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HP3-042 exam Dumps Source : HP LaserJet 5200 Series Printers Service(R) and Support
Test Code : HP3-042
Test Name : HP LaserJet 5200 Series Printers Service(R) and Support
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 30 Real Questions
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HP’s spring lineup announced in may also consisted of a multitude of distinct products focused at varying markets. We reviewed the Photosmart 5520 e-All-in-One, the lone consumer concentrated product within the line, and now we turn our attention to the LaserJet seasoned four hundred M401 collection.
The HP LaserJet professional 400 M401 collection consists of three single characteristic monochrome laser printers designed with small and medium groups in mind. All three fashions offer their enterprise customers community connectivity, internet-linked purposes, HP ePrint and Apple AirPrint for quite a lot of cellular choices.
We acquired the M401dn in for review and today we’ll be sharing our palms-on first seem with a variety of assistance concerning the LaserJet seasoned 400 M401dn including build, design, requirements, photos and greater.
And don’t neglect to check returned quickly for the full assessment of the HP LaserJet professional 400 M401dn!
build and Design
The LaserJet professional four hundred M401dn presents a small footprint and will with ease fit on a desk or shelf. The approximate dimensions in non use is 14 x 14 x 11-inches, however you’ll need to consider the extended paper tray when set for criminal sized documents, the raised manage panel and the prolonged multipurpose tray which could take the scale nearer to 14 x 25 x 15-inches.
talking of the control panel, the M401dn offers a 3.5-inch touchscreen for navigating the standalone equipment menus as well as the net linked application. This model doesn’t offer wireless (unless you upgrade to the M401dw), however does present constructed-in networking which nevertheless makes it possible for company consumers the possibility to print with cellular and net-connection applications.
Press the tremendous button on the base of the one hundred fifty-sheet output bin and pull out to access the one piece black toner cartridge. The M401dn comes with a HP80A cartridge which yields approximately 2700 pages. that you can additionally purchase high ability HP 80X substitute cartridges which yields about 6900 pages.
Pull the tackle on the entrance of the M401dn to show the 50-sheet multipurpose tray which could tackle loads of media sized from three x 5-inches to eight.5 x 14-inches. The 250-sheet input tray is found without delay below the multipurpose tray and might handle media sized from 4 x 6-inches to eight.5 x 14-inches. The entrance facet USB port is also discovered in this enviornment.
All connections are discovered on the back of the M401dn as well as access to the paper direction. The M401dn may also be connected via a high-speed USB 2.0 or Ethernet 10/100/a thousand Base-TX connection.
LaserJet professional 400 M401dn specifications:
Pricing and availabilityThe HP LaserJet seasoned 400 M401dn is purchasable now via HP for the sale fee of $349, $50 off the suggested retail price of $399.
supplies and add-ons are also attainable through HP. The HP 80A cartridge is $103.ninety nine whereas the HP 80X cartridge is $178.99 as of this writing.
The LaserJet pro four hundred M401dn comes with a 1-12 months assurance but that you may improve with an HP CarePack.
Hewlett Packard is asserting that their new line of LaserJet printers is coming with an exciting new know-how known as “sensible install”. This interesting — nay, fantastic! — technological construction allows for users to set up most effective the print driver critical to print from their desktop to their Hewlett Packard laser printer. No more shall users be required to set up all the different fluff that printers have historically foisted upon them.
folks such as you and that i — it truly is, folks who sustain with, if now not really care about, technology tendencies — aren’t going to be very suffering from this. We go to the brand site and download just the driving force. but here is truly good news for people who buy printers and anticipate that the protected CD gives them what they want, as an alternative of a nest of operating applications that deliver no price to the printer owner in any respect. I don’t recognize a single individual who has ever ordered replacement ink/toner, or area of expertise paper, or anything else from the “print solutions” suite put in by any printer company.
expectantly other printer organizations will observe suit, and shortly!
Oh yeah, the brand new laser printers even have “Auto On” know-how to compliment the existing “Auto Off” facets. Now HP printers can wake up and start printing as soon as a print job is acquired.
