holland will sound as good in your motor vehicle stereo as the newest liberate from BMG. And Diablo II will run simply as well on a Dell as on a computer from IBM. We take this type of standardization for granted, however devoid of standardization, there would be no mass production or mass conversation. Which is to claim, with out standardization there would not be a modern financial system.
these days, according to the countrywide Institute of requisites and expertise, there are near 800,000 global specifications. but go returned a century and a half and also you find an American economy through which there were actually none. On April 21, 1864, a person named William dealers all started to alternate that. dealers initiated the first successful standardization battle in heritage, over the common-or-garden screw. That combat turned into no longer nearly a specific usual. It became about the value of standardization itself. To win, agents relied on technical savvy - in addition to political connections, artful strategy, and a willingness to put progress forward of the self-hobby of his own chums and colleagues.
On that April evening, a crowd of Philadelphia engineers and machinists gathered within the lecture corridor of the Franklin Institute, the knowledgeable society to which they belonged. marketers became the institute's new president, and that they have been there to hear him communicate publicly for the primary time. on earth of those men, dealers changed into a legend, the gold standard tool builder of his time. After beginning as an apprentice machinist at 14, retailers had his personal store by means of the age of 21, and a decade later he become the top of the most essential laptop-device store in Philadelphia, the metropolis at the middle of america's computer-device trade. If agents changed into going to insist that national standards have been vital, then it become in fact an idea value taking seriously.
The speech, "On a Uniform equipment of Screw Threads," played against the backdrop of conflict between North and South, which delivered resonance to retailers' call for a countrywide standard. "during this country," agents referred to, "no prepared effort has as yet been made to set up any equipment, each brand having adopted some thing his judgment can also have dictated because the optimum, or as most handy for himself." at the time, American screws, nuts, and bolts had been customized-made by using machinists, and there changed into no ensure that bolts made by using retail outlets on distinctive streets, not to mention in distinct cities, could be the equal. "So radical a defect may still exist not," sellers proclaimed.
however notwithstanding retailers become appropriate and the nation mandatory to adopt a standard, what may still it's? agents mentioned that some thing referred to as the Whitworth screw common become swiftly gaining ground in England, and that some American machinists have been using it as neatly. but retailers believed the united states vital a benchmark of its personal, one that met the wants of a quick-starting to be, swiftly industrializing economic system. So he spent the majority of his speech unveiling a brand new, and all-American, screw of his own design.
the key to that design - which applied to nuts and bolts in addition to to screws - changed into the shape of the threads, the raised metal ridges that run around the body of a screw. The threads assess the strength and sturdiness of the screw, as well as ease of production. In cross section, basically all screw threads have been triangular, however the particulars of that triangle had been concerns of excessive debate. both facets of a Whitworth thread formed an angle of fifty five degrees, and its tip turned into rounded off on the desirable. The dealers thread, against this, had a 60-degree attitude, but its apex become flattened.
These variations may also sound minor, but in useful phrases they were modern. The fifty five-diploma angle of Whitworth's screw was complex to measure accurately without primarily designed gauges. by contrast, marketers' 60-degree thread - one angle of an equilateral triangle - may well be measured easily. in a similar way, the rounded correct of Whitworth threads made it extra complicated to fit nuts and bolts together, when you consider that the threads frequently did not match completely. flattening the threads made it simpler to ensure that they locked into location with one a different. ultimately, producing a flat thread was anything any machinist might do right away and correctly by himself. constructing a Whitworth screw required "three types of cutters and two types of lathe," marketers noted that night. His screw required just one cutter and one lathe.
agents gained over the group. After the speech, C.T. Parry of the Baldwin Locomotive Works announced that he hoped retailers "planned to do more than simply talk." Then a machinist named Algernon Roberts proposed that a committee be shaped to weigh the agents ordinary towards the Whitworth. A month later, Roberts' committee voted unanimously in favor of the agents usual. machine-device stores and executive groups across the country soon received observe urging them to undertake it.
The American desktop-device trade became to the second half of the nineteenth century what the computing device and networking trade changed into to the second half of the 20th: the country's most essential driver of technological innovation. The machinists of the Franklin Institute, and their colleagues in cities like Cincinnati and providence, Rhode Island, constructed lathes and planers and drills and screw cutters so that different organizations might build rifles and clocks and stitching machines. They supplied the infrastructure that allowed the economic Revolution to take off.
