|Exam Name||:||Technical Introduction to the HP Storage(R) SMB|
|Questions and Answers||:||49 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 24, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure HP2-K30 Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure HP2-K30 Full Version|
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Tuesday, February 12, 2019
Press unencumber from the issuing business
Ryan Printing purchases HP Indigo 12000 HD Digital Press
Tel Aviv, Israel – HP Inc. nowadays announced it reached a milestone one-thousand HP Indigo sequence four presses offered, amid becoming consumer momentum for its trade-leading1 29 inch (B2) platform across business and labels and packaging digital printing purposes.
“providing a thousand presses to consumers in sixty five international locations is an exhilarating milestone. The introduction of the HP Indigo B2 platform at drupa 2012 set the stage for a enormous disruption in printing, prompting print provider providers to reevaluate their corporations,” Alon Bar-Shany, typical supervisor, HP Indigo, HP Inc., noted at the annual HP Indigo 2019 world customer event, showcasing HP’s latest digital press portfolio and business alternatives for growth functions. “nowadays, adopters of HP Indigo technologies are having fun with double-digit increase thanks to their relentless power to innovate and print distinctive.”
Ryan Printing a brand new York, US-based mostly, print provider issuer, become diagnosed as the a thousandth worldwide installing of an HP Indigo sequence 4 press with its buy of an HP Indigo 12000 HD Digital Press. “The Indigo 12000 HD could be an ideal healthy for our longer and large-measurement digital runs and our shorter typical offset jobs, and should aid enable us to open up new markets and capabilities,” spoke of Al Ryan, owner and normal manager, whose new press will expand creation alongside its HP Indigo 7800.
surroundings a brand new industry benchmark for pleasant, the HP Indigo 12000 HD has reached 50 installations worldwide, including the recent purchase of 5 gadgets by using Smartpress. The 29 inch (seventy five cm) extensive collection 4 press platform also comprises the outsized B1 HP Indigo 50000 for commercial and picture printing, HP Indigo 20000 for labels and flexible packaging, and HP Indigo 30000 for folding cartons.
moreover, HP Indigo’s narrow-web sequence 3 labels and packaging presses, together with the HP Indigo 8000 and HP Indigo 6000 series, have reached 1500 put in devices. contemporary HP Indigo labels and packaging momentum includes:
consumers share success stories at the international VIP EventMore than 650 company, including purchasers, companions and print trade analysts, joined the February eleven-14, 2019 experience at HP Indigo’s headquarters, construction and R&D websites to be inspired with the aid of new applied sciences and purchasers and brands sharing boom experiences.
“Two years in the past, we produced a hundred and eighty jobs a day and remaining yr 540 jobs a day. This yr, we're averaging 5800 with some days peaking at round 30000. How else might you deliver that without an answer like PrintOS site circulate,” mentioned Jon Bailey, CEO, ProCo, UK.
photo printer Albelli is enjoying new ranges of productivity with its HP Indigo 50000 Digital Press. “Albumprinter is now in a position to printing digitally in the B1 structure, double-sided. This format opens up a new world of functions, and imposition efficiencies, which aren't possible on any other Indigo press,” said Tristan money, Chief executive, Albelli, The Netherlands.
carrying on with its hallmark subculture of innovation, at the event, HP Indigo showcased its latest applied sciences to extend application latitude, akin to new inks, embellishment and photo options. Highlights covered:
working towards trade four.0At the international adventure, HP Indigo also validated solutions to help maximize press effectivity and automate the construction of lots of jobs per day, including:
PrintOS color Beat for automated colour handle and color excellence.
(1) in line with IDC market share records, Q3, 2018.
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TEL AVIV, Israel - February 12, 2019 - HP Inc. announced it reached a milestone 1,000th HP Indigo sequence four presses offered, amid becoming customer momentum for its trade-main 29˝ (B2) platform across business and labels and packaging digital printing purposes.
“offering 1,000 presses to clients in sixty five nations is an exciting milestone. The introduction of the HP Indigo B2 platform at drupa 2012 set the stage for a massive disruption in printing, prompting print provider suppliers to reevaluate their groups,” Alon Bar-Shany, widely wide-spread manager, HP Indigo, HP Inc., spoke of on the annual HP Indigo 2019 international consumer adventure, showcasing HP’s newest digital press portfolio and business alternatives for increase purposes. “today, adopters of HP Indigo applied sciences are having fun with double-digit increase thanks to their relentless drive to innovate and print distinct.”
Ryan Printing a Blauvelt, N.Y.-based print carrier issuer, became diagnosed as the 1,000th global installation of an HP Indigo sequence four press with its purchase of an HP Indigo 12000 HD Digital Press. “The Indigo 12000 HD should be an ideal fit for our longer and large-dimension digital runs and our shorter common offset jobs, and may assist permit us to open up new markets and capabilities,” referred to Al Ryan, proprietor and time-honored manager, whose new press will extend creation alongside its HP Indigo 7800.
environment a new business benchmark for great, the HP Indigo 12000 HD has reached 50 installations international, together with the contemporary buy of 5 instruments by Smartpress. The 29˝ (seventy five cm) huge sequence 4 press platform additionally comprises the oversized B1 HP Indigo 50000 for industrial and photograph printing, HP Indigo 20000 for labels and flexible packaging, and HP Indigo 30000 for folding cartons.
additionally, HP Indigo’s slender-net sequence three labels and packaging presses, including the HP Indigo 8000 and HP Indigo 6000 collection, have reached 1500 installed devices. recent HP Indigo labels and packaging momentum comprises:
more than 650 company, including shoppers, companions and print industry analysts, joined the February 11-14, 2019 event at HP Indigo’s headquarters, creation and R&D sites to be inspired by using new technologies and customers and types sharing growth experiences.
