|Exam Name||:||HP-UX 11iv3 Advanced System Administration|
|Questions and Answers||:||66 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 22, 2019|
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edition 9.0 of EnterpriseDB's Oracle-compatible database is now purchasable, with new support for Hewlett-Packard's HP-UX working equipment, the company introduced Thursday.
Oracle lately talked about it could stop setting up new types of its database and other software for Intel's Itanium chips, which HP makes use of in server systems along with HP-UX. The determination sparked an issue that sooner or later led HP to file a lawsuit in opposition t Oracle, asserting the movement was in violation of agreements between the agencies and turned into intended to drive consumers onto Oracle's hardware.
EnterpriseDB is hoping to capitalize on any unrest within the HP installed base, and says it's already talking to some HP-UX customers.
each current and new users will seem to be to take potential of the various other new features within the liberate, which encompass a brand new parallel data loader that offers as much as 800 p.c quicker efficiency over past versions of the database.
a brand new code profiler may make lifestyles less difficult for developers. "if they've created stored methods that used to run for a minute, and now it takes 10, it's now not guesswork to troubleshoot that type of aspect," referred to Robin Schumacher, director of product strategy.
EnterpriseDB's industrial items, Postgres Plus average Server and Postgres Plus superior Server, are based on the open-supply PostgreSQL database, bundling in superior points to the core code. The seller also sells help subscriptions for PostgreSQL.
The 9.0 release also comprises a "lengthy laundry listing" of community-developed enhancements, including streaming replication and an "improve in place" characteristic, Schumacher mentioned. It used to be quite painful to upgrade a big database, in view that the statistics obligatory to be dumped out and then reloaded after the upgrade, he said. "because the identify implies, you don't have to do this anymore," he talked about.
EnterpriseDB has lengthy touted its capability to run Oracle workloads. Updates to the compatibility layer encompass assist for purposes written in Oracle's seasoned*c language.
It would not promise flawless compatibility with Oracle. "We definitely are attempting to bite off the very colossal chunks. We don't actually purpose ourselves on the esoteric PL/SQL features," Schumacher stated. EnterpriseDB offers Oracle "migration assessments" that aid database valued clientele assess how difficult it can be to circulation their workloads.
EnterpriseDB is set to hit the 1,000-client mark, talked about Karen Tegan Padir, vice president of products and advertising. many of them have migrated from Oracle, she observed.
The supplier is additionally taking aim at Microsoft SQL Server stores. Its xDB Replication Server can now pull in information from SQL Server.
Postgres Plus ordinary Server subscriptions start at US$2,495 per 12 months. Subscriptions for advanced Server, which offers the Oracle compatibility characteristic, begin at $three,995 per 12 months.
regardless of the unencumber's new facets, EnterpriseDB faces some challenges in winning new business, in response to one observer.
"There are quite a lot of explanations to keep on with PostgreSQL, however in most use cases or not it's complicated to justify being a new adopter," referred to analyst Curt Monash of Monash analysis. "PostgreSQL's final superiorities to MySQL usually do not rely that lots."
additionally, "Oracle emulation is a nice function but it surely's had negligible have an effect on on the universal Oracle market," he brought. "there's no precise reason to migrate from Oracle to PostgreSQL apart from price, and often Oracle will reduce you a deal to avoid a migration."
Chris Kanaracus covers enterprise utility and common know-how breaking information for The IDG information carrier. Chris's email address is Chris_Kanaracus@idg.comTo touch upon this text and different PCWorld content material, visit our facebook web page or our Twitter feed.
In a outdated article, I compiled a list of the right 50 Unix instructions. each and every of the instructions I discussed can be found on the accurate three Unix variations: Solaris, AIX and HP-UX. in this article, i could stroll you throughout the illustrious heritage of those Unix flavors, focus on some their simple variations and close with a command desk evaluation of critical tasks.
sun SolarisSolaris, sun's Unix edition, become definitely the successor of SunOS, going again to1992. SunOS changed into at the start in accordance with the BSD taste of Unix, while SunOS models 5.0 and later are in line with Unix gadget V release 4 (rebranded as Solaris).