It turned into a small group, made from guys who had been the products of what historians call "store way of life." Like agents, that they had been sent out as apprentices after they had been simply boys and grew up on the store ground. They tended to talk in regards to the virtues of journey, the issues a man may study most effective after working with machines for many years. and that they disdained men who'd been expert in school - "paper engineers." The talents the machinists had been interested in became not theoretical. It turned into competencies that could be put to make use of.
The store tradition engineers were, on the other hand, dedicated to science and, definitely, referred to themselves as "scientific mechanics." The science they have been interested in, though, became utilized science. as the engineering historian Monte Calvert places it, "in spite of paying lip service to eclectic, intuitive, 'practical' strategies, the shop elite had been among the many first to use exact experimentation and science in the store." The Franklin Institute itself become centered because the store tradition elite desired a spot to meet and talk about scientific discoveries and improvements.
In all this, the machine-tool industry become a great deal like Silicon Valley (at the least because it as soon as became). within the Valley's heyday, the cliché was that engineers and programmers acquired up in the morning and went to work for Silicon Valley, now not for Intel or HP or Fairchild. Programmers traded advice and secrets and techniques with one one more as a result of they were extra attracted to fixing issues than in maintaining their competitive competencies. in the identical way, the scientific machinists retailers turned into appealing to had been devoted to something bigger than their individual companies, whatever you might as well name "technological progress." We're engaged in a common mission right here, sellers became announcing. To get further, we should have a standard typical.
marketers' suggestion gave the impression rational. however many machinists seen it as a chance to their culture. They saw themselves as craftsmen. while they built machines designed to mass-produce items, the machinists did not use mass-construction techniques themselves. Take gun-making: within the early a part of the century, gunsmiths custom-made muskets to the specs of each buyer. by the point of the Civil war, rifles were being churned out with the aid of the million. Interchangeable components helped win the battle, but within the system they reduced the American gunsmith to little more than a renovation man.
The desktop-device business changed into lots like Silicon Valley. The machinists were dedicated to anything greater than their individual organizations, whatever thing you could name "technological growth."
Yet the machines that stamped out gun parts for the Union armories were themselves one-offs. The machinists liked it that method. They failed to need to become like gunsmiths. Bringing small add-ons like nuts and bolts into line changed into not the equal aspect as standardizing the machines that pumped out uniform materials, however machinists noticed it as the first step down a slippery slope to the hell of commoditization. In economic terms, in spite of everything, anything tailored has the potential of locking in clients. If somebody purchased a lathe from you, that adult had to come again to you for screw repairs or replacements. but when screws grew to become interchangeable, customers would need you much less and worry about fee greater.
retailers understood this. He was himself a craftsman, and to the conclusion of his life his equipment were customized-made. however agents knew that interchangeable materials and mass creation have been inevitable. it really is why, when he designed his screw, he concentrated on making one that can be less complicated, more affordable, and quicker to produce than another. His screws fit the new economic climate, the place a top rate became positioned on speed, quantity, and cost. Yet sellers became no longer so naive as to feel that simply constructing a higher mousetrap would be sufficient. chiefly for the reason that the very world that he aimed to conquer had a whole lot to lose with the aid of abandoning the custom-made screw.
dealers knew that fighting his own people could be difficult, so even earlier than announcing his idea, he become complicated at work at the back of the scenes, laying the groundwork for its success. by the point of the speech, he had already persuaded four of the greatest computing device retail outlets on the East Coast to beginning the use of his screw. sellers' average became an outstanding one, however the incontrovertible fact that he was terribly smartly related failed to damage. He came from a well-centered Philadelphia household. He was friends with the metropolis's captains of business. He had run a machine store in providence, an additional key manufacturing core. And his valued clientele protected one of the crucial biggest businesses within the country, just like the locomotive producers and the railroads.
retailers tapped all these connections as a result of he understood from the starting that after it got here to setting up a common, momentum turned into every thing. Success would breed success. He adopted a technique called "expectations administration." As Hal Varian, the dean of the school of advice management and programs at Berkeley, puts it: "In requisites wars, there's a really real experience that the product people expect to win will win." The quick adoption of the sellers screw by using just a few key gamers created an air of inevitability. someplace in there, retailers need to have figured, a tipping factor existed. Get satisfactory weight behind the screw, and everyone - even the most impartial machinists - would fall in line.
