|Exam Name||:||Advanced Scripting using QTP 11 Software|
|Questions and Answers||:||160 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 19, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure HP0-M98 Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure HP0-M98 Full Version|
Exam Questions Updated On :
How long practice is needed for HP0-M98 test?
me passed this HP0-M98 exam with killexams.com question set. i did now not having tons time to put together, i boughtthis HP0-M98 questions solutions and exam simulator, and this was the high-quality expert decision I ever made. I were given via the exam without difficulty, even though its no longer an easy one. but this protected all currentquestions, and i were given lots of them at the HP0-M98 exam, and became capable of parent out the rest, primarily based on my revel in. I wager it became as near 7c5d89b5be9179482b8568d00a9357b2 as an IT exam can get. So yes, killexams.com is simply as appropriate as they say its far.
What do you mean by way of HP0-M98 examination dumps?
Every topic and area, every scenario, killexams.com HP0-M98 materials have been great help for me while preparing for this exam and actually doing it! I was nervous, but going back to this HP0-M98 Q&A and thinking that I know everything because the HP0-M98 exam was very easy after the killexams.com stuff, I got a good result. Now, doing the next level of HP certifications.
real test questions modern day HP0-M98 examination are available now.
I thanks killexams.com braindumps for this excellent achievement. yes, its far your question and solution which helped me pass the HP0-M98 exam with ninety one% marks. That too with best 12 days preparation time. It changed into past my imagination even three weeks before the test until i found the product. thank you lots on your invaluable guide and wish all the exceptional to you team individuals for all of the destiny endeavors.
actual HP0-M98 exam questions to pass at first strive.
Wow..OMG, I surely passed my HP0-M98 cert with 90 seven percent score i used to be uncertain on how accurate the observe dump changed into. I practiced together with your online test simulator, and studied the material and after taking the test i used to be satisfied i discovered you guys on the net, YAHOO!! Thank you Very an awful lot! Philippines
Dumps of HP0-M98 exam are available now.
I just purchased this HP0-M98 braindump, as soon as I heard that killexams.com has the updates. Its true, they have included all new areas, and the exam looks very fresh. Given the recent update, their turn around time and support is excellent.
All real test questions of HP0-M98 exam! Are you kidding?
That is to inform that I passed HP0-M98 exam the other day. This killexams.com questions solutions and exam simulator changed into very useful, and i dont assume i would have finished it without it, with best per week of training. The HP0-M98 questions are real, and that is exactly what I saw in the test center. Moreover, this prep corresponds with all of the key issues of the HP0-M98 exam, so i was truely organized for a few questions that have been barely special from what killexams.com provided, however at the identical subject matter. But, I passed HP0-M98 and satisfiedapproximately it.
located HP0-M98 real query supply.
it is amazing experience for the HP0-M98 exam. With now not a whole lot stuff available on line, Im glad I were givenkillexams.com. The questions/solutions are just top class. With killexams.com, the exam become very easy, extraordinary.
Do no longer spill big quantity at HP0-M98 guides, testout the ones questions.
Ive renewed my membership this time for HP0-M98 exam. I take delivery of my involvement with killexams.com is so vital it isnt viable give up thru not having a club. I am able to just recollect killexams.com exams for my exam. Sincerely this web page can help me acquire my HP0-M98 accredition and assist me in getting above ninety five% marks inside the exam. You all are virtually making an wonderful displaying. Hold it up!
What are requirements to bypass HP0-M98 exam in little attempt?
This is the best test-prep on the market! I just took and passed my HP0-M98. Only one question was unseen in the exam. The information that comes with the QA make this product far more than a brain-dump, for coupled with traditional studies; online exam simulator is an extremely valuable tool in advancing ones career.
So clean questions in HP0-M98 exam! i was already enough organized.
killexams.com is straightforward and strong and you may pass the exam if you undergo their questions and answers. No phrases to explicit as i have passed the HP0-M98 exam in first try. a few different questions banks also are availble inside the market, but I sense killexams.com is exceptional amongst them. i am very assured and am going to apply it for my different test additionally. thanks lots ..killexams.
SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(company WIRE)--Enteros, Inc., the business leader in production efficiency management, nowadays announced the immediate help for HP QTP through its Load2Test Platform. Extending this aid, enables purchasers using Enteros load trying out platform to load test internet-based and windows based functions the use of current HP QTP scripts.
The newest offering from Enteros extends its load checking out platform Load2Test with the ability to replay HP QuickTest expert (QTP) useful scripts as load exams. With this announcement, QTP valued clientele benefit the skill to reuse their huge funding in developing business-usual useful scripts for load testing the use of the Enteros Load2Test platform. QTP is an automatic practical Graphical consumer Interface (GUI) trying out device that permits the automation of person movements on an internet or customer based mostly and computer desktop utility. it is essentially used for feature regression test automation. QTP makes use of a scripting language to specify the examine manner, and to govern the objects and controls of the application under look at various.
“there is increasing awareness of the importance of load testing to a corporation’s earnings growth particularly given the current and immediate economic outlook. Our extension in aiding the reuse of HP QTP enables corporations to examine their functions with present components represented with the aid of up to now developed scripts. further charge rate reductions and considerable time reduction is won over legacy load checking out strategies by using our resourceful entrance and returned end load checking out solution Load2Test. This announcement continues our carrying on with consumer dedication to modernize the weight testing process,” referred to Ron Warshawsky cofounder and CTO of Enteros.
The Load2Test platform is also at present integrated with Citrix business XenSever and with Citrix Cloud center (Citrix C3) and permits immediate, transparent and scalable software load checking out for the QTP useful exams.
Enteros provides a collection of construction efficiency management utility solutions for common infrastructure and cloud computing environments that permits businesses to maximize their IT investments, guide enterprise agility and permit growth. The company’s application options are valued throughout the area’s most annoying and dynamic industries through IT executives, operations, enterprise administration and DBAs to identify, diagnose, and get to the bottom of performance issues across structures, computing architectures and purposes to guarantee the highest tiers of productivity, reducing risk and fees, whereas making certain more desirable consumer satisfaction.
AdactIn proudly launches a pattern net application to observe and gain knowledge of look at various Automation. Use this utility with any test automation tool, HP QTP, Selenium and greater.Parramatta, Australia, February 10, 2014 --(PR.com)-- AdactIn proudly launches a pattern web software to observe and be trained test Automation. it's a Free sample reside application which is terribly effective to be taught, develop and practice look at various Automaiton. This utility may also be used with any of industry leading test automation equipment like HP QTP, Selenium, IBM RFT TOSCA, TestComplete and greater.
With exquisite studies on AdactIn pattern utility to learn functional automation, clients now have entry to varied builds of the utility. build-1 has frequent defects on account of which afew of the test instances and automation scripts will fail. In construct-2 lots of the commonplace defects had been fixed. it is giving a true time simulation of regression trying out conducted in reside applications.
So register quickly at hyperlink www.adactin.com/HotelApp. There are already 1000+ users registered and having a variety of enjoyable using the application.
AdactIn is an Australia based mostly utility consulting enterprise with a specialty in application testing. it's an conclusion-to-end IT checking out solution & IT aid issuer.
AdactIn presents a big range of trying out features viz. Core functional checking out, Automation checking out, performance trying out, mobile (Android) trying out, Cloud based mostly trying out. they have a common clientele all over Australia. besides consulting features, AdactIn neighborhood additionally cope with public and corporate stage trainings on quite a few tools in testing area.
looking at the success fee, they without doubt recognize a way to drive innovation.
to grasp extra about AdactIn, please consult with: www.adactin.com.
About AdactIn group Pty Ltd:AdactIn is an Australia primarily based utility consulting firm with a area of expertise in software checking out. AdactIn specializes in testing equipment and presenting high category managed checking out functions.
