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EUC with HCI: Why It matters
HP is expected to unveil a new line of stackable switching products this week in an attempt to keep its No. 2 place at the back of Cisco. however the market leader reportedly has a couple of tricks up its own sleeve.
The Palo Alto, Calif.-based mostly computer and printer maker is introducing its new ProCurve lineup at an industry adventure Thursday with nine new SKUs, together with two out this week, 4 due in December and the ultimate anticipated in the spring of 2005.
The items build on HP's ProCurve Adaptive aspect architecture and have already caught the attention of clients, comparable to Oregon State college, which participated in early testing trials.
Louise Bishop, a advertising and marketing manager at HP, advised internetnews.com the new switches are also designed to future-proof networks by using bringing Gigabit and 10-Gigabit Ethernet to the community aspect.
"The huge majority of desktops and laptops already guide Gigabit connectivity, so community users are poised to take competencies of Gigabit," Bishop spoke of. "as a result of the high charge and complexity of implementing Gigabit, some organizations hang off, leading to community bottlenecks that abate their ability to right away convey the more and more colossal information site visitors demanded through clients."
The enterprise talked about it has a turning out to be lead over network facet equipment and change manufacturers like Nortel, Foundry and 3Com, however it has its eyes on diluting Cisco's greater than 60 percent market share. The business compares its 3400cl offerings to Cisco Catalyst 3750G-16TD-S, which fees $19,995 but only comes with 16 ports. HP spoke of its switches are additionally akin to 3Com's 3870 and Foundry's X424.
To try this, HP's ProCurve division is providing two port densities. The ProCurve change 3400cl collection is constituted of 24- and forty eight-port 10/one hundred/a thousand intelligent side stackable switches.
The ProCurve swap 3400cl-24G ($three,759) features 20 ports providing 10/a hundred/a thousand RJ-forty five connectivity and 4 dual-personality ports with 10/one hundred/one thousand RJ-forty five or optional Gigabit mini-GBIC slots.
The ProCurve switch 3400cl-48G ($6,899) features 44 ports with 10/one hundred/a thousand RJ-45 connectivity and 4 dual-personality ports like its 24-port sibling.
The switches offer full Layer 3 and 4 routing aspects, RPS (RPS 600) assist, resiliency points for top-availability functions and one module slot for not obligatory 10-GbE modules.
protection points within the new Gigabit products encompass port-based mostly access manage lists, net-based authentication, MAC lockout/MAC lockdown, as well as aid for SSL, SSHv2, comfy FTP and SNMPv3. Convergence points encompass hyperlink Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP), classification of service (CoS) support for DSCP, IP-class of provider (IP TOS), TDP/UDP, IP handle and L3 protocol, as well as site visitors Prioritization in the sort of 802.1p classification and Layer four prioritization.
as a result of no piece of equipment works in a vacuum, HP is recommending the new 3400cl switches in a few configurations.
as an example, the company pointed out gadget integrators assembling excessive-efficiency wiring closets may pair the 3400cl with HP's 9300 series servers and individual 10Gig uplinks. The switches may also be used with 5300 collection and Gigabit optical trunks with reasonably priced Gigabit uplinks.
The instruments can even be used with HP's 9300 sequence servers and dual 10Gb uplinks for high-availability answer and single 10Gb uplink with a twin 10Gb uplink with spanning tree and CX4 10Gb daisy chained 3400s for bendy stacking and excessive-density closets.
HP said its subsequent phase is delivering two new 10-GbE Modules, a 10-GbE X2-CX4 Transceiver and a 10-GbE X2-SC LR Optic next month.
ProCurve Networking by using HP nowadays announced three comprehensive offerings - combining hardware, application, an extensive counsel library, service and aid - to make it more convenient for community administrators to increase and deploy comfortable, mobile, multi-service networks.
furthermore, ProCurve delivered a collection of products to extra circular out its instant and switch product traces. To help these new offerings, ProCurve has announced a new framework for its Elite companion application specializing in exclusive tools for revenue and deployment, improved practicing content and start alternatives, and greater alternatives to excel through a brand new specialization and certification software.
moreover, the company also plans to strengthen a new classification of items designed to optimize community infrastructure based on the Adaptive facet structure. the use of commercial enterprise networking know-how and linked rights obtained from Riverstone Networks, ProCurve will advance the side fabric, a family unit of Ethernet LAN networking instruments designed to interconnect clever side instruments, providing a cost-constructive, excessive-bandwidth and resilient connection.