The proof of this strategy got here in the spring of 1868, when the secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, commissioned an investigation into the need for a common. The Navy all started by ordering a technical overview, which found that the marketers turned into superior to the Whitworth. however the difference changed into now not decisive. precise brass desired to get behind the screw that "can be most likely to be commonly acquiesced in and adopted." So a board of naval officers fanned out throughout the japanese seaboard, visiting big apple, Newark, and Pittsburgh. They toured Brown and Sharpe in providence, the place Singer stitching machines had been made. They went to the Brooklyn Navy Yard. They talked to the guys at 1st earl baldwin of bewdley Locomotive, the nation's biggest locomotive maker, in Philadelphia. And in every single place they went they asked two basic questions: Are your screws standardized? if so, what average do you use?
What the Navy discovered was that the sellers screw, simply three years old, become much more conventional than the Whitworth, which changed into 27. This impressed the naval officers. So too did the incontrovertible fact that when they talked to businesses that hadn't yet adopted any typical, most of them pointed out they were leaning toward sellers'. The Navy took this recognition as an indication of best. It relied on the judgment of the industry. And so it got here back with a resounding recommendation in favor of marketers, a call that showed just how useful expectations management can also be.
Of route, the Navy's vote of self assurance also showed simply how effective the historic-boys' network could be, considering many, if now not most, companies the Navy surveyed had been businesses that retailers had close ties to. The same phenomenon became at work a 12 months later, when the Pennsylvania Railroad grew to become the primary railroad to adopt the sellers average. The railroads knew that they needed to set up a country wide network, which became why the critical and Union Pacific tracks had been joined in a transcontinental hyperlink. but if the railroads were going to take advantage of those sorts of links, their vehicles needed to use screws that may be simply discovered anyplace in the US. So there was a pressing need for what retailers became providing. still, it ought to have helped that dealers became on the Pennsylvania Railroad's board of administrators.
Three years later, the master motor vehicle-Builders' affiliation and the master Mechanics' association - the agencies of the americans who definitely developed and maintained rail cars - fell in line, and by using 1883 there was hardly a railroad in the country that became not the use of it. If a railroad adopted agents screws, of path, so too did all of its suppliers, and considering the railroads were then the nation's biggest organisations, this created a mass market for standardized screws. by means of the end of the century, the sellers ordinary turned into conveniently usual in the us, and in 1901 it changed into adopted with the aid of Europe at the foreign Congress for requirements and Gauges.
Britain, youngsters, stuck with the Whitworth screw. This did not create any evident complications unless the wintry weather of 1941-42, when the panzers of Germany's Afrika Korps started to pummel the Eighth military. below the strain of wasteland conflict, British tanks and vehicles broke down. Screws loosened. Bolts wore out. American factories were churning out automobiles and components for the British. but when those resources arrived in North Africa, everybody became stunned to discover that American nuts did not fit British bolts, and vice versa. The damaged-down tanks stayed damaged-down.
American factories automatically retooled and, for the remaining three years of the warfare, ran two separate meeting strains, one to make British engines and weapons and a further to make American engines and weapons. After the struggle, both nations decided that the use of incompatible screws become a foolish motive to risk losing a combat, and in 1948, the British acquiesced to the agents ordinary, which with the aid of then changed into usual because the US commonplace. inside a few years, all British agencies had been the use of the new screw. marketers' victory changed into finished.
The method of standardization is all the time a political struggle, with winners and losers. Had the screw no longer been standardized, the entire direction of the American economic climate may look different.
nowadays, the in fact vital necessities govern assistance technologies like instant communications and the web. And besides the fact that children the economic climate has changed due to the fact marketers' time, the way the us establishes requisites has no longer. The markets, rather than the state, still set the necessities, with the exception of environmental and public fitness concerns.