“Two years in the past, we produced 180 jobs a day and last yr 540 jobs a day. This yr, we are averaging 5800 with some days peaking at around 30000. How else might you deliver that with out a solution like PrintOS website circulation,” noted Jon Bailey, CEO, ProCo, UK.
photograph printer Albelli is having fun with new tiers of productiveness with its HP Indigo 50000 Digital Press. “Albumprinter is now in a position to printing digitally within the B1 format, double-sided. This format opens up a brand new world of purposes, and imposition efficiencies, which are not viable on some other Indigo press,” talked about Tristan money, Chief executive, Albelli, The Netherlands.
carrying on with its hallmark way of life of innovation, at the event, HP Indigo showcased its most recent technologies to expand utility latitude, reminiscent of new inks, embellishment and photograph solutions. Highlights protected:
on the global adventure, HP Indigo also tested options to assist maximize press effectivity and automate the construction of thousands of jobs per day, including:
The preceding press liberate become offered by means of a corporation unaffiliated with Printing Impressions. The views expressed inside don't without delay replicate the recommendations or opinions of Printing Impressions.
The HP Z210 CMT is an entry-level laptop, serving as an introduction to the realm of workstations. Clad in business-acceptable apparel (read: drab), this midtower computer is without doubt one of the pricier participants of our business computers chart, however stands head and shoulders above the competition now we have seen up to now. The average company computing device caveats observe: a quick look on the Mainstream desktop class will reveal machines that offer up greater uncooked vigour, for much less. however this notebook is geared towards knowledgeable atmosphere, full of premium, server-grade components optimized for hefty workloads.
The HP Z210 we reviewed came outfitted with a 3.3GHz Intel Xeon E3-1240--a low-vigour, quad-core processor typically present in servers and workstations. It offers 8GB of of RAM (that you could deploy as much as 32GB of RAM), and sports an Nvidia Quadro 2000 pictures card. The HP Z210 CMT line begins as low as $659, and the mannequin we reviewed sits at $2312 (as of 5/18/2011).
we are going to deal with the uncooked performance numbers first. On our Worldbench test suite, the HP Z210 earned a score of a hundred and fifty. For evaluation's sake, that puts it on a par with the Dell Vostro 460 (rating: 156), a enterprise workstation outfitted with Intel's Core i7-2600 processor.
If efficiency is near-similar, why select a Xeon processor? To beginning with, Xeon processors are frequently intended to be used in servers. They run cooler and at decrease voltages than buyer-oriented Core i7 CPUs, being designed for continous use--24 hours a day, 7 days every week.
The Xeon E3 processor additionally contains a number of company-friendly elements, such as assist for Intel's vPro security expertise, as well as Error-Correcting Code (ECC) reminiscence. both points add a cost top rate to the Xeon processor, however in case you're working with essential, delicate information, authorities will agree that it's cash well spent.
The equal is true of the Nvidia Quadro 2000 photos card. developed on the equal Fermi architecture we now have seen in the GeForce GTX line, Nvidia's skilled Quadro cards are expressly designed to work reliably under stressful, always-on circumstances. expert purposes like 3ds Max and AutoCAD are additionally optimized to work with professional cards like Nvidia's Quadro and AMD's FirePro traces, delivering both accelerated performance and technical support not matched via consumer fashions.
The HP Z210 will possible fit correct into most work environments. it be par for the course for the business class--boring black shell, with an organization focal point on functionality over form. The face presents three USB ports, a FireWire port, a multiformat card reader (with another USB port), and the requisite headphone and microphone jacks. The desktop is additionally geared up with a DVD burner; all these trimmings are fairly lots common in each the mainstream and enterprise computer categories, but accessibility is at all times liked.
The rear of the laptop presents up serial mouse and keyboard ports--freeing up a pair of USB ports, and constructive for workplaces with legacy hardware. A DisplayPort and a DVI connector are provided via the motherboard. you are going to locate six greater USB ports, gigabit ethernet, and a pair of.1-channel audio. The Nvidia Quadro 2000 offers HDMI, DisplayPort, and DVI connectors. just a little fundamental to date, but one add-in card presents a pair of USB 3.0 ports, and an extra offers a pair of FireWire ports. advanced connectivity is all the time favored, and while these non-compulsory add-in cards might sacrifice some interior improve space, the brought flexibility they give is welcome.
A lever on the aspect of the case offers quick and simple access to the HP Z210's relatively cavernous innards. you'll discover three 5.25-inch power bays, one in all them occupied by means of the DVD burner, and another via the cardboard reader, plus three complicated-force bays, one occupied by the 1TB tough power.
The Quadro 2000 occupies one among two PCI x16 slots, and the pair of PCI x1 slots apartment the aforementioned add-in cards. That leaves a PCI x8 slot and a pair of PCI slots for future enlargement. The whole chassis offers tool-free entry, which is extremely good--and especially advantageous in an office atmosphere, the place you (or your IT body of workers) will are looking to make inner repairs and improvements as trouble-free as possible. less amazing is the wiring job--it be untidy, with cables attached and arranged without plenty care. The wiring does not hamper airflow and may not get in the manner of your work, but when you do ever should pry open the case, retain a number of cable ties convenient.
The bundled keyboard and mouse are standard HP wares--no longer a whole lot we will say about these. The documentation is refreshingly thorough, albeit accepted. They offer guidelines on constructing and configuring each point of the the computer, together with distinct diagrams.
probably the most important brought-price element here is the software. we've got viewed the HP performance advisor and power Assistant applications during the past, however their newest iterations proceed to provoke. vigor Assistant is basic: stir up the application, and you may get a gauge of how a great deal vigour the computer is the usage of, together with a calculator that estimates your day by day, month-to-month, and each year operating charges, as well as calculating your carbon footprint. With that talents in hand, that you could set an working schedule in your computing device, atmosphere it to sleep in the event you comprehend you're stepping far from your desk for lunch or a gathering, for instance.
efficiency advisor should still be bundled with all of HP's machines--business- or buyer-oriented--because it presents a extraordinary quantity of advantageous suggestions and tools in an easy, concise kit. The app gives an intensive report to your hardware, listing any part changes and serving up particulars on the motive force models, CPU and reminiscence utilization--the works.
machine feeling a little gradual? The performance consultant can tune an application's resource utilization, so that you can pinpoint exactly the place your efficiency bottleneck is, and plan your next improve as a result. that you would be able to definitely do that all your self with a bit of legwork, but having a dedicated suite of equipment bundled correct onto the desktop makes the entire procedure, oh, so effortless.
