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EUC with HCI: Why It concerns
HP is expected to unveil a brand new line of stackable switching products this week in an try to preserve its No. 2 place behind Cisco. but the market leader reportedly has a few hints up its personal sleeve.
The Palo Alto, Calif.-based mostly computing device and printer maker is introducing its new ProCurve lineup at an trade adventure Thursday with 9 new SKUs, together with two out this week, 4 due in December and the remaining expected in the spring of 2005.
The products construct on HP's ProCurve Adaptive edge architecture and have already caught the attention of customers, comparable to Oregon State school, which participated in early checking out trials.
Louise Bishop, a advertising manager at HP, informed internetnews.com the brand new switches are additionally designed to future-proof networks via bringing Gigabit and 10-Gigabit Ethernet to the community edge.
"The large majority of desktops and laptops already assist Gigabit connectivity, so network users are poised to take advantage of Gigabit," Bishop noted. "on account of the high cost and complexity of imposing Gigabit, some organisations cling off, leading to network bottlenecks that abate their capacity to straight away carry the more and more significant records traffic demanded by way of users."
The business observed it has a growing to be lead over network facet gadget and change producers like Nortel, Foundry and 3Com, however has its eyes on diluting Cisco's greater than 60 percent market share. The business compares its 3400cl offerings to Cisco Catalyst 3750G-16TD-S, which expenses $19,995 however most effective comes with 16 ports. HP stated its switches are additionally akin to 3Com's 3870 and Foundry's X424.
To try this, HP's ProCurve division is offering two port densities. The ProCurve change 3400cl sequence is produced from 24- and forty eight-port 10/100/1000 intelligent aspect stackable switches.
The ProCurve switch 3400cl-24G ($three,759) points 20 ports offering 10/a hundred/one thousand RJ-forty five connectivity and four dual-character ports with 10/100/one thousand RJ-45 or non-compulsory Gigabit mini-GBIC slots.
The ProCurve change 3400cl-48G ($6,899) aspects 44 ports with 10/100/1000 RJ-forty five connectivity and 4 twin-personality ports like its 24-port sibling.
The switches present full Layer three and 4 routing facets, RPS (RPS 600) guide, resiliency features for high-availability purposes and one module slot for optional 10-GbE modules.
protection aspects within the new Gigabit products include port-primarily based entry control lists, internet-based mostly authentication, MAC lockout/MAC lockdown, as well as assist for SSL, SSHv2, relaxed FTP and SNMPv3. Convergence points consist of hyperlink Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP), class of carrier (CoS) aid for DSCP, IP-category of service (IP TOS), TDP/UDP, IP tackle and L3 protocol, as well as traffic Prioritization in the variety of 802.1p classification and Layer four prioritization.
because no piece of equipment works in a vacuum, HP is recommending the brand new 3400cl switches in a few configurations.
as an instance, the company mentioned system integrators assembling high-performance wiring closets may pair the 3400cl with HP's 9300 sequence servers and particular person 10Gig uplinks. The switches can also be used with 5300 collection and Gigabit optical trunks with cost effective Gigabit uplinks.
The units can even be used with HP's 9300 collection servers and dual 10Gb uplinks for top-availability answer and single 10Gb uplink with a dual 10Gb uplink with spanning tree and CX4 10Gb daisy chained 3400s for flexible stacking and excessive-density closets.
HP spoke of its subsequent part is supplying two new 10-GbE Modules, a 10-GbE X2-CX4 Transceiver and a ten-GbE X2-SC LR Optic next month.
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Governor Ralph Northam announced $1.5 million in funding for six business winners of the first-ever RISE Coastal Community Resilience Challenge. The winners will each receive between $160,000 and $310,000 to develop innovative products, services, and workforce development programs to help coastal communities adapt to climate change. These approaches will be demonstrated in the Hampton Roads region with the goal of building economically viable businesses and solutions that are scalable to other communities.