This palms-off angle is frequently portrayed as a mistake that's held back technological development. One an awful lot-stated instance is the contrasting journey with cellphones in Europe and within the u.s.. As common wisdom has it, European governments mandated a typical, and instant features thrived. the united states let the market decide, and instant functions floundered. but a better analyze what in fact came about suggests a extremely distinctive conclusion.
in the 1980s, there become no cellphone regular in Europe. every of the huge countrywide cell agencies wanted to control the average that might be used in its country, so the primary generation of cell phones involved a number of competing, and incompatible, applied sciences. That cacophony, based on a 2000 Rand Institute examine, "reaped confusion." So in 1991, right through the transition to the 2d technology - the digital era - of cell phones, European industry got here together, laid apart national changes, and rolled out group Spéciale cellular. In essence, the Europeans decided that the important component was now not which typical received, however that a common win, notably as soon as the leap to digital changed into made. And certainly, with a single general in place, Europeans had been in a position to roam the continent and nonetheless use their telephones. The dimension of the market exploded, which inspired cellular telephone producers to invest in new items and R&D, and by using 1998, GSM - which had unfold to every continent - became the average in ninety percent of the realm outdoor North america.
within the US, the transition to digital came about very otherwise. AT&T, which had invented the analog cellular phone, added its TDMA in 1992. In 1996, little startup Qualcomm rolled out CDMA (a competing normal). TDMA had a big lead, but Qualcomm aggressively marketed CDMA to the child Bells and wireless startups. It built its personal mobile phones when the dependent handset producers wouldn't, then carried out a energetic and a hit propaganda warfare in the press, emphasizing that CDMA provided greater security and a far more suitable capacity than AT&T's commonplace. Many patrons agreed, leaving the nation with three separate instant networks.
This story is frequently advised as a cautionary tale. The necessities battle, it is declared, got here at an incredible cost: americans do not use cellphones anywhere near as much as Europeans do, and they're in the back of the curve when it involves issues like textual content messaging.
This evaluation leaves out essentially the most crucial aspect, though, which is that until the mid-1990s there turned into no real competitors in the US cellphone trade. Between 1983 and 1993, each important market within the nation had two cell carriers. These duopolies didn't compete, protecting expenditures high and best low. In a sense, neither the market nor the executive set cellphone requisites. Inertia did. The slow increase of wireless features in the US wasn't the result of competing requirements. It changed into the effect of the lack of competitors between carriers.
After the FCC at last opened the market in 1993, by means of auctioning off spectrum and breaking up the native duopolies, instant took off. once the market became allowed to work, it promptly converged to CDMA, which proved to be advanced. CDMA is ascendant in the us. greater important, it be the groundwork for the subsequent era of mobile phone know-how - 3G - considering it grew to become out to be the simplest know-how capable of making the bounce to quick and capacious instant statistics transmission. Had the USA government mandated a standard, against this, it will without doubt have picked TDMA or GSM, due to the fact that those have been the dominant technologies on the time. and then we do not have CDMA main how to 3G these days.
In William agents' day, there turned into no way for the government to step in, although it had wanted to. nowadays there are myriad governmental and quasi-governmental organizations committed to standards. And the obvious significance of requirements on earth of assistance know-how makes it tempting to appear to some skilled body to put down the legislation. but the argument for enabling the marketplace to do the work of suggestions-making is, if the rest, more desirable within the case of suggestions technology. IT specifications are naturally fluid and versatile. Linux and XML, even home windows for that matter, are normally below revision. They both include the previous - this is, they are backward-suitable - and are extensible into the future. The market can also seem to be messy, however it's in reality a whole lot more desirable at coping with a situation of everlasting revolution than legitimate standards organizations are. As Hal Varian places it, legit requirements our bodies have "the expertise of event and authority; although, they are usually somewhat gradual-moving." sluggish-relocating is the final element you desire on this planet of IT.
Yet setting requisites will not ever be easy or charge-free. probably the most essential instructions of dealers' story is that no be counted who units the standards, the process of standardization is always a political battle, with winners and losers. The victory of the agents screw turned into no longer inevitable. It received best because agents fought so challenging for it, using the connections and influence at his disposal. And the true victory become of standardization itself. Had the screw not been standardized, the whole path of the American economic climate might seem very diverse.
The dealers screw helped to bring in the assembly line and mass production, and usher out the realm of craftsmen and customized production. dealers did not profit for my part, but he created a bunch of winners, including manufacturing facility homeowners and buyers hunting for an improved cost. He also created a whole community of losers, together with all those machinists who had so feared commoditization. The equal technique continues to be at work nowadays. it be glaring, if you analyze an organization like Microsoft, that the victory of its specifications has turned groups internationally into losers. (simply believe of Borland or WordPerfect, and even Lotus.) however even probably the most benign and open requirements nevertheless shape the realm of their own photograph. When did you remaining meet a Betamax repairman? Standardization could be imperative and, on the total, a good suggestion. however as William retailers proven, it isn't innocent.