The ProCurve options are expected to cut back network complexity, concurrently addressing company demands for protection, mobility, IP telephony/convergence and a single view of the network.
in line with John McHugh, prevalent supervisor and vp, ProCurve Networking by means of HP, “these days’s bulletins demonstrate how ProCurve allows network managers to center of attention on initiatives that circulate company ahead in preference to continuously inserting out fires, solving their problems with a future-proof, holistic strategy to community design.
“meeting three of the right networking issues - protection, mobility and convergence - the ProCurve entry control safety, Mobility Infrastructure and IP Telephony solutions introduced nowadays additional assist our facet architecture, providing a unified and comprehensive approach to the development of relaxed, cellular, multi-carrier networks, concluded McHugh.
attainable worldwide, the options include core items, features and help from ProCurve Elite partners. actual solution configuration will fluctuate case with the aid of case, reckoning on client wants.
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29 January 2019 | “How the world deals with large and serious problems is almost certainly going to shape our collective future” is the second line – and a promising start – in this edited Springer volume titled “Rethinking resilience, adaptation and transformation in a time of change”. The volume is edited by Wanglin Yan and Will Galloway, both based in Japan, and many of the contributors were in Japan during the massive disaster that struck the country’s Northern coast in March 2011.
Springer’s ‘about this book’ states the following: “This book contributes to the literature on resilience, hazard planning, risk management, environmental policy and design, presenting articles that focus on building resilience through social and technical means. Bringing together contributions from [mostly] Japanese authors, the book also offers a rare English-language glimpse into current policy and practice in Japan since the 2011 Tohoku disaster. (…) The ability to bounce back from hardship and disaster is essential to all of our futures. Yet, if such ability is to be sustainable, and not rely on a “brute force” response, innovation will need to become a core practice for policymakers and on-the-ground responders alike.”
The first chapter “understanding change through the lens of resilience”, by the editors, goes through the definitions of resilience, adaptation and transformation, and then looks at how we could move from resilience to transformation.
While I appreciate the table on resilience, adaptation and transformation, it is a pity that a few pages further, they limit themselves by putting everything in a figure where adaptation and transformation is only seen as a process. And while the adaptive cycle is discussed, the figure feels rather static and not cyclical. However, they make up for this with an interesting discussion on rethinking change through a resilience lens.
Part II Recognizing vulnerability. Chapters 2 to 6 make up part II of the edited volume, which focuses on recognizing vulnerability. Two chapters relate to the triple disaster that hit Japan in March 2011, while other chapters cover vulnerability issues in Tunisia, Brazil and Mongolia.
It was the Mongolia chapter (Chapter 6) that touched me the most, discussing the vulnerability of pastoral social-ecological systems, impacted by climate extremes, and how vulnerability has changed, and still is changing during the country’s transition to capitalism. Two self-organizing processes are ongoing, being the migration from rural to urban areas, and the emergency of traditional pastoral networks, where households group together or form communities. Two developing pathways can be recognized in Mongolian rangelands; predominantly private land ownership versus the traditional land-use culture operated by traditional, resilient pastoral networks. It is very interesting to read how this has influenced, and at times limited, their adaptation options.
Part III Awareness and preparedness for change. Chapters 7 to 12 focus on how change and disaster are being prepared for, from the local to the global scale.
Chapter 10 discusses the development of an international institutional framework for climate adaptation and practice in adaptation planning in developing countries. That development is clearly a work in progress, and my feeling is that we all tend to move too quickly to the next best thing, without properly learning from what we have just introduced… This publication doesn’t even touch upon the Green Climate Fund (GCF), but we tend to move from one fund to the next, to the next, when these existing funds are underfunded and full of exciting proposals that need funding. This means that the governments in receiving countries – who are already spread thin – need to do yet another baseline assessment and rewrite everything to the GCF’s objectives after they just submitted it to the LDCF/SCCF to find out there is little money. Equally, 50+ countries completed their National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), to find little funding for their implementation, now developed their National Adaptation Plans (NAP) – yes, with a longer time horizon, to then find out they now need to come up with Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that also touch upon adaptation… We keep ourselves very busy, but we learn little from the past.