The Mainstream computing device charts are crammed with customer-oriented alternate options to the HP Z210 CMT--overclocked, gaming-oriented machines so as to handle number-crunching with aplomb, as well as packing satisfactory graphical horsepower to handle video modifying and the like. but workstations are masters of specialization, and the HP Z210 CMT stands out as a superb, low-budget enterprise laptop. customer fashions like the Maingear F131 super inventory or the foundation Genesis Midtower may additionally have it beat when it comes to raw energy. but HP's workstations are chiefly engineered to assembly a office's demands, even if or not it's through mitigating vigor consumption and offering quiet operation, or packing hardware it truly is optimized for the application that professionals use.
but be certain you are the usage of the correct tool for the job--if video modifying or 3D design is rarely part of your workflow, you would do neatly to seek a laptop it really is a bit extra cost-efficient. The HP Compaq 6000 professional stands out as a quickly option in a svelte, all-in-one equipment. For an choice in a more traditional design, check out the cost effective Acer Veriton X498G.To comment on this article and other PCWorld content, discuss with our facebook page or our Twitter feed.
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Having sat at the helm of NetGear's commercial business for over six months now, John McHugh said he's plotting a course in 2014 for NetGear to grow its partner base, strengthen its brand and become the clear-cut industry leader in the SMB market.
"The primary thing that I want is to raise the awareness of NetGear as a credible supplier for people who take their networks seriously, take their storage seriously and, in all fairness, take their budgets seriously," McHugh said in a recent interview with CRN.
A familiar face to the channel, McHugh joined NetGear as the senior vice president and general manager of the company's commercial business in July 2013.
[Related: Review: NetGear WN203 Wins On Performance, Simplicity, Cost ]
Before joining NetGear, McHugh was chief marketing officer at Brocade. Prior to that, he was vice president and general manager of Nortel Networks' Enterprise Network Solutions business, where he handled the company's technology vision, R&D and business operations.
McHugh, however, is perhaps best known for his 26-year run at Hewlett-Packard, 10 years of which he spent heading up HP's ProCurve Networking business. When he left HP in 2008, McHugh was widely credited with having transformed the HP Networking brand from essentially a startup to a $1 billion-plus business.
Now, at San Jose, Calif.-based storage and networking vendor NetGear, McHugh said his biggest goal is to create more awareness of the NetGear brand, ensuring both customers and partners see NetGear as the de facto storage and networking vendor for vertical markets and SMB.
"The big challenge for me is channel awareness around what we stand for and what the economics are around NetGear solutions," McHugh said.
McHugh said NetGear continues to cater to smaller-sized customers by offering best-in-class warranties, free next-day and on-site technical support, and up to 30 percent cost savings compared to the larger networking vendors with which NetGear competes.
To continue to attack the SMB segment, McHugh said he is looking to recruit new partners and increase NetGear's North American channel footprint, especially through the addition of smaller, or "modest-sized," VARs.
McHugh said he is especially interested in on-boarding smaller solution providers who are either brand-new to the storage market, or have traditionally only partnered with larger, enterprise-focused storage vendors.
"We are looking for partners who, frankly, don't have a storage practice, or are pretty low in the ecosystem with storage from the big vendors," McHugh said.
NetGear in 2013 added roughly 200 solution providers to its North American channel, bringing its total number of partners to around 19,000, the company said.
David Vance, chief operating officer at 888VoIP, an Elma, N.Y.-based distributor of VoIP phone systems and networking gear, said his company signed NetGear as a vendor partner in mid-2013 as a way to broaden 888VoIP's switching portfolio.
So far, Vance said 888VoIP already has a "few thousand" resellers selling NetGear, growth he attributes to NetGear switches striking the balance between quality and price.
"We had a gap in the networking side of the house for our reseller partners, who wanted a good go-to switch," Vance said. "Partners were really looking for a high-quality, but affordable, SMB switch. There was almost immediate traction with our reseller base."
Vance said that, depending on the brand, a reseller can save anywhere from $800 to $1,400 when opting for a NetGear 48-port switch versus those from a competing vendor.
Eric Jeffers, IT project manager at 888VoIP, stressed that NetGear's competitive pricing doesn't come at the cost of quality, with NetGear switches including advanced QoS, power-saving and other enterprise-grade features.
"Even if they aren’t the big networking guys, they can set up these great features that are reliable with the warranty, and at the right cost," Jeffers said.
McHugh said other goals of his for 2014 include going after what he called "underserved" vertical markets -- such as retirement homes -- and, ultimately, revamping NetGear's partner program to reward partners not based on sales volume, but on their ability to bring in net new customers and on their level of commitment to NetGear.
"I do have an action item I am working on right now, which is kind of doing an inventory of our global channel program," McHugh said. "I have always seen a very strong value in partner programs that have been more biased toward passing margin to people who are out positioning and taking new accounts, over those who just sell bulk product."
PUBLISHED MARCH 7, 2014
Three Advances Make Magnetic Tape More Than a Memory
The Lost Picture Show: Hollywood Archivists Can’t Outpace Obsolescence
Exabytes in a Test Tube: The Case for DNA Data Storage
Photo: Victor Prado
It should come as no surprise that recent advances in big-data analytics and artificial intelligence have created strong incentives for enterprises to amass information about every measurable aspect of their businesses. And financial regulations now require organizations to keep records for much longer periods than they had to in the past. So companies and institutions of all stripes are holding onto more and more.
Studies show [PDF] that the amount of data being recorded is increasing at 30 to 40 percent per year. At the same time, the capacity of modern hard drives, which are used to store most of this, is increasing at less than half that rate. Fortunately, much of this information doesn’t need to be accessed instantly. And for such things, magnetic tape is the perfect solution.
Seriously? Tape? The very idea may evoke images of reels rotating fitfully next to a bulky mainframe in an old movie like Desk Set or Dr. Strangelove. So, a quick reality check: Tape has never gone away!