How did this take place? Let's go further back in time. SunOS edition 1.0 was introduced in 1983 with help for sun-1 and sun-2 techniques. version 2.0 turned into brought in 1985 -- its claim to repute become virtual file equipment (VFS) and NFS. In 1987, AT&T and solar announced that they would work together on a undertaking to merge system V and BSD into one unlock, in accordance with SVR4. Solaris 2.4 turned into solar's first Sparc/x86 unencumber. The final unlock of SunOS changed into edition four.1.4 in November 1994. Solaris 7 was its first sixty four-bit ultra Sparc liberate and added native assist for file gadget metadata logging. Solaris 9, added in 2002, introduced aid for Solaris extent manager and Linux capabilities. Solaris 10 changed into first introduced in 2005, which has a few innovations, including assist for its new ZFS file gadget, Solaris Containers and Logical Domains.
Solaris is at this time up to edition 10; the newest replace was released in October 2008. amongst its innovations is help for paravirtualisation, where Solaris 10 is used as a guest in Xen-based mostly environments.
fundamental modifications and exciting features. Solaris is free and open supply, disbursed throughout the OpenSolaris operating equipment. Solaris is a extra command-line primarily based Unix operating gadget than HP-UX or AIX. As a realistic remember, it doesn't have the rest corresponding to gadget Administration supervisor (SAM) on HP-UX or equipment management Interface device (SMIT) on AIX. Solaris runs on Sparc and x86 environments. It additionally has the most recent file device around -- ZFS, which has made awesome strides in contemporary years, together with the ability to now use it as its root file device. ZFS has the abilities to be the most suitable all-round Unix file gadget. Solaris has many how to put into effect virtualisation, together with Containers/zones, xVM Server, Logical Domains and hardware partitioning.
Hewlett-Packard HP-UXHP-UX, Hewlett-Packard's Unix, turned into in the beginning in accordance with device V release 3. It at the beginning ran exclusively on PA-RISC HP 9000 platform. version 1 of HP-UX became launched in 1984. edition 9, brought its character-based mostly graphical person interface (GUI), SAM, from which one administrates the system. edition 10, brought in 1995, brought changes within the layout of the gadget file and directory constitution, making it similar to AT&T SVR4. version 11 became brought in 1997 and was HP's first free up to help 64-bit addressing. In 2000, it became rebranded to 11i, when HP brought working environments, bundled corporations of layered purposes for certain IT functions. In 2001, edition 11.20 added assist for Itanium techniques. HP-UX became the first Unix that used access control Lists (ACLs) for file permissions and became also one of the crucial first to introduce built-in aid for Logical extent manager. these days, HP-UX makes use of Veritas as its primary file equipment because of the shut partnership between Veritas and HP. HP-UX is at present up to unlock 11iv3, replace 4.
basic transformations and unique features. HP-UX is the primary of the Unix programs to allow its clients to buy specific operating environments. as an example, if you are searching for its excessive availability (HA) product Serviceguard, you possibly can purchase the selected product that bundles in HA. HP-UX is the most effective edition that makes use of a 3rd-party file device -- Veritas (sun used to offer this many years ago). HP has many forms of virtualisation, including nPartitions, vPars, Integrity virtual Machines (IVMs) and useful resource partitions. This does have an inclination to confuse some folks as a result of there are so many selections. HP-UX runs on both HP 9000s and Integrity Itanium programs. HP-UX 11v3 can help as much as 128 processor cores. HP-UX provides for a extremely powerful command line apart from its menu bases device, SAM. performance tuning the usage of kctune is in lots of techniques more straightforward to what AIX and Solaris offer.