Part IV Tools and methods for building resilience. Chapters 13 to 16 focus on ICT-based toolboxes and planning tools for building resilience, ranging from conceptual – what kind of information, and how, do you need to support decisions in sustainable development and a resilient society – to the more practical examples on urban disaster resilience planning.
Chapter 16 stood out, because of its focus on ‘swarm planning’, something I had heard of, but I am not familiar with. Swarm planning departs from current spatial planning practice, adjusted on the basis of complexity theory. Problems play over long time-frames and are often seen as ‘wicked’. Spatial planning practice has had difficulties incorporating these characteristics, because these planning systems are generally used to solve rather straightforward and often linear problems. Swarm planning incorporates wicked problem thinking into spatial planning, aiming to develop a plan that is adjustable if need be.
“When we allow the urban fabric to adjust dynamically to external shocks, like a swarm of bees does, the city becomes more adaptive”. I like the sound of that! Nevertheless, the urban fabric is made up of people, and – like a hive – extreme events do often result in a significant death toll. And, not to underplay the complexity of bee societies, a bee society has a top-down governance structure where the individuals have one of four roles; queen, nurse, forager, and drone. Reality of the urban environment is a little more complex… Having said that, this chapter is a great read, and at the end I feel like calling up Rob Roggema and Nikolay Popov (the authors) to continue the discussion! “Swarm planning emphasizes the inclusion of complexity, multiple rhythms and non-linear processes of spatial planning.” There is a very interesting case study on an urban renewal project West of Melbourne’s business district. The beauty is not in developing these theories and models, the beauty is in applying them, and this is where it gets really interesting. Urban objects are defined, rules are set for each object based on swarm (bees) and flocking (birds) models, and then it was indicated which objects would remain unchanged and which ones are more dynamic. Rules are added on steering behavior and flocking behavior, to make sure the objects do not get too close to one another and have dynamic behavior. In this way you can mimic how buildings would flock when sea level would rise 4 meters, providing an answer for a flood-safe building area. What I noticed was that only one climatic threat – sea level rise – was included. And the authors in the end point out that with the use of multiple climatic threats (I was thinking of urban heat), the result would be more of a compromise. You also have to keep in mind that the urban environment cannot continuously reconfigure. But a very interesting chapter!
Part V Transformation from disaster and crisis. Chapters 17 to 20 focus on the opportunity for transformative change in the aftermath of a disaster.
Chapter 17 discusses a case study of Japan’s Awaji island green infrastructure in reconstruction after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. And what was interesting to me is that they went back to the first maps of 1847 in their analysis of changes in land use. Long term land management in pre-industrial Japan has influenced the reconstruction plans and could inform sustainable land use in the future.
Chapters 18 and 19 also focus on Japan in the aftermath of the March 2011 disasters, while Chapter 20 discusses the challenges and opportunities in building resilience in Africa through transformation and a green economy. Providing a good introduction to the African context, this chapter also discusses examples that relate to the food-water-energy nexus. The chapter concludes, among other things, that Africa has all the ingredients for a bright and prosperous future, with a main challenge being institutional capacity and the efficiency of institutions implementing green and smart solutions.
Part VI Building resiliency with community. The last four chapters focus on the role of communities, and on how resilient communities are organized. These chapters (especially 21 and 24) resonate with me, given I was involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction effort with the Red Cross in Banda Aceh and North Sumatra, after the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
Chapter 21 discusses a community base environmental design approach, empowering local expertise, while Chapter 24 focuses on combining the skills of architects and local expertise in emergency housing implementation. We used a similar approach on a prefab design that is sensitive to the local context when designing and implementing emergency housing in the highlands of Nias Island. There was certainly a lot of learning on the job, and I would have loved to have read these last four chapters before my engagement in that Red Cross job. Still, it worked out well.
If the length of a book review is in any way in indicator for a publication’s quality, then yes, it certainly is in this case! It was a pleasure reading “Rethinking resilience, adaptation and transformation in a time of change”, and – despite its price – I highly recommend this publication to those working in post disaster recovery situations, or interested in the topics of resilience, adaptation and transformation.