New line of printers, enterprise’s first mobile scanner enable enterprise productiveness on the go
PALO ALTO, Calif., April 13, 2010 – HP these days bolstered the HP LaserJet professional printer line with a brand new ”plug and print” technology that makes it possible for consumers to start printing in as little as two minutes by easily connecting a netbook, computing device or desktop laptop to the printer with a USB cable – no CD required.
New monochrome printers that includes HP sensible installation include the HP LaserJet pro P1100 Printer series – probably the most energy-efficient laser printers in the world,(1) the HP LaserJet seasoned M1130/M1210 Multifunction Printer (MFP) sequence and the HP LaserJet professional P1566/P1606dn Printer sequence.
HP also unveiled the HP Scanjet skilled one thousand cell Scanner, the business’s first portable scanner for fast, on-the-go scanning without the want for batteries or an AC adapter.
“With HP sensible deploy, we’re putting our innovation to give you the results you want. Say goodbye to long driver installs and hey to less complicated printing,” mentioned Ron Coughlin, senior vp, LaserJet and commercial enterprise options, Imaging and Printing group, HP. “Our purchasers demand handy printing and we’re giving it to them – no clumsy CD-ROMs to set up, no drivers to download. It’s the way forward for printing, these days.”
HP LaserJet printers with wise InstallThe new HP LaserJet pro lineup points a sleek, black conclude and supplies professional, good value results while enabling small and midsize businesses (SMBs) to in the reduction of their environmental affect.
The printers characteristic new HP Auto-On technology, which intelligently senses endeavor – equivalent to when a print job is distributed to the printer – and awakens the gadget immediately from “off” mode.(2) It enhances HP Auto-Off expertise, which automatically adjusts the vigour settings and turns the printer off when there isn't any print undertaking.
With HP Auto-On/Auto-Off technology, the new HP LaserJet P1100 Printer series can keep up to seventy two % on energy costs versus its predecessor.(three) The printers additionally use usual HP LaserJet print cartridges with energy-efficient toner for energy discount rates of up to 35 % on each web page versus earlier items.(four)
— The cost-effective, ultracompact HP LaserJet seasoned P1100 Printer collection ($129-$149),(5) features instant functionality(6) and is the business’s smallest, most within your means laser printer. providing speedy print speeds, professional print nice, an intuitive manage panel and HP Auto-On/Auto-Off know-how, HP LaserJet P1102 and P1102w printers help consumers affordably increase effectivity.
— starting from $149-$199,(5) the HP LaserJet professional M1130/M1210 MFP series is without doubt one of the lowest-priced, full-featured laser MFPs in the marketplace. The compact MFP collection comprises 4 models and embedded Ethernet connectivity and energy-saving aspects similar to HP Auto-On/Auto-Off technology and HP speedy-on copy. in addition, the collection enables SMBs to copy a duplex id onto one web page with id replica.
— The HP LaserJet pro P1566 Printer ($179)(5) and HP LaserJet professional P1606dn Printer ($229)(5) present outstanding great, performance and value for SMBs. With fast print speeds, computerized duplexing to retailer paper, and embedded Ethernet connectivity,(7) these new laptop printers enable clients to boost productiveness for generic projects.
The HP LaserJet professional P1102w and P1606dn Printers are available now for purchase global, whereas the HP LaserJet pro P1102 and P1566 Printer fashions are available now for buy in Asia and Europe. The HP LaserJet pro M1100/1200 MFP series is expected to be purchasable for buy global subsequent month.
additionally, the company is unveiling HP LaserJet Black Print Cartridge dual Packs to assist SMBs reduce the charge of excessive-volume printing. starting subsequent month, dual packs for the HP LaserJet P2055 Printer series, HP LaserJet P1505 Printer sequence and HP LaserJet P1005/P1006 Printers could be attainable global except in China and India, where dual packs for the HP LaserJet P1007/P1008 Printer should be attainable.