Contact:AdactIn community Pty Ltd,14, stage three, Civic Arcade,forty eight-50 George street,Parramatta - 2150,New South Wales, Australia,phone: (+61) - 435916899,email: email@example.com://www.adactin.com
At its HP give protection to conference in Washington, D.C. this week, HP is taking the wraps off new protection items that aim to detect infected and compromised machines in addition to server-based mostly utility that makes use of so-referred to as “run-time” self-insurance policy to maintain from getting infected in the first vicinity.
HP business protection items announced HP utility Defender, application that after loaded as an agent onto internet or software servers, can realize and block makes an attempt to take advantage of code vulnerabilities by utilizing a know-how called “runtime software self-insurance plan” (RASP). The Gartner consultancy says RASP products represent a new security method evident for only the past two years through which security software really works as an instrumentation of runtime in servers or consumers to offer protection to towards attacks comparable to SQL injection, cross-web page scripting and unauthorized access.
+ extra on network World: Will perimeter firewalls give way to ‘RASP’? +
“RASP could exchange internet application firewall protection and this may be your simple supply of defense for your net servers,” says Frank Mong, vice chairman of options at HP enterprise protection products.
net utility firewalls are often utilized in entrance of servers to give protection to them from a whole lot of assaults, but RASP software is loaded at once into .internet or Java functions as a runtime agent that may observe assaults in true-time on what can be unpatched vulnerabilities and block them.RASP could replace web software firewall protection and this could be your primary supply of defense on your net servers.
Frank Mong, vp of options at HP enterprise protection items
Gartner says other vendors besides HP in the nascent RASP market consist of Prevoty, shape safety, Waratek, Bluebox and Lacoon cell protection. HP didn’t aspect precisely when HP software Defender would be obtainable however HP is showing it off at the HP give protection to convention this week, attended through several thousand HP safety customers.
A 2nd new method to security that HP can be proposing for the first time is what HP calls superior chance equipment DNS. It’s definitely a “DNS sniffer,” says Mong in that the equipment can become aware of what person computer has turn into contaminated by identifying that the browser has been inappropriately re-directed via malicious code, a common incidence. Mong says HP developed the DNS-based probability-detection appliance in-apartment for its personal use to protect many hundreds of HP personnel and their contraptions. The equipment is proposing precise-time insight into “affected person zero, the primary one infected” for HP and brief remediation can also be taken, says Mong. The probability-detection equipment isn't yet commercialized however HP anticipates with the intention to occur in concerning the next month.join the network World communities on fb and LinkedIn to touch upon topics which are exact of mind.
Unquestionably it is hard assignment to pick dependable certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report dissension customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams joyfully and effortlessly. We never trade off on our review, reputation and quality on the grounds that killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Uniquely we deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report objection, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you see any false report posted by our rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protest or something like this, simply remember there are constantly awful individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a huge number of fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, our specimen questions and test brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
P2090-045 real questions | 250-501 study guide | SCP-500 practice questions | A2040-925 examcollection | 9A0-164 study guide | VCS-322 free pdf download | JN0-647 test prep | BCB-Analyst dump | 212-77 bootcamp | EX0-106 free pdf | 70-705 VCE | C2180-374 braindumps | 70-410 questions answers | HP3-X11 exam prep | 4A0-106 cheat sheets | A2090-545 practice test | VCAP5-DCD free pdf | C4040-122 cram | A2010-599 dumps questions | 156-110 real questions |
Get high marks in HP0-M98 exam with these dumps
killexams.com provide latest and updated Practice Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of HP HP0-M98 Exam. Practice our Real Questions and Answers to Improve your knowledge and pass your exam with High Marks. We ensure your success in the Test Center, covering all the topics of exam and build your Knowledge of the HP0-M98 exam. Pass 4 sure with our accurate questions. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are provided at http://killexams.com/cart
If you are attempting to find Pass4sure HP HP0-M98 Dumps containing actual exams questions and answers for the Advanced Scripting using QTP 11 Software Exam instruction, we provide most up to date and quality wellspring of HP0-M98 Dumps this is http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP0-M98. We have aggregated a database of HP0-M98 Dumps questions from real exams with a selected cease purpose to give you a risk free get ready and pass HP0-M98 exam at the first attempt.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as below;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders more than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders extra than $ninety nine
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
killexams.com permits a large number of applicants breeze through the tests and get their certifications. We have a large number of a hit feelings. Our dumps are solid, more affordable, progressive and of extremely best top of the line to triumph over the issues of any IT certifications. killexams.com exam dumps are present day avant-grade in especially bulldoze way on typical premise and material is discharged occasionally. Most recent killexams.com dumps are accessible in testing focuses with whom we are holding our dating to get ultra-current material.
killexams.com HP Certification watch courses are setup by method for IT specialists. Bunches of undergrads were grumbling that an excessive number of inquiries in such a considerable measure of training tests and take a gander at courses, and they're basically exhausted to have enough cash any additional. Seeing killexams.com pros instructional course this total form even as in any case ensure that all the learning is covered after profound research and assessment. Everything is to make accommodation for applicants on their road to certification.
We have Tested and Approved HP0-M98 Exams. killexams.com bears the most right and fresh out of the plastic new IT exam materials which nearly contain all ability focuses. With the valuable asset of our HP0-M98 brain dumps, you don't need to squander it moderate on examining main part of reference books and just need to burn through 10-20 hours to get a handle on our HP0-M98 genuine inquiries and answers. What's more, we offer you with PDF Version and Software Version exam inquiries and answers. For Software Version materials, Its provided to give the candidates reenact the HP HP0-M98 exam in a genuine environment.
We offer free supplant. Inside legitimacy period, if HP0-M98 brain dumps which you have purchased updated, we will educate you by email to download late form of Q&A. if you don't pass your HP Advanced Scripting using QTP 11 Software exam, We will furnish you with finish discount. You have to deliver the filtered multiplication of your HP0-M98 exam document card to us. after affirming, we will rapidly think of FULL REFUND.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
On the off chance that you set up together for the HP HP0-M98 exam the use of our testing engine. It is anything but difficult to prevail for all certifications inside the main endeavor. You don't must adapt to all dumps or any free deluge/rapidshare all stuff. We give free demo of every IT Certification Dumps. You can try out the interface, question quality and estimation of our training appraisals sooner than you choose to search for.
Killexams HP2-W104 free pdf | Killexams CSM-001 test prep | Killexams 00M-513 real questions | Killexams HP2-E50 study guide | Killexams 000-M31 dumps | Killexams 7593X braindumps | Killexams HP0-782 real questions | Killexams 000-867 cram | Killexams HP0-064 sample test | Killexams 00M-229 practice questions | Killexams JN0-370 brain dumps | Killexams 156-510 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-610 practice questions | Killexams HP0-663 questions answers | Killexams 70-466 study guide | Killexams M70-101 questions and answers | Killexams IBMSPSSMBPDM brain dumps | Killexams 050-864 dumps questions | Killexams 000-513 mock exam | Killexams 010-111 braindumps |
Killexams E20-598 exam questions | Killexams 210-060 test questions | Killexams 310-052 brain dumps | Killexams HP2-B103 exam prep | Killexams 642-437 Practice Test | Killexams P8010-034 dumps | Killexams C2040-917 braindumps | Killexams HP0-X02 sample test | Killexams 1Z0-144 mock exam | Killexams C2020-003 test prep | Killexams LX0-103 cheat sheets | Killexams A2040-402 questions and answers | Killexams NRA-FPM free pdf | Killexams C2080-474 real questions | Killexams 700-551 test prep | Killexams 00M-234 examcollection | Killexams 9A0-411 VCE | Killexams 200-310 practice test | Killexams 1Z0-515 questions and answers | Killexams HP0-Y11 practice exam |
With data increasingly vital to business success, business intelligence (BI) continues to grow in importance. With a strong BI strategy and team, organizations can perform the kinds of analysis of business information necessary to help users make data-driven business decisions.
