|Exam Name||:||Designing and Implementing HP LeftHand SAN|
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|Updated On||:||February 20, 2019|
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Dr Mylene Lagarde COW 3.02
This route is accessible on the MSc in global health policy, MSc in fitness policy, Planning and Financing, MSc in international health coverage and MSc in international fitness policy (health Economics). This path is accessible with permission as an out of doors alternative to college students on other programmes the place regulations enable.
Randomized trials have long been used in the scientific world to test the efficacy of scientific cures. these days, social scientists have began the usage of the identical strategy, the usage of random assignment to allocate materials or put in force a policy intervention in a different way to distinctive businesses, so as to assess the causal effects of the policy of interest. The recognition of randomized opinions has grown above all, however now not exclusively, among researchers and policymakers in low- and center-salary settings.
Conducting a successful randomized contrast contains many inter-connected steps and a great realizing of a number of statistical ideas. Randomized opinions additionally usually require to design and organise the data assortment of important and effective advice, which includes a number of crucial steps to evade pitfalls. it is hence elementary to take note these diverse steps to design and put into effect randomised opinions accurately, or to be in a position to severely analyse them.
This path proposes a fingers-on and intuitive strategy to designing and conducting a randomised comparison. in the first half of the direction, we are able to talk about causes for engaging in randomised critiques; how to design the randomise scan to be certain it solutions the query(s) of activity (together with issues of statistical energy and pattern size calculation); a way to contend with threats to randomisation. in the second half of the course, we can focus on practical considerations raised with the aid of fundamental facts collection, including a way to highest quality measure consequences of hobby; the way to design good equipment and the way to behavior and manipulate fieldwork.
Seminars can be designed to motivate college students to significantly have interaction with the subject matters and follow the technical advantage taught. each and every seminar should be closely aligned with the lecture content material to supply college students the chance to observe the brand new capabilities. Case reviews might be chosen from a variety of cultural backgrounds, to allow the presentation of a diverse latitude of settings and considerations.
15 hours of lectures and 15 hours of seminars within the LT.
A draft protocol. college students could be asked to post a brief 1,500 be aware draft protocol by way of week eight. while some elements of their work may additionally still be work in progress (e.g. the use of bullet facets), college students might be expected to write up the first half of their protocol in a more particular way. The outlines may be graded and comments given to students. This permits college students to get helpful event of writing at MSc level at LSE, and they'll also take note greater chiefly the expectations of the summative evaluation. students may be able to use this remarks of their writing of the summative work.
research concept (a hundred%) within the LT.
The goal of the analysis protocol (4,000 words max) will be to plan the randomised assessment of a selected health programme. students may be requested to decide on one programme from a proposed list. they will even be given the choice to select their own intervention (pending contract by their seminar leader).
Microsoft showed off the primary client home windows mixed truth head-hooked up shows (HMDs) from partners equivalent to Acer, Dell, HP, and Lenovo back in October 2017 at an adventure in San Francisco. The contraptions launched alongside the windows 10 Fall Creators replace, with expenditures beginning at $299. The HMDs got here with distinctive designs, however an identical requirements corresponding to a 1440X1440 decision reveal, and framerates of 60fps for PCs with integrated snap shots and 90fps for programs with discrete pix.
whereas no longer a whole lot in the means of a refresh to a lot of these devices took place, Samsung launched its 2d-generation HMD, the Odyssey+ in October 2018, with advancements to necessities and the design of the device. soon, an additional new headset may well be on the manner, as HP is additionally readying it next-era HMD, as per the folks at RoadtoVR who bought an unique preview of the unannounced home windows blended fact headset, codenamed ‘Copper’.
The record states that HP is re-designing its HMD from the floor up, and from the looks of it, it does seem like a significant replace. The gadget now sports an Oculus Rift-like design with the top straps going in the course of the sides and above the head, assembly at a circular structure on the again. The device is also expected to come with a heathered fabric on the front where the cameras for monitoring can be found. The headset is declared to be lighter, making it more at ease to wear, and it'll additionally feature greater mechanicals to make it simpler to put on and take away.
As for specs, the next-era device will offer a 2160X2160 resolution screen per eye, making it probably the most pixel-dense monitor in a mixed reality Headset yet. In evaluation, Samsung’s new Odyssey+ sports a 1440X1600 decision monitor per eye. surely, the denser display makes for crisp, clear photographs, bringing a good deal-mandatory advancements to the journey. The denser screen also helps masks the reveal door effect (the impact brought about by way of the unlit spaces between any two pixels), negating the want for extra add-ons like the diffuser on Samsung’s Odyssey+.