Editors’ Note: This is an article that focuses on the basic phases of building effective networks, using one grounded example to bring the theory to life. We recommend that readers look back also at Carl Sussman’s article (see Winter 2003, “Making Change: How to Build Adaptive Capacity”) and think about how the two approaches relate to one another in the achievement of real change.
Communities are built on connections. Better connections usually provide better opportunities. But, what are better connections, and how do they lead to more effective and productive communities? How do we build connected communities that create, and take advantage of, opportunities in their region or marketplace? How does success emerge from the complex interactions within communities?
This article investigates building adapt ive and agi le communit ies through improving their connectivity— internally and externally—using network ties to create economic opportunities. Improved connectivity is created through an iterative process of knowing the network and knitting the network.
Know the Net
Improved connectivity starts with a map—knowing the complex human system you are embedded in. The Appalachian Center for Economic Networks [ACEnet], a regional economic development organization in Athens, Ohio has long followed the connectivity mantra—create effective networks for individual, group and regional growth and vitality. Recently ACEnet has begun to map and measure the social and economic connections it helped create in the grassroots food industry in Southeast Ohio. Network maps provide a revealing snapshot of a business ecosystem at a particular point in time. These maps can help answer many key questions in the community-building process.
These are all important questions that ACEnet seeks to answer in order to help build a more vibrant economy in Appalachian Ohio.ACEnet, founded in 1985, provides a wide range of assistance to food, wood, and technologyentrepreneurs in 29 counties of Appalachian Ohio. This region has some of the highest poverty and unemployment rates in the country, and ACEnet works with communities throughout the region who want to improve their support for entrepreneurs as a means to provide more local ownership and higher quality jobs.
Before you can improve your network, you need to know where you are currently—the “as is” picture. A network map shows the nodes and links in the network.
The transformation required to achieve healthy communities is the result of many collaborations among network nodes. Complexity scientists describe this phenomenon—where local interactions lead to global patterns— as emergence. This is how good local ideas are improved upon and brought to scale. We can guide emergence by understanding and catalyzing connections. For example, knowing where the connections are, and are not, allows a community development organization to influence local interactions. This is particularly important in policy networks where key nodes play an important role in what flows throughout the network. Influencing a smal l number of well-connected nodes often results in better outcomes than trying to access the top person or calling on random players in the policy network. If you know the network, you can better focus your influencing activities.
What Does a Vibrant, Effective Community Network Look Like?
Research has been done to discover the qualities of vibrant networks. Sociologists, physicists, mathematicians, and management consultants have all discovered similar answers about effective networks. The amazing discovery is that people in organizations, routers on the internet, cells in a nervous system, molecules in protein interactions, animals in an ecosystem, and pages on the Web are all organized in efficient network structures that have similar properties.
Five general patterns are observed in all effective networks:
Network Neglect Can Lead to Devolution
Even though we know several keys to building effective networks, this knowledge is rarely put to use. Networks, whether social or business, are usually left to grow without a plan. When left unmanaged, networks follow two simple, yet powerful driving forces:
This results in many small and dense clusters with little or no diversity. Everyone in the cluster knows what everyone else knows and no one knows what is going on in other clusters. The lack of outside information, and dense cohesion within the network, removes all possibility for new ideas and innovations. We see this in isolated rural communities that are resistant to change, or in a classic “old boy” network. Yet, the dense connections, and high degree of commonality forms good work groups—clusters of people who can work together smoothly.
Instead of allowing networks to evolve without direction, successful individuals, groups, and organizations have found that it pays to actively manage their network. Using the latest research, we can now knit networks to create productive individuals and smart communities.
FIGURE 1—SCATTERED EMERGENCE
Knit the Net
A vibrant community network is generally built in four phases, each with its own distinct topology. Each phase builds a more adaptive and resilient network structure than the prior phase. Network mapping can be used to track your progress through these four stages.
Experience shows that most communities start as small, emergent clusters organized around common interests or goals. Usually these clusters are isolated from each other. They are very small groups of 1–5 people or organizations that have connected out of necessity (see Figure 1). If these clusters do not organize further, the community structure remains weak and under-productive.
Without active leaders who take responsibility for building networks, spontaneous connections between groups emerge very slowly, or not at all. We call this leadership role a network weaver.6 Instead of allowing these small clusters to drift, in the hope of making a lucky connection, the weavers actively create new interactions between the clusters.