Indeed, much of the world’s data is still kept on tape, including data for basic science, such as particle physics and radio astronomy, human heritage and national archives, major motion pictures, banking, insurance, oil exploration, and more. There is even a cadre of people (including me, trained in materials science, engineering, or physics) whose job it is to keep improving tape storage.
Tape has been around for a long while, yes, but the technology hasn’t been frozen in time. Quite the contrary. Like the hard disk and the transistor, magnetic tape has advanced enormously over the decades.
The first commercial digital-tape storage system, IBM’s Model 726, could store about 1.1 megabytes on one reel of tape. Today, a modern tape cartridge can hold 15 terabytes. And a single robotic tape library can contain up to 278 petabytes of data. Storing that much data on compact discs would require more than 397 million of them, which if stacked would form a tower more than 476 kilometers high.
It’s true that tape doesn’t offer the fast access speeds of hard disks or semiconductor memories. Still, the medium’s advantages are many. To begin with, tape storage is more energy efficient: Once all the data has been recorded, a tape cartridge simply sits quietly in a slot in a robotic library and doesn’t consume any power at all. Tape is also exceedingly reliable, with error rates that are four to five orders of magnitude lower than those of hard drives. And tape is very secure, with built-in, on-the-fly encryption and additional security provided by the nature of the medium itself. After all, if a cartridge isn’t mounted in a drive, the data cannot be accessed or modified. This “air gap” is particularly attractive in light of the growing rate of data theft through cyberattacks.
The offline nature of tape also provides an additional line of defense against buggy software. For example, in 2011, a flaw in a software update caused Google to accidentally delete the saved email messages in about 40,000 Gmail accounts. That loss occurred despite there being several copies of the data stored on hard drives across multiple data centers. Fortunately, the data was also recorded on tape, and Google could eventually restore all the lost data from that backup.
The 2011 Gmail incident was one of the first disclosures that a cloud-service provider was using tape for its operations. More recently, Microsoft let it be known that its Azure Archive Storage uses IBM tape storage equipment.1/12
1951: Magnetic tape first used to record data on a computer (Univac). Photo: Bettmann/Getty Images2/12
1952: Introduction of commercial computer tape storage (IBM 726). Photo: IBM3/12
1964: Introduction of 9-track tape storage. Photo: IBM4/12
1968: Introduction of the self-threading drive (IBM 2420). Photo: IBM5/12
1974: First automated (robotic) tape library (IBM 3850). Photo: IBM6/12
1974: First automated (robotic) tape library (IBM 3850). Photo: IBM7/12
1984: Introduction of thin-film head technology (IBM 3480) and of the 4-by-5-inch cartridge. Photo: IBM10/12
2009: IBM introduces the Linear Tape File System. Photo: IBM11/12
2009: IBM introduces the Linear Tape File System. Image: Hewlett Packard Enterprise/IBM/Quantum12/12
2017: Release of the latest generation of LTO (LTO-8). Photo: IBM
All these pluses notwithstanding, the main reason why companies use tape is usually simple economics. Tape storage costs one-sixth the amount you’d have to pay to keep the same amount of data on disks, which is why you find tape systems almost anyplace where massive amounts of data are being stored. But because tape has now disappeared completely from consumer-level products, most people are unaware of its existence, let alone of the tremendous advances that tape recording technology has made in recent years and will continue to make for the foreseeable future.
All this is to say that tape has been with us for decades and will be here for decades to come. How can I be so sure? Read on.
Tape has survived for as long as it has for one fundamental reason: It’s cheap. And it’s getting cheaper all the time. But will that always be the case?
You might expect that if the ability to cram ever more data onto magnetic disks is diminishing, so too must this be true for tape, which uses the same basic technology but is even older. The surprising reality is that for tape, this scaling up in capacity is showing no signs of slowing. Indeed, it should continue for many more years at its historical rate of about 33 percent per year, meaning that you can expect a doubling in capacity roughly every two to three years. Think of it as a Moore’s Law for magnetic tape.
That’s great news for anyone who has to deal with the explosion in data on a storage budget that remains flat. To understand why tape still has so much potential relative to hard drives, consider the way tape and hard drives evolved.
Both rely on the same basic physical mechanisms to store digital data. They do so in the form of narrow tracks in a thin film of magnetic material in which the magnetism switches between two states of polarity. The information is encoded as a series of bits, represented by the presence or absence of a magnetic-polarity transition at specific points along a track. Since the introduction of tape and hard drives in the 1950s, the manufacturers of both have been driven by the mantra “denser, faster, cheaper.” As a result, the cost of both, in terms of dollars per gigabyte of capacity, has fallen by many orders of magnitude.
These cost reductions are the result of exponential increases in the density of information that can be recorded on each square millimeter of the magnetic substrate. That areal density is the product of the recording density along the data tracks and the density of those tracks in the perpendicular direction.
Early on, the areal densities of tapes and hard drives were similar. But the much greater market size and revenue from the sale of hard drives provided funding for a much larger R&D effort, which enabled their makers to scale up more aggressively. As a result, the current areal density of high-capacity hard drives is about 100 times that of the most recent tape drives.
Nevertheless, because they have a much larger surface area available for recording, state-of-the-art tape systems provide a native cartridge capacity of up to 15 TB—greater than the highest-capacity hard drives on the market. That’s true even though both kinds of equipment take up about the same amount of space.
Photo: Victor Prado Inside and Out: A modern Linear Tape-Open (LTO) tape cartridge consists of a single reel. After the cartridge is inserted, the tape is fed automatically to a reel built into the drive mechanism.
With the exception of capacity, the performance characteristics of tape and hard drives are, of course, very different. The long length of the tape held in a cartridge—normally hundreds of meters—results in average data-access times of 50 to 60 seconds compared with just 5 to 10 milliseconds for hard drives. But the rate at which data can be written to tape is, surprisingly enough, more than twice the rate of writing to disk.
Over the past few years, the areal density scaling of data on hard disks has slowed from its historical average of around 40 percent a year to between 10 and 15 percent. The reason has to do with some fundamental physics: To record more data in a given area, you need to allot a smaller region to each bit. That in turn reduces the signal you can get when you read it. And if you reduce the signal too much, it gets lost in the noise that arises from the granular nature of the magnetic grains coating the disk.