nowadays, November 16, HP has had the excellent pleasure of announcing a new liberate of its open supply and freely distributed HPLIP (HP Linux Imaging and Printing) driver for GNU/Linux working programs.
in response to the unencumber notes, HPLIP three.5.eleven provides help for the newly launched Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily Werewolf), Fedora 23, and OpenSuSE soar 42.1 GNU/Linux working system. It additionally includes assist for custom AppArmor profiles and SELinux coverage, along with support for automatic discovery of network scanners. a brand new knowledge base article has been brought as neatly, and it includes suggestions about unblocking ports and enabling mDNS and SLP services throughout the openSUSE Firewall device.
As expected, the brand new HPLIP release brings in assist for a wide range of latest HP printers, among which we can point out HP colour LaserJet professional MFP M274n, HP LaserJet business M506, M506n, M506dn, M506x, and M506dh, HP colour Laserjet seasoned M452dn, M452dw, and M452nw, in addition to HP Laserjet professional MFP M426fdn, M426fdw, M427dn, M427fdw, M426dw, and M427dw.
additionally, the HP Laserjet enterprise MFP M527dn and M527f, HP Laserjet enterprise circulation MFP M527c and M527z, HP colour LaserJet enterprise MFP M577, M577dn, and M577f, HP color LaserJet enterprise circulation MFP M577z and M577c, HP LaserJet pro M402-M403 sequence and HP LaserJet professional M402-M403 n-dn series are also among the many newly supported printers.a lot of new HP printers are now supported
besides the printers above, the HP LaserJet seasoned M402dw, M402n, M402dn, M402d, M403n, M403dw, M403dn, and M403d, HP colour Laserjet professional MFP M477fnw, M477fdn, and M477fdw, HP Envy 5543, 5544, 5546, and 5542, HP DeskJet 2134, 3633, and 3634, HP OfficeJet 4654, HP ENVY 4524, 4523, and 4520 series of printers are also supported by the brand new HPLIP driver.
final however now not least, the HP Scanjet professional 3500 f1 Flatbed Scanner, HP DeskJet Ink competencies extremely 4720 and 4729, HP DeskJet Ink advantage 5640, 5645, 4675, 4676, 4535, 4536, 5570, and 5575, as well as the HP ENVY 5531, 5532, 5534, 5536, and 5539 e-All-in-One printers are supported too. download the HP Linux Imaging and Printing 3.15.eleven driver at this time from Softpedia.
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eSATA port1 x eSATA connector for capacity expansion
USB ports2 x USB A type (Host mode)1 x USB B type (Client mode)
Ethernet portsN5200 RouStorTM : 1 x Gigabit RJ-45 Connector4 port Gigabit switch
LCD Control PanelFor basic configurations and status display
Network File ProtocolsMicrosoft Networks (CIFS/SMB)Apple Filing Protocol (AFP 3)Network File System (NFS v3)File Transfer Protocol (FTP)Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTPs)
AuthenticationMicrosoft NT Domain Controller (PDC)*Microsoft Active Directory Authentication (AD)*
Network Client TypeMicrosoft Windows NT/2000/XP/2003Unix/Linux/BSDMAC OS X, OS 9, OS 8.6
Network ConfigurationFixed IP AddressDynamic IP Address
Disk ManagementPower Management (Disk idle spin-down)Disk Status Monitoring (S.M.A.R.T.)