Hub and Spoke
The first network a weaver creates is the hub-and-spoke model, with the weaver as the hub. The weaver has the vision, the energy, and the social skills to connect to diverse individuals and groups and start information flowing to and from them. The weaver usually has external links outside of the community to bring in resources and innovation. This is a critical phase for community building because everything depends on the weaver who is the lone hub in the network. However, if multiple weavers are working in the same community, we may get multiple hub and spoke networks, with some overlap between all of them. Figure 2 shows the weaver connecting the previously scattered little clusters.
Initially the network weaver forms relationships with each of the small clusters. During this phase the weaver is learning about each individual or small cluster—discovering what it knows and what it needs. However, the hub-and-spoke model is only a temporary step in community growth. It should not be utilized for long because it concentrates both power and vulnerability in one node—the hub. If the lead organization/weaver fails or leaves, then we are back to the disconnected community in Figure 1.
In healthy network weaving, the spokes of the hub do not remain separated for long. The weaver begins connecting those individuals and clusters who can collaborate or assist one another in some way. Concurrently, the weaver begins encouraging others to begin weaving the network as well. Even though it is a temporary structure, the hub-and-spoke model is usually the best topology to bring together the scattered clusters seen in most immature communities. An organization with a vision, and contacts to external ideas and resources, can play the role of the hub. This is the role ACEnet took up when it saw that SE Ohio was home to many small, uncoordinated food clusters. There was the Farmer’s Market crowd, the natural bakery, a worker-owned Mexican restaurant and a few other entrepreneurs creating unique food products. ACEnet brought all of these unconnected groups together around a kitchen incubator—a state-of-the-art facility for preparing and packaging a large variety of food items.
Multi-Hub Small World NetworkWhen ACEnet decided to build a Kitchen Incubator—a licensed processing facility where entrepreneurs could rent the use of ovens, stoves and a processing line to produce their products—they used the need to design the incubator as an opportunity to link small clusters. For example, for one design session they brought people from the town’s restaurants together with small farmers who wanted to turn their produce into value-added products. Farmers were able to learn about food-production safety from the restauranteurs who explained how these procedures could be incorporated into the incubator. Some of the farmers also used the opportunity to sell their produce to the restaurants, which were always on the lookout for unique raw materials. And, an unexpected bonus was that the restaurants realized that they could use the Kitchen Incubator’s storage warehousefor large orders from their suppliers, thus making the incubator an important resource within the network.
As the weaver connects to many groups, information is soon flowing into the weaver about each group’s skills and goals. An astute weaver can now start to introduce clusters that have common goals/interests or complementary skills. As clusters connect, their spokes to the hub can weaken, freeing up the weaver to attach to new groups. Although the spoke links weaken, they never disappear—they remain weaker, dormant ties, able to be re-activated whenever necessary. In order to accommodate new connections, the weaver must teach its early connections how to weave their own network. Training in network building is important at this juncture. Network mapping reveals the progress and identifies emerging network weavers.
This happened with ACEnet as several of the businesses and small nonprofit s began to build thei r own network neighborhood, bringing new nodes and links into the early Athens community network. As the overall network grows, the role of the weaver changes from being the central weaver, to being a facilitator in the community— coordinating with, and mentoring of other network weavers.
FIGURE 2—HUB-AND-SPOKE NETWORK
There are two parts to network weaving. One is relationship building, particularly across traditional divides, which gives people access to innovation and important information. The second is learning how to facilitate collaborations for mutual benefit. Collaborations can vary from simple and short-term, e.g., entrepreneurs purchasing supplies together, to complex and long-term, such as a major policy initiative or the creation of a venture fund. This culture of collaboration creates a state of emergence, where the outcome—a healthy community—is more than the sum of the many collaborations. The local interactions create a global outcome that no one could accomplish alone.