The Poetry of requirements
Most skilled enterprise programmers have found themselves on the receiving end of more than a couple of crazy requirement or design files at the least as soon as in their careers. These stoic programmers grind their enamel as they code designed-by using-committee Rube Goldberg UIs, or facepalm after they've examine a doc specifying the "enterprise want" to tack-on scads of required parameters to dozens of saved procedures heavily used by means of information classes and stories.
while nothing can repair the primary issue (wanting a different BA), the second issue can also be simplified in code. The examples beneath show a way to substitute varied saved procedure parameters the use of just one XML records type parameter. Even better, these examples exhibit the way to flow XML statistics to stored procedures, and the way they can be made to study single or distinctive units of standards with no trouble, using handiest just a few traces of TSQL.
This screenshot lists the source of a SQL Server 2014 stored method hitting the AdventureWorks2012 database, opting for facts from the customer and SalesOrderHeader tables. both of those tables in turn are joined to the XML criteria, limiting results.Stephen Glasskeys
To execute, pass in an XML constitution akin to one present in the screenshot under, or another XML structure enhanced perfect to your needs. observe the flexibility, how effortless the XML facts classification enables programmers to pass in a single or distinctive rows of standards.Stephen Glasskeys
For reporting uses, XML parameters basically shine: that you would be able to move the same XML string to assorted saved procs, yet you may not deserve to modify all of them, if say, one document's stored procedure requires additional criteria fields at some point sooner or later (providing of route, current xml box names and data varieties have not been altered).
eventually, this snippet of working supply illustrates how easy it is to INSERT XML records into temp tables and table variables, permitting even enhanced flexibility:Stephen Glasskeys
this text is posted as part of the IDG Contributor network. need to be a part of?
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Microsoft offers the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert credential, the company's catch-all certification for experienced IT professionals. Within this certification are several specialties, and those interested in working with databases can pursue the Data Platform specialization. To earn this recognition, individuals must pass five exams. Although there are no formal prerequisites for these exams, they deal with advanced topics and students who do not prepare will not likely pass. To help with preparation, Microsoft offers a number of optional training courses that cover the important theories and concepts found on the exams.
Another possible path involves the Oracle company, which offers the Associate, Professional and Master certifications for database professionals. Students must pass exams and be certified at the previous level to move on to the next certification level. In addition, students need to complete specific Oracle coursework for the Professional and Master certifications.Online Learning & Programs
Many distance learning training programs for prospective or current database administrators can be completed totally online. Colleges use course management systems to present a virtual classroom containing lectures, supplemental materials, assignments and assessments. Communication tools like message boards and chat rooms may be used for class interaction. In some cases -- particularly at the graduate degree level -- a practicum and/or thesis may be required.
Those interested in becoming a database administrator can complete an online degree at the bachelor's, master's, or graduate certificate level. The programs focus on database management, database technology, and database administration.
By Jessica Stillman
With college costs sky high, there's been plenty of talk about whether there's a bubble in undergraduate education. But what about graduate degrees?
The less than alarmist New York Times has warned that with the educational arms race so hot, the master's is turning into the new bachelor's. Even a post-graduate degree may soon be worth less due to what the newspaper terms "credentials inflation."
So if you're pondering another two years of school (accumulating on average $37,000 in debt, according to the 2003-2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study), how can you be sure the effort and expense will pay off?
Jobs site CareerBliss recently analyzed 600,000 points of data related to job title, salary and education from users of its site to compare average salaries of various jobs, earned by those with bachelor's degrees versus master's degrees. Their findings: Master's degrees definitely lead to increased income, at least in these ten professions where salaries showed the largest jumps between those with bachelor's and master's degrees.
Not every degree is an equally sound investment, but overall, the numbers are encouraging for those pondering continuing their education. So which job titles pay much more to an employee with a master's degree?
CLICK HERE to find out which tech job pays over 17 percent more with a master's -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user j.o.h.n. walker, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #10 -- Software Engineers, Get With the Postgraduate Program! #10 -- Software Engineers, Get With the Postgraduate Program!
Thinking of a career as a staff software engineer? It might pay to keep going to school for that extra two years then. The average worker with this job title and a four-year degree pulls in $79,104.09, according to CareerBliss.
But if you have the same title plus an extra couple of years of education, you can expect to earn 17.57 percent more, or $95,960.47. Over time, that two years of tuition should pay for itself.
