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HP0-M53 - HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software - Dump Information

Vendor : HP
Exam Code : HP0-M53
Exam Name : HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software
Questions and Answers : 72 Q & A
Updated On : February 19, 2019
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HP0-M53 Questions and Answers

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HP0-M53 HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software

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HP0-M53 exam Dumps Source : HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software

Test Code : HP0-M53
Test Name : HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 72 Real Questions

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HP HP BSM Operations Manager

HP Unleashes the power of Operational Analytics to Optimize efficiency for Hybrid Environments | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

PALO ALTO, CA--(Marketwire - Nov 27, 2012) - HP ( NYSE : HPQ ) today introduced a brand new version of HP enterprise service administration (BSM) utility, the first answer of its variety to use large records analytics to enrich the efficiency and availability of business application across cell and hybrid IT environments.

With the increasing use of virtualization and cloud technologies, IT organizations no longer comprehend or handle all of the technologies of their ambiance, making it problematic for functions and operations groups to foresee competencies considerations. IT needs a new answer that both predicts the incidence of regular problems and identifies in the past unknown issues before they take place.

HP BSM supplies conclusion-to-conclusion visibility into IT purposes and features. With powerful true-time and historical analytics to computer screen the fitness of the total IT stack, from business capabilities and purposes to the infrastructure and networks, customers can assume real IT considerations earlier than they occur.

"In modern-day complex hybrid environments, where company provider availability and efficiency without delay correlate to company success, IT organizations are searching for new tips on how to deliver predictable provider levels," spoke of Ajei Gopal, senior vice chairman and established manager, Hybrid and Cloud company Unit, software, HP. "the brand new HP business carrier administration answer delivers end-to-conclusion operational intelligence to assist IT make better selections and enhance service tiers in complex, dynamic IT environments."

"It become intricate for our operations crew to look the severity or establish the root reason behind a specific service difficulty with old monitoring equipment," referred to Leiv-Erik Verspoor, senior platform consultant at Sykehuspartner, the greatest IT provider company for hospitals in northern Europe. "HP BSM instantly notifies our IT team of expertise issues with our infrastructure and services so we can quickly get to the bottom of the issue to cut back downtime and ultimately decrease charges for our purchasers."

HP Operational Analytics powers IT intelligence New to HP BSM is HP Operational Analytics (OpsAnalytics), a potential that delivers actionable intelligence about the health of IT features with the aid of automating the correlation and evaluation of consolidated facts, together with desktop records, logs, movements, topology and performance counsel.

HP OpsAnalytics is the seamless integration of HP ArcSight Logger -- a customary log management solution -- with the exciting correlation capabilities of HP Operations supervisor i (OMi) and the predictive analytics of HP carrier fitness Analyzer (SHA).

This combination provides deep visibility and perception into any efficiency or availability concern, so valued clientele can:

  • Remediate known complications earlier than they take place with predictive analytics that forecast problems and prioritize concerns in line with company have an impact on;
  • Proactively solve unanticipated concerns through accumulating, storing and analyzing IT operational statistics to immediately correlate carrier abnormalities with the difficulty supply; and
  • get to the bottom of incidents quicker with skills in keeping with historic evaluation of prior identical events via search capabilities across logs and pursuits.
  • HP BSM helps shoppers maximize IT investments with conclusion-to-end visibility throughout heterogeneous environments through:

  • ensuring carrier availability with a 360-diploma view of IT efficiency, by way of aggregating facts from disparate sources right into a single dashboard using out-of-the-container connectors to a variety of administration frameworks, including IBM Tivoli business Console, IBM Tivoli Monitoring and Microsoft® system center;
  • Resolving and improving efficiency of purposes running in OpenStack and Python cloud environments with diagnostics that pinpoint efficiency bottlenecks; and
  • enhancing availability of internet and cell functions through superior perception into client-facet efficiency concerns.
  • HP also lets virtualization administrators and virtualization field rely specialists (vSME) diagnose and troubleshoot efficiency bottlenecks in virtualized environments with HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV). The free edition is available to down load today.

    Kuveyt Turk Participation bank boosts business efficiencies  Kuveyt Turk Participation bank, a leading pastime-free economic capabilities company in Turkey, better IT provider efficiency with HP BSM application. With locations in six countries and more than 220 in-country branches, the Kuveyt Turk IT operations crew spends tons of its time conducting reactive application monitoring, with a typical service name lasting half-hour. 

    After reviewing dissimilar solutions, Kuveyt Turk chose HP BSM to monitor performance of business capabilities throughout its eBanking, point-of-provider, ATM, bank card capabilities and call center environments. subsequently, the enterprise has reduced the number of calls to its carrier desk by means of 30 percent and reduced incident decision time by 50 %.(1)

    "lacking automatic conclusion-to-conclusion monitoring of company features caused carrier outages, costing us approximately $four hundred,000 yearly," said Aslan Demir, chief tips officer, Kuveyt Turk Participation bank. "We decided to implement HP BSM application and now monitor company services as a whole, resolving many complications without ever inflicting downtime."

    obtainable as a hybrid deployment HP enterprise provider administration may also be deployed in a hybrid model the place HP utility efficiency management on HP software as a carrier is built-in with on-premises components of HP BSM. This deployment model makes it possible for consumers to obtain a quicker route to price and reduce cost by minimizing imperative upfront investments in deploying the HP BSM solution.