BI encompasses numerous roles. BI analysts, with an average salary of $66,791 per year according to PayScale, provide application analysis and data modeling design for centralized data warehouses and extract data from databases and data warehouses for reporting, among other tasks. BI developers, with an average salary of $77,859 per year according to PayScale, work with databases and software to develop and fine-tune IT solutions. BI architects, with an average salary of $108,108 per year according to PayScale, analyze and implement BI for their organizations, with responsibilities that range from determining platforms to building and maintaining data warehouses. BI directors, with an average salary of $129,008 per year according to PayScale, lead design and development activities related to the enterprise data warehouse.
In its 1Q 2019 IT Skills Demand and Pay Trends Report, research firm Foote Partners notes that cash pay for tech certifications hit a four-year low in the final quarter of 2018, but database certifications were one of the areas in which pay increased (by 2 percent). The report also found that cash premiums for database skills also grew (by 4 percent) in non-certified skills. In the non-certified skills category, data visualization and quantitative analysis/regression analysis skills were among the fastest-growing with regard to pay.
Certifications are not required to work in BI, but they may help you get an edge by proving to employers that you have the right skillset. Below is our guide to some of the most sought-after BI certifications.
The CBIP certification program is intended for senior-level personnel in the information systems and technology industry with a focus on data management and business analytics. The cert demonstrates that you are up-to-date with BI technologies and are knowledgeable about best practices, solutions, and emerging trends. You will need two or more years of full-time experience in computer information systems, data modeling, data planning, data definitions, metadata systems development, enterprise resource planning, systems analysis, application development and programming, or information technology management. The initial certification is valid for four years and must be renewed every three years thereafter. Recertification requires proof of 120 credit hours of continuing education earned since the last renewal.
The certification has two levels:
Organization: The Data Warehousing Institute (TDWI)
Exam fee: $400 per exam
Annual fee: $125 to the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) each year after the firstIBM Certified Designer: IBM Cognos Analytics Author V11
Price: $100 to $200Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate: BI Reporting
The MCSA: BI Reporting certification demonstrates your expertise in analyzing data with both Power BI and Excel. It demonstrates knowledge of data analysis, data visualization, modeling, dashboards, and direct connectivity to data sources in Excel and Power BI. The certification serves as a first step toward the higher-level Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE): Data Management and Analytics certification. The certification requires passing one of two exams and does not require renewal.
Exam fee: $165 per examMicrosoft Certified Solutions Associate: SQL 2016 BI Development
The MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development certification validates your extract, transform, and load (ETL), and data warehouse skills, as well as your ability to implement BI solutions using multidimensional and tabular data models and online analytical processing (OLAP) cubes. The certification serves as a first step toward higher-level MCSE certifications, including the MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification. The certification requires passing one of 13 exams and does not require renewal.
Exam fee: $165 per examMicrosoft Certified Solutions Expert: Data Management and Analytics
The MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification demonstrates your broad skill sets in SQL administration, building enterprise-scale data solutions, and leveraging BI data on-premises and in cloud environments. It qualifies the holder for data analyst, database designer, and business intelligence analyst positions. To qualify, the candidate must first earn an MCSA in SQL Server 2012/2014, or SQL 2016 Database Administration, Database Development, BI Development, Machine Learning, BI Reporting, or Data Engineering with Azure. The certification requires passing two of 13 exams. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $165 per examOracle Business Intelligence Foundation Suite 11g Certified Implementation Specialist
The Oracle Business Intelligence Foundation Suite 11g Certified Implementation Specialist certification is intended for intermediate-level implementation team members and demonstrates your skills in areas including: installing Oracle Business Intelligence Suite, building the BI Server metadata repository, building BI dashboards, constructing ad hoc queries, defining security settings, and configuring and managing cache files. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $245QlikView Business Analyst
The QlikView Business Analyst certification demonstrates your knowledge of interface design of QlikView applications and is recommended for roles involved in the analysis, design, and layout of the QlikView application user interface. Candidates must have a basic knowledge of BI, reporting, and data analysis, as well as experience working with QlikView to design applications. The certification requires passing a multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE via a Pearson VUE Test Center or in your home/office using online proctoring. The certification does not expire, though Qlik releases new exams for every major release, so old certifications do "age out."
Exam fee: $250QlikView Data Architect
The QlikView Data Architect certification demonstrates your knowledge of the technical aspects of QlikView application development, including design, data modeling, and scripting. It is recommended for roles involving developing, deploying, and supporting QlikView applications. The certification requires passing a multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE via a Pearson VUE Test Center or in your home/office using online proctoring. The certification does not expire, though Qlik releases new exams for every major release, so old certifications do "age out."
Exam fee: $250SAP Certified Application Associate: Business Intelligence with SAP BW 7.4 & SAP BI 4.1
The SAP Certified Application Associate: Business Intelligence certification demonstrates your knowledge of SAP Business Warehouse and Business Intelligence. SAP recommends candidates combine hands-on experience and education courses to prepare for the required multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $500Tableau Desktop Certified Professional
The Tableau Desktop Certified Professional certification is for individuals with considerable experience with Tableau (recommended 12 or more months of experience) who wish to demonstrate their mastery of advanced functionality of Tableau and application of visual best practices. The certification requires you to hold the Tableau Desktop Qualified Associate certification and pass an exam. The certification is valid for three years.
Exam fee: $600Tableau Server Certified Professional
The Tableau Server Certified Professional certification is for individuals with considerable experience with Tableau Server (recommended nine or more months of experience) who wish to demonstrate their architectural knowledge and platform integration expertise. The certification requires you to hold the Tableau Server Qualified Associate certification and pass an exam. The certification is valid for three years.
Exam fee: $800
Copyright © 2019 IDG Communications, Inc.
Advanced waveform triggering and sequencing is made possible on a variety of NI modular instruments by the NI Synchronization and Memory Core (SMC) architecture. As a result, this feature is available on arbitrary waveform generators, RF vector signal generators, and high-speed digital products. For more information on the SMC architecture, review National Instruments Synchronization and Memory Core - A Modern Architecture for Mixed-Signal Test.
Figure 1. Waveform Sequencing Implemented in the SMC Architecture
Modern arbitrary waveform generators implement deep onboard memory to store large waveforms. You can generate these waveforms in a sequential manner using what is commonly referred to as “linking and looping.” With this feature, you can create complex waveform sequences by generating waveforms in a predetermined or dynamic order.
Figure 2 illustrates three unique waveforms that you can store in memory on a signal generator.
Figure 2. Multiple Arbitrary Waveforms Stored in Memory
Once you have stored these waveforms in memory, you can link and loop them in a sequenced manner. Thus, you must also store the sequencing instructions for the waveforms in memory before the generation session begins. With NI signal generators, you can store multiple waveforms and multiple sequence instructions in the onboard memory. Figure 3 illustrates the possible memory usage of an NI signal generator.
Figure 3. NI signal generators store multiple waveforms in onboard memory.
Figure 3 shows that waveforms stored on a signal generator can occupy a significant amount of memory. For example, a waveform sampled at 100 MS/s for 1 second occupies 200 MB. Thus, it is important to effectively use the onboard memory of your signal generator. In fact, one advantage of using waveform linking and looping is that you can generate complex sequences while using minimal onboard memory.
Back to Top2. Linking and Looping
Linking and looping options available on NI signal generators fall into two linking and looping modes - sequence mode and script mode. With sequence mode, you are able to configure the instrument to generate a predetermined series of waveforms with a sequence stored in the onboard memory. Script mode, on the other hand, is even more powerful because you can use it to create a dynamic waveform sequence in which the waveform generated is dependent on the state of a hardware or software trigger. In addition, script mode uses conditional statements such as “if/else” to implement branching waveform sequences. Finally, with both linking and looping modes, you can configure the signal generator to output one or several trigger signals with features such as the marker or marker event.Sequencing Mode
With sequencing mode, the waveform sequence must be configured so that each step contains information for three parameters - waveform name, loop count, and marker position. Figure 4 illustrates the parameters that are configured in a typical script.
