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Customizing the ovw GUI is each flexible and straightforward. Many customizations, such as adding submap backgrounds, automatic design of symbols, symbol hiding, and introduction of executable symbols, can also be completed from inside the ovw GUI. This chapter will reveal you ways.This chapter is from the ebook
One compelling aspect of NNM is that the administrator can personalize submaps from inside the GUI. probably the most customizations encompass including background photos, saving window placement, hiding symbols, and growing MIB purposes. whereas superior customizations require file editing, NNM provides the flexibility to offer each fundamental and superior customizations devoid of source code modification and re-compilation. in reality, many changes will also be made on the fly without exiting the NNM GUI or restarting techniques.
Sealey Inc. has a requirement to be in a position to make use of geographical bitmaps and consumer floor plans. they'd want to region definite contraptions in a specific region representing the actual places of the gadgets. certain instruments are mission critical and they'd like to configure the GUI with short entry to these gadgets. besides the fact that children, as a result of each operator has distinct obligations, they consider different contraptions to be mission essential. hence, every operator may want a just a little distinctive view of the community.
Sealey Inc. would also want to be in a position to graph SNMP MIB facts precise-time. definite operators can also often be required to entry information from the identical MIB variables. The network software should provide the potential to effectively graph MIB information. This chapter details customizing NNM from the GUI.
Submaps may be custom-made on a per-map groundwork to enable each and every NNM consumer to focus on specific wants. as an instance, a particular consumer may want to see the techniques positioned geographically on a submap according to the region wherein the programs bodily reside. A person could additionally wish to create customized icons with a purpose to launch generally used purposes. here sections consist of some of the generic map customizations.6.1.1 setting the Default Map and home Submap
The consumer default map is the map this is open when a consumer starts the NNM GUI. If the specification of the default map isn't modified, the map named "default" may be opened. The administrator can create as many maps as imperative, restricted handiest by using disk space.  commonly talking, you'll want to certainly not make customizations to the default map. a far better practice could be to make a replica of the default map, saving it under a new name. Customizations may still then be made to this new map. After making customizations to a map (corresponding to background portraits, auto-design, and so forth), you may additionally want to set this map as your user default map. The user can set his default map through performing here:
choose from the menu bar Map→Open. .
select the map you would love as your default (see determine 6-1).
determine 6-1 select Map→Open from the menu bar to set the user default map. opt for the map identify and click on the [Set User Default] button. The user Default Map proven right here is the map named "default."
click on the [Set User Default] button.
When a map is opened, the first submap to be displayed is the domestic submap. The home submap is additionally conveniently available by picking out the "house" icon on the toolbar. by means of default, the domestic submap is determined to the basis submap. The home submap may still be set to the submap you entry most generally. every map may have a special home submap. To set the domestic submap, navigate to your favourite submap and choose from the menubar Map→Submap→Set This Submap as home.
you could now use the toolbar icon to come to the home submap at any time. A user may additionally have as many maps as favored and every map can have a unique domestic submap.
Unused maps begin to contain stale topology facts as the NNM topology database is up-to-date over time. Even when ovtopofix and ovw –mapcount are run, you may also come upon mistakes, reminiscent of "objects nevertheless in four maps." with the intention to suitable this error, each and every map need to be opened in order that it synchronizes the existing topology suggestions into the map. every map can either be opened personally or with a script run as root on the NNM server, reckoning on the variety of maps you deserve to open to synchronize.
don't open maps in NNM that are created by using OVO! right here example "greps out" two default OVO maps:export display=displayhostname:0.0 for map in 'ovwls –x | egrep –v "opcadm|opcop" ` do ovw –map $map & carried out
assess to make sure that every map was opened with study/write privileges. The map will not synchronize devoid of being opened with study/write privileges. After the synchronization of the maps, run ovw –mapcount. This should run without error.6.1.2 Submap Overlay, Window Geometry, and symbol Hiding
Many customizations could be made to a map, together with the behavior of the submap overlay. via default, in the event you drill down via a map's hierarchy through double clicking, the child submap of the chosen object replaces the current submap.  Likewise, if you click on the up arrow icon from the toolbar, the guardian submap of the existing submap replaces the newborn. This prevents the consumer from having too many open submaps. if you opt for now not to have this submap overlay feature became on, which you could alter this behavior on both a map and a submap groundwork by making a choice on from the menu bar
an additional consumer customization is the means to keep window measurement and placement. as an instance, if you decide upon the IP cyber web submap on the left side of your display screen and a particular node-stage submap on the correct facet, readily alter the submap overlay to open diverse submaps, organize the submap dimension and location to your liking, and keep the window geometry by way of making a choice on View→Window Geometry→store For All Open Submaps.
additional customizations will also be made for private preferences. no longer all NNM users wish to see the equal view of the community. for instance, a network supervisor can also certainly not want to see individual workstations or servers. by hiding symbols which you can alleviate undesirable litter from her view of the community. Hidden objects are still actively polled but their popularity are not mirrored on the maps through which they are hidden. If the community manager hides non-networking gadgets, she will be able to not see when hidden devices are down through comfortably glancing on the appropriate submap. however, hiding a device doesn't steer clear of the Node Down adventure from being sent to the Alarm Browser.
To conceal symbols, first choose them  after which choose from the menu bar View→Hidden Objects→hide chosen From This Submap.
The status line at the backside of each submap displays the number of hidden objects on the latest submap, as proven in determine 6-2. You can also have a need to cover a selected class of object. for example, you may wish to conceal all home windows programs as a result of they're all DHCP instruments that seem to move down often. follow these steps to cover all programs which have a common attribute such as the operating equipment:
search for the item by means of the attribute.
Edit→locate→Object by way of symbol category. .
choose desktop classification home windows NT subclass and click on the [Apply] button.
Double-click one of the vital items listed under the "found and Highlighted" section.
choose the items that have been found.
cover the objects that have been selected.