It’s possible to reduce that background noise by making those grains smaller. But it’s difficult to shrink the magnetic grains beyond a certain size without compromising their ability to maintain a magnetic state in a stable way. The smallest size that’s practical to use for magnetic recording is known in this business as the superparamagnetic limit. And disk manufacturers have reached it.
Until recently, this slowdown was not obvious to consumers, because disk-drive manufacturers were able to compensate by adding more heads and platters to each unit, enabling a higher capacity in the same size package. But now both the available space and the cost of adding more heads and platters are limiting the gains that drive manufacturers can make, and the plateau is starting to become apparent.
There are a few technologies under development that could enable hard-drive scaling beyond today’s superparamagnetic limit. These include heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) and microwave-assisted magnetic recording (MAMR), techniques that enable the use of smaller grains and hence allow smaller regions of the disk to be magnetized. But these approaches add cost and introduce vexing engineering challenges. And even if they are successful, the scaling they provide is, according to manufacturers, likely to remain limited. Western Digital Corp., for example, which recently announced that it will probably begin shipping MAMR hard drives in 2019, expects that this technology will enable areal density scaling of only about 15 percent per year.
In contrast, tape storage equipment currently operates at areal densities that are well below the superparamagnetic limit. So tape’s Moore’s Law can go on for a decade or more without running into such roadblocks from fundamental physics.
Still, tape is a tricky technology. Its removable nature, the use of a thin polymer substrate rather than a rigid disk, and the simultaneous recording of up to 32 tracks in parallel create significant hurdles for designers. That’s why my research team at the IBM Research–Zurich lab has been working hard to find ways to enable the continued scaling of tape, either by adapting hard-drive technologies or by inventing completely new approaches.
In 2015, we and our collaborators at FujiFilm Corp. showed that by using ultrasmall barium ferrite particles oriented perpendicular to the tape, it’s possible to record data at more than 12 times the density achievable with today’s commercial technology. And more recently, in collaboration with Sony Storage Media Solutions, we demonstrated the possibility of recording data at an areal density that is about 20 times the current figure for state-of-the-art tape drives. To put this in perspective, if this technology were to be commercialized, a movie studio, which now might need a dozen tape cartridges to archive all the digital components of a big-budget feature, would be able to fit all of them on a single tape.Photos: David Parker/Science Source; right: IBM
A Data Deluge: Modern tape libraries can hold hundreds of petabytes, whereas the IBM 726 [right], introduced in 1952, could store just a couple of megabytes.
To enable this degree of scaling, we had to make a bunch of technical advances. For one, we improved the ability of the read and write heads to follow the slender tracks on the tape, which were just 100 or so nanometers wide in our latest demo.
We also had to reduce the width of the data reader—a magnetoresistive sensor used to read back the recorded data tracks—from its current micrometer size to less than 50 nm. As a result, the signal we could pick up with such a tiny reader got very noisy. We compensated by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio inherent to the media, which is a function of the size and orientation of the magnetic particles as well as their composition and the smoothness and slickness of the tape surface. To help further, we improved the signal processing and error-correction schemes our equipment employed.
To ensure that our new prototype media can retain recorded data for decades, we changed the nature of the magnetic particles in the recording layer, making them more stable. But that change made it harder to record the data in the first place, to the extent that a normal tape transducer could not reliably write to the new media. So we used a special write head that produces magnetic fields much stronger than a conventional head could provide.
Combining these technologies, we were able to read and write data in our laboratory system at a linear density of 818,000 bits per inch. (For historical reasons, tape engineers around the world measure data density in inches.) In combination with the 246,200 tracks per inch that the new technology can handle, our prototype unit achieved an areal density of 201 gigabits per square inch. Assuming that one cartridge can hold 1,140 meters of tape—a reasonable assumption, based on the reduced thickness of the new tape media we used—this areal density corresponds to a cartridge capacity of a whopping 330 TB. That means that a single tape cartridge could record as much data as a wheelbarrow full of hard drives.
In 2015, the Information Storage Industry Consortium, an organization that includes HP Enterprise, IBM, Oracle, and Quantum, along with a slew of academic research groups, released what it called the “International Magnetic Tape Storage Roadmap.” That forecast predicted that the areal density of tape storage would reach 91 Gb per square inch by 2025. Extrapolating the trend suggests that it will surpass 200 Gb per square inch by 2028.
The authors of that road map each had an interest in the future of tape storage. But you needn’t worry that they were being too optimistic. The laboratory experiments that my colleagues and I have recently carried out demonstrate that 200 Gb per square inch is perfectly possible. So the feasibility of keeping tape on the growth path it’s had for at least another decade is, to my mind, well assured.
Indeed, tape may be one of the last information technologies to follow a Moore’s Law–like scaling, maintaining that for the next decade, if not beyond. And that streak in turn will only increase the cost advantage of tape over hard drives and other storage technologies. So even though you may rarely see it outside of a black-and-white movie, magnetic tape, old as it is, will be here for years to come.
This article appears in the September 2018 print issue as “Tape Storage Mounts a Comeback.”
Mark Lantz is manager of the Advanced Tape Technologies at IBM Research Zurich.
Download this article in PDF format.
Nothing has stayed “new” as long as emerging memory technologies. Whether MRAM, PCM, ReRAM, or FRAM (or the many other names these technologies go by), these names have been bandied about as the “Next Big Thing” for decades, yet they never have hit the mainstream.
Let’s have a look at the leading ones, learn why they are considered necessary, and discover why they have taken as long as they have to become mainstream.Why They’re Necessary
Chip costs are determined by two factors:
Semiconductor manufacturers have historically used process technology shrinks to increase the number of chips that can be produced on that wafer and drive down the costs out of their chips, migrating from a 35nm process to 25nm, then 20, and so on.
As a general rule the cost to process a silicon wafer is relatively constant, so the cost of a chip tends to decline in proportion to the process technology that is used to manufacture it (Fig. 1). As the process technology shrinks (across the bottom axis of the chart), the cost of the chip should decrease in proportion (the vertical axis).