    Story continues

    HP services help valued clientele plan, deploy, guide HP application knowledgeable features offers HP BSM improve features -- a suite of features designed to present customer choice and confidence. The alternate options latitude from a set expense, far flung engagement tailor-made for more straightforward and smaller scale deployments, the entire solution to on-website, custom commercial enterprise upgrades suitable for big and complex installations.

    more information in regards to the new edition of HP BSM could be purchasable by the use of a webinar sequence starting on Jan. 8, 2013. more information about HP BSM, including white papers, data sheets and answer briefs, is purchasable at www.hp.com/go/bsm.

    Pricing and availability The new version of HP company provider administration might be obtainable worldwide without delay from HP or via its ecosystem of global channel companions. Pricing is in response to a licensing model.

    The free models of HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV) and HP ArcSight Logger are available to download from www.hp.com/go/vpv and www.hp.com/go/opsanalytics, respectively.

    About HP HP creates new chances for technology to have a significant influence on people, agencies, governments and society. the realm's largest technology company, HP brings together a portfolio that spans printing, own computing, utility, functions and IT infrastructure to clear up customer problems. more guidance about HP is accessible at http://www.hp.com.

    (1) consequences as mentioned by means of HP consumer.

    Microsoft is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft supplier.

    This news free up incorporates ahead-looking statements that contain risks, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions show fallacious, the outcomes of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries may vary materially from those expressed or implied by means of such forward-looking statements and assumptions. All statements apart from statements of ancient truth are statements that may be deemed ahead-looking statements, including however no longer limited to statements of the plans, options and ambitions of administration for future operations; any statements concerning anticipated development, performance, market share or aggressive efficiency concerning items and services; any statements concerning anticipated operational and fiscal consequences; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. dangers, uncertainties and assumptions include macroeconomic and geopolitical tendencies and hobbies; the aggressive pressures confronted by way of HP's businesses; the construction and transition of new items and functions (and the enhancement of current items and capabilities) to satisfy client wants and respond to emerging technological traits; the execution and efficiency of contracts by means of HP and its valued clientele, suppliers and companions; the coverage of HP's intellectual property assets, together with highbrow property licensed from third parties; integration and other hazards associated with business mixture and investment transactions; the hiring and retention of key personnel; assumptions concerning pension and different post-retirement fees and retirement programs; the execution, timing and outcomes of restructuring plans, including estimates and assumptions involving the can charge and the predicted merits of implementing those plans; expectations and assumptions regarding the execution and timing of can charge discount classes and restructuring and integration plans; the resolution of pending investigations, claims and disputes; and different hazards which are described in HP's Quarterly report on form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended July 31, 2012 and HP's different filings with the Securities and change fee, together with HP's Annual report on form 10-okay for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2011. HP assumes no duty and does not intend to update these forward-looking statements.

    © 2012 Hewlett-Packard building enterprise, L.P. The tips contained herein is field to alternate without observe. The only warranties for HP items and services are set forth within the specific assurance statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should still be construed as constituting an extra guarantee. HP shall now not be responsible for technical or editorial blunders or omissions contained herein.

    HP hurries up client Adoption of Hybrid birth fashions to improve utility outcomes | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    WASHINGTON--(company WIRE)--HP (NYSE:HPQ) these days announced new administration options to support customers include hybrid delivery fashions, spanning on-premise, off-premise, physical and digital environments, enabling faster time to market and multiplied agility from utility investments.

    Hybrid beginning models that are incorrectly managed can increase complexity, chance and charges, that may right now reverse any positive aspects for businesses in quest of to adopt them.

    New HP options permit IT teams to simply manage the performance and availability of all functions in the equal means, no matter the place they're running. The offerings include advances in the business’s industry-main automation and administration structures, test information management and utility features.

    HP enterprise service management 9.0

    HP enterprise provider administration (BSM) 9.0 improves IT operations via enabling body of workers to simply manage software efficiency and availability to meet carrier-level agreements. HP BSM 9.0 provides:

  • The trade’s first run-time provider model, which updates the comprehensive run-time environment of the utility carrier, whether the application is running in an on-premise, off-premise, physical or virtual ambiance. This ensures operations body of workers can understand the most accurate view of their IT functions, which dramatically reduces consumer have an impact on and time to troubleshoot.
  • New collaboration capabilities employing web 2.0 mash-u.s.to deliver actionable information to the correct team with the right context across a lot of interfaces, together with cell contraptions. This allows for faster decision making and issue resolution.
  • Automation of the total event decision technique to dramatically cut back troubleshooting charges, lessen imply time to restore and force productivity features. HP BSM eliminates redundant hobbies and automates the method of decision using industry-leading run-e-book automation tools.
  • The HP BSM 9.0 portfolio contains HP business Availability core 9.0 (BAC), HP Operations supervisor i 9.0 (OMi) and HP community management core (NMC) 9.0.

    HP test records administration

    HP test statistics management (TDM) automates the procedure of obtaining examine facts from live applications. This automation stronger displays creation environments and reduces the dangers linked to the eventual deployment of functions. HP TDM also lowers charges linked to software checking out, reduces task delays and ensures sensitive information doesn't violate compliance laws.

    New HP utility functions

    HP additionally introduced three new service choices designed to support valued clientele pressure the optimum price from their software investments.

    HP solution management features (SMS) is a converged portfolio of application help and consulting features that helps consumers simplify their environments and maximize adoption of their company technology Optimization (BTO) and guidance administration (IM) application investments. New offerings consist of elevated guide for customized and third-birthday party integrations and proactive features similar to patch management and release upgrade planning for each HP and third-birthday party software.