IBM AIXAIX become introduced by using IBM in 1986. whereas it's in keeping with Unix device V, it also has BSD roots and, more than another taste, is a hybrid of both. AIX is the first OS to introduce a journaled file device (JFS). It changed into additionally the primary to have an integrated Logical volume manager (LVM). IBM first ported AIX to its RS/6000 platform in 1989. version 5L changed into a leap forward unencumber delivered in 2001 that provided for Linux affinity and logical partitioning with the Power4 servers. In 2004, AIX delivered virtualisation in AIX 5.3. superior energy Virtualisation (APV) provided micro-partitioning, shared processor pools and Symmetric multi-threading. In 2007, IBM stronger its virtualisation product, coinciding with the release of AIX 6.1 and the Power6 architecture. It additionally rebranded APV to PowerVM. The AIX enhancements covered a kind of workload partitioning known as WPARs, that are akin to than Solaris zones/Containers but with stronger functionality. The latest release is AIX 6.1.
basic differences and unique characteristics. IBM is broadly recognized as having the highest quality virtualisation product on the midrange, PowerVM. Some contemporary improvements include are living software mobility (permitting one to fail over working partitions devoid of taking downtime), active reminiscence Sharing and dissimilar shared processor swimming pools. No different flavor of Unix can boast these virtualisation qualities, nor can they fit IBM's 40-12 months background of virtualisation -- PowerVM has advanced from mainframe/equipment z virtualisation.
AIX runs most effective on IBM power programs -- easily the most powerful of midrange Unix servers. IBM sells the proven fact that AIX runs exclusively on vigor as a plus because it is thoroughly optimized on this structure and it has a transparent road map around which the business adheres to religiously. it'll even be stated that possible run both Linux and AIX partitions on this platform. Its LX86 virtualisation add-on allows for one to run x86 Linux applications that don't seem to be ported to the energy architecture. AIX has always had an built-in logical extent supervisor, in contrast to other flavors that require add-on products. AIX is the simplest Unix that has persevered to develop market share in fresh years, partly on account of the capabilities of its power hardware that continues to guide the field in reliably, availability and scalability.
Command reference assessmentWhat are you trying to do? Solaris AIX HP-UX Specify order of name server resolution /and many others/nsswitch.conf /and so on/netsvc.conf and so on/nsswitch.conf Configure networking /etc/nodename, /and so forth/netmasks, and many others/defaultrouter, ifconfig recommendation is to use SMIT, as a result of ifconfig does not save changes, lsattr set_parms - preliminary, netconf file, ioscan remember obtainable file methods ufs, zfs jfs, jfs2 hfs, VxFS Add space to file methods growfs chfs extendfs examine persona-based mostly admin GUI None. Admintool was retired years in the past. SMC (corresponding to AIX's WebSM) is the GUI SMIT, smitty, WebSM SAM examine hardware adjustments prtconf lscfg, lsattr, prtconf ioscan, dmesg View swap areaswap lsps swapinfo examine file gadget information /etc/vfstab /and so forth/file programs /etc/fstab Share NFS percentageexportfs exportfs investigate software and/or filesets pkginfo, pkgchk lslpp, lssrc swlist deploy utility pkgadd smit install swinstall determine error logs prtdiag errpt dmesg Tune the kernel prtctl and /and so forth/equipment vmo, ioo, no, schedo, nfso, chdev kctune birth/stop facilitiesSvcadm, svcs lssrc, stopsrc, startsrc usually initiated by using scripts from init.d I.E. for community -- /and so forth/init.d/internet startInstall devices drvconfig cfgmgr insf
Intel this week launched its new Westmere EX household of Xeon chips. HP is jumping on the bandwagon aiding the brand new Intel Xeon E7 chips, but that doesn't mean it's leaving Itanium at the back of.
numerous vendors together with Cisco, Dell, IBM and HP are all planning server releases that use the brand new Intel chips. unlike every other seller it's embracing the Westmere EX, HP additionally helps Intel's Itanium structure as smartly.
So, what is the difference between both Intel (NASDAQ: INTC) architectures and where does HP see them each and every fitting in?
Mike McNerney, Director, Server Planning and advertising at HP enterprise important methods informed InternetNews.com, that a major workload for the Westmere EX programs is database and other workloads that require huge processor and reminiscence footprints.
"shoppers topping out efficiency on a MSFT SQLServer database would be an incredible goal customer," McNerney stated.