1. The relative cost of a chip is proportional to its process geometry. (Source: Objective Analysis)
Memory manufacturers believe that there is a limit to how small a flash or DRAM process can be shrunk. This is called the “scaling limit,” and is determined by the number of electrons that can be stored on a flash gate or DRAM capacitor, also called a “memory cell.” As the process technology shrinks, the memory cell gets smaller and the number of electrons the cell can store declines to approach a lower limit of what can be accurately measured. Eventually the number of electrons on the memory cell will shrink to the point that it becomes extraordinarily difficult to determine whether or not there are actually any electrons on the cell at all.
A memory cell that has been shrunk to that point can no longer shrink in proportion to the process and that means that the die size (and cost) of the flash chip will remain the same even if the production process used to make it continues to scale.
Back in 2003, Intel announced at its Intel Developer Forum that flash memory could not be scaled beyond 65nm. The company then explained its plan to move to an emerging memory technology to continue to scale past 65nm. By 2004 the company encountered a breakthrough that allowed Intel to move farther down the road, projecting that flash could scale to a 35nm process, and that Intel expected to be able to shrink even beyond that process. Then, at the end of 2007, researchers at Toshiba found a way to produce basic planar flash using an 11nm process to prove that flash memory would continue to scale for another few years.
But Toshiba also had proven a year earlier that there was a path to continue to increase the number of bits on a chip even past this point by tipping the entire structure on its side, thus creating 3D NAND. This approach further postponed the end of NAND flash, extending its life, and delaying any mass adoption of any alternative technology.
Even though the flash and DRAM businesses have enjoyed these breakthroughs, NAND and DRAM makers continue to expend significant research efforts to develop alternative technologies. From their perspective the scaling limit of today’s technologies, although frequently extended, will inevitably come upon us, forcing them to adopt some alternative technology.
Here’s how chip makers expect for this to play out. Figure 2 is a rendition of Fig. 1 meant to illustrate the relative costs of flash versus some alternative technology. The chart was actually created in 2008, nearly 10 years ago, well before 3D NAND flash was expected to extend flash technology. In the chart, wafer costs for the “New Tech” memory technology have been arbitrarily set to be 50% higher than that of standard flash. Although it’s unclear how much a new technology will actually add to the cost of a wafer in volume production, it is certain that it will increase the cost. The 50% figure fits our needs for the purpose of illustration.
2. The end of flash scaling would open opportunities for an alternative. (Source: Objective Analysis January 2008)
This model assumed that the scaling limit for flash technology would be 10nm, which, at that time, was in keeping with Toshiba’s December 2007 announcement that was previously mentioned. (In actuality, production NAND flash stopped scaling at 15nm.)
The chart (Fig. 2) clearly shows that flash will lose its cost advantage over the new technology once flash loses its ability to scale. Although the new technology has a higher wafer cost, its ability to scale allows it to scale costs below flash’s to become the more cost-effective technology for future generations of memory. A similar chart can be drawn for DRAM.
This crossover’s timing will depend on two factors:
This juncture has been anticipated for over two decades, but is continually postponed. Ask any chip executive, though, and they will express certainty that a scaling limit will indeed occur, and that limit will drive the adoption of a new memory technology.
Let’s have a look at the leading alternative memory technologies.FRAM
The Ferroelectric RAM, usually called FRAM or FeRAM, is mislabeled since it involves no iron (chemical symbol: “Fe”). Despite the technology’s name, older FRAM technologies are based on something called a Perovskite crystal. The technology gained its name from the fact that certain materials exhibit hysteresis similar to that of magnetic materials. Hysteresis is the basis for magnetic recording, and is diagrammed in Fig. 3.
3. Hysteresis (shown above) is the basis for magnetic recording. (Source: NDT Resource Center)
In a magnetic system a magnetizing force “H” is applied (horizontal axis) to push the flux density “B” (vertical axis) to be either north or south. As the force moves to the right on the chart from (0,0) the flux density of the magnet rises to some level where it saturates. When the field is removed (returning back to the center of the horizontal axis) the flux remains (marked “Retentivity”), and the bit is magnetized. The curve’s vertical axis intercept represents this remaining magnetism. Reversing this process drives the left-hand side of the curve, and causes the vertical axis to be intercepted in the opposite direction.
Ferroelectric memories behave much the same way, but the horizontal axis is replaced by the voltage across a material, and the vertical axis is used to indicate the charge.
In the past this has been accomplished through the use of certain very unique materials known as PZT and SBT. The storage mechanism consists of one atom in the middle of the PZT or SBT crystal which can be moved by a positive current to the top of the cell (the red sphere in Fig. 4) or by a negative current to the bottom to indicate a 1 or a 0. Once moved, the atom stays where it is until moved again, so the technology is nonvolatile.
4. Here is a ferroelectric PZT molecule. (Source: Objective Analysis)
The biggest drawback that has stood in the way of the technology’s success has been that neither of the materials used, SBT or PZT, behaved very nicely in a semiconductor fabrication plant. PZT is lead zirconium titanate, and lead ions are very mobile—they wander all over the chip (and the entire fab) rather than stay where they can do their job. Lead contamination is a big concern in semiconductor fabs. This limited the technologies’ popularity.
Recently, ferroelectric-style hysteresis has been identified in hafnium oxide (HfO2), a material that is widely used in standard semiconductor processes known as Hi-k dielectrics. This is a more manageable material, and it is already used in high volume in leading wafer fabrication plants, giving it a very promising outlook for future memory technologies.MRAM
As opposed to the FRAM, an MRAM actually does use magnetism to store bits. This makes some people worry that bits will be disturbed by external magnetic fields, but these bits are flipped by energy that is applied in very close proximity to the magnet, so the local field is extraordinarily dense compared to most externally applied fields. In other words, although you could cause bits to by applying an external magnetic field, that field would need to be extremely strong, so it would take a big effort to cause any trouble.
Early MRAMs, now called “Toggle MRAMs” would magnetize and demagnetize bits by passing write currents through write lines above and below the bit cell. These currents created a magnetic field around the write lines that, combined, were strong enough to magnetize the “Soft” magnetic layer represented by the green plate in Fig. 5. The blue plate, called the “hard” magnetic layer, was insensitive to this field and remained magnetized in the original direction set at the factory. Reversing the currents reversed the soft layer’s magnetic moment from north to south.