HP states that the improvements to the HMD got here from its commercial enterprise clients and that the clients didn’t trust the box of view a big enviornment of challenge as tons as the decision and comfort. The firm is planning on bringing this headset to its machine as a carrier for VR offering as part of the Z by way of HP brand.
while HP didn't exhibit details about the launch date or pricing, the business did ascertain that it might be selling the machine to both, agencies and consumers. windows combined truth has been receiving advancements within the newest examine builds for the next important windows 10 replace, which may pretty much certainly be referred to as the home windows 10 April 2019 update. The platform has additionally begun seeing expanded relevance in gaming, so it will be enjoyable to look how neatly ‘Copper’ could be obtained, and if the improvements inspire extra users to accept as true with it.
supply: RoadtoVR by the use of Thurrott
Autodesk, an award-successful American utility business, has collaborated with HP and GE Additive to increase generative design application tools that work at once with 3D printers.
according to Autodesk’s Netfabb and Fusion 360, the design-to-print workflow for additive manufacturing might be integrated in HP Multi Jet Fusion and GE Direct metal Laser Melting (DMLM) programs to boost rapid prototyping for production-capable 3D printed parts.
Robert Yancey, director of producing trade approach at Autodesk, defined to Design news:
“To unencumber the total value of HP MJF printers, you want a good design, a superb fabric, and a pretty good print technique. Autodesk develops the design tools and know-how, HP develops the print method, and HP with their material partners develops the materials. All features are required to achieve highest efficiency.”The HP Jet Fusion 3D 4210/4200 Printing solution. picture via HP.
A generative workflow
throughout Formnext, HP announced a partnership with Autodesk to permit generative design capabilities throughout the whole HP Multi Jet Fusion portfolio. Following this collaboration, Christoph Schell, President of 3D Printing and Digital Manufacturing, HP Inc., pointed out:
“Many industries akin to automobile, which goes via its greatest transformation in more than one hundred years, wish to new technologies and strategic companions like HP to support them enhanced compete in this time of alternate.”
“we're working with innovators to exchange the way they design and manufacture, unlocking new purposes, more manufacturing flexibility, and stronger innovation, effectivity, and sustainability throughout their product development lifecycle.”
in a similar fashion, Autodesk is working with GE Additive to streamline steel additive manufacturing. using GE Additive’s utility algorithms, interfaces, and specialized information fashions, this workflow will offer predictive insights for cost and timeline projections within the early degrees of design.
“Working with Autodesk will give a powerful design-to-print atmosphere for our consumers, helping lower the barriers of additive adoption while accelerating a customer’s time to first decent half,” stated Lars Bruns, government software leader at GE Additive.3D printed motorbike materials from HP. photo by way of HP/ Motus.
enforcing an conclusion-to-conclusion workflow
As a mutual customer of Autodesk and HP, Penumbra Engineering, a u.s.generative design company, currently used Autodesk’s design-to-print workflow to provide an ultrasonic sensing device. This 3D printed half changed into designed to be light-weight and durable inside excessive environments.
“The Penumbra case look at uncovers the value of HP working with Autodesk generative design expertise,” brought Yancey.
“We’re aiding HP printers in Fusion 360 and Netfabb in order that HP multi-jet fusion valued clientele have the design and print prep tools they need. We’re working with HP to give support for the brand new metallic printers.”A 3D printed handheld transducer created by way of Penumbra Engineering. photograph by the use of Penumbra Engineering,
put up your nominations now for the 3D Printing business Awards 2019.
also, for the newest 3D Printing trade updates subscribe to our newsletter, observe us on Twitter and like us on facebook.
looking for a clean birth within the new year? discuss with 3D Printing Jobs to commence your career in additive manufacturing.
Featured image suggests 3D printed materials from HP. image by means of HP.
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New customers and partners accelerate global reach and adoption of HP's commercial 3D printing solutions to reinvent manufacturing
PITTSBURGH, PA--(Marketwired - May 8, 2017) - HP Inc. (NYSE: HPQ)
Today at Rapid + TCT, the industry's largest 3D additive manufacturing conference, HP Inc. demonstrated the global momentum of its Jet Fusion 3D Printing solutions as it scales its business to meet rising customer demand. This includes the official unveiling of the new HP Partner First 3D Printing Specialization program, a wide array of installations with manufacturing service bureaus and product design firms in key geographies, and more than a dozen new HP 3D Printing Reference and Experience Centers across the U.S. and Europe.
HP also announced the addition of Henkel AG & Co. to its open ecosystem for 3D printing materials and applications. HP's Jet Fusion 3D Printing solution is a production-ready commercial 3D printing system that delivers superior1 quality physical parts up to 10 times2 faster and at half the cost3 of current 3D print systems.
"Building on our experience of more than 500,000 Multi Jet Fusion-produced parts, we are now scaling our 3D printing business to the next level. Today we are expanding our solutions availability through new resellers and service bureau partners, opening new experiential facilities for customers and partners, and widening our open 3D printing materials ecosystem," said Stephen Nigro, President of 3D Printing, HP Inc. "We are honored that industry-leading companies such as BMW, Jabil, Johnson & Johnson, Nike and dozens more are looking to the innovations and economics delivered by HP and our partners to help reinvent their businesses for the digital manufacturing revolution."