  • HP BAC any place has been prolonged to assist on-premise environments in addition to HP application as a carrier (SaaS) fashions. organizations can video display their exterior web applications at any time, from anyplace on this planet – even backyard the firewall – from one integrated console.
  • HP BSM 9.0 features – including an HP BSM Discovery Workshop and HP Consulting features – help consumers design and deploy their HP BSM answer to minimize risk of utility downtime and increase carrier nice.
  • “corporations are evaluating cloud and virtualization as tips on how to reduce charges and increase agility,” pointed out invoice Veghte, govt vice chairman, software and solutions, HP. “With HP, clients have entry to market leading management tools that allow them to reap the advantages of these new fashions, whereas continuing to computer screen and control their purposes with no trouble.”

    greater tips about HP’s new choices is attainable in an online press kit at www.hp.com/go/HPSoftwareUniverseDC2010.

    About HP

    HP creates new chances for expertise to have a meaningful affect on individuals, agencies, governments and society. the realm’s biggest know-how company, HP brings together a portfolio that spans printing, very own computing, utility, functions and IT infrastructure to remedy customer complications. greater advice about HP is available at http://www.hp.com.

    This news release contains forward-searching statements that contain dangers, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove fallacious, the consequences of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries may differ materially from these expressed or implied via such ahead-looking statements and assumptions. All statements apart from statements of old fact are statements that may be deemed forward-searching statements, including however no longer confined to statements of the plans, techniques and goals of administration for future operations; any statements regarding anticipated building, performance or market share regarding items and features; any statements regarding expected operational and fiscal outcomes; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions encompass macroeconomic and geopolitical developments and movements; the execution and performance of contracts with the aid of HP and its consumers, suppliers and companions; the fulfillment of expected operational and financial effects; and other hazards that are described in HP’s Quarterly record on form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended April 30, 2010 and HP’s different filings with the Securities and exchange fee, together with however no longer restricted to HP’s Annual document on form 10-ok for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2009. HP assumes no duty and doesn't intend to update these forward-looking statements.

    © 2010 Hewlett-Packard construction company, L.P. The counsel contained herein is subject to exchange without notice.

    The most effective warranties for HP products and functions are set forth in the specific guarantee statements accompanying such products and capabilities. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an further assurance. HP shall not be chargeable for technical or editorial blunders or omissions contained herein.

    HP updates UCMDB for tighter integration | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    At HP application Universe 2008 in Vienna, Austria, closing week, HP announced characteristic updates to the HP prevalent Configuration management Database (UCMDB) 8.0, including extra extensive integration with different HP's company technology Optimization items.

    HP's UCMDB came to HP by the use of its 2006 acquisition of Mercury Interactive Corp. is integrated with HP's company service management (BSM) suite of products and, like every true configuration administration database (CMDB), presents federation, gives clients a view of infrastructure and utility relationships through discovery and dependency mapping, and also tracks change historical past, ostensibly offering information core managers and admintrators a 360-diploma view of IT operations.

    Bringing order to chaosWith the update, UCMDB has integrated with greater than 17 items in HP's company know-how Optimization application portfolio, together with new integrations with HP business Availability center 8.0, HP Operations supervisor i-series, HP community Node manager i-series superior, and HP provider manager 7.1.

    different new points encompass here:

  • New Modeling Studio that makes it less difficult to map purposes;
  • Multi-statistics supply federation and attribute-level federation; and
  • less complicated export of information in tables and the potential to electronic mail reports.
  • UCMDB pricing starts at U.S.$60, 000.

    clients frequently look to HP's UCMDB for visibility into all their systems. "[HP's Universal CMDB] offers directors a unified 360-degree view of IT operations and enterprise features, on the way to access facts core tips they want. It gets rid of the entire silos," observed Ramin Sayar, the senior director of HP's enterprise carrier administration, software and expertise solutions community.

    Tulio Quinones, an commercial enterprise techniques management unit manager for a company that gives IT consolidation consulting capabilities, makes use of HP's UCMDB to manage client statistics at 1,one hundred worldwide locations.

    just before setting up a CMDB, the company stored client statistics in various administration equipment and used homegrown tools to pull records as vital. "We were a hit with monitoring tools and managing them for the agencies we managed, but when we were requested to combine a number of businesses onto a single device, things got very messy," Quinones mentioned. "We could not retain tune of the dependencies and who owned what … and we wanted to store all this suggestions centrally as a substitute of the usage of many separate monitoring equipment."

    as well, uploading the facts into a large number of separate tools changed into a plodding, time-drinking procedure. "It turned into an amazing amount of work simply to load information into the device. And by the point it was loaded, it changed into already stale," Quinones stated.

    Being a legacy HP store, Quinones looked to HP's UCMDB as a way to consolidate their methods administration tools and prepare client records. One main advantage of HP's UCMDB is that users can mix it with present equipment, he referred to. "It wasn't a rip and replace. We aligned tools and integrations with it, as a substitute of starting over. an extra advisable feature, he stated, is UCMDB's relationship mapping capabilities, he said. "The UCMDB allows for us to see the connection between the host and the network and the network and the utility."

    earlier than implementing UCMDB, the business struggled just to hold batches of facts, but the utility has enabled it to improve techniques as opposed to effortlessly spend all its time protecting them. "it is quickly becoming a core of our integration strategy," Quinones noted.

    Quinones currently makes use of UCMDB version 7.5 and plans to improve to the new version of HP UCMDB (eight.0) soon. He anticipates a couple of facets in the new edition, comparable to change monitoring and verification (planned and unplanned). "at the moment, we depart it up to the engineer to determine the trade with inconsistent outcomes. Untracked changes have always been a problem for us," Quinones observed. "With eight.0, we may be capable of compare managed/authorized state [HP Service Manager 7.1] with actual state [UCMDB 8.0].