5. Above, a toggle MRAM. (Source: Freescale Semiconductor)
During manufacture a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was formed between the hard and soft magnetic layers. If the two layers are both magnetized in the same direction the MTJ’s resistance is low, but if the two layers are magnetized in opposite directions then the MTJ has a high resistance.
Toggle MRAMs run into a problem as the bit cell is scaled: The current required to flip the bit doesn’t shrink as the write lines get smaller, so the current density increases to the point where the wire will melt.
The solution to this problem came from the disk-drive industry, which was already using spin torque transfer (STT, also called “spin transfer torque” in some circles) to reduce the size of the bits on HDDs. With STT the programming current actually passes through the magnet rather than through write lines adjacent to the bit. STT is the basis for more advanced MRAM cells, and a further development of STT called “perpendicular STT” promises to take MRAMs to tiny processes envisioned for future chip technologies (Fig. 6).
6. Above is a perpendicular spin transfer torque MRAM cell. (Source: Spin Transfer Technologies)
Because the materials needed to manufacture MRAM are already used in very high production volumes to make silicon-based HDD heads, their maturity is high and their interaction with silicon is very well understood. This is a strong advantage for MRAM technology.
Today MRAM is available in volume from Everspin, with other companies like Spin Transfer Technologies and Avalanche closing the gap. All of these companies are fabless. Everspin’s fab partner Globalfoundries is aggressively promoting the Everspin MRAM technology as a replacement for NOR flash in ASICs and MCUs for 14nm and tighter process geometries.
All major memory chip makers appear to have ongoing MRAM development efforts, but most are being relatively quiet about them. They’re participating in MRAM development to prepare for the inevitable end to DRAM scaling, which seems to continually be postponed.
IBM has also done some notable research on MRAMs, with the most intriguing technology being its “Racetrack Memory.” In this technology (Fig. 7), a ribbon of magnetic material is patterned onto the walls and bottom of a trench, and is treated somewhat like a magnetic tape. Read and write head structures are placed at the base of the ribbon to read and record data that runs along the length of the ribbon. When a current is passed through the ribbon the magnetized domain walls move left or right along the current path and pass over the heads.
7. Here is an illustration of racetrack memory. (Source: IBM)PCM
Perhaps the most notable attribute of Phase-Change Memory (PCM) is its legacy: Gordon Moore and Ron Neale co-authored an article in Electronics Magazine in early 1970 detailing a 256-bit PCM they had developed.
PCM works by changing the phase of a special kind of glass (Ge2Sb2Te5) within the bit cell. When a programming current flows through the cell (Fig. 8), it heats up. A higher heating current that is removed early causes the glass to solidify into an amorphous, nonconductive state. Slower heating at a lower initial temperature solidifies the glass in a conductive crystalline structure. Technically the amorphous state is still a liquid, and technically a crystal is necessarily a solid, so the two states of the cell, crystalline and amorphous, represent two of the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. This is the basis for the name “Phase Change Memory.”
8. PCM works by changing the phase of a special kind of glass (Ge2Sb2Te5) within the bit cell. (Source: Intel Corp.)
Although Intel and Micron argued at its 2015 introduction that their new 3D XPoint Memory was not a phase change memory, reverse engineering of actual devices indicates otherwise.
One of the nicer aspects of PCM is the fact that the current runs in only one direction, making the selector much easier to design. A simple diode is all that’s needed (more on this later).RRAM
Here’s where nomenclature gets tricky. Resistive RAM, known as RRAM or ReRAM, is an umbrella term for any memory whose bit state is defined as a higher or lower resistance. This differs from NAND and NOR flash as well as EPROM and EEPROM, all of whose states are defined by a shift in a transistor’s threshold voltage. It also differs from DRAM, whose state consists of a charge (or lack of charge) on a capacitor, or SRAM, whose state is the status of a flip-flop: Is the right-hand or the left-hand transistor turned on, since they can’t both be on at the same time?
It happens that MRAM’s mechanism involves a change in resistance, so a liberal interpretation of RRAM could include MRAM, and for similar reasons PCM could be called an RRAM.
Typically, though, the industry refers to other technologies as RRAM, mainly oxygen vacancy memory (OxRAM, below) and conductive bridging memory (CBRAM, further down).OxRAM
The oxygen displacement memory (OxRAM) is based on a material similar to that used in PCM. This material, called chalcogenide glass, can be coupled with other materials that will remove oxygen ions when a current flows in one direction, and replace them when the current flows in the other direction. Normally this glass is an insulator, but glass with “oxygen vacancies” is conductive.
A number of different companies have research efforts in this area, including Rambus (through its acquisition of Unity Semiconductor), Western Digital (via its Contour Semiconductor acquisition), HP, 4Ds, and Weebit Nano.
One overhyped rendition of an OxRAM was HP’s “Memristor.” Although the company made out that this was a revolutionary change and was unlike any technology that had preceded it, close inspection revealed that it was yet another name for an oxygen vacancy memory.Nano-Metal Filament
Crossbar is making serious progress in this effort with active sampling of ReRAM prototypes based on a unique nano-metal filament approach.
Crossbar’s design (Fig. 9) has been called “self-selecting” thanks to an attribute that eliminates the need for a selector device on the cell. An un-programmed cell has no naon-metal filament and does not conduct current. By passing a higher current in the right direction a conductive path is formed that almost bridges the gap, but not quite. When a small Read current is passed through the device in the same direction, the final gap is bridged and the bit becomes fully conductive.
9. Crossbar’s design has been called “self-selecting” thanks to an attribute that eliminates the need for a selector device on the cell. (Source: Crossbar Technology)
A small reverse read current (leaked from another cell) fails to bridge the gap, to prevent the “Sneak Paths” explained below. A larger reverse current removes the conductive path altogether.CBRAM
Like the OxRAM and filament memories just described, a Conductive Bridging RAM (CBRAM) is based on a chalcogenide glass, but its set/reset mechanism differs: Rather than building a conductive path through oxygen vacancies, the CBRAM moves silver ions from the cell’s anode into the glass to create a conductive path (Fig. 10). A reverse current moves these silver ions back into the anode.