View→Hidden Objects→hide selected From This Submap
Hidden objects can be unhidden at any time by deciding on
View→Hidden Objects→reveal Hidden On This Submap
recollect that the submap hierarchy is
figure 6-2 The status line displays the map identify (default), the access mode (study-Write), the variety of hidden symbols (Hidden:eight), and whether Auto-design is enabled.
observe that the list includes the segment submap (objects) in addition to node submaps. To more directly and conveniently conceal the preferred objects (during this case, windows NT nodes) we should still concentrate on the section submaps. if you happen to double-click one of these, you are presented with the acceptable child submap which has all NT nodes "highlighted' (highlighted labels are displayed in reverse video).
whereas hiding objects is a technique to deal with unwanted devices, filtering is a more elegant system of dealing with "undesirable" objects. A filter may also be applied to on a per-map basis, which hides objects from the view while enabling them to exist within the object database and be actively polled. This class of filter is known as a map filter. whereas the effect of applying a map filter is comparable to hiding objects, the implementation is always plenty sooner and more useful. other sorts of filters consist of topology and discovery filters, which might be discussed in aspect in Chapter 9, "Scalability and Distribution."6.1.three atmosphere heritage pictures and computerized design
background graphics may also be used to enhance the appearance of a submap. They can also be used to screen geographic areas, flooring plans, or organizational constructions. a few file codecs are supported for submap history graphics. when you have a file that is not in the checklist, investigate the liberate Notes for currently supported file codecs. Supported file formats for heritage pictures are listed in table 6-1.desk 6-1. File kinds supported via NNM for submap history pics.
heritage pics could be configured for a submap by means of following these steps:
select Map→Submap→residences from the menu bar.
click on the [Browse. . ] button listed by using the historical past portraits portion of the dialog field. here is discovered on the View tab for windows.
opt for a image as shown in the checklist of determine 6-three.
determine 6-3 The administrator can set a heritage graphic for each and every submap. lots of the offered graphics consist of geographic places. The administrator can additionally import a customized image comparable to a flooring plan.
click on [OK].
One factor to bear in mind when surroundings background graphics is the volume of actual reminiscence (RAM) you have got on your NNM gadget. for those who open a map, all objects, together with heritage photographs, are loaded into reminiscence  . The extra objects in the database, the greater reminiscence required to load objects into memory. in a similar fashion, the greater complex the photo, the more memory required. one way to inform if your equipment is reminiscence-certain is if the synchronization process takes a very long time (greater than a few minutes) should you open a map. If synchronization is taking too long, try reducing the number of objects being loaded into reminiscence. a method to obtain here's via changing the persistence level of your map.6.1.three.2 Submap Persistence
The persistence level of a submap suggests the stage at which objects are loaded into memory. if you select any choice apart from All ranges, the objects appearing on submaps below that degree don't seem to be loaded into memory except you open that particular submap. that you may define the persistence level of a map by using following these steps.
select the map properties.
opt for IP Map and click on [Configure For This Map. . ]
Scroll all the way down to the area that reads
On-Demand: To what degree may still submaps be persistent.
select some of the stages:
segment level and better
community stage and better
cyber web stage
After deciding on the persistence stage, click on [Verify] and [OK] within the IP Map configuration dialog box and [OK] within the Map houses dialog container.
Any adjustments you are making to a submap will cause it to develop into a persistent submap, in spite of the persistence environment. as an instance, if you set your map persistence stage to the phase level and better, handiest the basis, cyber web, and community level objects may be loaded into reminiscence. besides the fact that children, if you make any of right here adjustments to a phase or node level submap, you will cause that submap to develop into persistent:
Any objects contained within the submaps that have customizations equivalent to these should be loaded into memory whenever the map is open. As a different example, in case you set your persistence level to web degree and set a history photo on each submap, you defeat the aim of environment the persistence level.6.1.three.three computerized design
The aim of automatic layout is to enable a device found by means of NNM to have its symbols positioned on a submap without human intervention. When the usage of heritage pictures, you may additionally locate that you'd like to manually handle the position of symbols. When inserting objects on a flooring plan, for example, that you could flip off auto design and region the symbols the place they bodily stay. to show off automatic design for an individual submap, choose View→automated layout→Off For This Submap as proven in figure 6-4.
determine 6-4 This submap has been configured with Georgia as the heritage image. NNM ships with a GIF file for every US state and a lot of countries. flip off automated layout to allow manual placement of symbols.
After you turn auto design off, be aware that [Auto-Layout] is removed from the repute line and a "New Object retaining enviornment" seems on the bottom of the submap, as shown in figure 6-5. When new devices are found that belong on a submap the place auto design is became off, the newly found out objects are placed within the New Object maintaining enviornment. You should drag the new objects from the new Object maintaining enviornment and drop them onto the desired location on the submap.
determine 6-5 the new Object protecting area is created when automated design is grew to become off. Newly discovered instruments are positioned in the New Object conserving enviornment. They may also be manually placed on a submap via drag-and-drop.6.1.four Partitioning the information superhighway Submap
NNM knows a way to lay out devices according to the assistance offered via SNMP queries. The submap hierarchy from properly to backside is
The design of your network will also be personalized on the information superhighway stage submap. The goal is to enable partitioning of your network in line with geographical or logical assistance. NNM does a brilliant job of featuring the actual connections of your community however makes no assumptions as to the organizational structure. This customization is known as partitioning the internet submap.
Partitioning the web submap requires that you simply add a distinct category of image known as a location symbol. The steps to partition the IP cyber web submap are as follows:
From the web submap select
select the area image (determine 6-6) and drag any of the subclass symbols to the submap.
figure 6-6 area objects will also be used to partition the IP cyber web submap. note the region objects introduced to the submap shown (Japan and Australia) are within the application aircraft (no shading appears around the image).
supply a Label and click on [OK].
Repeat the creation of vicinity icons unless you've got defined all vital locations.