Network weaving is not just “networking,” nor schmoozing, nor handing out business cards. Weaving brings people together for projects, initially small, so they can learn to collaborate. Through that collaboration they strengthen the community and increase the knowledge available in it. After working with the authors, Jack Ricchiuto, a Cleveland-based management consultant and author, created a pyramid of network weaving involvement. Level 1 is a “networking” type interaction, while levels 6 and 7 are highly involved commitments to building community. A majority of ACEnet’s larger successes fall under the two top levels [6 & 7] of Ricchiuto’s Pyramid .Level Activity 7 Introducing A to B in person and offering a collaboration opportunity toget A and B off to a successful partnership 6 Introducing A to B in person and following up with A and B to nurtureconnection 5 Introducing A to B in person 4 Introducing A to B in a conference call 3 Introducing A to B in an email 2 Suggesting A talk to B and calling B to look for a contact 1 Suggesting to A that A should talk to B
This transition from network weaver to network facilitator is critical. The original weaver is identifying and mentoring new weavers who will eventually take over much of the network building and maintenance. If this transition is not made, then the community network remains dependent on the central weaver and their organization. At the transition point, the weaver changes from being a direct leader to an indirect leader, influencing new emergent leaders appearing throughout the community. This transition is necessary for the network to increase its scale, impact, and reach.
Moving from a single-hub topology to a multi-hub topology with its many advantages. The first advantage of a multi-hub topology is that it eliminates having a single point of failure. ACEnet is still a dominant hub in SE Ohio, and its failure would affect the region greatly—but not as significantly as five years ago when the network was spar ser and more dependent on ACEnet. Now ACEnet has the luxury of spending time in new pursuits such as teaching others to knit their nets, and expanding the network to other areas inside and outside of Appalachia.To bring in new ideas from outside the region, ACEnet has developed several “innovation learning clusters”that bring together leading-edge organizations from around the country that share their innovations with each other. ACEnet staff that participate bring information about those innovationsback to the region and adapt them to the local environment. For example, Larry Fisher, one of ACEnet’s directors, participates in a rural entrepreneurship policy cluster where he learned the basics of building a policy network from organizations that had many years of experience. He is now leading ACEnet’s efforts to change the policy of local counties, making it more supportive of entrepreneurship; and he can move forward with a more sure hand since he is building on the experience of others, whom he can contact when he has questions.
As the weaver connects various individuals, organizations and clusters, these entities connect to each other loosely. A new dynamic is revealed here—the strength of “weak ties.” Weak ties are connections that are not as frequent, intense, or resilient as the strong network ties that form the backbone of a network. Strong ties are usually found within a network cluster, while weak ties are found between clusters. As clusters begin to connect, the first bridging links are usually weak ties.
FIGURE 3—MULTI-HUB, SMALL-WORLD NETWORK
Bridging ties between clusters are important to innovation. New ideas are often discovered outside the local domain. To get transformative ideas you often have go outside of your group. A successful formula for creating ties for innovation is to find other groups that are both similar to and different from your own. Similarity helps build trust, while diversity introduces new ideas and perspectives. Connect on your similarity, and profit from your diversity.
Now that other hubs [network weavers] are emerging in the network, the various weavers begin to connect to each other, creating a multi-hub community. Not only is this topology less fragile, it is also the best design to minimize the average path length throughout the network—remember , the shorter the hops, the better for work flow, information exchange and knowledge sharing! Information percolates most quickly through a network where the best-connected hubs are all connected to each other. A network with many hubs is also very resilient and cannot be easily dismantled.
Next comes a multi-hub, small-world network, illustrated in Figure 3. Here, four clusters have created many weak ties to each other. The weak ties may or may note become stronger to create one tightly coupled larger cluster. The multiple hubs can be small businesses or other community development organizations. Initially, the ACEnet Kitchen Incubator was a major gathering place, a physical network hub, where people ran into each other, hung around to talk, and often cooked up some kind of deal, e.g., joint orders of jars so they could get a cheaper price, an arrangement to jointly market their products, or an agreement to trade labor on a project.