HP (NYSE: HPQ) may be including the Westmere EX chips in its ProLiant G7 servers. according to HP, the brand new G7 servers enhance device availability in part via cutting back the reminiscence error correction with Double device records Correction (DDDC) expertise. HP notes in its G7 reality sheet that DDDC provides self-correction of up to two dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) blunders and recovery from in any other case fatal system errors.
Mission-critical steadiness and availability are additionally key attributes of HP's Integrity service lineup, powered by way of Intel's Itanium processor.
"Integrity programs are at ease and reputable from the Itanium processor, to the gadget stage, and through the utility stack," McNerney talked about. "What differentiates our Integrity programs is not only the Itanium processor, but the hardware, the firmware and the HP-UX operating system, which provide mission-essential superior resiliency.
McNerney added that HP believes this conclusion-to-conclusion strategy is the only way to be sure minimal planned and unplanned downtime.
"With the Intel Xeon E7 (aka "Westmere EX') announcement, Intel is including new reliability elements to Xeon that originated within the Itanium processor," McNerney spoke of. "The Itanium reliability capabilities were developed into Integrity systems for a few generations magnifying its have an impact on greatly."
youngsters the Westmere EX is gaining new reliability points, McNerney cited or not it's nonetheless not the equal as what HP gives you with Itanium on HP Integrity servers.
"This hardening and techniques-level integration goes neatly beyond the processor stage and is found best in Integrity hardware, firmware and HP-UX environments and does not turn up in a single day," McNerney stated.
HP also faces competition from multiple competitors which are additionally providing new Westmere EX primarily based server platforms.
"HP ProLiant servers deliver giant innovations on desirable of trade requisites," Dave Peterson, community manager, platform product advertising and marketing, industry commonplace servers and utility at HP told InternetNews.com. "technologies like HP Sea of Sensors, HP Dynamic vigour Capping, iLO remote management and HP perception manage are all pleasing capabilities that provide enormous further cost in areas where clients suppose a pretty good deal of pain –- specifically power fees and gadget administration prices. "
Cisco is among the many carriers set to debut new Westmere EX based servers with new Unified Computing equipment (UCS) servers. Cisco's u.s.contains prolonged reminiscence know-how that provides extra scalability. Peterson noted that youngsters Cisco might also have a few benchmarks, valued clientele are voting with their wallets to install HP ProLiant and Integrity servers.
"HP is the #1 dealer of scale-up x86 structures with huge trade leading benchmarks across the distinct product choices together with reminiscence intensive benchmarks," McNerney brought.
Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com, the news service of information superhighway.com, the network for technology specialists.
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In a previous article, I compiled a list of the top 50 Unix commands. Each of the commands I discussed are available on the top three Unix variants: Solaris, AIX and HP-UX. In this article, I'll walk you through the illustrious history of these Unix flavors, discuss some their fundamental differences and close with a command table comparison of important tasks.
Sun SolarisSolaris, Sun's Unix version, was actually the successor of SunOS, going back to1992. SunOS was originally based on the BSD flavor of Unix, while SunOS versions 5.0 and later are based on Unix System V Release 4 (rebranded as Solaris).
How did this happen? Let's go further back in time. SunOS version 1.0 was introduced in 1983 with support for Sun-1 and Sun-2 systems. Version 2.0 was introduced in 1985 -- its claim to fame was virtual file system (VFS) and NFS. In 1987, AT&T and Sun announced that they would work together on a project to merge System V and BSD into one release, based on SVR4. Solaris 2.4 was Sun's first Sparc/x86 release. The last release of SunOS was version 4.1.4 in November 1994. Solaris 7 was its first 64-bit Ultra Sparc release and added native support for file system metadata logging. Solaris 9, introduced in 2002, added support for Solaris Volume Manager and Linux capabilities. Solaris 10 was first introduced in 2005, which has a number of innovations, including support for its new ZFS file system, Solaris Containers and Logical Domains.