RAIDRAID 0, 1, 5, 6, 10, and JBODAuto RebuildHot SwappableHot SpareDisk RoamingRAID Level MigrationRAID ExpansionDisk Capacity Supported :80/120/160/200/250/300/400/500/750/1000 GBFolder ManagementShare Folder Level PermissionFile Level PermissionPublic FolderQuota ManagementShare Folder Quota Control
BackupThecus Backup Utility (Microsoft Windows XP/2000 /MAC OS X)Thecus Nsync
System ManagementWeb GUIMultilingual Support (English, French, German, Italian, Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish)Event NotificationEmail NotificationBuzzer NotificationLCD
Supported USB DevicesUSB PrinterExternal HDD/Flash diskUSB IEEE 802.11 b/g dongle w/ AP mode support **
Setup UtilityWindows 2000 / XP / 2003MAC OS X
Safety and EnvironmentCE, FCC, BSMI, C-Tick, RoHS Compliant
Dimension230 x 190 x 230 mm (H x W x D)
PhysicalLockable Disk Tray
Operating Environment0 - 40 C20 – 85Relative Humidity (non-condensing)
Power SupplyServer-rated AC Power Supply100/220VAC, 50/60 Hz, Auto detect
*PDC/AD support: Works as a client member in an Microsoft NT 4.0 domain/Active Directory domain, allowing the N5200 to utilize the domain users and groups setting for authentication to the system and authorization to the share folders.
In many mass markets, companies are facing a predicament. On the one hand, customers are demanding that their orders be fulfilled ever more quickly. On the other hand, they are demanding highly customized products and services. Even without trying to customize their products, most companies have found it difficult to fulfill orders swiftly and at an acceptable cost. Is it possible, then, to mass-customize products, deliver them rapidly, and at the same time reduce costs?
The Hewlett-Packard Company has confronted these pressures in many of its businesses, including computers, printers, and medical products. It has proved that companies indeed can deliver customized products quickly and at a low cost. Some companies in such industries as apparel, paint, and consumer electronics have had similar success: they have dramatically increased their product variety, slashed the time they require to fulfill customers’ orders, and reduced costs. Other companies have not: they have mass-customized only to see their costs soar out of control.
The key to mass-customizing effectively is postponing the task of differentiating a product for a specific customer until the latest possible point in the supply network (a company’s supply, manufacturing, and distribution chain). Instead of taking a piecemeal approach, companies must rethink and integrate the designs of their products, the processes used to make and deliver those products, and the configuration of the entire supply network. By adopting such a comprehensive approach, companies can operate at maximum efficiency and quickly meet customers’ orders with a minimum amount of inventory.
Three organizational-design principles together form the basic building blocks of an effective mass-customization program:
A product with a modular design provides a supply network with the flexibility that it requires to customize a product quickly and inexpensively. Such a design separates the composition of end products into parts or subassemblies, some of which are common to all product options, others of which are not. A modular product design has three benefits. First, a company can maximize the number of standard components it uses in all forms of the product, assemble those components for all product options in the earlier stages of the assembly process, and postpone the addition of the components that differentiate the product until the later stages of the process. Second, a company can make the modules of the product separately; in fact, it can manufacture different modules at the same time, which significantly shortens the total time required for production. Third, a company can more easily diagnose production problems and isolate potential quality problems.
Consider a component that is not standardized: a dedicated power supply, or a power supply that cannot automatically convert voltage. In the global electronics market, building a dedicated power supply into a product in the first stages of production forces a manufacturer to commit to the product’s country of destination. If a company has a long production process or delivery time from factory to end consumer, having this kind of power supply makes it difficult to mass-customize efficiently. But a company could standardize components, designing or purchasing a single power supply that would work across an entire product family or, ideally, across many product families. Alternatively, the company could postpone the assembly of the power supply until a later point in the production process. Either approach would result in greater flexibility and lower costs.
HP has successfully implemented a standardization strategy for the LaserJet printer that it sells in Europe and North America. A partner in Japan makes the printer’s core engine, which then is shipped by sea to the two markets. Before HP and its partner designed the LaserJet for mass customization, the printer had a dedicated power supply of 110 volts and 220 volts, which forced the company to differentiate it by end-customer market as soon as production began in Japan. Under the improved design, a power supply that works in all countries is built into the product. This universal power supply allows HP to ship products from one continent to another when a significant imbalance of supply and demand exists between the two regions. As a result of standardizing the LaserJet, HP was able to reduce the total costs of manufacturing, stocking, and delivering the finished product to the customer by 5% per year.