Drag each and every symbol and drop it in the desired vicinity.  Connections will instantly be dependent between location symbols as shown in figure 6-7.
figure 6-7 When partitioning the internet submap, connections between the areas are automatically based as symbols are moved into the region icons.
area icons will also be cascaded when partitioning the internet submap. for example, you could add united states at the information superhighway level, add State below united states of america, and add city below State, after which add building, web page, Room, and so forth.6.1.5 creating Executable Symbols
through default, symbols on a submap spawn a baby submap when double clicked. This behavior is called "explodable." image houses on a submap may be modified to launch an utility when double-clicked in place of opening a baby submap. This habits is called "executable." a number of pre-defined purposes exist and are available in NNM. basically, most purposes obtainable from the menu bar and the toolbar could be used in growing executable symbols. These purposes are described in NNM via software Registration data (ARFs). in addition to the usage of the pre-defined applications, that you would be able to create your personal functions via defining ARFs as mentioned in Chapter 7, "advanced Customization."
to utilize the executable image feature in NNM, comply with the steps listed right here. For this example, use a gadget that allows for incoming telnet classes.
access the image houses by way of correct-clicking and choosing image properties as proven in determine 6-8.
figure 6-8 the 1st step in making an icon executable is to area the cursor over the image, click on the appropriate mouse button, and choose symbol properties. . from the image popup menu.
regulate the symbol behavior to Execute, as shown in figure 6-9. notice the checklist of functions that seem under the section labeled "software action."
figure 6-9 The 2nd step in making an icon executable is to adjust the behavior of the symbol to Execute and choose to application to be launched.
Scroll in the course of the list and select the utility
Terminal connect: XTerm Telnet
click the [Target Objects. . ] button.
click the [Add] button to include the hostname and click on [OK] on the target Objects dialog box as proven in figure 6-10.
determine 6-10 The third step in growing an executable icon is to click on the [Target Objects] button, which displays the dialog box shown. choose the [Add] button to add the hostname as a target object.
click on [OK] on the image homes dialog box and you'll see the executable symbol as shown in determine 6-eleven. When the symbol is double clicked it launches a telnet session to the system.
figure 6-11 The executable icon (r208w100) indicates up as a button. Double-click it to launch the application. that you may also drag a logo and drop it on the button to launch the software on one more object.
upon getting created an executable image, that you would be able to drag other symbols and drop them onto the executable image. as an example, if you want to launch telnet on a special equipment, readily drag the image and drop it onto the executable image. Making a symbol "executable" does not affect the image repute set via ipmap. there is one caveat when altering an present image's behavior to executable. After changing an latest image to executable, you'll not be able to entry the image's newborn submap by using double clicking the image. instead, the best way to access the baby submap of the image is to use the submap open characteristic. that you can do this through opting for Map→Submap→Open. . you are going to should drill down in the course of the submap listings to locate the modified image's submap. choose the modified symbol and click on the [Open Submaps] button. because of this, that you would be able to also create standalone symbols that launch applications. It is not necessary to alter the conduct of an latest image.6.1.6 MIB functions
lots of the options from the device and menu bar entry applications that communicate with the MIB. When launched, these applications ship SNMP queries to the chosen node to entry certain MIB variables. Some purposes create tables that comprise the information and others generate real-time graphs. NNM provides many developed-in MIB functions as well because the capacity to create your personal MIB applications by way of the GUI.22.214.171.124 built-in MIB applications
Most MIB applications require you to select a node earlier than launching. If nothing is selected, the menu gadgets may be grayed out and unavailable. Let's look at one of the built-in MIB functions. choose a node and choose from the menu bar performance→network recreation→Interface traffic: Packet cost as shown in determine 6-12. this will monitor a real-time graph of the MIB variables for packet rate.
figure 6-12 Interface site visitors is a developed-in MIB application available from the menu bar. opt for a node and choose community recreation→Interface site visitors: Packet fee from the menu bar. This initiates snmpgets for selected MIB variables and displays them graphically.126.96.36.199 developing MIB functions
NNM gives the ability to create MIB purposes that will be included into the NNM menu bar. This can be accomplished by using the MIB utility builder.
The MIB utility builder permits you to create customized graphs and tables by using defining the MIB variables you are looking to be displayed.
comply with these steps to create your MIB graph:
opt for options→MIB software Builder: SNMP from the menu bar. This displays an empty MIB utility dialog container as proven in determine 6-13.
figure 6-13 To create a MIB software, opt for alternatives→MIB utility Builder: SNMP from the menu bar. The listing should be empty via default. opt for Edit?Add MIB software. . .
select Edit→Add MIB application. . . you're going to see the dialog field as proven in determine 6-14.
determine 6-14 Specify the software id, application type, utility Title, Menu direction and click the [Add. . ] button.
finished the following fields to outline the MIB utility:
software identification— This ought to be a special identity not containing spaces or special characters. For this instance, use InVSOut
utility category— Set this to table, form, or graph. For this illustration specify graph.
application Title— identify the software some thing you want. this can include spaces and particular characters. For this instance, specify "In Packets VS Out Packets".
Menu course— This describes the cascaded menu bar for the utility beginning with the desirable-stage menu. This may additionally comprise spaces. Use "->" to indicate cascading menus. For this illustration, specify yourname customized Apps→In VS Out
selection Rule— The selection Rule describes the node type for which this utility will work. unless you are regular with the filtering language described in Chapter 9, it is top of the line to leave it set to the default. The default option Rule (isSNMPSupported || isSNMPProxied) will feature on any gadget that helps SNMP or has an SNMP proxy.
click the [Add. . ] button to outline the MIB variables for the software.
Traverse the MIB tree to encompass the MIB variables for the software. Use the control key and left mouse click on concurrently to select the preferred variables. This example uses the MIB variables ieeeMacTransmitted and ieeeMacFramesReceived shown in determine 6-15 below the MIB subtree deepest.organizations.hp.nm.interface .ieee8023Mac.ieee8023MacTable.ieeeMacEntry
figure 6-15 be sure you be widespread with the MIB tree constitution so as to create MIB purposes. Press the control key and left click on simultaneously to select numerous variables.