    Open manager i (Omi) integration is an extra massive plus, he talked about. "We do a lot of human correlation across the domains we manipulate. With OMi and UCMDB 8.0, we may be in a position to correlate events across domains and assess the real-time health of interweaved and dependant functions," Quinones noted. "at the moment, we be aware of when we now have a disk challenge or a community bottleneck, although, we are introduced with a problem when selecting the affect of this adventure. With OMI and UCMDB, we might be able to understand the have an effect on immediately." Declining economy ushers in dealsSince a declining U.S. economic climate has made it difficult for businesses to justify IT spending, HP has begun to present 0% financing for corporations in international locations the place HP has a huge presence and the economy has led to price range issues, Sayar observed.

    HP is providing a 0% financing advertising via July 31, 2009, for licensing fees on HP BTO and IM utility for qualifying offers over $one hundred,000. The merchandising is obtainable in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, eire, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the U.ok. and the U.S.

    "We do not want consumers to fret abut having to finance capabilities from us. And for consumers who wish to invest in us, we want it to be a no-brainer," Sayar stated.

    tell us what you suppose concerning the story; e mail Bridget Botelho, news author.and check out our statistics center blogs: Server Farming, Mainframe Propellerhead, and statistics middle amenities pro.

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    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. Please be aware that this is not a trivial task.

    It’s worth taking a brief look at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a range of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to think about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to be used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must be installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The support for the GSSAPI is made possible in the directory server through the introduction of a new SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms do exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would be GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the use of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not use them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a standard interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can be plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on secret key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in FIGURE 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can be confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a big difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An example is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can use Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to encourage developers to use the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that use SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos development team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another benefit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a big benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication method than Kerberos, because it can easily be plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should be able to use it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide strong authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos also offers the ability to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can also be used to provide strong authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:


    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:


    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name



    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)


    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)


    Kerberos version 5 support (Root)


    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)


    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you perform a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you use rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you permission to access the other machine. Transparently means that you do not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets have certain attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable (which means that it can be used on another machine without a new authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently see the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for all subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution Center (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. Think of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. Like a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for foreign countries, but for remote machines or network services. Like passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets have limited lifetimes. The difference is that Kerberized commands notice that you have a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t have to perform the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for all sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps make it appear that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can assign tickets. A principal can be a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal name is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can be a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can also be the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can use lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can use two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).


    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the same master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must be defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must include a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should contain at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a block of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, all encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to have a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may be an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system also runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are all on the same machine, but they can be separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms be configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should be applied to all realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single weak link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to take when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the choice of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as part of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will have to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may seem like a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the rest of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very little security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server be installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC be configured with the same level of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher Block Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will be DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption type for the KDC. The type of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). Choose the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can be used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may be up to 1024 characters long and can include any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an example of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the use of the -s argument to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not be shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters describe locations of various files and ports to use for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally do not need to be changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may be adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The standard port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that still use the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE still listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to have users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should be lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the period of time from when a ticket is issued that it may be renewed (using kinit -R). The standard value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may be set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can assign a ticket. In the case of users, it is the same as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may be defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should be used only if the realm will contain temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will have to constantly be renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals do not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may be defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may be used to ensure that only strong cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not be able to use words found in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a good way to prevent users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which have a password policy association, so it is good practice to have at least one simple policy associated with all principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may also be used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may be substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf example with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # Use is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs moving -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by use of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should be used with great care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to be broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a certain administrator only needs to be allowed to have read-access to the database then that person should not be granted full admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for all privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for all privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should be added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users have separate /admin principals to use only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would have two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only be used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may be differentiated by the instance part of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is standard practice in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to be /admin instances and others to have no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to have administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only be used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not be granted any administrative privileges, it will be treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the same user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # All rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given full administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file be tightly controlled and that users be granted only the privileges they need to perform their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the same way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always be used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to be used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always be extracted from the KDC on the same machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, take great care in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could use these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to use Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to use the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe method is to place the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for large installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure method available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to have their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time limit (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). See the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time be synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service attack on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to be outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then prevent anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must also be secured, including the use of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:


    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:


    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can be applied to some or all of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must be used to make up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that have been used by the principal that cannot be reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must be used before it can be changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can be used before it must be changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can be set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can be defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length be set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes be required. Most people tend to choose easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a good idea to at least set up policies to encourage slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the use of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may be helpful in some environments, to force people to change their passwords periodically. The period is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they get back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to prevent password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users choose long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character limit allows one to choose a small sentence or easy to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is possible to use a dictionary file that can be used to prevent users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy be in effect for all principals in the realm.

    The following is an example password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This example creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to all user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference count value indicates how many principals are configured to use the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to all new principals that are not given the same password as the principal name when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should be made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups be done over a network, then these backups should be secured either through the use of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the same traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always be kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should be continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can be modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should have read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that all Kerberos applications use to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. Also refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the behavior of many Kerberos client tools. Each tool may have its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that use the appdefaults section, use the same options; however, they might be set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can have their behavior modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.


    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.


    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. Refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several interesting security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of use and strict security tends to lean in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection be re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a new ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can be used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to false in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can be used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should be used to turn on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user name is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the same as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to be included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory be removed. The Kerberized versions have the added benefit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can also use Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients use a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should be re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the same fashion as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.


    Kerberized rcp can be used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already have a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to use the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always use the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.


    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the standard Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the standard Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a new Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.


    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the same as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to use the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection level used for the data transfer can be set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection level to private for all data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. All ftp client options are passed on the command line. See the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can increase the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can be securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can be secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to be managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 Active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to help ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that describe the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the detailed information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an important step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both have the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create new principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you have a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line tool from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that follow fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To be a DNS client, a machine must run the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To do that, it queries a name server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a name server.