HP decided to take a different approach to customizing its DeskJet printers for the European and Asian markets. The company opted to customize the printers at its local distribution centers rather than at its factories. For example, instead of customizing the DeskJets at its factory in Singapore before shipping them to Europe, HP has its European distribution center near Stuttgart, Germany, perform this job. The company therefore designed the printer with a country-specific external power supply that the customer plugs in when setting up the printer. The distribution center not only customizes the product but also purchases the materials that differentiate it (the power supplies, packaging, and manuals). As a result of this redesign, manufacturing costs are slightly higher than when the factories customized the printers, but the total manufacturing, shipping, and inventory costs dropped by 25%. (See the chart “Customization Costs Drop with the Generic DeskJet Printer.”)
Customization Costs Drop with the Generic DeskJet Printer
Because the use of standardized components to support mass customization may increase the cost of materials, companies must carefully assess whether the benefits of standardization outweigh the added costs. HP learned that the value of common components depends on the uncertainty in product demand across its geographical markets, the lead time to replenish its stocks of parts, the length of the product’s life cycle, and the cost of shipping the finished product. As uncertainty, lead time, and inventory and stock-out costs increase, so do the benefits of standardization. HP found that forecasting the mix of options that customers want is most difficult at the beginning and end of a product’s life cycle. Shorter life cycles, in particular, increase uncertainty and thus the benefits of standardization.
Making decisions like these is not easy. It involves people from at least five areas of a company: marketing, research and development, manufacturing, distribution, and finance. These five groups must play the following roles to support an effective mass-customization program:
Each group at any company has its own measures of performance. At HP, marketing is evaluated on revenue growth, R&D on a product’s functionality and the cost of its components, and manufacturing and distribution on the cost of assembling and delivering a product to the customer. The different measures focus the groups on different objectives: marketing wants to offer as many product options as possible to attract more customers, R&D wants to offer the product with the greatest possible functionality at the lowest possible cost, and manufacturing and distribution want to make one product at a stable volume.
Clashing priorities make it hard to create the most efficient supply network.
If the groups are not properly coordinated, their attempts to optimize their own performance may hurt the company’s ability to create the most efficient supply network that can deliver a customized product at the lowest cost. Therefore, negotiations among these groups are critical. At HP, the basis for negotiations is an analysis of the supply network that numerically represents all of the groups’ perspectives and comes up with the best result for the company. In one instance, designers initially balked at creating a generic DeskJet printer for both Mac and DOS users, because doing so would add to the cost of materials needed to make the product. (The other option was continuing to produce two distinct ink-jet printers.) The division conducted an analysis that compared a generic printer’s higher cost of materials with its lower inventory costs. It found that although the cost of materials would increase, required inventories would drop by 50%. (See the chart “Required Inventories Drop with the Generic DeskJet Printer.”) In addition, the generic printer would enable computer resellers and retailers to stock one model instead of two. This last benefit had a significant impact: a major retailer elected to sell HP’s generic DeskJet in large part because servicing both Mac and DOS customers with the same stock of printers would reduce inventory costs, shelf space, and associated overhead.
Required Inventories Drop with the Generic DeskJet PrinterModular Process Design
Breaking down the production process into independent subprocesses provides companies with the kind of flexibility that effective mass customization requires. Such an approach is based on three principles: process postponement, process resequencing, and process standardization.
The way neighborhood hardware and paint stores match paint colors on their premises is a good example of process postponement. Instead of making a broad range of different paints to meet customers’ specific requirements, factories make generic paint and a variety of color pigments, which hardware and paint stores stock. The stores use a chromatograph to analyze a customer’s paint sample and to determine the paint-and-pigment mixture that will match it. This innovative process provides customers with a virtually unlimited number of consistent choices and, at the same time, significantly reduces the inventory of paint that stores need to stock in order to match every customer’s desired color on demand. The key to postponement was separating the paint-production process into two subprocesses—the production of the paint and the mixing of the pigment and paint—and creating a low-cost chromatograph.