â€śThe Commonwealth is well-positioned to create and implement innovative adaptive concepts that will ensure the viability and economic vitality of coastal areas for future generations,â€ťÂ said Governor Northam.Â â€śAs we continue to look at new ways to address the growing challenge of extreme weather events and sea level rise, these six businesses will be leading the charge to develop, test, and demonstrate cutting-edge products and tangible solutions to improve the resilience of our coastal communities and mitigate the growing risks to Virginians, especially in our Hampton Roads region.â€ť
In 2017, Virginia was awarded $120.5 million through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developmentâ€™s (HUD) National Disaster Resilience Competition (NDRC) for innovative solutions to combat sea level rise in the Hampton Roads region. Of the award, HUD allocated $5.25 million to support the development of the nationâ€™s first-of-its-kind resilience innovation hub called RISE, a Norfolk-based non-profit organization that provides businesses the resources to develop and grow resilience-building solutions for coastal communities. RISEâ€™s first initiative has been their signatureÂ Coastal Community Resilience Challenge, which was funded with $1.5 million through the Resilience Innovation Fund.
â€śMassive infrastructure projects take years and billions of dollars,â€ťÂ said RISE Executive Director Dr. Paul Robinson. â€śBy developing the Hampton Roads region as a hub of resilience innovationÂ for entrepreneurs,Â we can accelerate investment in affordable and scalable solutions and establish Hampton Roads as ground zero for the resilience economy.â€ť
â€śBuilding strong entrepreneurial ecosystems is a key part of our economic plan, and this competition is yet another way we are encouraging growth and success for our small businesses,â€ťÂ said Secretary of Commerce and Trade Brian Ball.Â â€śIn addition to the groundbreaking work these six winners will be doing, we are excited that two of the winning companies will be relocating from out of state to Hampton Roads for this innovative work.â€ť
The 2018 RISE Coastal Community Resilience Challenge topics were identified by more than 60 municipal, national, and international stakeholders and resilience experts during a Challenge Design Workshop organized by RISE and MIT Solve,Â an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, with support of the City of Norfolk Resilience Office and sponsorship from Old Dominion University. RISE will work alongside the winners to facilitate access to real-world infrastructure, data, experts and mentorsâ€”with the aim of scaling proven solutions nationally and internationally.
â€śAs Virginia plans to be resilient with rising seas, recurrent flooding, and more intense and extreme storms, we need an all hands on deck approach to protecting the Commonwealth,â€ťÂ said Secretary of Natural Resources and Chief Resilience Officer of Virginia Matthew Strickler. â€śI am pleased to see private industry working together with state and federal government to tackle this existential threat to Virginia.â€ť
Last November, Governor Northam issued groundbreakingÂ Executive Order Twenty-Four laying out a series of actions the Commonwealth will undertake to bolster Virginiaâ€™s resilience to sea level rise and natural hazards and limit the impact of flooding, extreme weather events, and wildfires. This executive order is among the most comprehensive actions undertaken by any state to improve resilience and protect people and property from natural catastrophes. Most significantly, the executive order directs the development of a â€śCoastal Resilience Master Planâ€ť to protect our coastline from sea level rise and extreme weather.