CLICK HERE for the numbers on master's degrees for managers -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user mandiberg, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #9 -- A Master's Makes Management Sense #9 -- A Master's Makes Management Sense
Interested in rising up the ranks of management? According to CareerBliss, a master's degree pays off if you are aiming for the job title of general manager.
General managers with only a four-year degree earn, on average, $79,818.09. Those with a master's do 17.92 percent better, earning $97,246.27.
CLICK HERE for advice on how to be an artist without the starving stereotype -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user erin m, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #8 -- A Big Pay Check, by Design #8 -- A Big Pay Check, by Design
Most people may think a lot of artistic ability is inborn, but when it comes to making a living from your creativity and good taste as a graphic designer, education certainly doesn't hurt, according to CareerBliss.
Try to make it as a graphic designer with only a bachelor's degree and your salary will be $42,545.52 on average. Put in an extra few years to earn a master's and you'll earn 18.90 percent more, or $52,457.67. That way you can be an artist and skip the starving part.
CLICK HERE for some financial advice for financial advisors -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user boboroshi, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #7 -- Sound Financial Advice for Aspiring Advisors kenteegardin #7 -- Sound Financial Advice for Aspiring Advisors
If you're an aspiring financial advisor, one key job skill you should be looking to develop is doing up your sums to evaluate whether an investment makes sound financial sense. So consider a master's degree as a test case.
Those with the job title of financial advisor and an undregraduate degree earn, on average, $62,710.51. Add another two-year degree to your qualifications and that goes up to $77,625.64, an increase of 19.21 percent. Does a master's degree make sense?
CLICK HERE for advice on how to direct your career for a higher pay check -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user kenteegardin, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #6 -- From Lecture Hall to Director's Chair #6 -- From Lecture Hall to Director's Chair
Of all the industries where you'd expect a degree to pay dividends, education probably leads the pack. And the analysis from CareerBliss bears this out. Those looking to run educational or degree programs as a program director have a strong incentive to keep going to college to get a master's degree. Skip those additional two years of college and you'll earn $72,349.01. Go back to school for your master's and that rises to $89,568.32 -- an increase of 19.22 percent.
CLICK HERE for a field where a master's pays a 20 percent premium -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user puuikibeach, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #5 -- Marketing Your Master's Degree #5 -- Marketing Your Master's Degree
Marketing is a creative, high-octane career with plenty of appeal, but of course, being a marketing director is an even better proposition if you're earning nearly 20 percent more than many folks with the same job title. Want to accomplish this? Get a master's. You'll earn $98,849.61, a 19.95 percent premium on the average salary for your fellow marketing directors with only a bachelor's degree ($79,133.73).
CLICK HERE for a high paying gig that's even higher paying with a master's -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user IntelFreePress, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #4 -- Supercharge Your Professional Career MAXWELLS DUBLIN NO REPRO FEE #4 -- Supercharge Your Professional Career
If you're going to take on hand-holding duties at your professional firm as a managing partner, making sure your practice is running smoothly and prospering, it pay to have a master's degree. You'll probably do alright as a senior professional working as a managing partner without one -- the average salary for a managing partner with just a bachelor's is a very healthy $111,530.87 -- but spend another two years at college and that increases 20.15 percent to an even healthier $139,671.59.
CLICK HERE for the CareerBliss data on database administrators -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user Eversheds LLP, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #3 -- The Data on Education and Database Administrators #3 -- The Data on Education and Database Administrators
In an age where organizations are overflowing in data, a database administrator who can organize and maintain all that information is in high demand. A database administrator with only a bachelor's degree earns, on average, a not-too-shabby, $75,807.21. Head back to school for a master's and you'll likely see that increase by 21.06 percent to $96,028.15.
CLICK HERE for a booming profession that pays a premium for a master's degree -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user D'Arcy Norman, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #2 -- Higher Ed Leads to High Salaries for Online Pros #2 -- Higher Ed Leads to High Salaries for Online Pros
More and more of our lives are conducted online so more and more folks are finding work as web designers. Should they bother going on to get a master's degree or stop after finishing a four-year degree? You might think web design is the sort of skill that one picks up primarily by practicing it, but the CareerBliss analysis suggests that more schooling actually pays – by 21.21 percent to be exact. Get a gig as a web designer straight after your undergrad years and you'll make $46,657.80 on average. Earn a masters and that jumps to $59,218.32.