Figure 4. Configured Parameters in a Waveform Sequence
The software programming interface for sequencing is created with the advanced arbitrary sequencing palette of the NI-FGEN driver in LabVIEW. With this driver, write the sequence instructions to the signal generator with the niFGEN Create Arbitrary Sequence VI shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Writing a Sequence to Onboard Memory
With this VI, the sequence instructions are written as two arrays - one containing the number of iterations for each waveform and the second containing the handle information for each waveform. In addition, you can create even more advanced sequences to output a marker event for each waveform. With this option enabled, you must configure a third array to designate the marker offset for each waveform.
Back to Top3. Sequence Trigger Modes
You can generate waveforms that are configured in a sequence using a variety of different modes, depending on which trigger mechanism you select. While a trigger event can occur as a software event, it more commonly occurs in hardware on one of the many available trigger lines. With National Instruments signal generators, the trigger modes available for waveform sequencing are single trigger, continuous trigger, stepped trigger, and burst trigger. Each of these modes provides different output options when each waveform is generated. They are described below.Single Trigger
Single trigger mode is the simplest of all triggering modes because with this mode, a trigger is used only once during the generation period. Thus, after the trigger condition is met, the instrument must be rearmed to be active once again. In single trigger mode, a trigger is typically used as a start trigger to begin the generation of the waveform. As shown in Figure 6, the signal generator outputs the last sample of the last waveform while waiting to receive the start trigger. Once this trigger condition is met, the signal generator begins the generation of the waveform or sequence of waveforms.
Figure 6. Sequencing with a Single Start Trigger
As Figure 6 illustrates, the signal generator begins output on a rising edge of the start trigger. Note, however, that there is a slight delay between when the start trigger occurs and the channel 0 output begins. This delay, a function of the sampling rate and interpolation factors, is described in the signal generator specifications. In addition, notice that in this particular scenario, a sequence of two waveforms has been configured for generation. Once the last waveform in the sequence has been generated, the signal generator continues to drive the last sample value.Continuous Triggering
On the other hand, in continuous trigger mode, the entire sequence of waveform segments is continuously generated. Once the trigger is received, the signal generator begins generation of the signal with the first waveform in the sequence. In addition, the signal generator outputs each step in the sequence and then loops back to the first step upon completion of the sequence.
Figure 7. Sequencing with Continuous Trigger Mode
As Figure 7 illustrates, output begins shortly after the start trigger condition occurs. In addition, the signal generator continues to generate the sequence of waveforms until the generation session is stopped. Notice from Figure 6, that at time t2, the signal generator loops to the first waveform in the sequence.Stepped Triggering
In stepped trigger mode, a trigger is used to step through each waveform in a sequence list. When the generation session is started, the first waveform loops as many times as has been configured for that particular step. After the waveform has been looped for the appropriate number of iterations, the last sample of the waveform repeats continuously until the next trigger is received. When the next trigger is received, the second waveform generates for the configured number of iterations. This process repeats until the last of the configured waveforms has been generated. At this point, a trigger condition is required to start the generation sequence again (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Sequencing with Stepped Trigger Mode
As Figure 8 illustrates, the signal generator begins generating the first waveform at time t0, when the first trigger is received. In addition, it continues to loop through the generation of ‘waveform0’ until it reaches the number of configured loops (two in this case). In this particular scenario, you can observe that ‘waveform0’ has been configured to loop twice. As you can see in Figure 7, the signal generator continues to drive the last sample of ‘waveform0’ until time t1, when the next waveform is generated.Burst Triggering
Burst trigger mode is similar to stepped trigger mode except that each waveform in the sequence repeats continuously between each received trigger. In this mode, the signal generator begins to generate a waveform when a trigger is received. In addition, it continues looping to generate that waveform until a subsequent trigger is received. Only then does it advance to the next waveform (see timing diagram in Figure 9).
Figure 9. Sequencing with Burst Trigger Mode
As Figure 9 illustrates, the first trigger is received at time ‘t0’ and causes the signal generator to generate the first step of the sequence. Notice that the signal generator continues to loop this waveform until it receives the next trigger. Thus, at ‘t1,’ when a second trigger is received, the signal generator proceeds to the next step in the sequence.
Back to Top4. Scripting for Advanced Waveform Sequencing
While sequence mode enables a signal generator to output a series of waveforms upon receiving triggers, it does have its limitations. Fundamentally, sequence mode requires that each step is configured before signal generation has begun. To configure a dynamic script, where the output is conditional, you must use a more advanced form of sequencing called scripting.
With scripting, a signal generator can dynamically output a sequence of waveforms based on hardware or software events in the system. In addition, it is the most advanced waveform control feature because of its flexibility. You can use scripting not only to link and loop between multiple waveforms but also to generate a waveform conditional on an event that occurs in the device under test. In this section, explore basic script language elements using several example scripts.Fundamentals of the Script Language
The basic idea of scripting is that a named waveform can be stored in memory on the signal generator and then called by a script that determines which waveform is generated at a given time. The script is also downloaded to the arbitrary waveform generator before signal generation.
In software, the scripting programming interface requires three basic functions. Each of these is shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10. Configuring a Script in LabVIEW
First, each waveform is downloaded to the arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) as a named waveform. It is absolutely necessary that a named waveform is written because the script identifies each waveform by name. Second, the script is written to the waveform. The script contains various commands that determine the order in which each waveform is generated. Finally, the generation is initiated and the AWG begins generating a waveform from the SMC output engine.Introduction to Script Triggers
Script triggers enable the generation of even more complex scripts. With scripting, you can use a real-world signal to determine which waveform you should generate on the fly. This signal can come from a PXI trigger line on the backplane or a PFI (programmable function interface) trigger from the front panel connector.
You can configure the script trigger in software with the niFgen Configure Script Trigger VI. Using this function, you can configure either a level or edge trigger for a specific trigger line. After the function call in Figure 11, a script can use “scriptTrigger0” as a variable to determine the order in which various waveforms are generated.
Figure 11. Configuring a Script Trigger
In the scripting language, the script trigger is handled as a variable associated with a specific hardware condition. As illustrated in the Figure 11 example script, scriptTrigger0 must be evaluated as a true/false Boolean logic statement. This is shown in Figure 12.
Figure 12. Evaluating a Script Trigger
Because with script triggers you can use conditional statements within the scripting language, the signal generator can output a signal that is dependent on a signal from a real-world device under test. The next section examines some basic statements of the scripting language to provide an overview of scripting capabilities.Basics of the Script Language
The script language contains several basic commands, which determine the order in which you can generate waveforms. This section lists the basic commands and walks through a couple of basic sequences that use them. The basic scripting command set includes commands such as the following:
Generate n – instructs the output engine to generate a sequence of waveforms ‘n’ times.
Repeat until – repeats a sequence until a particular condition has been met.
If/Else – a conditional statement where the script trigger operates as a Boolean variable.
Wait until – a delay statement that causes the output engine to wait until a condition has been met to resume signal generation.
Clear – erases any instances of triggers that might have occurred.
With the “Repeat until” command, you can repeatedly generate a waveform until a trigger occurs. Figure 13 shows the set of commands required to implement a simple script that uses this command.
Figure 13. Example Script Using the “Repeat until” Command
Notice that “scriptTrigger0” is being used as the variable that determines which waveform should be generated. Use the flowchart in Figure 14 to visualize the script language.
Figure 14. Flowchart of Script Containing the “Repeat until” Command
In this specific script, the signal generator begins by generating “waveform0” first. Then it loops through generating “waveform1” and repeats this waveform until “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE. Once this event occurs, the signal generator generates “waveform2” before finishing the sequence. Figure 15 shows the output signal resulting from this script.
Figure 15. Signal Generator Output with the “Repeat until” Script
As Figure 15 illustrates, the AWG continues to generate “waveform1” until “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE.Wait Until Command
With the “Wait until” command, you can configure a signal generator to halt generation of any waveform until a hardware condition occurs. Figure 16 shows an example script using “Wait until.” Again, notice that “scriptTrigger0” is used as the variable to determine when the AWG resumes waveform generation.
Figure 16. Example Script Using the “Wait until” Command
Notice the use of the “Clear” statement before the “Wait until” statement. The Clear statement is used to ignore any trigger conditions that may have occurred while “waveform0” was being generated. Figure 17 features a flowchart of this specific script.