â€śRobust economic development opportunities related to coastal adaptation needs provide a critical path forward as we develop our Coastal Resilience Master Plan to protect and adapt Virginiaâ€™s coast,â€ťÂ said Admiral Ann Phillips, Special Assistant to the Governor for Coastal Adaptation and Protection. â€śThanks to the hard work and success of RISE, these six entrepreneurs bring creative solutions across a range of todayâ€™s needs for our coastal communities, which will help make us more resilient as we prepare for our climate-changed future.â€ť
â€śThis initial challenge revealed the promise of our competition model for identifying innovative solutions and growing resilience-focused businesses,â€ťÂ said RISE Chief Strategy Officer Dr. Katerina Oskarsson. â€śWe are currently preparing to open the next Challenge Competition cycle in the summer.â€ť
RISE will work with the six small businesses, selected from a pool of 51 applicants, to grow their businesses in a â€śliving laboratoryâ€ť environment across the Hampton Roads region. For more information on the winners and the next competition cycle, visit www.riseresilience.org.Business Name Project Description Building Resilience Solution Building Resilience Solutions will pilot alternative flood resilienceÂ retrofit methods for older and historic structures under various flooding conditions. Constructis Energy Constructis EnergyÂ will pilot patent-pending technology that harnesses kinetic energy from traffic to provide power to emergency services, traffic signals and pumps that clear flooded roadways. GROW Oyster Reefs GROW Oyster Reefs will demonstrate a novel concept of oyster reef restoration which will improve the overall water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and reduce effects of flooding by creating an organic seawall. InfraSGA InfraSGA willÂ pilot innovative urban retrofit bio-retention systems that will reduce stormwater flooding while decreasing the design, construction, and operation and maintenance costs. Landscape Resilience Partnership Landscape Resilience Partnership will accelerate the adoption of green infrastructure by growing its workforce training program. This will ensure that Hampton Roads has a well-trained network of skilled workers to design, install and maintain nature-based solutions. Resilient Enterprise Solutions Resilience Enterprise Solutions will offer financing, insurance and home-raising as a single source offering while also establishing a Home Raising Training Academy in Hampton Roads. Like this:
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Editorsâ€™ Note: This is an article that focuses on the basic phases of building effective networks, using one grounded example to bring the theory to life. We recommend that readers look back also at Carl Sussmanâ€™s article (see Winter 2003, â€śMaking Change: How to Build Adaptive Capacityâ€ť) and think about how the two approaches relate to one another in the achievement of real change.
Communities are built on connections. Better connections usually provide better opportunities. But, what are better connections, and how do they lead to more effective and productive communities? How do we build connected communities that create, and take advantage of, opportunities in their region or marketplace? How does success emerge from the complex interactions within communities?
This article investigates building adapt ive and agi le communit ies through improving their connectivityâ€” internally and externallyâ€”using network ties to create economic opportunities. Improved connectivity is created through an iterative process of knowing the network and knitting the network.
Know the Net
Improved connectivity starts with a mapâ€”knowing the complex human system you are embedded in. The Appalachian Center for Economic Networks [ACEnet], a regional economic development organization in Athens, Ohio has long followed the connectivity mantraâ€”create effective networks for individual, group and regional growth and vitality. Recently ACEnet has begun to map and measure the social and economic connections it helped create in the grassroots food industry in Southeast Ohio. Network maps provide a revealing snapshot of a business ecosystem at a particular point in time. These maps can help answer many key questions in the community-building process.
These are all important questions that ACEnet seeks to answer in order to help build a more vibrant economy in Appalachian Ohio.ACEnet, founded in 1985, provides a wide range of assistance to food, wood, and technologyentrepreneurs in 29 counties of Appalachian Ohio. This region has some of the highest poverty and unemployment rates in the country, and ACEnet works with communities throughout the region who want to improve their support for entrepreneurs as a means to provide more local ownership and higher quality jobs.
Before you can improve your network, you need to know where you are currentlyâ€”the â€śas isâ€ť picture. A network map shows the nodes and links in the network.
The transformation required to achieve healthy communities is the result of many collaborations among network nodes. Complexity scientists describe this phenomenonâ€”where local interactions lead to global patternsâ€” as emergence. This is how good local ideas are improved upon and brought to scale. We can guide emergence by understanding and catalyzing connections. For example, knowing where the connections are, and are not, allows a community development organization to influence local interactions. This is particularly important in policy networks where key nodes play an important role in what flows throughout the network. Influencing a smal l number of well-connected nodes often results in better outcomes than trying to access the top person or calling on random players in the policy network. If you know the network, you can better focus your influencing activities.