Solaris is presently up to version 10; the latest update was released in October 2008. Among its innovations is support for paravirtualisation, where Solaris 10 is used as a guest in Xen-based environments.
Fundamental differences and unique characteristics. Solaris is free and open source, distributed through the OpenSolaris operating system. Solaris is a more command-line based Unix operating system than HP-UX or AIX. As a practical matter, it does not have anything comparable to System Administration Manager (SAM) on HP-UX or System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) on AIX. Solaris runs on Sparc and x86 environments. It also has the newest file system around -- ZFS, which has made great strides in recent years, including the ability to now use it as its root file system. ZFS has the potential to be the best all-around Unix file system. Solaris has many ways to implement virtualisation, including Containers/zones, xVM Server, Logical Domains and hardware partitioning.
Hewlett-Packard HP-UXHP-UX, Hewlett-Packard's Unix, was originally based on System V release 3. It initially ran exclusively on PA-RISC HP 9000 platform. Version 1 of HP-UX was released in 1984. Version 9, introduced its character-based graphical user interface (GUI), SAM, from which one administrates the system. Version 10, introduced in 1995, brought changes in the layout of the system file and directory structure, making it similar to AT&T SVR4. Version 11 was introduced in 1997 and was HP's first release to support 64-bit addressing. In 2000, it was rebranded to 11i, when HP introduced operating environments, bundled groups of layered applications for specific IT purposes. In 2001, Version 11.20 introduced support for Itanium systems. HP-UX was the first Unix that used Access Control Lists (ACLs) for file permissions and was also one of the first to introduce built-in support for Logical Volume Manager. Today, HP-UX uses Veritas as its primary file system due to the close partnership between Veritas and HP. HP-UX is currently up to release 11iv3, update 4.
Fundamental differences and unique characteristics. HP-UX is the first of the Unix systems to allow its customers to purchase specific operating environments. For example, if you are looking for its high availability (HA) product Serviceguard, you would purchase the specific product that bundles in HA. HP-UX is the only version that uses a third-party file system -- Veritas (Sun used to offer this many years ago). HP has many forms of virtualisation, including nPartitions, vPars, Integrity Virtual Machines (IVMs) and resource partitions. This does have a tendency to confuse some folks because there are so many choices. HP-UX runs on both HP 9000s and Integrity Itanium systems. HP-UX 11v3 can support up to 128 processor cores. HP-UX provides for a very strong command line in addition to its menu bases system, SAM. Performance tuning using kctune is in many ways simpler to what AIX and Solaris offer.
IBM AIXAIX was introduced by IBM in 1986. While it is based on Unix System V, it also has BSD roots and, more than any other flavor, is a hybrid of both. AIX is the first OS to introduce a journaled file system (JFS). It was also the first to have an integrated Logical Volume Manager (LVM). IBM first ported AIX to its RS/6000 platform in 1989. Version 5L was a breakthrough release introduced in 2001 that provided for Linux affinity and logical partitioning with the Power4 servers. In 2004, AIX introduced virtualisation in AIX 5.3. Advanced Power Virtualisation (APV) offered micro-partitioning, shared processor pools and Symmetric multi-threading. In 2007, IBM enhanced its virtualisation product, coinciding with the release of AIX 6.1 and the Power6 architecture. It also rebranded APV to PowerVM. The AIX enhancements included a form of workload partitioning called WPARs, which are similar to than Solaris zones/Containers but with better functionality. The latest release is AIX 6.1.
Fundamental differences and unique characteristics. IBM is widely recognized as having the best virtualisation product on the midrange, PowerVM. Some recent innovations include live application mobility (allowing one to fail over working partitions without taking downtime), Active Memory Sharing and multiple shared processor pools. No other flavor of Unix can boast these virtualisation characteristics, nor can they match IBM's 40-year history of virtualisation -- PowerVM has evolved from mainframe/System z virtualisation.