New HP 3D Printing Reseller Program To meet growing international customer demand, HP formally unveiled its new global reseller program -- the HP Partner First 3D Printing Specialization program -- with more than 30 hand-selected, trained and certified partners. Initially focused on North America and Europe, the program enables leading manufacturing solutions providers to rapidly deliver HP's 3D printing technologies to customers and scale up to meet their needs. Certified HP 3D printing reseller partners will bring best-in-class expertise and knowledge of HP's Multi Jet Fusion technology to customers deploying the solutions, as well as value added services such as the enablement of new applications and industry-leading response time and service quality.
Partners interested in more information about joining HP's Partner First 3D Printing Specialization program can connect with a local HP team member at https://partner.hp.com/.
Service Bureaus and Product Design Houses Showcase New HP Jet Fusion-powered 3D Printing Offerings Service bureaus and product design firms are a hallmark of manufacturing innovation, adopting leading-edge technologies ahead of the industry and delivering breakthrough services to their own end-customers. Leaders such as Fast Radius, Forecast3D, Go Proto, Materialise, ProtoCAM, Proto Labs, Shapeways, Sigma Design and 3D Prod are installing HP 3D printing systems and beginning to deliver production quality HP Jet Fusion 3D printed parts.
Building on these successful installations, HP is expanding deployments with leading manufacturing service bureaus and design engineering firms across North America and Europe to enable a new class of on-demand, industrial-grade 3D production parts and services.
To connect with an HP Jet Fusion-enabled 3D printing service bureau near you visit www.hp.com/go/3Dcontactus
HP Opens New 3D Printing Reference and Experience Centers HP, in collaboration with numerous partners, is opening more than a dozen 3D Printing Reference and Experience Centers across North America and Europe to enable companies to engage with HP's Jet Fusion 3D Printing solutions in production-level scenarios. Testing and qualification of new 3D printing use-cases will be enabled in controlled environments, providing customers a simpler path to advance from prototyping to full scale 3D production.
These centers initially include facilities in Allentown, PA; Alpharetta, GA; Carlsbad, CA; Corvallis, OR; Livonia, MI; Louisville, KY; Manchester, CT; Milpitas, CA; Palo Alto, CA; San Diego, CA; and Vancouver, WA in the United States; and Raon-l'Etape, France; Leonberg, Germany; Eindoven, The Netherlands; Barcelona, Spain; and Birmingham, United Kingdom.
For more information or to schedule a visit to an HP 3D Printing Reference and Experience Center please contact www.hp.com/go/3Dcontactus
Henkel Joins HP's Open Materials and Applications Platform Henkel joins HP's ecosystem of global materials leaders including Arkema, BASF, Evonik, and Lehmann & Voss, to support HP's Open Platform for 3D printing materials and applications. HP's unique open 3D printing platform model helps expand the availability of new materials and address a broader set of applications, lower materials and development costs, drive speed and performance improvements, and create new possibilities for part properties that address specific industry needs.
Henkel, a global supplier of high-performance adhesives used in critical applications such as medical device, electronic device, and transportation vehicle assembly, plans to work with HP in its state-of-art Open Materials and Applications Lab in Corvallis, Oregon to expand its broad product range. Henkel is focusing development on providing novel powder materials for use with HP Jet Fusion 3D printers.
"The partnership between HP and Henkel is backed by strong market leadership, a legacy of innovation, and an aligned commitment to additive manufacturing," said Michael Todd, Corporate Vice President and Global Head of Innovation and New Business Development, Henkel Adhesive Technologies. "With our broad material portfolio and customer base across diverse industries, Henkel is able to champion custom 3D solutions through various functional applications. This, combined with HP's vision for open materials innovation, enables us to develop materials and applications once thought impossible."
Learn more about becoming a certified HP Open Materials and Applications Platform partner.
HP at RAPID + TCT
About HP HP Inc. creates technology that makes life better for everyone, everywhere. Through our portfolio of printers, PCs, mobile devices, solutions and services, we engineer experiences that amaze. More information about HP Inc. is available at http://www.hp.com.
Forward-Looking Statements This news release contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. If the risks or uncertainties ever materialize or the assumptions prove incorrect, the results of HP Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries ("HP") may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements and assumptions.
All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including but not limited to any projections of net revenue, margins, expenses, effective tax rates, net earnings, net earnings per share, cash flows, benefit plan funding, deferred tax assets, share repurchases, currency exchange rates or other financial items; any projections of the amount, timing or impact of cost savings or restructuring and other charges; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations, including the execution of restructuring plans and any resulting cost savings, revenue or profitability improvements; any statements concerning the expected development, performance, market share or competitive performance relating to products or services; any statements regarding current or future macroeconomic trends or events and the impact of those trends and events on HP and its financial performance; any statements regarding pending investigations, claims or disputes; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing.