What Does a Vibrant, Effective Community Network Look Like?
Research has been done to discover the qualities of vibrant networks. Sociologists, physicists, mathematicians, and management consultants have all discovered similar answers about effective networks. The amazing discovery is that people in organizations, routers on the internet, cells in a nervous system, molecules in protein interactions, animals in an ecosystem, and pages on the Web are all organized in efficient network structures that have similar properties.
Five general patterns are observed in all effective networks:
Network Neglect Can Lead to Devolution
Even though we know several keys to building effective networks, this knowledge is rarely put to use. Networks, whether social or business, are usually left to grow without a plan. When left unmanaged, networks follow two simple, yet powerful driving forces:
This results in many small and dense clusters with little or no diversity. Everyone in the cluster knows what everyone else knows and no one knows what is going on in other clusters. The lack of outside information, and dense cohesion within the network, removes all possibility for new ideas and innovations. We see this in isolated rural communities that are resistant to change, or in a classic â€śold boyâ€ť network. Yet, the dense connections, and high degree of commonality forms good work groupsâ€”clusters of people who can work together smoothly.
Instead of allowing networks to evolve without direction, successful individuals, groups, and organizations have found that it pays to actively manage their network. Using the latest research, we can now knit networks to create productive individuals and smart communities.
FIGURE 1â€”SCATTERED EMERGENCE
Knit the Net
A vibrant community network is generally built in four phases, each with its own distinct topology. Each phase builds a more adaptive and resilient network structure than the prior phase. Network mapping can be used to track your progress through these four stages.
Experience shows that most communities start as small, emergent clusters organized around common interests or goals. Usually these clusters are isolated from each other. They are very small groups of 1â€“5 people or organizations that have connected out of necessity (see Figure 1). If these clusters do not organize further, the community structure remains weak and under-productive.
Without active leaders who take responsibility for building networks, spontaneous connections between groups emerge very slowly, or not at all. We call this leadership role a network weaver.6 Instead of allowing these small clusters to drift, in the hope of making a lucky connection, the weavers actively create new interactions between the clusters.
Hub and Spoke
The first network a weaver creates is the hub-and-spoke model, with the weaver as the hub. The weaver has the vision, the energy, and the social skills to connect to diverse individuals and groups and start information flowing to and from them. The weaver usually has external links outside of the community to bring in resources and innovation. This is a critical phase for community building because everything depends on the weaver who is the lone hub in the network. However, if multiple weavers are working in the same community, we may get multiple hub and spoke networks, with some overlap between all of them. Figure 2 shows the weaver connecting the previously scattered little clusters.
Initially the network weaver forms relationships with each of the small clusters. During this phase the weaver is learning about each individual or small clusterâ€”discovering what it knows and what it needs. However, the hub-and-spoke model is only a temporary step in community growth. It should not be utilized for long because it concentrates both power and vulnerability in one nodeâ€”the hub. If the lead organization/weaver fails or leaves, then we are back to the disconnected community in Figure 1.
In healthy network weaving, the spokes of the hub do not remain separated for long. The weaver begins connecting those individuals and clusters who can collaborate or assist one another in some way. Concurrently, the weaver begins encouraging others to begin weaving the network as well. Even though it is a temporary structure, the hub-and-spoke model is usually the best topology to bring together the scattered clusters seen in most immature communities. An organization with a vision, and contacts to external ideas and resources, can play the role of the hub. This is the role ACEnet took up when it saw that SE Ohio was home to many small, uncoordinated food clusters. There was the Farmerâ€™s Market crowd, the natural bakery, a worker-owned Mexican restaurant and a few other entrepreneurs creating unique food products. ACEnet brought all of these unconnected groups together around a kitchen incubatorâ€”a state-of-the-art facility for preparing and packaging a large variety of food items.