    The following example shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver nameserver

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain name in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the end of the domain name. Make sure that you press return immediately after the last character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only name servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. Name server entries have the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS name server. The resolver queries these name servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more detailed information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm name = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain name = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online help URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you begin this configuration process, make a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. See the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and all domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. See the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s Need moving ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm name definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm name is not required if the realm name is equivalent to the domain name in the server’s name space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains all principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might look similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the ability to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match all admin principals. This default could be a security risk, so it is more secure to include a list of all of the admin principals. See the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its object identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) must be entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain name in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start


    You stop the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To do this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line example is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to be used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to be run by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to be done for the server. However, you may want to use this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you have a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results show that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of all of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The example given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the same machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to take into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to look at what is required to be configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is standard interface that enables you to use a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for all operations during the connection.

    The first item discussed is the new identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will see in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must perform the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To Perform the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and get the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the correct suffix for your directory server.

    You need to do this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is important to make use of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you have from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to perform pattern matching to see if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an example GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an example using ldapmodify to do this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To perform this test, type the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and answer the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should be the same as without the -o option.

    If you do not use the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an error occurs.

  • Microsoft Studio – a masterpiece (review) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    There is instant love — a wow moment — for this device for those who see it for the first time. Then the cardinal sins of lust, jealousy, greed, and envy set in followed by wrath when I tell them the price. Seriously, this is the stuff electric dreams are made of if you have deep pockets.

    To be clear – there is no other all-in-one computing device like the Microsoft Studio on the planet and it sets the bar almost impossibly high as a creative tool and oh, yes, it’s a computing device too but let’s not sully it running spreadsheets! Stop press – Dell will be soon introducing its take on the Studio.

    MS Studio screen tilt

    To be technical it is a Surface styled, all-in-one (A-I-O meaning everything is built into the screen/stand), Intel Core i5 or i7 computer, NVIDIA GeForce GPU, up to 32GB RAM, with a 28”, 4500 x 3000, impossibly thin, touch/pen screen mounted on a zero-gravity hinge for a floating display that can act as a desktop, or a slightly inclined table top device. Add to that the Surface Dial, Pen, Keyboard and Mouse and you have the most desirable PC on earth.

    OK, I will qualify that last statement. This is not really designed as an “office PC” and to use it as such would simply be to satisfy a desire to own the best – a bit like owning a Lambo, Porsche, Maserati, Bugatti … and then only being able to drive it on congested Sydney Streets. Bragging rights – ego is not a dirty word in this case.

    This is really designed for the creative element who may have been perfectly happy with Macs and Wacom Cintiq and did not realise how seductive touch, pen, and the dial interfaces — all on the one workspace device — can be. Once you have tried it, you are unlikely to go back.

    Out of the box – Microsoft Studio

    Let’s start with the box – it is quite beautiful. You lay it down flat, release the two tabs and it opens clamshell-style to reveal the huge screen. The instructions tell you to gently lift the screen out (and with it the base) and place it on a desk. Plug in the power cable. unbox the keyboard, mouse and pen (Dial sold separately) and on inserting the batteries Bluetooth pairing begins – its ready to go. Absolute simplicity.

    Set-up is typical Windows 10 Creator Edition (only released in mid-April) – asking permission, and advising you on security settings (yes, you can turn all options off without issue), a Microsoft account (you can use a local sign-in avoiding the account) and up comes this most beautiful 10-bit colour screen with 13.5 million pixels. This is the best screen I have seen on any large LED/LCD device – its colours are as good, if not better than the previous class leader Microsoft Surface Book.

    MS Studio key mouse

    Lust, jealousy, greed, envy – I want one, I just do. Alas, it goes back to Microsoft after they prise it from my cold, dead, hands …


    It is almost counter-productive to talk numbers when Studio is all about what it can do – nevertheless, this is a tech publication.

    Microsoft Surface Studio


    I5 basic

    I7 basic

    I7 top level



    Intel Core i5-6440HQQuad-Core, 2.6-3.5 GHz6 MB Cache, 45W TDP, No Hyperthreading. TPM chip

    Intel Core i7-6820HQQuad-Core, 2.7-3.6 GHz8 MB Cache, 45W TDP, Hyperthreading, TPM chip



    NVIDIA GTX 965M1024 CUDA Cores944 MHz + Boost2 GB GDDR5 128-bit memory

    NVIDIA GTX 980M1536 CUDA Cores1038 Mhz + Boost4 GB GDDR5 256-bit memory



    8 GB DDR4

    16 GB DDR4

    32 GB DDR4



    1 TB Hybrid Drive64 GB SATA SSD Cache / 1 TB SATA HDD

    1 TB Hybrid Drive128 GB PCIe SSD Cache / 1 TB SATA HDD

    2 TB Hybrid Drive128 GB PCIe SSD Cache / 2 TB SATA HDD



    4 USB 3.0 ports – one high power portFull-size SD Card Slot Ultra IIIHeadset JackGigabit EthernetXbox Wireless Connectivitymini-DisplayPort


    28.125” PixelSense Display4500 x 3000 resolution3:2 ratio192 DPIsRGB, DCI-P3, and P3 D65 (Vivid) colour modes2 x 96DPI scaling (200%)



    5 MP Webcam, 1080p @30fpsWindows Hello Facial Recognition2.1 Dolby audio via seven speakersDual microphones


    Marvel AVASTAR 802.11acIntel I219-LM Gigabit EthernetBluetooth 4.0


    Surface Pen (N-Trig 1024), Surface Mouse (Blue light laser) and Surface Keyboard



    Windows 10 Pro



    A-I-O screen 63.7 x 43.9 x 1.25 cm W x D x HBase: 25 x 22 x 3.22 cm W x D x HTotal 9.56kg



    1 year


    Elephants in the room

    Before we get into the review let's address issues that have been mentioned by some commentators.