The impor tant next step i s to strengthen some of the weak ties in the network so they become strong ties. However, a multi-hub network may be difficult to achieve if political and “turf” issues are raging through the network, so these need to be handled early in the process in order for the network to emerge effectively. If two or more community development organizations start battling over turf and control of the community, the result may be two or more competing, single-hub networks that ignore the larger community needs and focus on the survival of their own network.Initially, the ACEnet Kitchen Incubator was a major gathering place, a physical network hub, where people ran into each other, hung around to talk, and often cooked up some kind of deal: joint orders of jars so they could get a cheaper price, an arrangement to jointly market their products, or an agreement to trade labor on a project. However, after a few years, many othernetwork hubs popped up. For example, the Athens Farmers’ Market hosted more than 90 farmers and local food vendors who networked with each other and their avid customers. Several years ago, four local organizations set up a Farmers’Market Café that provided tables and chairs under tents so that people could hang around longer and network with more neighbors. Casa Neuva, a worker-owned Mexican restaurant, is not only a networking hub, but has played a major role in organizing most of the locally owned restaurants into the Athens Independent Restaurant Association, a group that donates money each month to community nonprofits and is increasing the amount of produce and locally processed goods that restaurants purchase from local farm families. Six miles outside town, more than 200 people flock on Saturdays to enjoy fresh baked focaccia, pastries, and hearth bread on the outdoor terrace outside the Big Chimney Bakery. The proprietor is a major network hub himself, who helps new entrepreneurs develop their recipes and learn strategy from a pro.
The Core/Periphery Network
The end-goal for vibrant, sustainable community networks is the core/periphery model. This topology emerges after many years of network weaving by multiple hubs. It is a stable structure that can link to other well-developed networks in other regions. The network core in this model contains the key community members, including many who are network weavers, who have developed strong ties between themselves. The periphery of this network contains three groups of nodes that are usually tied to the core through looser ties.
FIGURE 4—CORE / PERIPHERY NETWORK
The economic landscape is full of imperfectly shared ideas and information. The periphery is the open, porous boundary of the community network where new members/ideas come and go. The periphery allows us to reach ideas and information not currently prevalent in the network, while the core allows us to act on those ideas and information. The periphery monitors the environment, while the core implements what is discovered and deemed useful.
Figure 4 shows a well-developed core/periphery structure. The blue nodes are the core, while the green nodes reside in the periphery. This network core is very dense;7 not all cores will have as high a concentration of connections as this one. Too much density can lead to rigidity and an overload of activity. Monitoring your network using social network analysis can help you see where your network needs to shift connections to match the current environment.
At this point, the network weavers’ initial tasks are mostly completed. Now, attention turns toward network maintenance and building bridges to other networks. The network weavers can begin to form inter-regional alliances to create new products, services and markets—or to shape and influence policy that will strengthen the community or region. This happens by connecting network cores to each other utilizing their peripheries. The network weavers maximize the reach of the periphery into new areas, while keeping the core strong. The weavers now focus on multi-core projects that will have major impact on the community.ACEnet has helped form the Appalachian Ohio Regional Investment Coalition (AORIC) which includes another community organization, a regional foundation, the Ohio Arts Council, and an Ohio University–based institute. AORIC is now mobilizing a large network of organizations interested in supporting entrepreneurs as a way to create a healthier regional economy. This network is reaching deep into communities to identify the barriers entrepreneurs face, and then to collaborate on projects that will develop new supportive infrastructure to increase their success.
As we have seen, weaving a network requires two iterative and continuous steps:
All throughout this process network maps guide the way—they reveal what we know about the network and they uncover possible next steps for the weaver.
Starting with a disconnected community, network builders can start weaving together the necessary skills and resources to build simple, singlehub networks. This will be followed by a more efficient and resilient multi-hub network, finishing with a sustainable core/periphery structure. Once the network is strong, it can connect to other distant community networks to create more opportunities.
1. The average path length in a network is a convenient measure of the network’s global efficiency. The longer the average path length, the longer it takes for messages to travel between any two nodes, and the more distorted they are when they arrive.2. An indirect tie is a network path that connects two nodes through on or more intermediaries. Here A and B, and B and C have direct ties while A and C have an indirect tie through the intermediary B. A–B–C3. Nodes with many direct connections that quickly disperse information.4. Nodes that connect otherwise disconnected parts of the network—they act as liaisons.5. Nodes that connect two or more clusters— they act as bridges between groups.6. While the Athens food network focused on one network weaving organization—ACEnet, there were actually several individual network weavers within ACEnet. Each network weaver within ACEnet had a particular focus. They all worked with a common vision. If several network weavers are present and willing to collaborate, increased progress is possible.7. Network density is calculated by the number of existing connections as a percentage of the total possible.