AIX runs only on IBM Power Systems -- easily the most powerful of midrange Unix servers. IBM sells the fact that AIX runs exclusively on Power as a plus because it is fully optimized on this architecture and it has a clear road map around which the company adheres to religiously. It should also be noted that one can run both Linux and AIX partitions on this platform. Its LX86 virtualisation add-on allows one to run x86 Linux applications that are not ported to the Power architecture. AIX has always had an integrated logical volume manager, unlike other flavors that require add-on products. AIX is the only Unix that has continued to grow market share in recent years, partly because of the capabilities of its Power hardware that continues to lead the field in reliably, availability and scalability.
Command reference comparisonWhat are you trying to do? Solaris AIX HP-UX Specify order of name server resolution /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/netsvc.conf etc/nsswitch.conf Configure networking /etc/nodename, /etc/netmasks, etc/defaultrouter, ifconfig recommendation is to use SMIT, because ifconfig does not save changes, lsattr set_parms - initial, netconf file, ioscan Understand available file systems ufs, zfs jfs, jfs2 hfs, VxFS Add space to file systems growfs chfs extendfs Look at character-based admin GUI None. Admintool was retired years ago. SMC (similar to AIX's WebSM) is the GUI SMIT, smitty, WebSM SAM Examine hardware changes prtconf lscfg, lsattr, prtconf ioscan, dmesg View swap space swap lsps swapinfo Examine file system info /etc/vfstab /etc/file systems /etc/fstab Share NFS share exportfs exportfs Check software and/or filesets pkginfo, pkgchk lslpp, lssrc swlist Install software pkgadd smit install swinstall Check error logs prtdiag errpt dmesg Tune the kernel prtctl and /etc/system vmo, ioo, no, schedo, nfso, chdev kctune start/stop services Svcadm, svcs lssrc, stopsrc, startsrc Usually initiated by scripts from init.d I.E. for network -- /etc/init.d/net start Install devices drvconfig cfgmgr insf
The success of Mozilla's Firefox and Openoffice.org's productivity suite has breathed life into people's aspirations about Desktop Linux. As a result, the vast majority of articles published today focus there and ignore the strides made on the Linux server. Unlike the Linux server of the past, today's version supports rocket science and its gains far exceed those of the Desktop.
As a former editor-in-chief of a Linux news site, I had the unusual privilege of finding out from our own logs and from colleagues the approximate number of unique visitors dropping by the major US Linux news wires each month. Back when I started using Linux, John Hall of Linux International estimated that the operating system had two million deployments globally. At the time we thought the number a little high, but we accepted it.
Today, we see twice that number or approximately four million unique IP addresses reading articles on Linux news sites. That does not include sites outside the US, Slashdot or Digg. So, a significant number of people read articles about Linux and they represent only a percentage of all its users.
Unfortunately, we failed to determine the demographics of Linux readers. We simply had difficulty finding out what kind of readers came to our site. We didn't know if our visitors represented CIOs, CTOs, developers, Linux users or the just curious.
We did find out that pure Linux articles received more than triple the number of page views as articles about Open Source companies and their technologies. We also made a living off of another kind of story. Anything that appeared as a threat to that monopoly in Redmond garnered ten times the number of page views as the most read Linux articles.
Getting to the point, when we sorted out the type of Linux articles that went through our queue, Desktop Linux had a whopping 90 percent of the stories. Either people stopped writing about the server or Linus has it in hiding. The Linux server's press agent let it get over shadowed by the desktop.
What about the server?
I refer to the current Linux infrastructure play as the "New Era". Linux has matured rapidly and far surpassed the expectations of the smartest analysts I know. Basically, the Linux server kicks butt.
The advancements also come quickly. Some long-time Linux system administrators I know, have some difficulty keeping up with all the advancements and innovations today. Sometimes, they argue with me about why I would do things the way I do them. Inevitably, they go ahead and try something new with an accompanying "wow, that's neat!"
When I began using Linux as a system integrator, we had only a few places to operate. Those included serving web pages with Apache, managing DNS, relaying email as a MTA, interfering with NT 4.0 using Samba and developing applications with Richard Stallman's wonderful compilers, tools, etc.