    It uses a 6th generation Intel Skylake Core i5-6440HQ (2.6/3.5GHz, 6MB cache) or i7-6820HQ (2.7/3.6GHz, 8MB cache) mobile processor. These have a 45-Watt TPD needed for the enclosed A-I-O base.

    The facts are that the 7th generation Kaby Lake processors focus on power management rather than raw horsepower. Sure, the latter would have been nice but you don’t buy a supercar based on the year of its engine design – nor should you deduct any points here because these CPUs will handle typical design or CAD work you throw at them.

    It uses a NVIDIA GeForce GTX 965M GPU with 2GB GB GDDR5 in the base i5 and i7 units or the GTX 980M with 4GB GDDR5 memory on the top specified unit. Ditto – there may be newer versions of these mobile CPUs but there is a tonne of power for graphics, rendering, design, photo editing and more.

    The is no USB-C or Thunderbolt 3 port. No, it is not a notebook – it is a fully-fledged A-I-O desktop with four full-sized USB-A 3.0 ports, an SD card reader, Mini-Display port (for an extra monitor), Gigabit Ethernet and 3.5mm combo audio jack. Still, a Thunderbolt 3 port would have been nice for expansion on a device that will last several years.

    Hybrid drives (SSD and spinning disk combo) offer improved speed over spinning disks and higher capacities over SSD. I suspect that future updates will see this go to PCIe NVMe SSD when the capacity criteria is reached. Still, the hybrid drive performs very well and it is replaceable/upgradable.

    Finally, is the price and if market response is anything to go by – it is well priced for creative types. Don’t try and compare it to a desktop or gaming PC, but more a MacBook Pro and Wacom Cintiq 27QHD.

    The base unit is an i5, 8GB, GTX 965, 1TB (Rapid Hybrid) at $4699.

    The next up is an i7, 16GB, GTX 965, 1TB (Rapid Hybrid) at $5499.

    Top of the range is an i7, 32GB, GTX 980, 2TB (Rapid Hybrid) at $6599.

    The display – the stunning 4.5K display is just 12.5 mm thick

    It is 28.125”, 4500x3000, 13.5 million pixels, 3:2 ratio, 192ppi, PixelSense display with 10-point multi-touch and pen support covered in Gorilla Glass (unspecified). It has 63% more pixels than a 4K display.

    MS Studio screen back

    What Microsoft doesn't tell you is that PixelSense is driven by a separate Atmel ATSAMS70N21, 32-bit ARM Cortex-M7 processor – that is, in addition to the NVIDIA GPU that would normally handle this work. Its main job is to ensure the individual factory colour calibrated display can cover Adobe sRGB, DCI-P3 and Vivid Colour Profiles. This is the first known use of a co-processor just to handle PixelSense (or whatever anyone else calls it).

    The 3:2 ratio has now become accepted as the perfect creative ratio allowing 50 square inches (32,258 square mm) more display than a 27-inch 16:9 display. It has 17% more screen space than a 27” iMac.

    sRGB is the most commonly used colour mode – let’s call it realistic to the extent that inkjet and laser printers use the standard. Surface Studio achieves 100% sRGB – perfect for a desktop monitor.

    Cinematographers will be familiar with DCI-P3 – it is what movies shoot for. Unless you are a video professional you probably won’t use this mode.

    Finally, there is Vivid mode – and it is a mix of modes (P3 D65) to more accurately reflect real life colours. Most will use this as the default viewing mode.

    Contrast is well over what is expected of professionally calibrated larger LED/LCD screens – 1040:1 and it is manifested by images that jump out at you. Brightness is 421 cd/m2 and what that means is typically you will view it at about 50% brightness. Saturation accuracy is as good as the Surface Book and Pro 4.

    The 12.5mm thick screen is mounted on a zero-gravity hinge to the base. One finger is all you need to move it from desktop to tabletop mode (20° angle) – or anywhere in between.

    In tabletop mode, it will still fit on a 600mm deep desktop with room for the Bluetooth keyboard in front. That is important as you need to have the screen close to you – leaning over and into it to use it as a creative tableau – just like a drafting board. I spent hours doodling, colouring and drawing and never felt fatigue. It is also the perfect device to accompany a “standing” desk.

    It has one minor irritation – the expansion ports are all on the rear of the stand and it is a little difficult to get to them to insert a USB etc.

    The screen is not the fingerprint magnet I thought it would be – an oleophobic coating minimises that, but get a micro fibre screen cleaner cloth anyway.

    Microsoft has done an amazing job on this screen – there should be no complaints from professional users.

    P.S. – as a doctor friend pointed out it can also be used as a light box/table with pure white light to show X-Rays, slides etc.


    The review unit is an i7-6820HQ mobile, four-core, eight-thread processor whereas the Studio Book uses the i7-6600U mobile processor. PC Mark 8 has these at 3774 and 2995 respectively. What that means is that it will perform as well as any other using the same processor.

    It handles most tasks with ease and has power for CAD/CAM/rendering but remember it is essentially a mobile processor. if you were going to do a lot of this you probably would be using a multiprocessor Xeon workstation, with a couple of 27” monitors.

    What was impressive was that at idle it barely registered on the CPU (<1%) and memory usage was 10% - Microsoft has done an amazing job in turning Windows to this – as it should.

    Video performance – no issues replaying 4K video @30fps. Games performance – no issues at HD @60fps.