Risks, uncertainties and assumptions include the need to address the many challenges facing HP's businesses; the competitive pressures faced by HP's businesses; risks associated with executing HP's strategy; the impact of macroeconomic and geopolitical trends and events; the need to manage third-party suppliers and the distribution of HP's products and the delivery of HP's services effectively; the protection of HP's intellectual property assets, including intellectual property licensed from third parties; risks associated with HP's international operations; the development and transition of new products and services and the enhancement of existing products and services to meet customer needs and respond to emerging technological trends; the execution and performance of contracts by HP and its suppliers, customers, clients and partners; the hiring and retention of key employees; integration and other risks associated with business combination and investment transactions; the results of the restructuring plans, including estimates and assumptions related to the cost (including any possible disruption of HP's business) and the anticipated benefits of the restructuring plans; the resolution of pending investigations, claims and disputes; and other risks that are described in HP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2015, HP's Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended January 31, 2016, April 30, 2016 and July 31, 2016, and HP's other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. HP assumes no obligation and does not intend to update these forward-looking statements. HP's Investor Relations website at http://www.hp.com/investor/home contains a significant amount of information about HP, including financial and other information for investors. HP encourages investors to visit its website from time to time, as information is updated and new information is posted.
1 Based on dimensional accuracy of ±0.2 mm/0.008 inches, measured after sand blasting. See hp.com/go/3Dmaterials for more info on materials specifications. Based on the following mechanical properties: Tensile strength at 50, Modulus Z 1900, Modulus XY 1900. ASTM standard tests with PA-12 material.
2 Based on internal testing and simulation, HP Jet Fusion 3D printing solution average printing time is up to 10x faster than FDM & SLS printer solutions from $100,000 USD to $300,000 USD on market as of April 2016. Testing variables: Part Quantity -1 full bucket of parts from HP Jet Fusion 3D at 20% of packing density vs same number of parts on above-mentioned competitive devices; Part size: 30g; Layer thickness: 0.1mm/0.004 inches. Fast Cooling is enabled by HP Jet Fusion 3D Processing Station with Fast Cooling, available in 2017. HP Jet Fusion 3D Processing Station with Fast Cooling accelerates parts cooling time vs recommended manufacturer time of SLS printer solutions from $100,000 USD to $300,000 USD, as tested in April 2016. FDM not applicable.
3 Based on internal testing and public data, HP Jet Fusion 3D printing solution average printing cost-per-part is half the cost of comparable FDM & SLS printer solutions from $100,000 USD to $300,000 USD on market as of April 2016. Cost analysis based on: standard solution configuration price, supplies price, and maintenance costs recommended by manufacturer. Cost criteria: printing 1-2 buckets per day/ 5 days per week over 1 year of 30 grams parts at 10% packing density using the powder reusability ratio recommended by manufacturer.
Remember, a system landscape exists for each mySAP solution—if you deploy R/3, APO, CRM, and PLM, you will in effect be creating four different SAP system landscapes, one for each product. The focus in this and the following few sections, though, is on what one of these system landscapes looks like from a design and planning perspective, for example R/3 alone or APO alone.
In the most general form, an SAP system landscape consists of SAP instances (installations of the SAP database and application software) and SAP servers. In the Microsoft world of SAP implementations, there is a one-to-one correlation between instances and servers nearly all the time. That is, the Development instance resides on a dedicated Development server, the Test instance resides on a dedicated Test server, and so on. In the world of UNIX implementations, though, multiple instances can be often found on a single "larger" server. For example, both Development and Test instances can reside on a single server. And multiple application instances can be installed on a single server as well.
Until last year's release of SAP's Multiple Components, One Database (MCOD) initiative, there was a one-to-one correlation between instances and database systems, too, regardless of the Operating System platform. MCOD is beginning to change this, such that a single "larger" database can be leveraged for multiple instances. However, an important difference between MCOD and multiple instances/one server exists—MCOD ties the same type of databases within different SAP system landscapes together. With MCOD, all Development databases used by your R/3, SRM, CRM, and Workplace implementations can be one and the same. Similarly, all Test databases across R/3, SRM, CRM, and Workplace can be bundled together, too, as illustrated in Figure 3.3. Note, however, that in many cases SAP AG frowns on mixing OLTP and OLAP systems, or combining different databases within the same system landscape. In that regard, forcing an MCOD database server to host your R/3 system's Development and Test databases would therefore be unsupported and contrary to best practices.
Figure 3.3 A properly architected sample MCOD deployment is displayed for a typical mySAP enterprise consisting of R/3, CRM, SRM, and Workplace.
As we move forward with our basic understanding of SAP system landscapes, and seek to understand how your SAP solution vision impacts and is impacted by your landscape decisions, my hope is to achieve the following:
Note the relative importance and relationship of technology perspectives to our solution vision
Understand why each system landscape is important to fulfilling our vision
Note how the presence or absence of a particular system within a landscape impacts the other systems and ultimately the overall solution vision
All these design and planning approaches I cover tend to come into play in one manner or another across all mySAP implementations. It's how they are weighted or addressed that makes one system landscape different from the next.Simplifying Your SAP System Landscape
After spending time with hundreds of customers and SAP implementations, I think it is safe to say that when all things are equal, the desire to simplify emerges as an important driver. Simplification takes many forms, too. In the case of the SAP system landscape and how it fulfills our SAP solution vision, the desire to simplify manifests itself in any number of ways:
First, the pure number of instances will be reduced to the fewest necessary to get the job done "right" for a particular company. An organization focused on simplifying administrative, change management, systems management, operations, and other tasks will deploy a three-system or even a two-system landscape, whereas similar organizations without the same simplification goals can deploy more. There are trade-offs, of course. A system landscape without a dedicated test instance will, for example, be forced to perform testing in the same system used for development. Because of these kinds of limitations, simplification achieved through instance reductions is not as common as it has been in the past.