We had a mature 2.035 kernel and from where Linux started that seemed remarkable. But, we did not have a journaling file system, had lousy multi-processor capabilities and little to no desktop. We lacked deployment tools, a real web browser, a reasonable productivity suite and our hardware compatibility stunk. That's not to diminish the remarkable efforts of the people who gave a big part of their lives to Linux. It's just where we stood in comparison to AIX, Solaris, HP-UX and some others back then.
So, as I discuss the applications and tools freely available for Linux now, please understand where I started. The old days of pride around the 2.035 kernel look continents away from here.
Linux has a dominant position in enterprise computing. Many mainstream applications used on Solaris, for example, have made their way to Red Hat and Novell Linux. Aside from the scientific tools you see on the Space Shuttle and 256 node clusters that run sonar arrays on nuclear submarines, Linux runs the largest web sites in the world. The problems that plagued distributed directory services have gone away and run on large blade server farms. These represent a tiny fraction of the uses of Linux.
Linux not only works for enterprise computing, it also gives smaller users a decided advantage in the marketplace. Linux levels the playing field for small to medium-sized businesses and lets them compete with the big boys. Everything from ERP systems to customer service apps run on Linux and puts those applications in reach of the little guy. That's what helps propel its adoption, which analysts put at 40 million deployments.
To exemplify my point about the little guy, just recently, I configured a Debian server with Xen 3.01 getting it production ready in two hours. The majority of that time involved compiling code. I doubt I could have afforded the software if I used proprietary goods. And I got to use some advanced computing applications.
So why did I need Xen virtual machines?
I needed to deploy several applications including a secure LDAP directory with mail, a secondary DNS server, several virtual web sites, a content management system and a database driven federated identity management system. The virtual servers helped me put those into production without having to buy expensive hardware.
In the old era, I would have dedicated a separate server to each of those applications considering the number of users involved. In the new era, we can use commodity hardware add gigabytes of RAM and additional disks to achieve higher CPU capacity on a single machine without creating more server sprawl. Xen made it affordable for me to get into business.
Last month, a friend of mine, Falko Timme, wrote a howto about setting up a load balanced high-availability Apache cluster using free software. He used Debian Sarge, Ultra Monkey's Heartbeat and ldirectord. Ultra Monkey uses software primarily from Linux Virtual Server and Heartbeat. Falko set up a five node cluster and to keep from having to match hardware, he used Xen on different kinds of server hardware. In March, Falko wrote another tutorial for building a five mode MySQL load balanced cluster using the same technology. He did all of this with commodity hardware.
Falko also writes howtos on howtoforge.com about technology like MyDNS, a server that uses a MySQL database as a backend instead of Bind or djbdns flat files. MyDNS simply reads DNS records from a database and does not require a restart when DNS records change or when you create, edit or delete zones. MyDNS provides a major advantage to organizations that deal with massive numbers of domains. It runs on Linux.
Just two years ago, we faced a number of problems in the Linux community deploying large numbers of Linux systems. We felt like paupers attempting take on even medium-sized projects like the City of Munich. If you wanted deployment tools, you had to buy the expensive closed source tools. Today, all that has changed.
From a project started at VA Linux a few years ago, Brian Finley and his team has produced a robust tool for automating Linux installs, software distribution and production deployment. The tool known as SystemImager allows deployments of ISP and database server farms, high performance clusters, computer labs, and corporate desktop environments. SystemInstaller, a related project, can install a system with any Linux distribution. It works with SystemImager and SystemConfigurator, an installation and management application framework. Together the tools work to build clusters. Oh, did I mention it's free software?
Linux also shines in the area of high performance, high availability computing power. For example, the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center deploys HPC Linux clusters designed to increase throughput for applications ranging from studying weather and climate variability to simulating astrophysical phenomena. Linux supplements NCCS architecture designed to scale to as many as 40 trillion floating-point operations per second (TFLOPS) in its full configuration.
According to Forbes, Linux runs more of the world's top supercomputers than any other operating system. In fact, at this writing Linux runs 60% of the top 500 super computers on the planet. According to departments heads at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Linux runs ten of their machines, which are all on the Top 500 list, including Blue Gene/L, the world's most powerful supercomputer, and Thunder, which ranks fifth.