    The 2TB Seagate-Samsung, SpinPoint M9T, ST200LM003, 2.5”, 5400RPM, SATA 6.0Gbps drive uses a separate 32MB DDR cache enabling microsecond read/write for data in the cache. This is paired with a 64GB SATA SSD (i5) and 128GB PCIe NVME SSD (i7) and uses Intel Rapid Storage Technology to manage the two drives as if they were one.

    I got over 200Mb/s read and 100Mb/s write moving 3-4MB photos around. As PCIe NVME SSD drives reduce in cost and increase in capacity expect later Studios to use pure SSD. At least here you can replace or increase the spinning disk if you wish.

    Wi-Fi AC uses the same Marvel AVASTAR AC controller as the Surface Book. While adequate this controller varies in speed from 234 to 468Mbps (hooked up to a D-Link DLR-895 AC5300 router) compared to the new Dell XPS 13 using the Killer AC chipset and obtaining 866.7Mbps. My advice is to use the Gigabit Ethernet hard-wired connection if you plan to move big files.

    Bluetooth Keyboard, Mouse and Pen

    When I first saw the keyboard I was a little surprised – it was small and elegant like a Mac, not at all like the usual PC mechanical key-switch thumper keyboards I use as a writer. But after a while I realised it is the desktop version of the excellent chiclet keyboard on the Surface Book, perhaps with an even better feel and tactile feedback.

    It has a separate left/right/up/down arrow section – great as I hate compact keyboards where these are tucked under the enter key. It has dedicated page up, page down, home and end keys – great as I hate it when you need to access these by a pressing a Fn button as well. I wrote this review on it so it is pretty good. Battery life from two AAAs is about a year.

    The mouse looks modern, minimalist, and perhaps a little uninspiring – not like the edgy Arc Mouse Microsoft makes. But it performs very well, its blue light laser works on clear and coloured glass desks, and it has precise wheel placement.

    The Surface Pen is the same as on the Book and Pro. It is an N-Trig device and supports 1024 levels of pressure. The Pen “app” allows easy customisation. The Pro 4 and Book nailed writing on glass making it very similar in feel to pen and paper – you can feel a little reassuring drag as you draw on glass. I love the ruler feature to draw straight lines and place shapes.

    There is a new Surface Pen coming with 4096 pressure levels – artists will want this

    Dial (optional $149.95)

    I am not equipped to review the dial in the same manner as a professional artist, designer, CAD architect or draftsman would so my review is more about what the Dial can do. Let me simply say I did not know how useful it could be until I used it.

    MS Studio dial

    The Bluetooth Dial, really a companion to the Pen, is a new way to interact with the screen and what you are doing (context). It brings a raft of context-sensitive commands to your fingertips. It can be used on the new Surface Pro and soon, via a firmware update, the Surface Pro 4 and Book.

    Essentially you press the puck down and it displays a radial menu of things you can select – that might be colour gamut, pen colour, thickness, style, or even to magnify, resize, rotate and orient images. It is a natural in 3D images where you can use it to wander around the image. In music it can adjust volume, stop and start play.

    Dial uses haptic feedback to help you understand your actions are completed. Its SDK (software design kit) is freely available to developers so you will see more apps support dial – remember it is about bringing commands, actions to your fingertips instead of opening an app.

    Importantly Dial does not need to be on the screen itself to be used and I found it easier to use placed near the mouse.

    Initial apps include Sketchable, Mental Canvas, Drawboard PDF, MOHO 12, StaffPad (music), and BlueBeam Revu (plan/PDF mark-up). Most of the Adobe Creative Cloud apps also support it.

    It works with Microsoft apps including Office, Groove, Maps, Edge and more. Se the updated list here.


    Seven speakers — four downwards firing under the screen, two in the base and a subwoofer — make this an ideal movie device outputting 88dB. It provides 2.1 (L+R+subwoofer) Dolby Audio (capable) sound.

    Its sound is the best of any A-I-O I have seen, able to fill a reasonably sized room (say 5 x 5m) with crisp, clear, sound and surprisingly good bass from the subwoofer.

    THD (total harmonic distortion) appears low even at full volume. It is hard to give it a sound signature – good but recessed bass, good mid-range and good treble so it is more of a “Bright Vocal” which makes sense, providing clarity of speech for movies and Skype.

    I could not find an equaliser app on the device nor in the Windows Store – Realtek High Definition Audio offers almost no EQ control. It does have NVIDIA HDMI sound output over the mini-DisplayPort to HDMI port.

    The front-facing IR, 3D, Windows Hello enabled camera is fast and accurate. I can’t help feeling there is more potential for this device in scanning 3D objects etc.

    The unit has two fans that for the most part are very quiet. After some heavy work, you could just notice the gentle whir.


  • Dead sexy device – elicits most of the seven cardinal sin emotions
  • Amazing screen with low reflectivity and the best colour quality of any 28” monitor I have seen
  • 3:2 ratio and 200% scaling is flawless for creative and office work
  • Three different colour presets
  • All-in-one form factor
  • Good sound quality and volume – could use an equaliser
  • The best build quality, zero-gravity hinge for ease of movement
  • Cons:

  • Rear ports make it harder to slip USB drives in and out.
  • Not upgradable apart from the hard disk – but that form factor seldom is.
  • Would have preferred an all SSD option, perhaps Intel Optane, but the Hybrid is not a deal breaker.
  • Some may wait for the refresh in a year for later CPU and GPU tech but this is not a deal breaker – it is just not as future proof as the cost indicates.
  • Summary

    As an “objet d'art” it is beautiful – a masterpiece that da Vinci could not improve on. You can desire this. Everyone who I have introduced it to has said, “I can’t believe I love a Windows computer.” As Satya Nadella said, “We want to move from people needing Windows, to choosing Windows, to loving Windows.” This and the rest of the Surface range really helps bragging rights.