VALDIS KREBS is a management consultant and the developer of InFlow social network analysis software ([email protected], www.orgnet.com). JUNE HOLLEY is founder and President/ CEO of the Appalachian Center for Economic Networks ([email protected] org, www.acenetworks.org). Contact June or Valdis for information on their workshop on network weaving.
Caribbean Climate Wire
GEORGETOWN, Jan 30 2019 (IPS) - A group of youngsters in the Caribbean who promote environmental protection in the region is on a drive to empower other youth to address some of the big issues facing their generation.
National Coordinator of Caribbean Youth Environment Network (CYEN), Kiefer Jackson, says the organisation has been working to gather the youth perspective, build capacity at a grassroots level and fill the gaps that would have been missed by government initiatives or plans.
“The Ministry of Presidency’s Office of Climate Change has recognised the work being done by this chapter of CYEN and has asked us to join with them this year in facilitating their climate change awareness in schools around Guyana,” Jackson told IPS.
“We believe this partnership to be one step in the direction of ensuring that young people play an active role in climate action and ensure non-governmental organisation and government partnership for the betterment of our people.”
Jackson said CYEN Guyana has been offering young people experiential learning opportunities and internships overseas which help to build the country’s capacity for climate resilience.
As far as capacity is concerned, last year, CYEN was approved by YOUNGO, the Children and Youth constituency to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to undertake a Conference of Youth in the countries where CYEN operates. CYEN’s website reflects a presence in Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia, among others.
Jackson added that the activity was used to assist in further building the current participatory environmental awareness programmes for young citizens of Guyana.
“We have also been engaging in a series of panel discussions, in an effort to inform and educate young people on the Sustainable Development Goals,” Jackson said.
“The last talk would have been on Goal 13 (Climate Action). Based on the feedback of these activities, we have recognised that young people in Guyana, have robust and innovative ideas and we have been working on creating a platform for them to showcase their ideas or projects that guarantee the strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change in Guyana.”
In addition to facilitating larger scale education and awareness, Jackson believes more attention should be given to ensuring adequate and appropriate infrastructure and housing that can withstand, as far as possible, the perils of climate change.
Guyana is plagued by poorly-maintained drainage and sea defence infrastructure.
The low coastal plain which houses the capital Georgetown, and where a large percentage of the population resides, is below sea level and at high risk of flooding. “With the effects of climate change becoming even more present through intensifying natural disasters, more should be done to prepare this region for what seems to be inevitable,” Jackson said.
“We can also ensure that there are early warning systems and more accurate forecasts – information that can be passed on to farmers through simple technology.”
In addition to being prone to flooding, Guyana is also affected by drought.
Joseph Harmon, Minister of State in the Ministry of the Presidency of Guyana, says drought and flooding have proven to be a double-edged sword, especially for the country’s farmers.
“Some people might find it difficult to appreciate that in a country like Guyana, a part of the tropical rainforest, that you can still have portions of this land which have drought,” Harmon told IPS.
“But I can say to you that in the south Rupununi . . . we do have some portions of that land that for a part of the year they have drought, and at other times they have flooding.”
He said government has taken steps to address the problem of flooding with the implementation of projects by the Ministry of Agriculture.
“They are dealing with how to sustainably harvest water so that it can be utilised for farming and other domestic purposes,” Harmon said.
“In the period of drought, we are now looking at the question of utilisation of wells.”
In December 2017, the Guyana Government and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil signed a technical cooperation agreement for the implementation of a project to reduce the impact of drought in the Upper Takatu-Upper Essequibo, Region 9 of Guyana.
Harmon said the agreement was established to mitigate the historical impact of droughts in the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region and its implementation has so far resulted in the drilling of eight wells that are now providing year-round potable water to the indigenous peoples in the south Rupununi.
In its quest to bridge the gap between climate change and climate awareness, Jackson said CEYN is hampered by limited availability of financial resources, particularly for long term projects that could ensure sustainability.
Additionally, she said quite often, urgent need for climate action is hampered by the effects not always being glaring to the public eye.
“So, the challenge is making climate seem real in the context of day to day life in the Caribbean,” Jackson said.
“Hurricane season is once a year. Sea level rise is slow and almost unnoticeable. We try to identify indicators which can catch people’s attention, and which are personal as well as immediate.”
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