Instead, a more popular approach to simplification seeks to reduce the number of physical servers in a particular system landscape, by installing multiple instances on a single server. Consolidation of instances is becoming quite common in SAP customer environments today, as displayed in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.4 Multiple SAP instances can be installed and configured on a single physical server, oftentimes reducing both acquisition and systems management costs down the road.
Similarly, deploying a shared disk subsystem and tape backup/restore solution also simplifies a very complex piece of the SAP Solution Stack. This is why my colleagues and I have spent so much time in the last two years designing and implementing Storage Area Networks, or SANs—they provide outstanding performance while simultaneously reducing system landscape complexity and allowing expensive resources like enterprise tape libraries to be shared between systems.
Another customer of mine shared with me why they went with the WebGUI as opposed to the classic SAPGUI approach to system accessibility—to simplify desktop support and maintenance requirements.
Companies that value simplification will also standardize on a particular solution stack option or approach, too, as this simplifies support and maintenance, and minimizes the need for a variety of onsite/reserved spare parts, the time spent in change management activities, and more.
Although simplification tends to work in one direction by encouraging a "do more with less" philosophy, our next topic goes the other route in that it purposefully introduces complexity and differences between various systems within a system landscape—high availability.High Availability and the SAP System Landscape
When it comes to high availability, many technology professionals automatically think about what it means to improve the availability of a particular system or hardware component—thoughts of basic HA offerings like clustering or redundancy come to mind. With regard to the broader topic of how your solution vision impacts your SAP system landscape, though, high availability equates to the following:
Business-driven requirements—HA offerings and approaches are normally implemented to satisfy specific business-oriented needs, and therefore form an integral part of your overall SAP solution vision.
Complexity—HA complicates the SAP system landscape, as HA offerings and approaches tend to only really exist or apply to the Production system and at minimum (hopefully!) another similarly configured system within the landscape.
Increased support needs—Because HA offerings are inherently complex, a very real need exists to prepare your SAP support organization in how to install it, update it, manage it, and troubleshoot HA issues.
To read more about how business requirements relate to high availability, see "Availability Planning—Documenting Requirements and Key Drivers," p. 167 in Chapter 6.Disaster Recovery Considerations
All companies implement a method of addressing Disaster Recovery (DR), whether or not they actually realize it. Even companies that do not add a dedicated DR system to their system landscape address disaster recovery. That is, their de facto disaster recovery plan simply reflects the challenges and timeframes surrounding rebuilding their SAP system from scratch, restoring from their latest tape backup, and imposing upon their end users to manually rekey any new business transactions lost between the last successful tape backup and the point at which the disaster occurred. This doesn't sound like much of a "plan," of course, but it does represent a baseline against which all other disaster recovery approaches and solutions can be weighed.
A host of DR approaches are discussed throughout Chapter 6, from those involving disk subsystem data replication solutions, to various clustering solutions, to database and mySAP-specific tactics. But when it comes to sifting the potential layout of your SAP system landscape through your solution vision, two general approaches fall out:
Both approaches are valid, and the first is more traditional. But I believe that the time and expense related to setting up, configuring, keeping current, and managing your own DR system explains the recent increase in outsourcing I've seen over the last two years.
To review some of the tasks and considerations inherent to addressing DR internally as opposed to outsourcing it, see "SAP General Availability and DR Best Practices," p. 207 in Chapter 6.
Companies that outsource the DR component of their SAP system landscape help to preserve their data, and access to this data, in that the outsourcer operates a completely independent data center, typically in a very different geographic location. For smaller and mid-size companies with only a single data center, the expense relief is tremendous. On the other hand, if the DR solution is maintained "in-house," so to speak, it will need to be housed in a separate facility. This alone is sure to drive complexity, cost, and even the architecture and makeup of both the SAP system landscape and its individual systems.Addressing Training Requirements
The SAP system landscape is directly impacted by the potential need to train SAP end users as well as the system's developers and technical support staff. Three different systems come into play, as illustrated in Figure 3.5:
A dedicated Training system is often implemented to assist in teaching users new to a particular mySAP component how to actually use the system. This amounts to business-process training as well as SAP user interface training (an excellent alternative to creating multiple training clients on the Test system, which is busy fulfilling integration responsibilities prior to Go-Live—the exact time when end users need to be trained!). To provide the most value to its students, the Training system needs to be an exact copy of Production.