After opting for the preferred variables, click [OK] from the Add MIB Objects dialog container.
click [OK] from the Add MIB application dialog box. make sure you see your custom menu as shown in figure 6-16. You are actually ready to execute your utility.
determine 6-sixteen opt for the node on which to execute the newly created MIB software. select the software from the menu bar distinctive within the Menu course of the MIB software builder.
After you might have created an MIB application it turns into an NNM registered software. The MIB utility can now be used when creating executable symbols. Add an object to a submap, change the behavior to executable, and assess the listing on your software. An application Registration File (ARF) is created in the event you define an MIB software.
Of the myriad of OpenView modules offered by way of HP, network Node supervisor is the key monitoring and managing element.
network Node manager's discovery function took be aware of no longer best network gadgets, functions and servers but also digital network functions, reminiscent of VPNs.
community Node manager uses administration assistance Base (MIB) statistics from several sources, including routers, switches, bridges and repeaters, to reset devices or inquire about their health. It captures some Layer 2 information, such as connections and node addresses, however for essentially the most part it maps more convenient-to-relate-to Layer 3 particulars. The marvelous checklist of predefined MIBs comprises use and mistake percentages, total packets by means of class, retransmits, Cisco memory use and whole-duplex utilization percentage.
community Node supervisor collects network fitness data, outlets it in a relational database, analyzes the kept device-popularity and adventure facts, and reviews results in positive charts and graphs. The system's root-trigger problem evaluation, dubbed superior intelligent analysis for Networks, became mainly useful for zeroing in on a particular machine that become inflicting an outage or efficiency problem. after we considerably accelerated site visitors or disconnected WAN links, its path-analysis potential became in a similar way constructive in pinpointing issues and efficiency degradations involving network pathways and linkages.
community Node supervisor's computerized baseline function took only a day to develop into normal with our network. It set alarm thresholds by using analyzing collected device fame and experience information, for this reason giving it the potential to greater realistically detect exceptions, faults and blunders. After community Node supervisor created a baseline for our network, we manually introduced just a few of our personal thresholds. network Node supervisor generated prompt and incredibly informational alarms, by the use of pager or e-mail, to notify us when the thresholds have been surpassed.
network Node manager has a allotted architecture that scales neatly to tackle greater and more complicated network environments. community Node manager even displays itself to make certain it be running at all times. network Node manager has native home windows and internet-primarily based types of its consumer interface.
OpenView Operations manager integrates with community Node supervisor to give a principal console for experience administration, performance monitoring and automatic alert processing. OpenView Operations manager has a high-level visible simple Scriptlike language for purchasers who are looking to tailor its processing. OpenView Operations manager gave us further dashboards beyond what community Node supervisor displayed, and it can demonstrate consolidated views of data from distinctive OpenView modules.
The predesigned reports from HP highlighted objects comparable to efficiency, alarms, availability and inventory traits. Many stories contrasted existing and old information, which helped us spot rising complications, while different reports showed network utilization, exact talkers and listeners, and inbound and outbound blunders.
A Ping Response Time and Ping Retry record showed us response times and the number of retries, to help measure latency across our community. The RMON section Utilization report published network bandwidth use, and a frame Relay report tracked congestion prices to demonstrate bottlenecks. reviews also confirmed abstract and particular device availability, machine inventory statistics, alarm histories and assorted-device reboot routine.
OpenView cyber web capabilities tracks net-primarily based transaction services. We used it to video display e-commerce transactions and soap-based mostly net functions transactions. For each and every net web site, it referred to availability and response-time details, and web functions alerted us when the provider-stage contract (SLA) parameters we deploy had been surpassed.
signals took the sort of pager calls, e mail notices and SNMP traps. To fix problems immediately, we could tell the module to execute a command in line with an alert. OpenView information superhighway functions has a productive dashboard-metaphor person interface with tree-based mostly navigation, SLA health indications and a valuable troubleshooting and evaluation tool.
HP OpenView documentation is barely online. despite its complexity, the application became easy to deploy and use.
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Ethernet of the industrial kind requires specialty knowledge and practices, unlike Ethernet for home and office. If you are installing or operating an industrial Ethernet network, here are five need-to-know essentials about cabling, signal quality, ground loops, switches, and traffic.
Unlike the old comfortable office and home Ethernet, Ethernet of the industrial kind is a new breed, requiring specialty knowledge and practices. If you are installing or operating an industrial Ethernet network, here are some essentials you need to know about cabling, signal quality, ground loops, switches, and traffic.
Like all networks, your industrial Ethernet is only as good as its cabling. Unlike an office or home environment, industrial applications are often electrically noisy places. In addition to high electromagnetic interference (EMI), these environments are subject as a class to temperature ranges, dust, humidity and a host of other factors not normally found in a home or office.
So, what’s the right choice of cable? In your office, commercially rated cable like Category 5 is good for up to 10 MB, and Category 5e is good for up to 100 MB. The ANSI/TIA-1005 standard states that Category 6 or better cabling should be used for hosts or devices that are exposed to an industrial environment. Category 6 cable is good for up to 1 GB at 100 meters and 10 GB at 55 meters. Category 6e cable can do up to 10 GB at 100 meters.
Compared to Category 5 and 5e cables, Category 6 cable is generally less susceptible to cross talk and external EMI noise. Cable manufacturers make industrial Ethernet cable that is also less susceptible to physical deterioration in the harsher industrial environments. When installing Category 6 cable, make sure that the RJ45 ends and jacks are also rated for Category 6, or you will be defeating the purpose of your Category 6 cable. For the best results, wherever possible use premade patch cables for short runs, with factory installed connectors. For long runs you will need to install jacks.