A modular process design also offers advantages in the retail apparel industry. Most department-store outlets sell finished clothing with little or no provision for customizing it to fit the customer’s body and taste. Most cloth is dyed, cut, and sewn to predetermined dimensions, making low-cost mass customization difficult if not impossible. (Tailored clothing is usually quite expensive.) An emerging technology in the fashion industry, however, effectively splits the production process into two modular subprocesses: the body-measurement process and the cut-and-sew process. A device uses computer and optical technology to take a customer’s measurements at the store, much as a tailor does. The computer then sends the measurements to the clothing vendor, which cuts and sews the garment within 48 hours. The result is a completely customized garment that costs about the same as an off-the-shelf item.
Although the retail outlet has to buy and maintain the measuring device, it can significantly improve sales per square foot with the purchase. The outlet needs to hold only samples of a specific garment instead of stock in all sizes and colors. And end-of-season discounts that retailers have to offer to clear out unsold goods become unnecessary. Given the fact that a clothing retailer typically obtains full price for only 50% to 60% of its clothing inventory, eliminating such discounts can lead to a substantial improvement in profits. In addition, the modular process design greatly reduces clothing manufacturers’ inventory risks. Instead of stocking high-cost finished goods that may or may not sell, manufacturers can stock relatively low-cost raw fabrics that are turned into finished products only in response to actual orders.
Once a company has divided the overall operational process into modular subprocesses, it can consider resequencing the subprocesses. Benetton did just that in its sweater-manufacturing operations. Instead of first dyeing the yarn into different colors and then knitting it into finished garments, Benetton changed the order of the dyeing and knitting subprocesses. The company dyed the uncolored sweaters either when it received an order or when it had a better idea of consumers’ color tastes for that season. By rearranging the subprocesses, Benetton effectively postponed the point of product differentiation and thereby saved millions of dollars in charges for obsolete inventory.
Standardizing earlier portions of the production process and postponing differentiation help improve the flexibility of the supply network. Consider HP’s disk-drive division, which supplied AT&T, NeXT, and HP with disk drives. It originally had trouble matching supply with demand because its customers often revised their orders at the last minute, and its processes for testing disk drives made it difficult to accommodate those revisions. Under the old approach, the division inserted a printed circuit board prior to the lengthy test process. Each customer, however, usually required a distinct circuit board. As a result, once a board was inserted, the disk drive could be sold only to that customer.
The division then found a way to conduct most of the test process without inserting the final customer-specific board. It separated the test process into two subprocesses: the standard tests required for all end products and the customized tests specific to individual end products. The division ran all its disk drives through the standardized test process, then stocked the generic units until an order arrived. When it received an order, it added the circuit board that the customer required, performed the customized tests, and shipped the product. By successfully postponing the point of product differentiation, this approach greatly enhanced the division’s flexibility and substantially lowered its inventory costs. HP recently closed the division for other business reasons, but it still considers the division’s use of postponement a best practice.Agile Supply Networks
Determining the optimum number and location of factories and distribution centers is a complex decision. It requires balancing such factors as response time to a customer’s order, the marketing value of maintaining a local manufacturing presence, local-content rules, duties, transportation time and costs, local labor and occupancy costs, and the replication of fixed assets. Centralized distribution networks—using one depot or warehouse to serve multiple regions—typically offer the advantage of low costs. Decentralized networks, however, often allow a business to offer customers improved service. By rethinking the design of the supply network when redesigning products and processes for mass customization, a company can optimize costs and provide fast, effective service.
For example, a company with many product options benefits little from having many distribution centers around the world if those centers perform only the tasks of warehousing and distribution. The investments in inventory required to support all the options would be enormous. The economics change radically, however, if a company redesigns its products and processes into modules so that the final customization steps take place on receipt of a customer’s order. It then becomes cost effective to have more distribution centers, each of which stocks basic products and performs the final steps in the customization process.