A dedicated Technical Sandbox system is extremely useful in helping the SAP Technical Support Organization (SAP TSO) get up to speed on the entire SAP Solution Stack, especially with regard to new components and complex HA offerings (rather than attempting to get time on other systems for what could amount to crash-and-burn testing).
A dedicated Business Sandbox or Development Sandbox system allows developers unfamiliar with a particular mySAP component, or faced with integrating multiple components and other legacy systems, the opportunity to do so in a pure testing environment (rather than the real Development system).
Figure 3.5 These SAP training systems support the different needs of different organizations, from end users, to developers and programmers, to technical implementation specialists.
For details as to how the SAP system landscape satisfies the training needs of both the SAP Technical Support Organization and the production system's end users, see "Training and the Role of the SAP System Landscape," p. 314 in Chapter 9.
It can represent quite a challenge for the "customers" of one of these training systems to convince everyone that such a system is truly required. In my own experience, I have seen the lack of a Technical Sandbox really hurt an organization in terms of downtime due to botched infrastructure upgrades and changes to DR processes.
Another colleague of mine has more than once had to strongly push for the adoption of a Training system, too. Such a system allows for extensive informal user testing and practice outside of formally delivered training. He believes that this extra level of hands-on self-directed training is critical because your end-user community is best positioned of all groups to find business-process operational errors and limitations. And of course it is desirable to correct these issues well before Go-Live. But a consultant or even a senior super user is typically not positioned to push the adoption and use of a dedicated Training system. More often than not, it takes the SAP Steering Committee, the project's experienced management team, and the prodding of a knowledgeable SAP Solution Architect to do so. I cannot stress this enough—the risk is huge, in that you do not want to find out too late that not every business scenario works as it did during integration testing (for example, all types of contracts, all types of material movements, all kinds of accounting entries, and so on).The Performance-Driven System Landscape
When it comes to evaluating your solution vision against the layout of your SAP system landscape, it is important to ensure that the performance of the systems meets the needs of their different end-user communities. Most of the time, of course, the focus is on designing, installing, and configuring a well-performing Production system. Performance considerations usually relate back to what an end user will experience while on the system, including
Business transaction response times, or how long it takes to refresh your SAPGUI after pressing the Enter key, for example.
How quickly a background or "batch" job will execute, otherwise known as throughput.
How quickly a report or other query will make it through the system and actually be printed, sometimes called latency.
To read more about verifying that a Production system can meet performance expectations, see "Key SAP Stress-Testing Considerations," p. 580 in Chapter 16.
However, these same performance considerations apply to all of the other systems within the SAP system landscape, too. The Development system, for example, needs to exhibit excellent performance even while 25 or 50 or more developers are banging away at keyboards trying to build your custom mySAP solution. Similarly, your Test system needs to provide the performance necessary to get through integration testing. Even the Training system needs to provide adequate user response times so as to make the actual training experience more than something to be avoided.
High-performance considerations cover the gamut, touching every facet of every system within the landscape. This means that everything—from the performance of the network connecting each system, to each server's CPU, RAM, and disk configuration, to each system's OS, database, and mySAP component—must be addressed. Starting off on the right foot (with properly sized and configured hardware and software elements) is paramount, of course, but tuning all these solution stack pieces to create a cohesive well-running machine is just as important to achieving excellent performance. Like the weakest link in a chain, a single underperforming solution component will only throttle back the maximum performance otherwise obtainable from your system.Driving Scalability into Your System Landscape
The need for scalability, like high availability and excellent performance, is addressed primarily through the sizing process. Scalability does not pay off up front in terms of improved system availability or better user response times, though. Rather, scalability is all about paying for "headroom" in your system, headroom that is not actually needed at present but might be required in the near future. In other words, scalability addresses future planned and unplanned growth in your system.
This growth can manifest itself in a number of ways. In my experience in the real world, I have seen the results of unplanned growth hurt companies where scalability was never addressed, as in the following cases:
The number of end users increased at one of my new accounts, not due to more hiring than was anticipated when their mySAP.com solution was crafted, but because they unexpectedly acquired their competitor and doubled in size. We had six months to project the delta needed in terms of database and application server processing power and RAM requirements, followed by stress-testing the new design and finally implementing it.
More than one of my customers' databases grew so fast that they outstripped the results of their comprehensive three-year database sizing methodology in the first year! In most cases, the system we put in place for these customers was scalable—more disk drives could be added, smaller drives could be swapped with larger ones, and so on. In three cases in particular, though, the database growth was so explosive that a whole new disk subsystem platform needed to be brought in, and the recently acquired current platform retired (or redeployed) years earlier than expected.
When databases grow quickly, the tape backup/restore solution implemented often grows less effective as well. I have seen this most often in relatively small SAP implementations, where an initial investment in tape backup technology needed to be tossed in favor of tape solutions that backed up more data per tape cartridge, and did so fast enough to not exceed the customer's backup window (time allotted to perform a backup, which usually equates to planned downtime in the case of offline full backups).