Multi-Hub Small World NetworkWhen ACEnet decided to build a Kitchen Incubatorâ€”a licensed processing facility where entrepreneurs could rent the use of ovens, stoves and a processing line to produce their productsâ€”they used the need to design the incubator as an opportunity to link small clusters. For example, for one design session they brought people from the townâ€™s restaurants together with small farmers who wanted to turn their produce into value-added products. Farmers were able to learn about food-production safety from the restauranteurs who explained how these procedures could be incorporated into the incubator. Some of the farmers also used the opportunity to sell their produce to the restaurants, which were always on the lookout for unique raw materials. And, an unexpected bonus was that the restaurants realized that they could use the Kitchen Incubatorâ€™s storage warehousefor large orders from their suppliers, thus making the incubator an important resource within the network.
As the weaver connects to many groups, information is soon flowing into the weaver about each groupâ€™s skills and goals. An astute weaver can now start to introduce clusters that have common goals/interests or complementary skills. As clusters connect, their spokes to the hub can weaken, freeing up the weaver to attach to new groups. Although the spoke links weaken, they never disappearâ€”they remain weaker, dormant ties, able to be re-activated whenever necessary. In order to accommodate new connections, the weaver must teach its early connections how to weave their own network. Training in network building is important at this juncture. Network mapping reveals the progress and identifies emerging network weavers.
This happened with ACEnet as several of the businesses and small nonprofit s began to build thei r own network neighborhood, bringing new nodes and links into the early Athens community network. As the overall network grows, the role of the weaver changes from being the central weaver, to being a facilitator in the communityâ€” coordinating with, and mentoring of other network weavers.
FIGURE 2â€”HUB-AND-SPOKE NETWORK
There are two parts to network weaving. One is relationship building, particularly across traditional divides, which gives people access to innovation and important information. The second is learning how to facilitate collaborations for mutual benefit. Collaborations can vary from simple and short-term, e.g., entrepreneurs purchasing supplies together, to complex and long-term, such as a major policy initiative or the creation of a venture fund. This culture of collaboration creates a state of emergence, where the outcomeâ€”a healthy communityâ€”is more than the sum of the many collaborations. The local interactions create a global outcome that no one could accomplish alone.
Network weaving is not just â€śnetworking,â€ť nor schmoozing, nor handing out business cards. Weaving brings people together for projects, initially small, so they can learn to collaborate. Through that collaboration they strengthen the community and increase the knowledge available in it. After working with the authors, Jack Ricchiuto, a Cleveland-based management consultant and author, created a pyramid of network weaving involvement. Level 1 is a â€śnetworkingâ€ť type interaction, while levels 6 and 7 are highly involved commitments to building community. A majority of ACEnetâ€™s larger successes fall under the two top levels [6 & 7] of Ricchiutoâ€™s Pyramid .Level Activity 7 Introducing A to B in person and offering a collaboration opportunity toget A and B off to a successful partnership 6 Introducing A to B in person and following up with A and B to nurtureconnection 5 Introducing A to B in person 4 Introducing A to B in a conference call 3 Introducing A to B in an email 2 Suggesting A talk to B and calling B to look for a contact 1 Suggesting to A that A should talk to B
This transition from network weaver to network facilitator is critical. The original weaver is identifying and mentoring new weavers who will eventually take over much of the network building and maintenance. If this transition is not made, then the community network remains dependent on the central weaver and their organization. At the transition point, the weaver changes from being a direct leader to an indirect leader, influencing new emergent leaders appearing throughout the community. This transition is necessary for the network to increase its scale, impact, and reach.