Figure 17. Flowchart of Script Containing the “Wait until” Command
In this specific script, the AWG begins by generating “waveform0” first. After this, the signal generator outputs the last sample of “waveform0” until the trigger condition is met. Once the trigger condition occurs, the AWG resumes the script and generates “waveform1” and then “waveform2.” The physical output of the generator is shown in Figure 18.
Figure 18. Signal Generator Output with the “Wait until” ScriptIf/Else Command
You can use the “If/else” command sequence to determine the order in which waveforms are generated depending on a hardware condition. In addition, when these commands are nested, you can use them to implement a truth table in which the waveform to generate depends on several trigger conditions. Figure 19 shows a simple script using the “If/else” command sequence.
Figure 19. Example Script Using the “If/else” Command
In addition, Figure 20 shows a flowchart representing the order in which particular waveforms are generated.
Figure 20. Flowchart of Script Containing the “If/else” Command
In this example, the AWG begins by generating “waveform0” first. Next, “scripttrigger0” is evaluated to determine which waveform is generated next. If “scripttrigger0” evaluates to FALSE, then “waveform1” is generated. If “scriptrigger0” evaluates to TRUE, then “waveform2” is generated. Figure 21 illustrates the physical output of the AWG, as shown as a function of time.
Figure 21. Signal Generator Output with the “If/else” Script
In Figure 21, when “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE, “waveform2” is generated. Note that this example shows only a single conditional statement. With National Instruments AWGs, you can configure up to four script triggers. As a result, you can nest “If/else” statements to represent even more complicated logical statements.
Back to Top5. Output Triggers and Events
So far, this document has primarily focused on the use of input triggers to control the output of signal generators. However, signal generators are able to generate output triggers to control the behavior of other instruments. The two types of output triggers are marker events and data marker events. For the first type, you can configure up to one (sequence mode) or four (script mode) trigger lines to change the state synchronous with a configured sample number. By contrast, the data marker event enables up to four bits of the analog waveform to be routed to up to four trigger lines. With this type of output trigger, the state of the trigger is embedded into the actual waveform.Marker Events
With a marker event, you can configure up to four trigger lines so their states change synchronously with the generation of a specific sample. You can generate this digital pulse on PFI trigger lines on the front panel of a signal generator or on the PXI backplane.
Marker events are specified by giving an offset count (in number of samples) from the start of the waveform. In sequence mode, you configure one marker event for each step in the sequence. In script mode, you can configure up to four markers at different offsets of a particular waveform. As you can see in Figure 22, the trigger line associated with the marker becomes asserted on the same clock edge that generates the 20th sample. In addition, you can observe that in this particular case, the trigger line has been configured to be asserted for 40 periods of the sample clock.
Figure 22. Timing of Marker Event Output
Note that you can configure the behavior of the marker output in a number of ways with a property node. As Figure 22 illustrates, the marker event has been configured as a pulse for eight periods of the sample clock. You can specify this behavior with an niFgen property node (Figure 23).
Figure 23. Configuring a Marker Event with a Property Node
Figure 23 illustrates that it is possible to configure the output terminal, the output behavior, and the pulse width. While the marker in Figure 23 is configured as a pulse, you can also configure the output to toggle instead.
Marker events are particularly useful for scenarios when it is necessary to synchronize multiple instruments. In addition, with PXI signal generators, you can easily route marker event triggers to multiple modules such as digitizers, RF vector signal generators, or high-speed digital I/O hardware.Data Marker Events
Using the data marker event, you can export up to four waveform data bits to a physical trigger line as a digital signal. For example, a typical signal generator uses a 16-bit DAC (digital-to-analog converter). Thus, when generating a signal, 16-bit samples are sent to the DAC every period of the sample rate frequency. In addition, you can route up to four bits of each sample to physical trigger lines. Thus, you can configure these four waveform bits as a digital waveform for synchronization with other hardware.
The digital level of a data marker event changes when a specific data bit toggles in the waveform data. If the waveform data bit toggles several times in a segment, the data marker level changes every time. When the data bit level is high, the data marker level is high. In addition, you can configure data bit markers to use inverse logic. A timing diagram of a signal using data bit markers is shown in Figure 24.
Figure 24. Bitwise Representation of a Waveform
As Figure 24 illustrates, each sample of a typical signal generator is composed of a 16-bit number. You can update the 16-bit number every sample clock of the signal generator. Figure 24 highlights the four least significant bits of each 16-bit sample. As described above, you can route each of these individual bits to a physical trigger line as a digital signal. The behavior of the digital trigger lines is illustrated in the timing diagram for each data bit trigger line in Figure 25.
Figure 25. Data Marker Event Timing Diagram
Figure 25 shows you can configure each data bit marker to be routed as an external trigger line. Notice that the bit value for each sample determines the state of the trigger line. In ‘DataBit3,’ notice that the bit is a ‘0’ for the first three clock periods and changes to a ‘1’ starting at time ‘t2.’ As a result, the digital state of ‘PXI_Trig 3’ remains low for the first three periods and goes high at time ‘t2.’
Using data marker events, you can achieve tighter synchronization between signal generators and other devices because you can time their operation in hardware. In addition, synchronization between multiple PXI instruments is even easier because no external connections are required between modules.
Back to Top6. Summary and Applications
With the advanced waveform triggering and sequencing features of National Instruments signal generators, you can generate complex waveforms and achieve synchronization between multiple instruments. Moreover, the synchronized instruments are in the same physical PXI system. As a result, you can implement complex test signals that are tightly synchronized with multiple instruments. Figure 26 shows an example test setup that includes multiple instruments. Note that in a PXI system, a signal generator can implement marker event or data bit marker features to control the operation of other instruments.
Figure 26. Automated PXI Test System
As Figure 26 illustrates, a signal generator can provide a stimulus signal for the unit under test (UUT). Moreover, additional instruments can interface with the UUT synchronously using the stimulus from the master signal generator. For more information on designing ATE systems, download a collection of technical guides from the test system resource library.
Also, you can use stimulus signals from a UUT to determine the stimulus signal from the AWG. With scripting and script triggers, you can control the output of the signal based on real-world trigger events. Figure 27 shows a block diagram of a test scenario where a signal generator produces a series of different signals conditional on digital control signals coming from the UUT. With scripting, a signal generator can respond to these digital control signals on the fly, without stopping generation of its waveform.
Figure 27. Using Dynamic Sequencing
In Figure 27, the PFI0 and PFI1 have been configured as script triggers to receive inputs from the UUT. Note that signal generators are able to use up to four script triggers to control the signal output. If you need more than two control lines, you can use a PXI timing and synchronization module to route digital trigger signals to the signal generator.Conclusion
Modern signal generators use the NI Synchronization and Memory Core (SMC) architecture to enable the generation of complex and accurate analog signals. As a result, signal generators can generate a large variety of signals and support a wide array of applications. To view a multimedia tutorial on the same topic, see Signal Generator Fundamentals: Scripting to Create Advanced Signals. For more information on features you can use to generate advanced waveform sequencing and triggering, see Signal Generator Fundamentals. For more information on the applications that typically use signal generators, see Signal Generator Applications main page.Related Links
This story appears in the March 25, 2019, issue of Sports Illustrated. For more great storytelling and in-depth analysis, subscribe to the magazine—and get up to 94% off the cover price. Click here for more.
Cold and clear as verity, a new dawn broke over Camelback Ranch, spring home of the Dodgers. So did morning. In one batting cage at the Glendale, Ariz., complex last month—not the cage with ground force measurement plates—rookie outfielder Alex Verdugo, 22, took batting practice while tethered to a laptop computer by two dozen thick white wires sprouting like vines from a harness around his hips and torso. Behind him, also in the cage, two technicians monitored the 3D motion images of Verdugo and his swing.