Cables, shielding, ground loops
To shield or not to shield, that is the question. The answer is sometimes yes, but if you do, you better do it properly. Improperly installed shielded cable can create more problems than it solves.
Shielded Ethernet cable may perform better in high EMI environments if run outside of conduit. The key to the use of a shielded cable is in proper grounding. One ground reference is essential. Multiple ground connections can cause what is referred to as ground loops, where the difference in voltage potential at the ground connections can induce noise on the cable.
A ground loop can wreak havoc on your network. To get this right, use a grounded RJ45 connector on only one end of the cable. On the other end use a nonconductive RJ45 connector to eliminate the possibility of ground loops.
If your Ethernet cable must cross power lines, always have it do so at right angles. Separate parallel Ethernet and power cables by at least 8 to 12 in., with more distance for higher voltages and longer parallel runs. If the Ethernet cable is in a metal pathway or conduit, each section of the pathway or conduit must be bonded to the adjacent section such that it has electrical continuity along its entire path.
In general, route Ethernet cables away from equipment that generates EMI. This includes things like motors, motor control equipment, lighting, and power conductors. Within panels, separate Ethernet cables from conductors by at least 2 in. When routing away from EMI sources within a panel, follow the recommended bend radius for the cable.
Bait and switches
If you are fishing for problems on an industrial Ethernet network, hubs are your bait of choice. To put it simply, never, ever use a hub in an industrial Ethernet environment. Hubs are nothing more than multiport repeaters. Eliminating use of hubs leaves the choice between managed and nonmanaged (or unmanaged) switches. While managed switches are generally preferable, they are also more expensive than nonmanaged switches. Let’s take a closer look at how a switch operates, and compare the managed and unmanaged varieties.
Every device on your network has a unique identifier, referred to as a media access control (MAC) address. This is the key to the much more discriminating behavior of a switch compared to a hub. When a switch first powers up, it initially behaves like a hub broadcasting all traffic everywhere. As devices pass information between ports on a switch, it watches this traffic and figures out which MAC address is associated with which port. It places this information in a MAC address table. Once it figures out the MAC address of a device connected to a particular port, it will watch for information intended for that MAC address, and transmit such information only to the port associated with that address.
An industrial Ethernet network carries three types of traffic. Unicast traffic routes from one point to another point. Multicast traffic routes from one point to many points. Broadcast traffic routes from one point to all points.
Once a switch has built its MAC address table, managed and unmanaged switches treat unicast and broadcast traffic identically. Generally, you should keep broadcast traffic under 100 broadcasts per second, at a bandwidth of 100 Mb. A little bit of broadcasting is an integral part of any network. Examples of items that may initiate broadcasts are devices like print servers, announcing themselves periodically to the network, which allows for a lot of nifty features for the convenience of the network users.
Snooping: Not just nosy
One of the primary differences between managed and unmanaged switches is how they treat multicast traffic. Multicast traffic typically comes from smart devices on plant floor process networks, in a connection-oriented producer-/consumer-based technology. In this context a connection is simply a relationship between two or more nodes across a network.
EtherNet/IP (an Ethernet industrial protocol managed by ODVA) is an application layer communication protocol that uses this technology. This protocol, used by many automation vendors, is based on ODVA’s Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). Industrial products you might find in a multicast group include flowmeters, variable-speed drives, and scales. Each of these items produces process data and consumes configuration data.
A device needs to be a member of a multicast group to receive group data. All members of the group receive data. You do not need to be a member of a group to send data to the group. The main problem with multicast traffic in a producer/consumer model is that traffic grows exponentially with the number of hosts. This is where the managed switch comes in.
A managed switch has the ability to turn on Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Snooping. Here’s how it works. When enabled, IGMP Snooping sends out broadcast traffic to determine the members of any multicast groups. Using this information, combined with the MAC address table, allows a managed switch to route multicast traffic only to those ports associated with members of a multicast group. A nonmanaged switch treats multicast data the same as broadcast data and sends it everywhere.
If your network is using producer/consumer technology, or otherwise has multicast traffic, a managed switch is an absolute must, and worth the premium you will pay for it.
Mirrored ports, troubleshooting
There are other reasons to consider a managed switch. This class of switches usually provides error logs, control of individual port speeds, duplex settings, and the ability to mirror ports. These extra capabilities allow more precise control of network behavior and can be an invaluable aide in troubleshooting issues that will certainly occur on the network at some point.
Speaking of troubleshooting, when network performance issues occur, the first suspect often is the switch. While physical failures can and do happen with any piece of equipment, the switch rarely is the core of most network performance problems. Switches tend to be the lowest latency points in a system, typically operating 10 to 50 times faster than all other network components.
While there is excellent software to help troubleshoot network performance issues, most of it can only see broadcast and multicast traffic. That’s fair enough, because many performance issues are caused by unrestrained multicast traffic or excessive broadcast traffic. If you need to examine unicast traffic for any reason, port mirroring is the only way to do so.
So, are there times when it is OK to use a nonmanaged switch? Yes, provided there is no multicast traffic on the network. On very small, simple networks with a few devices, many people will still use nonmanaged switches. Sometimes they take half-steps and combine the two, having a few remote devices on a nonmanaged switch, which then feeds into a managed switch.
As a general practice for networks of more than a few nodes, if cost is not a primary concern, go with a managed switch, often a much better choice in hindsight.
Analyzers and monitors
Once the network is assembled, you will need a way to maintain and monitor it. It is so easy to create unintended cross-connections that expose a plant floor process network to unintended broadcast traffic, sometimes just a matter of connecting port “A” on switch 1 to port “B” on switch 2. While Joe from finance may be quite happy that he can directly transfer production data from the control system into his spreadsheet, doing so may allow Sheila’s new application in accounting to broadcast traffic that is slowing your plant floor graphic terminals to a crawl.