Moving from a single-hub topology to a multi-hub topology with its many advantages. The first advantage of a multi-hub topology is that it eliminates having a single point of failure. ACEnet is still a dominant hub in SE Ohio, and its failure would affect the region greatlyâ€”but not as significantly as five years ago when the network was spar ser and more dependent on ACEnet. Now ACEnet has the luxury of spending time in new pursuits such as teaching others to knit their nets, and expanding the network to other areas inside and outside of Appalachia.To bring in new ideas from outside the region, ACEnet has developed several â€śinnovation learning clustersâ€ťthat bring together leading-edge organizations from around the country that share their innovations with each other. ACEnet staff that participate bring information about those innovationsback to the region and adapt them to the local environment. For example, Larry Fisher, one of ACEnetâ€™s directors, participates in a rural entrepreneurship policy cluster where he learned the basics of building a policy network from organizations that had many years of experience. He is now leading ACEnetâ€™s efforts to change the policy of local counties, making it more supportive of entrepreneurship; and he can move forward with a more sure hand since he is building on the experience of others, whom he can contact when he has questions.
As the weaver connects various individuals, organizations and clusters, these entities connect to each other loosely. A new dynamic is revealed hereâ€”the strength of â€śweak ties.â€ť Weak ties are connections that are not as frequent, intense, or resilient as the strong network ties that form the backbone of a network. Strong ties are usually found within a network cluster, while weak ties are found between clusters. As clusters begin to connect, the first bridging links are usually weak ties.
FIGURE 3â€”MULTI-HUB, SMALL-WORLD NETWORK
Bridging ties between clusters are important to innovation. New ideas are often discovered outside the local domain. To get transformative ideas you often have go outside of your group. A successful formula for creating ties for innovation is to find other groups that are both similar to and different from your own. Similarity helps build trust, while diversity introduces new ideas and perspectives. Connect on your similarity, and profit from your diversity.
Now that other hubs [network weavers] are emerging in the network, the various weavers begin to connect to each other, creating a multi-hub community. Not only is this topology less fragile, it is also the best design to minimize the average path length throughout the networkâ€”remember , the shorter the hops, the better for work flow, information exchange and knowledge sharing! Information percolates most quickly through a network where the best-connected hubs are all connected to each other. A network with many hubs is also very resilient and cannot be easily dismantled.
Next comes a multi-hub, small-world network, illustrated in Figure 3. Here, four clusters have created many weak ties to each other. The weak ties may or may note become stronger to create one tightly coupled larger cluster. The multiple hubs can be small businesses or other community development organizations. Initially, the ACEnet Kitchen Incubator was a major gathering place, a physical network hub, where people ran into each other, hung around to talk, and often cooked up some kind of deal, e.g., joint orders of jars so they could get a cheaper price, an arrangement to jointly market their products, or an agreement to trade labor on a project.
The impor tant next step i s to strengthen some of the weak ties in the network so they become strong ties. However, a multi-hub network may be difficult to achieve if political and â€śturfâ€ť issues are raging through the network, so these need to be handled early in the process in order for the network to emerge effectively. If two or more community development organizations start battling over turf and control of the community, the result may be two or more competing, single-hub networks that ignore the larger community needs and focus on the survival of their own network.Initially, the ACEnet Kitchen Incubator was a major gathering place, a physical network hub, where people ran into each other, hung around to talk, and often cooked up some kind of deal: joint orders of jars so they could get a cheaper price, an arrangement to jointly market their products, or an agreement to trade labor on a project. However, after a few years, many othernetwork hubs popped up. For example, the Athens Farmersâ€™ Market hosted more than 90 farmers and local food vendors who networked with each other and their avid customers. Several years ago, four local organizations set up a Farmersâ€™Market CafĂ© that provided tables and chairs under tents so that people could hang around longer and network with more neighbors. Casa Neuva, a worker-owned Mexican restaurant, is not only a networking hub, but has played a major role in organizing most of the locally owned restaurants into the Athens Independent RestaurantÂ Association, a group that donates money each month to community nonprofits and is increasing the amount of produce and locally processed goods that restaurants purchase from local farm families. Six miles outside town, more than 200 people flock on Saturdays to enjoy fresh baked focaccia, pastries, and hearth bread on the outdoor terrace outside the Big Chimney Bakery. The proprietor is a major network hub himself, who helps new entrepreneurs develop their recipes and learn strategy from a pro.