In the bullpen of a back field, pitching prospects Dustin May, 21, and Tony Gonsolin, 24, threw with a tripod-mounted high-speed camera behind them and a wedge-shaped radar tracking device on the ground in front of them. The Dodgers maintained four such technology-equipped mounds in this bullpen alone, and more at the minor league fields. Behind the mounds stood 13 operators, analysts and coaches. Four analysts held tablets to immediately show pitchers the velocity, vertical break, horizontal break, spin rate, spin axis and path of any pitch—on-the-spot sequencing of a pitch genome.
On each of two diamonds, five devices tracked every pitch of live batting practice: a high-speed camera with an operator behind the pitcher, a tracking device on the ground and video cameras behind the plate and to each side.
Analysts in khakis did not quite equal players in spikes, but the visual was close enough to render the effect unmistakable: A technology boom is changing baseball. Once confined to a handful of teams and analytic boiler rooms, technology has exploded in the past year to become embraced (if not understood) by all 30 teams. Technology is changing how players learn, how coaches coach, how managers manage, how front offices evaluate and how teams compete. Its yield of verity, as Shakespeare’s Malcolm would allow, has become one of the king-becoming graces.
“This generation of players has brought about the biggest, fastest change in baseball that I’ve ever seen,” says Cubs catching coach Mike Borzello, who begins his 29th year in professional baseball. Only two years ago, for instance, the Astros were the only team to extensively use the high-speed camera, a small blue box called an Edgertronic SC1, a $5,000 device originally intended for scientific researchers. Shooting at 1,000 frames per second or more (faster than your usual slow-motion TV replay), it focuses on a tight window in which the ball leaves the pitcher’s hand, revealing in stunning clarity how the baseball comes off a pitcher’s fingertips and how it spins. It does for pitches what high-speed cameras did for the wings of a hummingbird: It reveals what previously went unseen by even the keenest of human eyes.
The Astros first considered the camera so proprietary that they would tape over its identifying name, lest they tip off other clubs to their secret sauce. By last year a half dozen teams had began using the devices. This year the cameras were as ubiquitous around camps as bats and balls. Major league teams ordered so many of them that the manufacturer, Sanstreak, posted on its website, “Due to high demand, lead time on all SC1 cameras is 12 weeks. . . . One camera per order, please.”
Likewise, pitch-tracking devices made by Trackman and Rapsodo are suddenly everywhere. The $4,500 Rapsodo is an 111⁄2-pound unit that looks like somebody left a slightly open pizza box 20 feet in front of home plate. It provides instant data on at least 10 different pitch metrics so that a pitcher, as its website touts, can “design your perfect pitch.”
“In my four years here,” says Houston manager AJ Hinch, “I’ve watched tech go from, ‘We’re just going to get video and don’t know what to do with it’ to now being ever present. Justin Verlander is saying, ‘Why isn’t that camera over here?’ He wants every pitch [captured].”
The ability to capture information on every pitch has ignited an explosion of “designer” breaking pitches that has made for the toughest era in history for a hitter to make contact. In the cold truth of its diagnostics, technology is telling pitchers—from a prospect like Gonsolin to a Cy Young Award winner like Verlander—what to throw and what not to throw.
What’s coming is a day when catchers wear a sleeve embedded with a device to measure how his arm and hand moved to receive and frame a pitch; when motion capture devices reveal secrets about the swing to finally allow offense to fight back against the gains technology has made for pitching; and when a batter prepares for an at bat by wearing a virtual reality headset that re-creates the exact likely pitches of the opposing pitcher.
“It’s not quite there,” Cubs president Theo Epstein says of virtual reality as a major league training device, “but in two or three years you might see every team’s hitters training to hit off other team’s pitchers before they go up to hit.”
Says Galen Carr, director of player personnel for the Dodgers, “I’d be surprised if by next season [VR] isn’t fully functional in a handful of clubhouses.”
“Probably sooner than that,” says Jarett Sims, CEO of Monsterful VR, maker of the RibeeVR system, in a phone interview. “If you were in the office with me, you would see me smiling. I’ll leave it at that.”
As evidenced by a typical spring training day, the Dodgers are industry leaders in technology. According to one industry source, they spend about $20 million annually on research and development—hardware, software, salaries. That figure does not include a separate technology incubator business they have operated since 2015. Their Global Sports Venture Studio helps develop emerging technology companies in all sports, not just baseball. When the firm developing the pitch-framing sleeve went belly-up, the Dodgers, one of its investors, bought the company and its technology.
The Cubs, according to another source, are a distant second in technology investments, at about $13 million. The Astros, Rays, Red Sox and Yankees are the other clubs in the top echelon of tech-savvy teams.
Houston has been recognized as such a successful early adopter that clubs playing catch-up—such as the Angels, Orioles and Braves—hired away more than 20 executives, coaches and analysts from the Astros in just the past five months. “The gap has narrowed,” said one source from a large market club, “but we know how to use it. A lot of teams have it but don’t know how to use it, like the Marlins. They just know they have it. They don’t know what that camera does. They’ve captured [the video]. But they haven’t hired the people to interpret it, apply it to the coaches, then apply it to the players.”
Under new GM Mike Elias, who was part of Houston’s brain drain, the Orioles hold “spin axis seminars” for pitchers—something the Astros were doing four years ago. Elias was Houston’s scouting director when, in the 2016 draft, the Astros, with the 17th overall pick, selected Forrest Whitley, a high school pitcher from San Antonio. Whitley happened to pitch a high school playoff game in Round Rock, Texas, home of Houston’s Triple A team. The Astros turned on their ballpark’s pitch-tracking device, Trackman, and learned that Whitley had an abnormally high spin rate on his four-seam fastball, a characteristic of the pitch that makes it harder to hit.
Since he signed, Whitley has thrown virtually every pitch in games, bullpen sessions and sometimes even in flat-ground throwing sessions with the Edgertronic, Trackman or Rapsodo watching. Whitley, 21, is now the best pitching prospect in baseball, as well as the prototype of a generation fully immersed in technology. “I have friends in all these other organizations, and I tell them I do not throw a bullpen without Rapsodo and Edgertronic, and they think that’s the craziest thing in the whole world,” he says. “I’ve grown up in this organization, and that’s all I’ve known. So it’s hard to imagine getting anything done without them.”
Before Game 1 of the 2017 World Series, Hinch was walking with Gene Dias, the Astros’ vice president of media relations, in a narrow hallway beneath Dodger Stadium toward the recently relocated visitors’ clubhouse. As they passed the room that housed the old visitors’ clubhouse, Hinch took a glance past the open door and saw people sitting at desks in front of laptops.
“Gene, is that the media work room?” Hinch asked.
“No. That’s their R&D department.”
“Holy s---! Let’s go back there again.”
They turned around. The manager of the Astros, in full uniform, stepped into the room. He saw the length of it filled with people working at laptops. The capacity stunned even someone from the tech-heavy Astros.
The sign on the door said LOS ANGELES DODGERS in script, and below it in print, BASEBALL OPERATIONS. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT. The symbolism of the conversion was hard to miss: Physical space that once had been the inner sanctum of players had been turned over to number crunchers. But the only way for such a large R&D department to succeed, according to Dodgers president of baseball operations Andrew Friedman, is for no metaphorical wall to exist between the two distinctly different groups of people. “It’s in the application,” Friedman says about the key to using technology. “The data itself, the information, is something most every team has now. So it’s about how the various departments are synced up to make it actually be actionable.”
Says Epstein, “Five years ago you had to tiptoe around ballplayers and the eye roll of coaches who thought [tech] was getting in the way. Now there’s a huge appetite, and the players feel like they’re missing out if you’re not providing it for them, and there’s this great symbiotic relationship between the R&D guys and the players and coaches. It’s awesome.”
The younger generation is driving the fast wave of acceptance. Earl Weaver introduced the radar gun to the big leagues in 1972. Tony Gwynn popularized the use of videotape in the ’80s. For years technology traveled a top-down path, with the minors and amateurs copying what worked in the majors. This tech boom has surfaced from the bottom up and the outside in, whether it’s bubbled up from the golf world (swing and ball flight analysis) or private baseball labs such as Driveline in Kent, Wash. (high-speed cameras, wearable devices and motion capture).