In addition, having distribution centers perform such light manufacturing can help a company both comply with the local-content rules that are prevalent in emerging markets and respond to customers who are unwilling to wait six weeks for a customized product to be shipped from a factory in another region. In this way, a company enjoys the best of both worlds: on the one hand, it can concentrate its manufacturing of critical parts in a few sites around the world so that it can achieve economies of scale; on the other hand, it can maintain a local manufacturing presence.
HP’s success in personal computers demonstrates the power of integrating the designs of products, processes, and supply networks. Today’s desktop personal computer is a highly customized product—some manufacturers offer thousands of different permutations to their customers. The PC consists of industry-standard, pretested components. Its product design is among the most modular in the electronics industry. Its production process also is extremely modular: a manufacturer has many different choices of how and where to build PCs.
Following the assembly and distribution models that prevailed in the PC industry in 1994, most manufacturers built product to stock. Problems associated with stocking the right mix of products to match customers’ demands plagued the system; inventory write-offs and clearance sales to get rid of products at the end of their model lives occurred frequently.
Hewlett-Packard’s distribution centers can deliver highly customized PCs more quickly and cheaply than competitors can.
In early 1994, HP conducted an analysis of its PC manufacturing and distribution strategies. Analysts discovered that the modular structure of the product and the production process would allow the company to postpone all steps of the PC’s final assembly (integrating the PC board, processor, chassis, power supply, storage devices, and software). HP’s distribution network then could build the product in locations close to customers only in response to their orders. In this way, the company would save on transportation and duty costs and greatly increase its return on assets. Abandoning its previous practice of stocking finished goods or partially completed units, HP implemented a build-to-order approach at all its distribution centers in early 1995. A Compaq executive lamented in the trade press that HP was “light-years ahead of the competition” in its ability to deliver products quickly and at a low cost. As a result of its new strategy, HP did in fact deliver a highly customized product more quickly and cheaply than its competitors could. • • •
Many of the success stories we have described resulted from the collaborative efforts of manufacturing, engineering, distribution, and marketing organizations within and, in some cases, outside HP. These successes show that mass customization does not have to be a financially risky strategy. By carefully applying the set of design principles we have outlined, companies can mass-customize at a low cost. They no longer have to choose between satisfying their customers and increasing their profit margins.A version of this article appeared in the January–February 1997 issue of Harvard Business Review.
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By Jonathan CorbetJanuary 9, 2018The disclosure of the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities has brought a new level of attention to the security bugs that can lurk at the hardware level. Massive amounts of work have gone into improving the (still poor) security of our software, but all of that is in vain if the hardware gives away the game. The CPUs that we run in our systems are highly proprietary and have been shown to contain unpleasant surprises (the Intel management engine, for example). It is thus natural to wonder whether it is time to make a move to open-source hardware, much like we have done with our software. Such a move may well be possible, and it would certainly offer some benefits, but it would be no panacea.
Given the complexity of modern CPUs and the fierceness of the market in which they are sold, it might be surprising to think that they could be developed in an open manner. But there are serious initiatives working in this area; the idea of an open CPU design is not pure fantasy. A quick look around turns up several efforts; the following list is necessarily incomplete.What's out there
Consider, for example, the OpenPOWER effort, which is based on the POWER architecture. It is not a truly open-source effort, in that one has to join the club to play, but it is an example of making a processor design available for collaborative development. Products based on the (relatively) open designs are shipping. OpenPOWER is focused on the high end of the computing spectrum; chips based on this design are unlikely to appear in your handset or laptop in the near future.
Then, there is OpenSPARC, wherein Sun Microsystems fully opened the designs of the SPARC T1 and T2 processors. A few projects tried to run with these designs, but it's not clear that anybody got all that far. At this point, the open SPARC designs are a decade old and the future of SPARC in general is in doubt. Interesting things could maybe happen if Oracle were to release the designs of current processors, but holding one's breath for that event is probably not the best of ideas.