There are a couple of types of software that you can use to help manage things when eventual trouble occurs. To take a low-level look at a particular port, Wireshark (formerly known as Ethereal) is a popular and free open source packet analyzer that runs on most common platforms. There are a host of other similar products, open source and commercial, with various features sets and benefits commonly available for packet analysis. As a class, they provide packet level data captures giving visibility into the nature of the traffic on a particular network node.
Sometimes a broad view of your network is required. Hosts of network traffic monitoring products are available from places such as HP Network Management (formerly known as HP OpenView), SolarWinds, Network Vision, and many more suppliers. Each gives an excellent view of network traffic overall. With products of this sort, it is possible to quickly see which devices might be generating excessive traffic or broadcast storms, which are requesting large files, which nodes might be having connection problems, or which are becoming sluggish in response. As a class they also help identify and document all of the devices on a network.
An industrial network can be a beautiful thing. If done correctly, it can facilitate the flow of information between the plant floor and the boardroom. It is part of your core infrastructure backbone that makes so many of your organization’s efficiency and information technology (IT) initiatives possible. Following the essentials outlined here will position an industrial network for peak performance for years to come.
– David McCarthy is president and chief executive officer, TriCore Inc., www.tricore.com. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager CFE Media, Control Engineering and Plant Engineering, firstname.lastname@example.org.
TriCore’s Mike Robbins, networking engineering manager, is presenting in the Control Engineering Industrial Ethernet Best Practices webcast.
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You’re not building the next smart sports band, so should you care about Internet of Things (IoT) frameworks?
IoT is the latest buzzword that has replaced everything from the cloud to machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. Essentially, it is the same thing that was going on, though the scope tends to be larger. The devices involved may number in the millions, with hundreds or thousands on-premises.
Programming for an IoT environment is no longer simply a TCP/IP socket connection. Even a Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection is insufficient for providing system security. Likewise, more programmers are having to deal with transient connections or connections with varying bandwidths. Wireless connectivity brings even more complexity to the environment, and data may hop through any number of gateways that may or may not perform data massaging along the way.
Standards and frameworks help simplify programming chores. Sometimes the choices are dictated by a chosen platform. There are a number of vendors that provide hardware and the software support, and developers will be hard pressed to work outside of these confines. There are other open solutions that do not necessarily address an end-to-end approach, but rather, leave providing significant portions of the environment to the programmer. They also may not address issues such as system and power management, remote updates, and so on.
Here we examine some of the alternatives available. The collection is by no means exhaustive, as this is one programming area with a very large number of options. No one platform is suitable for all applications, although many purport to be so.
Typically IoT frameworks are built on top of or otherwise utilize standard communication protocols like TCP/IP. They may be more specific in support such as using IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN). They may also use higher level protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP), or Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). It is also possible to use something like Object Management Group’s (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS).
Often the challenge lies in determining the scope of the application as well as the framework. Some solutions are designed for millions of nodes, while others are more suitable for dozens or hundreds of nodes.Open Frameworks 1. The Thread Groupâ€™s Thread framework is built on existing standards like 6LoWPAN and 802.15.4 to address wireless IoT applications.
One organization that has garnered significant vendor support for its wireless framework is the Thread Group. It provides an application framework built on existing IETF and IEEE standards like IEEE 802.15.4 (Fig. 1). It is designed to handle over 250 devices in a Personal Area Network (PAN) or Home Area Network (HAN). These often will be low-power devices that typically sleep, so timing of communication will be critical to efficient operation. Parent routers can hold data for sleeping devices.2. The Thread architecture is similar to most wireless, mesh network solutions. Routers provide connectivity to the cloud for end devices. Routers may also provide end node services such as providing local sensor data.
The Thread architecture (Fig. 2) is similar to most wireless, mesh network solutions. The system is designed so is it possible to build a system without a single point of failure. This requires at least two border routers, which may not always be possible or economical. Border routers provide a gateway between the Thread network and another network (e.g., a local wireless or wired network).
Within the network, each device has an IPv6 address plus a shorter HAN alias. Devices within the local network can use the HAN addresses while IP addressing is used for services on the other side of the boarder routers. Devices can router eligible or end devices. The latter only communicates with a router. Devices that can be a router are enabled as necessary.
A router maintains state with all other routers in the network using a trickle mechanism and the MLE (mesh link establishment) protocol. The Leader router manages the network. Another router will take over for the Leader if the Leader fails or becomes incommunicado. New nodes can be authorized by a user with an app running on a GUI device like a smartphone .
The Thread Group is also working with other organizations like the ZigBee Alliance. The Thread stack is used in frameworks like ARM’s mbed. The Eclipse Open IoT Working Group has two IoT frameworks: the Kura OSGi-based gateway framework and the Mihini framework for the Lua programming language.
Kura uses the same Java-based OSGi framework from the OSGi Alliance that the Eclipse IDE is based upon. OGSi runs Java bundles. Kura has bundles that provide services like remote management and system configuration, in addition to cloud and data services. Kura components are designed as configurable OSGi Declarative Services exposing the service API with the ability to raise events.3. Eurotechâ€™s Everyware Software Framework (ESF) is the basis for the Eclipse Open IoT Working Group Kura.
Kura is based on work from Eurotech. The firm’s Everyware Software Framework (ESF) provides the same common services as Kura (Fig. 3). Eurotech builds on this with features such as reverse NAT support and the Everyware VPN as well as Everyware Cloud Web Console management tool. ESF uses MQTT as its transport mechanism. It can handle device updates and remote diagnostics.4. Mahini works with the Poho open source MQTT implementation.
IoTivity is another open-source project that targets IoT applications. It is sponsored by the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) and hosted by the Linux Foundation. The IoTivity framework incorporates four major building blocks: discovery, data transmission, data management, and device management. It runs on Linux platforms including Ubuntu, Tizen, and Android, as well as Windows 8, iOS, and Arduino.5. The IoTivity Control Manager uses REST to communicate and manage devices within the network.