10. The CBRAM moves silver ions from the cell’s anode into the glass to create a conductive path. (Source: Adesto Technologies)
The only company actively involved in CBRAMs at this point is Adesto Technologies, whose device was initially developed at Arizona State University.NRAM
The Nantero NRAM is a very different form of cell that uses a pad or “fabric” of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a silicon well to store bits (Fig. 11).
11. The Nantero NRAM uses a pad or “fabric” of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a silicon well to store bits. (Source: Nantero)
When a current flows through the cell in one direction these nanotubes compress into a highly-conductive state. When the current is reversed the nanotubes expand and become less conductive. Programmed bits remain in their compressed state after current is removed thanks to van der Waals forces, a phenomenon that causes things to stick together once they come into intimate contact. This is a very strong force and is a challenge to overcome in many mechanical systems, but in the case of the NRAM it is a desirable attribute.
Nantero has licensed Fujitsu to produce its NRAM technology, which is a very good sign: Fujitsu was the highest-volume producer of Ramtron’s FRAM technology in the previous two decades, having chosen this technology because of its very low write energy requirements. Fujitsu’s approval of the NRAM process is a very positive sign.Bulk Switching
Some companies argue that there’s a statistical chance that “filamentary memories” can have bad bits, and that the likelihood that a bit will reliably program drops as the production process shrinks. The memories that do not count on filaments include PCM, MRAM, NRAM, and 4DS’ rendition of OxRAM. To our knowledge all the others use filaments to form the conductive path between either end of the bit cell.Selector Devices
One very important part of all of these memories is the choice of selector devices. Since none of these new technologies depends on the use of transistors for sensing, they can be built as diode arrays with the memory cell above or below the diode. This automatically brings space savings to the device, since diodes are smaller than transistors.
The selector needs to have a very high ratio of on to off resistance, since a crosspoint can leak currents from unselected cells. An entire article could be dedicated to these “sneak paths” so we won’t go into that in detail here. Suffice it to say that R&D labs are placing a phenomenal focus on selectors, as is evidenced by the fact that, for the past few years the IEEE’s IEDM conference has included roughly as many selector papers as memory cell papers.
Certain companies claim to have an advantage in this realm: Crossbar’s cell is “self-selecting”, so the selector is inherently a part of the cell. PCM, including the Intel-Micron 3D XPoint Memory, is unique in that it is programmed and erased with currents flowing in the same direction. This means that the selector can be a simple diode, whereas other selectors are bidirectional devices.
The selector device is about as important as the memory cell itself, as it can make or break the memory. In the future we anticipate continuing focus on this critical technology.Kilopass VLT
This article would be incomplete if it omitted one more technology. Kilopass has recently started to promote its VLT (Vertical Layered Thyristor) technology, shown in Fig. 12, as a replacement for SRAM and DRAM (ed. note: Kilopass was acquired by Synopsys on Jan. 10, 2018, which occurred after the writing of this article). The greatest difference between VLT and every other technology in this article is that VLT is not a nonvolatile memory. Instead, it’s a DRAM replacement that requires no refreshing and that promises to scale well beyond any limit that DRAM may face.
12. Kilopass has recently started to promote its VLT (Vertical Layered Thyristor) technology, as a replacement for SRAM and DRAM. (Source: Kilopass)
The bit consists of nothing more than the basic thyristor (a 4-layer device, similar to two bipolar transistors, NPN and PNP, tied together) and requires no DRAM capacitor. A selector is not required either, since the device passes current in only one direction when turned on. The bitline ties directly to the cathode and the wordline to the anode.
Not only should VLT scale well, but the company says that it also can be stacked, an option that appears today to be impossible with DRAM.
Since it’s an all-silicon technology and is based upon existing process technology it could have strong advantages over other technologies as a DRAM replacement.Do Some Applications Prefer One Over The Other?
I am often asked which memory technology has the best prospects for success, and which applications are better matched to which technology. My short reply is that none of these technologies is particularly better suited for an application than is any other, and that cost is the one overriding factor that will determine their success.
A glowing example can be found with today’s mainstream technologies: NAND vs. NOR vs. DRAM vs. SRAM. Each of these technologies competes against the others in many applications, even though they are extremely different from one another. Code can be executed directly out of NOR but not from NAND, but NAND is substantially less costly, and NAND/DRAM combinations have successfully taken the bulk of the cell phone market from a combination of NOR flash and SRAM. Server users have found that they can often cost-reduce their systems by reducing DRAM and increasing the use of NAND-based SSDs to achieve the same performance. NOR and SRAM win out for reasons of speed or economy when the size of the memory is small enough that a cheaper NOR flash or SRAM can replace a significantly larger (and slightly more expensive) NAND or DRAM.
Decisions of which technology to use most often are based on the total cost of the system and the performance it must achieve. At the moment all of the emerging memory technologies defined above are challenged to approach the cost of entrenched alternatives – today there is a difference of a few orders of magnitude for most systems. As volume shipments increase that situation should change.Which Will Win?
Objective Analysis expects for the memory that races down the cost curve the fastest will stand the greatest chance of winning the bulk of the market.
Intel is forcing its 3D XPoint Memory down the cost curve by manufacturing significant volumes at a loss. The company can afford to do this because it believes that 3D XPoint is required to support the company’s higher-performance CPUs. Any money that Intel loses on 3D XPoint sales will be recovered through the sale of more costly processors.
Other technologies don’t have this advantage, and must be sold at a profit to make any sense. This is a chicken-and-egg problem: To reach high volumes any emerging memory must sell at competitive prices, but costs will prohibit that until high volumes are reached.
If DRAM and NAND flash do finally hit their scaling limits, then these technologies can become cost competitive after a couple of scaling nodes have been missed, as was shown in Fig. 2, but until that time they will be relegated to those niches that can tolerate their higher costs in return for some indispensable technical advantage, and those applications are very few, and have very low unit volume requirements.
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ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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