And that's just the start of the conversation about the Linux server. It manages water wells in Jordan, provides logistics and supply chain applications for governments and businesses and more. From a small server running the ext2 file system with supposedly zero scalability, the Linux server has come a long way. And while I use Linux for my desktop, the server intrigues me most.
Ask yourself if you would like to work with any of the above projects or technologies. Demand exists for the skill sets involved. Do you consider yourself trained and ready to get started? Do you have the system administrative skills to function in the new era in the above environments? If not what should we do?
The game has changed and if we want to move forward we will need some familiarity with the new advances and innovative technologies emerging from the Linux camp. Since most of us Linux guys learn this stuff ourselves, perhaps the time has arrived for some mid-career change over.
I don't see any of the folks at the Open Source Development Lab slowing down, so time's a wastin! To use a term we probably invented in Texas. OK, back on topic.
Moving forward in the new era requires a choice. If you choose to move forward, remember that free software only requires a download. If it's free you can use it and you do not have to ask anybody's permission. Great documentation exists to get started. So as many people say, enjoy!
Brinqa Risk Analytics is an IT risk management and vulnerability risk management platform that provides a consolidated view of an organization’s risk factors. The Brinqa Risk Analytics Administration console enables data integration from security products and other data sources that are not able to “talk” to each other. Brinqa applications aggregate risk data, define and manage risk models, measure return on investment and risk reduction, and review metrics and trends.
The Brinqa Risk Analytics platform console provides users with wizards for completing various tasks and navigational features that are consistent throughout the application. The console is setup in a series of panels, with each related to one of the risk module wizards. Users have a common view of data across all modules including risk management, vendor risk management, threat and vulnerability management and incident management.
This is a risk object driven tool. Users start by manually importing assets using the connectors that come with the product. Policies are also imported. The user interface walks users through mapping object to domains and domains to workflows. Brinqa has an open content framework that has some light content out of the box, but users will more than likely import their own. Setting up the connectors, models, controls and process workflows are manual, but they are fully reusable. The risk assessment module is passed on PCI control sets. Assessments are used to collect data. Users have some pre-built content and a wizard to develop one’s own. Assessment lifecycle management includes stages for creating, answering and reviewing assessments with stage notifications built in.
The reporting and analytics capabilities were impressive. The approach Brinqa took to designing the data management system, i.e. Big Data architecture, really makes it easy to aggregate data across all areas and create ad-hoc on-the-fly reports and dashboards. The reporting module is graphical and business intelligence driven. The analytics capabilities, what-if analysis and trending were also well done. Using the analytics tools users can create metrics across any sets of data and even create useful, focused metrics to track things like incident management, virus protection, patch management, vulnerability management and change management metrics. The useful part of the analytics tool was that these metrics had a lot of additional information beyond simple counts. Some example metrics include mean time to mitigate metrics, percentages of systems patched as an example, SLA management, and frequency of threats/vulnerabilities.
Brinqa can be deployed as a cloud-based solution or as on-premise software. The supported server platforms for on-premise include: Oracle Solaris 9, 10; HP-UX 11iv2, 11iv3, IBM AIX 5.2, 5.3, 6.1; Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 3, 4, 5; OpenSolaris 2008.05, 2008.11, 2009.06; SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP2, 10, 11; Windows NT 4.0; Windows Server 2000, 2003, 2008; Windows Vista/XP, Windows 7, z/OS v1.6 – 1.11. The application server is supported on Apache Tomcat, Oracle WebLogic Server, IBM WebSphere, Sun Java System Application Server, Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server. Supported database systems include IBM DB2 9.1, 9.5, 9.7; Microsoft SQL Server 2000 SP3, 2005, 2008; MySQL 5.0, 5.1; Oracle 10g, 11g.
Basic support is included in the license fee and includes phone and email access, and 24/7 access is by online support portal. No other support options were provided. Documentation is built-in and accessible from the application.
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