IoTivity's architecture uses profiles on the application side. The Protocol Plugin Manager handles the other side of the framework where one or more transport drivers exist. Other managers include a Control Manager (CM), Thing Manager (TM) and Soft Sensor Manager (SSM). The CM manages teh connectivity within the network using a REST interface (Fig. 5). The TM allows developers to manager a group of devices or "things" within the network. The SSM handles physical, as well as logical/virtual sensors.
ARM’s mbed is a bit more focused. It starts as a development environment for ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers. It includes development tools as well as the mbed OS. The environment can be used to develop standalone applications as well as networked applications.6. The mbed Device Server provides a REST API to manage devices within an mbed network.
The mbed Device Server is an optional component that also uses a REST API (Fig. 6). It provides links between devices as well as connections to cloud-based services. It supports C, Java SE, and Java ME clients. The architecture supports open source, data communication, and device management protocols like CoAP/HTTP, MQTT, TLS/TCP, DTLS/UDP, and OMALWM2M.
The environment can support any number of cloud services. One that has been integrated with Freescale K64F Freedom board is IBM’s cloud services (see “mbed IoT Starter Kit Links to IBM's Cloud”). The ARM mbed Ethernet Starter Kit can be linked to an IBM account to start IoT development immediately with the Freedom board.Vendor Frameworks
There are a number of vendors that provide environments that address everything from the hardware on up. This can greatly simplify system implementation allowing developers to concentrate on application-specific details. These type of frameworks tend to target specific application areas such as industrial sensor networks.
One example in this is Linear Technology’s SmartMesh technologies. SmartMesh IP supports 6LoWPAN and 802.15.4e. Its terminology for nodes is “motes”. SmartMesh WirelessHART uses the WirelessHART (IEC 62591) standard. Their Eterna SoC is based on an ultra-low power Arm Cortex-M3.
A key feature of SmartMesh is the robustness of the mesh network. Its self configuring and the network will adjust if a mote becomes inaccessible. The protocol stacks implement a Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP). The stack uses a Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) media access layer (MAC) that divides time into “slots”. Timeslots are mapped to channels with a pre-assigned hopping sequence.
Motes transmit, listen, and sleep on a precise schedule. Packet exchanges are synchronized so there are no packet collisions. Packets are scheduled for energy efficiency with no extra, transmit side preamble or receive side guard interval. The approach allows multiple transmissions to occur simultaneously on different channels, thereby increasing overall network bandwidth. SmartMesh is designed to implement very large industrial networks.
Oracle and Microsoft are major software vendors that are large enough to have their own approach to IoT that garners a significant following—both cloud-based solutions and services, such as Microsoft Azure and Oracle Cloud Computing services. These database services are often the cloud target for other IoT frameworks.
Microsoft Windows 10 IoT Core was introduced at Microsoft’s Build 2015. It targets IoT end nodes. The core is a compact version of Windows 10 that runs on platforms like Raspberry Pi. It primarily provides communication and operating system services rather than a full Windows 10 GUI platform. An even more compact implementation called Windows Remote Arduino allows applications running on an Arduino microcontroller to communicate with a Windows 10 platform, including the Windows 10 IoT Core.
Oracle’s IoT solution takes advantage of its Oracle database and Java platforms to provide the infrastructure of IoT solutions. Partners like PTC fill in the gaps using these platforms. PTC’s Axeda provides an end-to-end approach using Axeda Connect connectivity middleware: Axeda Build, which includes data management and scripting support, and Axeda Manage, with web-based applications for managing IoT networks.
All these frameworks have a number of common goals, including reducing time to market, offloading core development, and providing a coordinated communication and security environment. Although many use standard protocols and database solutions, they rarely have the ability to communicate across frameworks. This can lead to environments with mixed solutions in place that may only exchange information and control in the cloud. The advantage of using standards at the communication level is that they can typically coexist even with multiple wireless installations in place.
Unfortunately we have had to gloss over the details of the frameworks to provide an overview of some available solutions. The challenge for developers is identifying the aspects of the framework they will have to deal with as well as the capabilities that the frameworks provide.
In any event, anyone building IoT solutions is unlikely to build their own framework from scratch, given the complexity and components involved that range from microcontroller-based applications communicating with database servers in the cloud.
Microsoft Azure is a broad, ever-expanding set of cloud-based computing services that are available to businesses, developers, government agencies, and anyone who wants to build an app or run an enterprise on the internet without having to manage hardware. It has been the fastest-growing business segment for Microsoft in recent years and will probably overtake Windows in terms of revenue within two or three years. Azure is a strong second among cloud providers, well behind Amazon Web Services but well ahead of any other competition.
Also: Top cloud providers 2018: How AWS, Microsoft, Google Cloud Platform, IBM Cloud, Oracle, Alibaba stack up
Microsoft announced Azure in 2008. It made its public debut two years later, in February 2010, as Windows Azure and was rebranded as Microsoft Azure in 2014. The name change wasn't just a branding move, however. Instead, it was a reflection that the scope of Azure cloud services had gone far beyond just Windows-based offerings. By late 2017, in fact, Microsoft reported that 40 percent of all virtual machines in Azure were running Linux, up from less than one-third just a year earlier.
The Azure Global Infrastructure includes data centers in 54 regions, spanning 140 countries.
Also: Microsoft says 40 percent of all VMs in Azure now are running LinuxWhat can you do with Azure infrastructure as a service?
Cynics love to dismiss the entire concept of cloud computing with a scoff: "The cloud is just someone else's computer." But that oversimplification describes only one small part of the Azure business: Infrastructure as a service, in which cloud-based services replace physical hardware.
One of the most basic Azure IaaS usage scenarios is replacing a physical server with a virtual server running in Azure's datacenter, thus eliminating the need to maintain hardware.
Also: Walmart bets on Microsoft Azure
That server can run any supported desktop or server version of Windows, up to and including Server 2019. Or you can choose from a long list of Linux distros, also in a wide range of supported versions, including Ubuntu Server, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, FreeBSD, and even Oracle Linux. In the enormous Azure Marketplace, you can find ready-run virtual servers for just about any task, including SQL Server, Docker, SAP Hana, and (to go with that Oracle Linux server) Oracle Database.