The Core/Periphery Network
The end-goal for vibrant, sustainable community networks is the core/periphery model. This topology emerges after many years of network weaving by multiple hubs. It is a stable structure that can link to other well-developed networks in other regions. The network core in this model contains the key community members, including many who are network weavers, who have developed strong ties between themselves. The periphery of this network contains three groups of nodes that are usually tied to the core through looser ties.
FIGURE 4â€”CORE / PERIPHERY NETWORK
The economic landscape is full of imperfectly shared ideas and information. The periphery is the open, porous boundary of the community network where new members/ideas come and go. The periphery allows us to reach ideas and information not currently prevalent in the network, while the core allows us to act on those ideas and information. The periphery monitors the environment, while the core implements what is discovered and deemed useful.
Figure 4 shows a well-developed core/periphery structure. The blue nodes are the core, while the green nodes reside in the periphery. This network core is very dense;7 not all cores will have as high a concentration of connections as this one. Too much density can lead to rigidity and an overload of activity. Monitoring your network using social network analysis can help you see where your network needs to shift connections to match the current environment.
At this point, the network weaversâ€™ initial tasks are mostly completed. Now, attention turns toward network maintenance and building bridges to other networks. The network weavers can begin to form inter-regional alliances to create new products, services and marketsâ€”or to shape and influence policy that will strengthen the community or region. This happens by connecting network cores to each other utilizing their peripheries. The network weavers maximize the reach of the periphery into new areas, while keeping the core strong. The weavers now focus on multi-core projects that will have major impact on the community.ACEnet has helped form the Appalachian Ohio Regional Investment Coalition (AORIC) which includes another community organization, a regional foundation, the Ohio Arts Council, and an Ohio Universityâ€“based institute. AORIC is now mobilizing a large network of organizations interested in supporting entrepreneurs as a way to create a healthier regional economy. This network is reaching deep into communities to identify the barriers entrepreneurs face, and then to collaborate on projects that will develop new supportive infrastructure to increase their success.
As we have seen, weaving a network requires two iterative and continuous steps:
All throughout this process network maps guide the wayâ€”they reveal what we know about the network and they uncover possible next steps for the weaver.
Starting with a disconnected community, network builders can start weaving together the necessary skills and resources to build simple, singlehub networks. This will be followed by a more efficient and resilient multi-hub network, finishing with a sustainable core/periphery structure. Once the network is strong, it can connect to other distant community networks to create more opportunities.
1. The average path length in a network is a convenient measure of the networkâ€™s global efficiency. The longer the average path length, the longer it takes for messages to travel between any two nodes, and the more distorted they are when they arrive.2. An indirect tie is a network path that connects two nodes through on or more intermediaries. Here A and B, and B and C have direct ties while A and C have an indirect tie through the intermediary B. Aâ€“Bâ€“C3. Nodes with many direct connections that quickly disperse information.4. Nodes that connect otherwise disconnected parts of the networkâ€”they act as liaisons.5. Nodes that connect two or more clustersâ€” they act as bridges between groups.6. While the Athens food network focused on one network weaving organizationâ€”ACEnet, there were actually several individual network weavers within ACEnet. Each network weaver within ACEnet had a particular focus. They all worked with a common vision. If several network weavers are present and willing to collaborate, increased progress is possible.7. Network density is calculated by the number of existing connections as a percentage of the total possible.
VALDIS KREBS is a management consultant and the developer of InFlow social network analysis software ([emailÂ protected], www.orgnet.com). JUNE HOLLEY is founder and President/ CEO of the Appalachian Center for Economic Networks ([emailÂ protected] org, www.acenetworks.org). Contact June or Valdis for information on their workshop on network weaving.
by Gloria Otieno (Bioversity International), Tobias Recha (Bioversity International), John Recha (CCAFS), Seble Samuel (CCAFS)
Diversity builds resilience. This is true for all living forms; not least for the foundation of all life: seeds.