The Rise of the Breaking Pitch
The Cubs’ state-of-the-art spring training complex is a good example of how fast this generation of players has adopted technology. Well, the facility was state of the art when it opened in 2014—it’s already outdated. The video room now is too small. “For the first three or four years very few people went into that video room unless you were a coach,” says Borzello. “Now there’s 20 guys in there. They’re fighting for time on the computer.”
Not only are they more comfortable with technology, young players also learn differently than older players. Studies have shown millennials and those that follow them are more likely to crave visual and auditory cues and require change in delivery formats to maintain interest. They seek cause-and-effect solutions more than the patience and diligence of “nose-to-the-grindstone” practice.
And so baseball teams are hiring more coaches who are younger and often come straight out of college baseball or the private sector, including Rangers assistant hitting coach Callix Crabbe, who was hired out of IMG Academy; Rays “process and analytics coach” Jonathan Erlichman, who was a math major at Princeton who never played beyond T-ball; Phillies minor league hitting coordinator Jason Ochart, who will retain his job as director of hitting at Driveline, and Twins pitching coach Wes Johnson, who was the pitching coach at the University of Arkansas. “He was using high-speed cameras back in 2011 at Dallas Baptist,” Twins executive vice president Derek Falvey says of Johnson. Not only has Johnson brought Edgertronic cameras to the Twins, but he also conducts “visual training” seminars. Before each individually scripted bullpen session a Minnesota pitcher will watch clips of his best examples of the specific pitches he is working on that day.
When Houston posted an opening for a minor league hitting coach job this offseason, the requirements resembled the standards for a Ph.D. application: “analyze hitter performance deficiencies using tools, reports and technology . . . strong computer skills and proficient in Microsoft Office . . . technical degree is a plus . . . SQL and R coding skills is a plus.”
Technology is how players learn. “From their amateur days they demand it,” Epstein says. “They’re also all on social media, so if there’s anything out there on Twitter that looks like it’s helpful and the organization doesn’t provide or understand, it you lose credit with your own players.
“You have to know your stuff backwards and forwards. If you try to b.s. your way through it, you’ll be written off.”
Justin Verlander is 36 and broke into the big leagues in 2005, two years before the iPhone. Yet since he joined Houston in a trade on Aug. 31, 2017, he has become as enraptured with technology as any millennial.
Immediately after the trade, the Astros had Verlander throw with the Edgertronic and Rapsodo, tools he never had with the Tigers. The camera revealed that Verlander was “showing” his slider to hitters too early by having it pop up out of his hand. He changed his hand position to stay behind the ball longer, creating the desired effect of having his slider look like a fastball as it left his hand. The Rapsodo device revealed that the metrics on his two-seam fastball—spin, break and path—were so poor that it recommended that Verlander stop throwing the pitch. Verlander immediately ditched the two-seamer, which is designed to favor movement over pure velocity.
In 48 starts with Houston, including the postseason, Verlander is 27–11 with a 2.41 ERA.
Five months after trading for Verlander, the Astros traded for Gerrit Cole, who had just had the worst of his five seasons with the Pirates (4.26 ERA and the second-most home runs allowed in the National League). As they had done with Charlie Morton, Colin McHugh, Will Harris and Verlander, the Astros used pitch data to identify a better pitcher hidden within Cole. They told him much of the way he was using his pitches was wrong.
For instance, Cole says, “They told me to throw my slider more and my curveball harder, which was the opposite of what I was doing.” The most fundamental change was to transform Cole from a two-seam fastball pitcher who pounded the bottom of the zone to get ground balls into a four-seam fastball monster with swing-and-miss stuff at the top of the zone. The Astros convinced him that the two-seam fastball is an ineffective pitch in today’s game. As hitters have prioritized slugging over batting average, they seek higher launch angles with a more upward swing path to the ball—perfect for elevating low pitches. “I always tried to pound down to create ground balls,” Cole says, “but with the [livelier] balls and the way hitters adjusted their swing path, that two-seam was getting elevated as opposed to getting crushed to the third baseman.”
The Rise of the Slider
Then, the Astros helped Cole remake his four-seamer, the preferred pitch in the age of launch angle. They showed him video of his four-seam fastball spinning at 2,300 rpm—almost 100 rpm faster than the major league average. Cole threw 20 such high-spin fastballs in his first start of 2017. Yet by the end of the year Cole’s four-seamer had dissolved into a below average one, averaging only 2,164 rpm.
Houston knew something was off, because four-seam spin rates generally don’t vary much for established pitchers—it’s almost like a pitching fingerprint. If Cole had the ability to throw 2,300 rpm four-seamers, such pitches should be the norm for him. So the Houston staff, led by pitching coach Brent Strom, taught him how to throw a true four-seamer.
They explained that the hand and wrist should stay fully behind the ball through release to impart true north-side backspin. The faster a four-seamer backspins and stays on a north-south axis, the more it resists gravity, and the more it resists gravity the more “ride” it has through the strike zone. “Ride” means it sinks less than the hitter expects, which leads the hitter to swing under the ball. “The emphasis was on how to throw a true four-seam,” Cole says. “Step one: make it go straight and backspin it. I wanted it to be more true and stay in the lane instead of drifting. I wasn’t really clear on how to throw it before.”
Cole would play catch every day with Verlander. Each had the same goal in throwing the ball back and forth: hit your throwing partner in the right shoulder every time, not allowing the ball to fade or drift.
Houston’s plan worked. Cole’s four-seam fastball in 2018 averaged 2,379 rpm. Batters hit .185 against it, making it the third-toughest four-seamer to hit among all major league starters, behind only Walker Buehler and Chris Sale. He cut his ERA to 2.88 and finished fifth in Cy Young Award voting.
Says the Twins’ Falvey, “Ever since Moneyball, teams have been looking for the next edge. Now we all pretty much have the same evaluation systems. But the holy grail is in development. If you can identify players who are undervalued and can find a place to make them better, that’s the edge.”
The Twins hope they have found the next undervalued pitcher based on pitch data. In January they signed Martin Pérez to a one-year, $3.5 million contract after he had a 6.22 ERA last year with Texas while using a 93-mph two-seamer as his primary pitch. The Twins saw that Pérez’s two-seamer, four-seamer and changeup blended together with minimal separation in pitch path. As the Astros did with Cole, Minnesota has converted Pérez from a sinkerball pitcher into a four-seam pitcher who pounds the top of the strike zone. In his first spring training start, Pérez hit 97 mph with his fastball. According to Statcast, he had not thrown a single pitch that fast over the previous four years.
It is harder to get a hit in the major leagues today than at any time since the DH was added in 1973. Last year, for the first time ever, there were more strikeouts than hits, and more foul balls than balls in play (meaning fans had more chances to field balls off the bat than the fielders did). Hitting has become harder less because of velocity of pitches (which has hit a three-year plateau) and more because of technology, which has spawned new, actionable knowledge about pitch shaping and sequencing to better expose hitters’ weaknesses.
Such revelations have changed managing. Managers no longer rely wholly on traditional batter-pitcher historical samples (most of which are too small to be useful, anyway). Instead, managers will match the path of his pitcher’s pitches against the swing path of the hitter. For instance, a manager might call on a high four-seam pitcher to combat a hitter with a high launch angle, regardless of handedness or previous matchups. “A few years ago, before I got this job Joe Maddon brought in Jake McGee, a lefty, to face a righty in Cleveland and it blew my mind,” Hinch says. “It’s not handedness anymore. Now it’s strengths on weaknesses.”
Because pitching is proactive—baseball is the only game in which the defense has the ball, with the pitcher deciding how and where it will be set in motion—technology mostly helps run prevention, not run production. The biggest benefit is that pitchers can fix flaws and make performance adjustments almost on the fly.