It's been a while, but I also had a customer outgrow their network, too. Today, with switched networks and Gigabit Ethernet providing more than adequate bandwidth to every mySAP.com server component, and cheap 10- and 100-Megabit Ethernet prevalent across end-user workstations, there's no excuse for lacking network scalability.
Outstripping the capabilities of your current system such that a new platform is needed probably represents a worst-case scenario. Not only does the current Production component need to be replaced, but to support sound change control principles, so does the same component in your Test, Staging, and/or Technical Sandbox environments.
This is why hardware and software vendors tout things like "highly scalable system architectures," "enterprise versions" of particular Operating Systems and Database Systems, and so on—though not necessarily needed up front, the headroom that these approaches provide helps an organization feel more comfortable if they wind up growing faster than they expected. And hardware vendors in particular can position their SAP clients for improved scalability by practicing the following:
Specify server platforms that allow additional CPUs and RAM to be added as needed. In other words, avoid "maxing out" the box.
Alternatively, design SAP solutions such that they take advantage of SAP's support for horizontal scalability. This is one of my favorite approaches when it comes to SAP Application, Web AS, J2EE middleware, and ITS servers—I prefer to max them out with regard to processors, with the understanding that an incremental number of servers can be added at any time should the environment grow to require it (interestingly, although SAP has successfully tested a system running more than 160 application servers, it is rare to find customer implementations with more than 10 or 12).
Architect a solution for the appropriate level of vertical scalability. In other words, if a two-tier "Central System" (where all SAP software components execute on the same physical server) approach to sizing meets today's requirements, perhaps a three-tier solution will provide for unknown scalability requirements. In a three-tiered architecture, one database server and multiple application servers are configured as a single system image.
Architect a highly scalable database platform. As my real-world examples earlier in this list illustrate, this tends to be where a lack of scalability causes the most problems.
Hardware and software vendors alike spend a great deal of time "proving" how scalable their offerings are. As a first step, I suggest that benchmarks, customer references/feedback, and the results of tests published through white papers and other technical documents be reviewed by prospective mySAP customers. I also suggest that you begin considering new approaches to scalability. For example, HP's iCOD offering touts "capacity on demand." When a customer buys a server, for instance, it is fully populated with CPUs. The customer pays for only what is needed in the near term, however. Later, if it is determined that more processing power is required, the customer takes advantage of the in-place processors by merely applying for a license; no intrusive field upgrade or service call is required and therefore the need for planned downtime is drastically reduced.The TCO-Driven System Landscape
More than anything else, Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) drives what a solution vision actually looks like at the end of the day, when a mySAP solution is implemented and really being used. Discussions on TCO might instead be labeled Return on Investment (ROI), or might fall under the heading of investment protection. Regardless, a focus on lowering TCO seeks to find less expensive solution-stack alternatives that still meet the needs of the business.
To read more about the relationship between TCO and your SAP solution vision, see "How the SAP Solution Vision Drives TCO," p. 127 in Chapter 5.
When all other things are equal, the following points apply from a hardware perspective:
A hardware vendor's use of common components like CPUs and memory boards allows flexible sharing of resources between different SAP system landscapes and in some cases hardware platforms, too.
Similarly, common disk drive form factors reduce cost of ownership by increasing reusability.
Support for hot-pluggable and/or hot-add hardware components eliminates or worst-case minimizes downtime (can include hard drives, tape drives, power supplies, fans, and even RAM and processors).
Support for redundant components, like power supplies, disk drives, fans, and so on, also eliminates or minimizes downtime.
The ability to run mixed-speed CPUs or RAM in a particular platform protects that investment—CPUs and RAM do not have to be tossed aside when additional processing power or memory is required.
Outsourcing your entire SAP infrastructure/operations team is another potential method of reducing TCO. In fact, outsourcing can represent the biggest potential TCO factor that a company will consider. At this level, though, outsourcing becomes more of a strategic business solution that impacts a lot more than simply TCO. True, outsourcing can cut labor costs by 50%, and enhance flexibility of a technical support organization to easily change as business requirements change, but there are drawbacks and disadvantages as well (discussed later in this chapter).
Another solution vision approach that impacts the SAP system landscape from both a configuration and TCO perspective is the use of an Application Service Provider (ASP). ASPs can drive lower TCO by virtue of their application-specific expertise, above and beyond that provided by in-house staff and traditional outsourcing providers. For example:
An ASP can offer a preconfigured solution stack for the particular mySAP solution you want to implement. This is one reason why they look so good from a TCO perspective—design, deployment, manageability, operations, and other cost factors are substantially reduced due to a high level of both standardization and core competencies in the services they provide.
ASPs were more or less born out of the dot-com era, and by virtue of this, their data centers enjoy the benefit of fat redundant pipes to the Internet. Thus, mySAP.com applications are well positioned to take advantage of this flexible and powerful accessibility option.
ASPs offer interesting financing alternatives, in that they partner with various SAP technology partners to make leasing, pay-as-you-go, and other payment methods available.