CLICK HERE for the gig that rewards those with a master's most -->
(Image courtesy of Flickr user OxOx, CC 2.0)10 Careers Where A Master's Degree Pays Off #1 -- Why MBA Bashers Might Just Be Wrong #1 -- Why MBA Bashers Might Just Be Wrong
Penelope Trunk and others may argue on BNET that an MBA is often a waste of time and money, but the analysis out of CareerBliss points the other way -- those with a master's who take a gig as a business manager actually see the biggest bump in their pay versus someone in the same job with only a bachelor's degree. The average business manager with only a bachelor's degree framed on the wall earns $62,723.68. Invest in that master's and that jumps an impressive 22.02 percent to $80,439.55.
(Image courtesy of Flickr user aflcio, CC 2.0)
Database security, and the lack thereof, has been constantly in the news. It seems like at least once a month we hear about a major breach in a large corporation or government agency. Some of this can be mitigated by applying encryption and hashing techniques, but doing so is tedious so developers often only do it for the most sensitive of data such as passwords.
SQL Server 2016 seeks to make encryption easier via its new Always Encrypted feature. This feature offers a way to ensure that the database never sees unencrypted values of sensitive columns without the need to rewrite the application. In order to maintain reasonable performance, non-sensitve columns such as primary keys are left unencrypted.
The actual process of encrypting and decrypting data is handled in the database driver level. While the database only sees encrypted values, the application code works exclusively with unencrypted data. When a query is executed, the driver automatically looks up the master key in the Windows Certificate Store (or other OS-dependent location). The master key is then used to decrypt a column specific key, which in turn is used for encrypting and decrypting fields and parameters.
Microsoft offers three use-cases for Always Encrypted.
Client and Data On-Premises
A customer has a client application and SQL Server both running on-premises, at their business location. The customer wants to hire an external vendor to administer SQL Server. In order to protect sensitive data stored in SQL Server, the customer uses Always Encrypted to ensure the separation of duties between database administrators and application administrators. The customer stores plaintext values of Always Encrypted keys in a trusted key store which the client application can access. SQL Server administrators have no access to the keys and, therefore, are unable to decrypt sensitive data stored in SQL Server.
Client On-Premises with Data in Azure
A customer has an on-premises client application at their business location. The application operates on sensitive data stored in a database hosted in Azure (for example in SQL Server running in a virtual machine on Microsoft Azure). The customer uses Always Encrypted and stores Always Encrypted keys in a trusted key store hosted on-premises, to ensure Microsoft cloud administrators have no access to sensitive data.
Client and Data in Azure
A customer has a client application, hosted in Microsoft Azure (e.g. in a worker role or a web role), which operates on sensitive data stored also stored in Microsoft Azure. The customer uses Always Encrypted to reduce security attack surface area (the data is always encrypted in the database and on the machine hosting the database).
Types of Encryption
SQL Server offers two encryption modes: deterministic and random. Deterministic encryption ensures that a given value always has the same encrypted representation. This allows you to use the column for equality comparisons, joins, and grouping.
The downside of deterministic encryption is that is can “allow unauthorized users to guess information about encrypted values by examining patterns in the encrypted column”. This is especially true when there are a small number of possible values.
For more security, you can use random encryption. Like salting a password, this prevents guessing by ensuring that a given value’s encrypted representation is never the same twice. Microsoft continues,
Use deterministic encryption for columns that will be used as search or grouping parameters, for example a government ID number. Use randomized encryption, for data such as confidential investigation comments, which are not grouped with other records, or used to join tables.
If a column is encrypted, then all range-like operations such as greater/less than, pattern matching using LIKE, etc. are disallowed. Furthermore, you can’t pass encrypted values to functions, user-defined or otherwise, because the database doesn’t have access to the unencrypted values.
Equality comparisons can only be performed on columns that use deterministic encryption.
Indexes can only be applied to deterministically encrypted columns.
If joining between two columns, both columns need to use the same column encryption key.
Constants expressions that refer to encrypted columns are not allowed. For example, you cannot write WHERE SSN = '111-11-1111', but you can write WHERE SSN = @SSN. This is necessary because the driver works with the SqlParameter class to handle encryption requirements.
Unsupported data types include: xml, rowversion, image, ntext, text, sql_variant, hierarchyid, geography, geometry, and user defined-types.
Currently the only driver that supports this feature is .NET 4.6.
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