    As a computer, it is a powerful i5/i7 device capable of pleasing all bar extreme power users. And that includes things like the immensely CPU-hungry Adobe Lightroom.

    To a Mac or Wacom Cintiq user — it is OK to covet it, even compliment Microsoft on it, but you won’t change secretly swearing that you wish Apple would go touch on a Mac, get a Pen for a Mac, and that Dial — it is something else too (Yes, I know you use a MacBook, Wacom Cintiq 27QHD, etc., and probably spent $4K more than the Studio costs).

    As a creative tool, there is nothing like the Surface Dial and N-Trig pen on a 28” screen.

    Yet this is version one – there is so much more scope for Studio 2, 3, 4 and steroid versions in the future that will address even the most hungry power users. And it won’t be long before Dell, Acer, Asus, HP and Lenovo pick up the Studio challenge – the Windows open OEM ecosystem is a wonderful thing.

    Just to show that this review is objective have a read of the Reddit thread titled “Not one critical review of Microsoft Studio”

    Rating: For what it is today with all its elephants – 4.5 out of 5. For what it heralds/portends 15 out of 10.

    Verbatim Announces TUFF-’N’-TINY™ Line of Penny-thin USB Drives | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Verbatim(R) Americas, LLC, an industry innovator in the data storage industry for 40 years, announced today its new TUFF-’N’-TINY™ family of ultra-portable USB drives with capacities of 4GB in emerald green and8GB in royal purple. Among the most compact, durable USB flash drives on the market, the new TUFF-’N’-TINY drives measure about 1-inch long, one-half inch wide and are the thickness of a penny. Ideal for storing, backing up, sharing and transporting data and multimedia files, Verbatim TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives are available with retail prices starting as low as US$30.00.

    With support for Windows(R), Mac(R) and Linux(R) systems, the TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives also provide true cross-platform compatibility and a convenient way to transfer files between systems. Verbatim’s new travel-tough USB drives include a key ring lanyard that can be clipped on a key ring, PDA or cell phone to ensure that the user’s data is always conveniently at hand.

    The 8GB drive can be used to store nearly eight hours of MPEG-1 video, about 2,000 hours of MP3 music, about 4,000 300dpi color photos or 8GBs of personal and business files. The drive’s ultra-portability makes it easy for students to carry research and project files from school to home and for business people to have current files with them wherever they go. The drive’s small form factor, durability and high capacity will also appeal to videographers and photographers who want to collaborate with others on post-production projects and quickly move work from one system to another.

    Verbatim TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives are significantly more portable and more rugged than standard flash drives because they feature SIP technology which encapsulates all of the electronic components into a single miniaturized and sealed unit. As a result, the tiny drives are resistant to dust, water and static discharges.

    For security conscious PC users, the TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives also include password security features to protect sensitive data in a user-defined private zone, while allowing a public zone for open access and sharing of non-sensitive content. With support for Windows ReadyBoost™, the TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drive becomes a dual-purpose device for Windows Vista™ users who want to speed system performance by utilizing a portion of the device’s unused flash memory.

    A true Plug-and-Play device, the TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drive can be easily connected through a USB 2.0 or USB 1.1 port of a desktop or notebook computer. The system automatically recognizes the drive as a new removable drive as soon as it is connected. Featuring a solid-state design (no moving parts) and non-volatile flash memory, the drives will retain data for 10 years or more.

    Availability and Pricing

    Designed for Windows Vista, XP or 2000; Mac OS 9.x or higher and Linux kernel 2.6x or higher, Verbatim TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives are available through Verbatim retail and distribution channels. Street prices are about US$29.99 for the 4GB drive and US$49.99 for the 8GB drive. The complete package includes the TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drive, pre-loaded password security software for Windows systems, a key ring lanyard and a Quick Start Guide.

    About Verbatim

    Verbatim’s businesses in the Americas, Europe/Middle East/Africa and Asia Pacific regions are wholly owned subsidiaries of Tokyo-based Mitsubishi Kagaku Media Co., Ltd. MKM’s parent company, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (MCC), is Japan's largest chemical company.

    Verbatim develops and markets innovative, high-quality products for storing, moving and using digital content. Known for its leadership in the optical, magnetic and flash storage and related accessories markets, the company provides reliable, unique technologies and products that are highly sought after and broadly distributed worldwide. For more information, contact Verbatim Americas, LLC, 1200 W.T. Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262, (800) 421-4188. In Europe, Verbatim Ltd., Prestige House, 23-26 High Street, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9DU, UK, (+44) 1784 439 781. In Japan, Mitsubishi Kagaku Media Co., Ltd., 31-19, Shiba 5-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014, (+81) 3-5454-3972. Or visit the web site at www.verbatim.com and select the country of your location.

    Verbatim is a registered trademark of Verbatim Americas, LLC. Other company and product names contained herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Specifications subject to change without notice.

    1MB = 1,000,000 bytes 1GB = 1,000,000,000 bytes. Some of the capacity is used for formatting and other functions and thus is not available for data storage.

    Editor’s Note: For photos and more information on Verbatim’s new TUFF-’N’-TINY USB Drives, contact Andy Marken, Marken Communications, Inc.; (408) 986-0100 or email [email protected]

    Photos/Multimedia Gallery Available: http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/mmg.cgi?eid=6026303&lang=en

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    HP HP0-M53 Exam (HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx(R) 9.x Software) Detailed Information


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