In 2015 the Rays installed at Tropicana Field a markerless motion capture system made by Philadelphia-based KinaTrax. The system gives a skeletal, 360-degree readout of a pitcher’s delivery based on eight to 12 radar-tracking units installed around the ballpark. Since then the Cubs, Dodgers and Red Sox also have installed KinaTrax, which one source familiar with the system estimated cost about $1 million.
The advantage of KinaTrax is that, since it doesn’t require markers to measure kinematic movements, it provides data under actual game conditions, not bullpens or labs. Last season, for instance, the Cubs were flummoxed about what was wrong with Kyle Hendricks, who carried a 4.27 ERA into July. His velocity was down, and he had lost movement on his sinker and changeup.
Data from Trackman indicated that Hendricks’s release point was two to three inches higher than normal, but on video the angle of his arm at release looked no different than usual. Hendricks himself could feel no difference in the way he was throwing. So the Cubs consulted KinaTrax. They overlaid a 3D motion capture image of Hendricks’s delivery from a recent poor start (with skeletal points connected by red lines) over an image from when Hendricks was throwing well (his so-called “baseline” mechanics, represented in blue). Immediately the images revealed a root cause that Hendricks could not feel and that could not be seen on video: His trunk was tilting a few degrees toward his glove side as he released the ball. There was nothing wrong with his arm angle. The trunk tilt had simply pushed the arm higher, causing his pitches to flatten. The Cubs immediately corrected the trunk tilt in the next bullpen session. Hendricks’s ERA over the rest of the season was 2.65.
As with all technology, the more information KinaTrax gathers, the more reliable it becomes. Teams are able to collect kinetic images on opposing players in the team’s own park. With this information they have begun to identify red flags in deliveries that increase injury risk, such as hand position at front foot strike. One particular rookie pitcher identified by one team as a strong injury risk blew out his elbow the next spring training.
Meanwhile, some of the two dozen or so teams that bought their first Edgertronic cameras this spring were amazed at what they learned.
“We have a young pitcher who has a chance to pitch in the big leagues this year,” says Diamondbacks manager Torey Lovullo. “He would throw a breaking ball, and on the [Edgertronic] you could see drag from his finger. His finger would hit the ball after it left his hand. . . . You see the ball kind of back off its spin.”
What did Arizona do with the information?
“New grip,” Lovullo says. “It was just a little tweak of the grip, and it’s already yielded huge dividends.”
Hitting is not proactive. Hitters must react to too many variables of ball speed and movement for the technology to work for them as it does for pitchers. That may be changing, and if it does, Kris Bryant of the Cubs will be leading the counterrevolution.
Three years ago the Cubs opened a “pitching lab” at their spring training complex in which they installed not only a pitch-tracking system but also a more advanced high-speed camera that provides almost instant playback. A pitcher could stop after every pitch to see not only the pitch metrics but also the image of the ball coming out of his hand. (The Edgertronic takes time to download and is only available after a throwing session.) This year they opened a “hitting lab” in the batting cages. Bryant is the first one in the lab every morning.
Bryant can use the force plate technology, which measures how well he uses the ground to hit. Among the many markers it can check: Does he load as close to 100% as possible on his back side? Does he apply about 200% of body mass force on his front side as the bat comes through the zone? How well does he hold his torque directionally, as opposed to spinning off the ball?
Bryant will also track how the ball leaves the bat with a Rapsodo for hitters, which measures exit velocity, launch angle and spin. Bryant grew up training to hit line drives off the back of the cage, but exit metrics have revealed that those line drives are either singles or one-hoppers to the shortstop. To hit home runs, Bryant has learned that he should be hammering balls into the top of the cage about halfway down the cage—matching the prime launch angle for slugging, which is between 20 and 25 degrees.
The Dodgers take the most mechanically based approach to hitting. In addition to their 3D motion capture technology, they also have available a wireless motion capture device called K-Vest, which sells for about $2,500. It measures a swing and the body through three planes of motion—forward and backward, side to side and rotational—providing data on the sequence and speed of the four major parts of the kinematic chain of hitting (pelvis, torso, upper arm, hands), among other metrics.
Last season, Dodgers assistant hitting coach Luis Ortiz noticed Yasiel Puig was missing or topping fastballs and crushing breaking balls. Ortiz saw that Puig’s swing on fastballs appeared steeper, causing it to enter and exit the hitting zone too quickly, leaving him a smaller window to make solid contact. To better make his point, Ortiz affixed a motion capture device made by Diamond Kinnetics to the knob of his bat and had Puig swing at fastballs and breaking balls in the cage. The device produced images of his swing paths that allowed Puig to see what Ortiz had just told him. “He’s such a visual guy,” says Ortiz, now the Rangers hitting coach. “The visual makes more sense to him.”
“I think we’re making gains,” says Brewers president David Stearns about tech-aided run production. His team built a sports science wing into its renovated spring training facility. “From a technical standpoint we are gaining a much better understanding of the swing and what swing characteristics may or may not create damage and hard hit balls. Having said that, similar to pitching, you can do this in a variety of ways. There are no cookie-cutter mechanics.”
You won’t find Jon Lester in the crowded Cubs video room poring over technology. “Will I use it? Yeah, if we have some information we get from it,” Lester says. “As far as me going in there and breaking it down myself? I’m definitely not in line to do that.”
Lester is 35 and has thrown almost 2,400 major league innings. He’s a good example of how the use of technology is roughly tied to age. He likes to read hitters and how they respond to his pitches. “The new wave of players are understanding it more because they’ve been brought up listening to it and that’s all they know,” Lester says. “I still think we’re in that middle ground of how we’re going to use the information. Just because a guy has a high spin rate doesn’t mean he’s going to get outs. Just because a guy has a certain launch angle doesn’t mean he’s going to hit 40 homers.
“There are ways that this information will help us, but you still have to look at the players. Does a guy have the ability to compete and get outs? I think that’s the line we’re going to have to walk as we go down this numbers road.”
When Lester made his major league debut in 2006, Whitley was eight years old, in second grade. The MLB Whitley will enter this year is not only far different from the MLB Lester entered, but also far different from the MLB of even three years ago. When you listen to Whitley explain how he uses technology, you know baseball not only looks different, it also sounds different.
Says Whitley, “Pitch shape in its simplest form with a fastball . . . if you imagine it on an axis and to be able to achieve the best pitch shape you possibly can is to have as many rotations as possible while simultaneously having that fastball spin as efficiently as possible—no wobble. If you look at the data on a break chart, for instance, my fastball has two to five inches of tail. Anything in that five to zero range is perceived as cut. That’s something that I’ve noted. So my fastball is perceived as having a little cut to it. And I try to do that. I try to be as much north and south as possible, just to get that hoppy, riding action.
“The Edgertronic is mostly for the consistency—seeing how I’m releasing the ball. Like when your wrist gets kind of sloppy, that’s a big thing for me. My wrist gets kind of soft. I have to keep a firm wrist and really leverage the ball down to get that true pitch shape. That goes for all my pitches, especially my changeup.”
He was on a roll now. Pitch shapes, break charts, leveraging the ball, hoppy fastballs, sloppy wrists . . . this is part of the language of the game now, a language that didn’t exist a few years ago. Whitley speaks it fluently, not because he picked it up as a high school requirement, but because he grew up with it, organically. He and his fellow disrupters are only getting started.
“If I’m looking at my reps on Edgertronic,” he continued, “and there are effective reps and ineffective reps, the effective reps are when my wrist is in a pretty stable position with my forearm. When I get sloppy is when it kind of bends a little bit, like it softens and I kind of push it a little bit. That’s something that I’ve noticed. It’s different for everybody. But that’s what I’ve noticed.
“That’s cool stuff.”
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11735396
Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-1mT
Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/hp0-m98
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12297418
Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/11/just-memorize-these-hp0-m98-questions.html
RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/NeverMissTheseHp0-m98QuestionsBeforeYouGoForTest
Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/u31l58s444tqginzgfsiysj6ojkllvsf
publitas.com : https://view.publitas.com/trutrainers-inc/looking-for-hp0-m98-exam-dumps-that-works-in-real-exam
zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/60eu62550df47f8514caf9a18033e262f3bd8