The unrelenting midday sun filled the passenger bus as we completed the final stretch from Entebbe to Hoima. The field visit kicked off with Hoimaâ€™s seed fair, gathering diverse climate-resilient varieties of saved seeds and bringing together international research centers and treaties, national gene banks and farmer associations from across Eastern and Southern Africa.
This excursion aimed to foster resilient seed systems across the region. It was held in Hoima, Uganda, one of the Climate-Smart Villages (CSVs) of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). The field visit and workshops were organized by Bioversity International, Community Technology Development Trust (CTDT) Zimbabwe, the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and Wageningen University (WUR) in March 2019.
The next stop on the field visit was the Hoima Community Seed Bank (HOCOSEB). The seeds filling HOCOSEB have been selected by farmers as best performing for agronomic traits including early maturity, higher yield, tolerance to water stress and pests. They also have a high resistance to diseases and are used to promote biological diversity and conservation. Hoimaâ€™s seed bank, which was launched in August 2018, currently holds around 30 bean varieties, 23 finger millet varieties, two cowpea varieties and one pigeon pea variety, hailing from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Women farmers are also keeping three local vegetable seeds at HOCOSEB, adapted to local conditions.
Despite this progress, several challenges persist given that most of the seed bankâ€™s varieties are farmersâ€™ own selection, including limited access to good quality seeds with definite moisture content, capacity to germinate and high-performance levels.
Reviving indigenous seeds
One exceptional farmer overcoming many of these hurdles is Joy Mugisha, who began working with Bioversity International in 2008 and has been instrumental in improving agrobiodiversity in Southern Uganda. In 2016, she was awarded Best Farmer in South Western Uganda, as part of Uganda's National Best Farm Competition* which highlights farmers who are transforming the country's agricultural sector in productivity, efficiency, sustainability and resilience.
Joy is working with 30 farmers who jointly created a community seed bank in 2016 which houses much of the regionâ€™s genetic diversity. The seed bank includes beans, millet, bananas, maize, coffee, cassava, pumpkin, soya bean, groundnut, chia and amaranth. â€śSome varieties were getting rare and some varieties were no longer grown,â€ť commented Joy, â€śso we decided to mobilize seeds from different regions.â€ť
Boosting regional agrobiodiversity and adaptive capacity
The question is how to amplify such examples from community seed banks to model farmers. How can they transition from fragmented networks to levels of sub-regional exchange between Eastern and Southern Africa? Given the complementary agro-ecologies, such a model could provide a platform to share, combine and scale seed access, knowledge and networks to create resilient seed systems.
Such linkages are crucial under a changing climate in which planting, growing and harvesting conditions become increasingly volatile. â€śOver time, as a result of the changing climate, local communities will be increasingly dependent on traits that come from germplasm not necessarily from their local region,â€ť said Michael Halewood, Head of Policy at Bioversity International. Sub-regional approaches could therefore help to diversify food baskets as a strategy for food security and access diversity through both national genebanks and community seed banks. What's more, they can buffer agrobiodiversity loss associated with climatic changes.
Resilient seed systems in East Africa project is supported by the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (_ITPGRFA) through the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Bioversity International, National Agricultural Research Organization â€“ Plant Genetic Resources Centre (NARO-PGRC) Uganda, European Union, Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality._
*The annual award series is organized in partnership with the Development Finance Company of Uganda (DFCU) Bank, Vision Group, the Netherlands Embassy and KLM Airlines.
Gloria Otieno is an Associate Scientist with Bioversity International. Tobias Recha is a Research Associate at Bioversity International. John Recha is a Scientist at CCAFS East Africa. Seble Samuel is the Communications and Knowledge Management Officer at CCAFS East Africa.
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