You could, in fact, build an entire virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) in Azure's cloud and manage it all with third-party tools. You can sign up for Citrix Virtual Desktops Essentials directly from the Azure Portal, for example, enabling a traditional VDI option from a service provider already well known in corporate circles. For a completely different approach, look at Nerdio for Microsoft Azure, which allows administrators to create an entire business network and manage it from a third-party web portal, which the company bills as "IT as a service."
At the Ignite conference in late 2017, Microsoft announced plans for its own Azure-based VDI service, called Windows Virtual Desktop. It supports Windows 10 in multi-user configurations available on any device, replacing on-premises server-based virtualization. It's also available running Windows 7 virtual desktops, with an irresistible perk for enterprises that are struggling with Windows 10 migration plans: three years of free extended security updates after the official Windows 7 end of support on January 14, 2020.
A cloud-based computing infrastructure is capable of tricks you can't easily accomplish in your own server room, including built-in load balancing and on-the-fly hardware upgrades at the flip of a virtual switch. It also includes some impressive security features such as just-in-time VM access, which locks down VMs at the network level, blocking inbound traffic except when specific requests for access are approved.
Also: SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS: Understand the differencesWhat else can you do on Azure?
The full range of Microsoft Azure services covers much more ground than simply relocating on-premises servers to the cloud. In addition to IaaS resources, you have a full range of Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) options, giving your organization access to cloud-based services without the necessity of managing a server. For example, you can stand up a website based on WordPress or build a basic Node JS site without having to configure (or patch) the underlying Windows or Linux server.
We could probably write an entire book covering the full range of services available on Azure, and it would be out of date the next day, because that universe is continually expanding. Here's a broad summary of other services available, organized by category.
Storage and databases
Storing huge amounts of data, structured or unstructured, is what Azure was built for. The native Azure Storage services include: Azure Blobs (for unstructured data, including serving images, documents, and video streams directly to a browser); Azure Files, which are cloud-based file shares accessible using Standard Message Block (SMB) protocols; Azure Queues, for messaging between application components; and Azure Tables, a NoSQL store for structured data.
For migrating databases built on SQL Server, there's Azure SQL Database, a fully managed service that can be used as Managed Instances to migrate on-premises workloads or deployed from scratch to supply SQL database as a service.
And then there's Azure Cosmos DB, Microsoft's really big bet on big data. It's a "fully managed, globally-distributed, horizontally scalable in storage and throughput, multi-model database service backed up by comprehensive SLAs [service level agreements]."
App development tools and services
Developers of desktop and mobile apps have a full set of tools for building and deploying those apps, starting with the Visual Studio development environment, which is available in multiple versions (including preview releases) on Windows Server and Windows 10 Enterprise N virtual machines.
In addition to offering Visual Studio Team Services and Azure DevOps, Azure includes a broad selection of third-party devops tools for sharing code, managing workflows, deploying software, and monitoring performance and usage. You can use Jenkins, for example, to build apps in the cloud and deploy them directly to Azure. Use Terraform or Ansible to provision and configure infrastructure, and then manage it all with Chef Automate.
Containers and container services
Containers are standardized, encapsulated environments that run applications securely, with high availability and the capability to scale quickly. Azure's marketplace makes it particularly easy to deploy and scale container images. The standard for managing containerized workloads is the Kubernetes container orchestration service, which is available on Azure as Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS).
How important is containerization to the future of cloud-based workloads? As ZDNet's Scott Fulton has noted, "Microsoft has completely retooled its entire server system philosophy around Kubernetes, and hired several of its principal creators."
Azure offers well over 100 container images in its marketplace, along with tools from Docker and others for managing those images.
Among the most recent additions to Azure are a set of tools for performing predictive analytics and identifying useful algorithms. The Azure Machine Learning service makes it possible to build, train, and deploy machine learning in hybrid environments or directly in the cloud, using the same frameworks and tools you use on-premises.How do you manage Azure services?
The primary interface for managing Azure subscriptions and resources is the Microsoft Azure Portal. That destination includes a customizable dashboard that offers at-a-glance information about running services, as well as a point-and-click interface for adding, configuring, and deploying new Azure resources.
Also: Microsoft launched Azure 10 years ago
From the Azure Portal, you can deploy, manage, and monitor resources in groups, using the Azure Resource Manager. For repetitive tasks, you can use Azure PowerShell and the Azure Command Line Interface (Azure CLI).What is Azure Active Directory?
Even if you've never opened the Microsoft Azure Portal or worked directly with any Azure services, there's a strong possibility your organization already has a presence in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD).
Microsoft's cloud services are interconnected at fundamental levels, a fact that simplifies administration and license management. If you have an Office 365 Business or Enterprise subscription, for example, all of your user management goes through Azure AD. The same is true of Dynamics CRM and Microsoft Intune. You can manage users and associated devices through the Azure AD portal.
Those basic accounts are free. Additional features are available (for an additional per-user fee, of course) in Premium P1 and Premium P2 tiers.Must read What does this all cost?
Most Azure services are billed on a pay-as-you-go model. You can receive a discount on Azure services by purchasing one-year or three-year reservations that substantially reduce costs. The Azure Portal provides cost estimates when you add a new resource; you can also use the Azure Pricing Calculator to quickly estimate costs for a new resource on a pay-as-you-go or reserved-instance basis.
Also: Linux now dominates Azure
Most Visual Studio subscriptions provide free monthly Azure credit as a benefit; the exact amount depends on the subscription level. Likewise, anyone who's a BizSpark or Microsoft Partner Network member receives a monthly allotment of Azure credits as well.
And if you just want to try your hand at Azure services, you can sign up for a free account that includes $200 worth of credit for the first month as well as access to a handful of popular services that are free for the first year.Related stories:
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AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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