OpenRISC is a fully open design for a processor aimed at embedded applications; it has one processor (the OpenRISC 1000) in a complete state. Some commercial versions of the OpenRISC 1000 have been produced, and reference implementations (such as the mor1kx) exist. The Linux kernel gained support for OpenRISC in the 3.1 release in 2011, and a Debian port showed up in 2014. The Debian work shut down in 2016, though. Activity around the kernel's OpenRISC code has slowed, though it did get SMP support in 2017. All told, OpenRISC appears to have lost much of the momentum it once had.
Much of the momentum these days, instead, appears to be associated with the RISC-V architecture. This project is primarily focused on the instruction-set architecture (ISA), rather than on specific implementations, but free hardware designs do exist. Western Digital recently announced that it will be using RISC-V processors in its storage products, a decision that could lead to the shipment of RISC-V by the billion. There is a development kit available for those who would like to play with this processor and a number of designs for cores are available.
Unlike OpenRISC, RISC-V is intended to be applicable to a wide range of use cases. The simple RISC architecture should be relatively easy to make fast, it is hoped. Meanwhile, for low-end applications, there is a compressed instruction-stream format intended to reduce both memory and energy needs. The ISA is designed with the ability for specific implementations to add extensions, making experimentation easier and facilitating the addition of hardware acceleration techniques.
The Linux support for RISC-V is quite new; indeed, it will only appear once the 4.15 release gets out the door. The development effort behind it appears to be quite active, and toolchain and library support are also landing in the appropriate projects. RISC-V seems to have quite a bit of commercial support behind it — the RISC-V Foundation has a long list of members. It seems likely that this architecture will continue to progress for some time.A solution to the hardware problem?
In response to Meltdown and Spectre, the RISC-V Foundation put out a press release promoting the architecture as a more secure alternative. RISC-V is indeed not vulnerable to those problems by virtue of not performing any speculative memory accesses. But the Foundation says that RISC-V has advantages that go beyond a specific vulnerability; the openness of its development model, the Foundation says, enables the quick incorporation of the best security ideas from a wide range of developers.
It has become increasingly clear that, while Linux may have won the battle at the kernel level, there is a whole level of proprietary hardware and software that runs below the kernel that we have no control over. An open architecture like RISC-V is thus quite appealing; perhaps we can eventually claw some of that control back. This seems like a dream worth pursuing, but getting there involves some challenges that must be overcome first.
The first of these, of course, is that while compilers can be had for free, the same is not true of chip fabrication facilities, especially the expensive fabs needed to create high-end processors. If progress slows at the silicon level — as some say is already happening — and fabrication services become more available to small customers, then it may become practical for more of us to experiment with processor designs. It will never be as easy or as cheap as typing "make", though.
Until then, we're going to remain dependent on others to build our processors for us. That isn't necessarily bad; almost all of us depend on others to build most of our software for us as well. But a higher level of trust has to be placed in hardware. Getting reproducible builds working at the software level is a serious and ongoing challenge; it will be even harder at the hardware level. But without some way of verifying underlying design of an actual piece of hardware, we'll never really know if a given chip implements the design that we're told it does.
Nothing about the RISC-V specification mandates that implementation designs must be made public. Even if RISC-V becomes successful in the marketplace, chances are good that the processors we can actually buy will not come with freely licensed designs. Large customers (those that build their own custom data centers) may well be able to insist on getting the designs too — or just create their own — but the rest of us will find ourselves in a rather weaker bargaining position.
Finally, even if we end up with entirely open processors, that will not bring an end to vulnerabilities at that level. We have a free kernel, but the kernel vulnerabilities come just the same. Open hardware may give us more confidence in the long term that we can retain control of our systems, but it is certainly not a magic wand that will wave our problems away.
None of this should prevent us from trying to bring more openness and freedom to the design of our hardware, though. Once upon a time, creating a free operating system seemed like an insurmountably difficult task, but we have done it, multiple times over. Moving away from proprietary hardware designs may be one of our best chances for keeping our freedom; it would be foolish not to try.(Log in to post comments)
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