The ASP provider market shrank over the last few years. The mySAP-focused companies that weathered these hard times seem even better prepared and well-positioned to host SAP solutions, however.Security Considerations
I know of no company that does not envision protecting its corporate computing assets. From a solution-stack security perspective, not all software vendors are created equal, however. Oracle touts its unbreakable database, UNIX vendors tout the robust security features of their operating environments, and so on. In my eyes, security features are very important, but good security is more often about managing and testing changes to a solution stack, by carefully identifying security holes and other weaknesses in new solution stack components before these components ever find themselves in Production.
However, companies that embrace and act upon the idea of protecting computing assets will prove to be better partners in the long run. This is why I believe that Oracle's focus on security will pay big dividends in terms of slowing the adoption of competing databases. And it is why I believe that the Trusted PC joint Intel, AMD, and Microsoft vision (once labeled by Microsoft as Palladium, and now referred to as the "next-generation secure computing base for Windows") will prove fruitful as well. Its goal is to build security into servers and PCs at a microprocessor level. New initiatives coming out of the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance promise to better secure our processing platforms, ensuring that only authorized applications and program executables can ever be executed by the system, and that all data housed on the system is encrypted so that it is useless to others. To this end, Microsoft considers Trusted PC a significant part of its Trustworthy Computing strategy—we should see something commercially available in this regard by 2004 that applies to server as well as desktop and other computing platforms.Manageability Considerations
No customers of mine have ever started their initial SAP implementation planning discussions with me by saying:"George, all that high-availability and performance stuff is fine, but what we really want is a nice manageable system. Can you do that for us?"
By the time Go-Live looms just over the horizon, though, every single one of them—without exception—has indicated a growing concern for manageability. Sure, it's there on the project plan, and any number of products can be used to support managing your mySAP environment. But the whole field of manageability is more complex and more work than you would imagine. Consider the following:
Each layer in the SAP Solution Stack must be managed; the risk of not keeping an eye on a particular layer or solution component affects the uptime of the entire system.
Because each layer is so different from the others, it's nearly impossible to find a single management product that can actually monitor and report on more than a few layers, much less the entire stack.
Therefore, the next best thing becomes trying to find a product that can at least interoperate successfully with other products.
At the end of the day, three, four, or even more tools and utilities must ultimately be fused together to provide a holistic view of a mySAP solution stack. This is challenging, to say the least!
To learn exactly how challenging piecing together a management approach can be, see "Systems Management Techniques for SAP," p. 511 in Chapter 14.
Because of the challenges inherent to managing hardware and software products from a lot of different solution stack vendors, some of my customers have purposely chosen less than "best-of-breed" products for their SAP solutions, so as to minimize the number of software partners involved. Or they have decided to reduce the number of partners and vendors altogether by selecting one of the big enterprise hardware/services vendors. The obvious partners are clear—HP, IBM, and Sun. For example, if you go with HP and choose to implement an rp8400-based server platform with an HP StorageWorks SAN, running HP-UX 11i, and managed by HP OpenView, the challenges inherent to managing four different vendors' products just dropped tremendously. Similar arguments could be made for going with an IBM or Sun solution stack, too—IBM even throws a couple of databases into the mix.The System Landscape and Accessibility
The last area I want to cover with regard to solution vision and the SAP system landscape is accessibility. Many companies over the last three or four years have started with a vision of dumping all application-specific interfaces in favor of browser-enabled solutions, so as to ease the burdens and costs associated with desktop/laptop management while opening up new accessibility approaches like hand-helds and other wireless devices. SAP has supported that vision since 1996, with the advent of Internet connectivity in R/3 3.1G. But only in the last few years have I really seen this take off.
SAP AG offers quite a few accessibility options today when it comes to mySAP solutions. The classic SAPGUI and its revamped and more capable EnjoySAP SAPGUI represent one end of the spectrum. This approach is safe, very mainstream, and very easy to implement. And the SAPGUI we have today is extremely comprehensive, supporting all mySAP components through a single interface, which is unlike the approach a few years ago where each so-called "New Dimension" product like BW or APO required its own GUI. But the SAPGUI still represents a typical application-specific approach to accessibility; each end user installs the client on their desktop or laptop, or runs the SAPGUI from a network share, and off they go.
Other accessibility approaches are available, however, as you see in Figure 3.6. The original WebGUI, for example, is based on HTML and provides connectivity via Microsoft's Internet Explorer and so on. And a more recent addition, the JavaGUI, allows native Java-based access to SAP. Both of these approaches fulfill an Internet-based approach to connectivity, and subsequently simplify the desktop (assuming Internet connectivity is a standard desktop offering at your particular company, of course).
Figure 3.6 Access to mySAP solutions is quite varied today, ranging from classic and updated SAPGUI options to newer Web-enabled versions.
Price is considered a hurdle to deploying solid-state storage, but some organizations find flash systems can actually save money for specific applications.
That is especially the case for newer storage systems designed to take advantage of solid state at lower costs. Colby-Sawyer College in New London, N.H., spent an estimated one-third as much with a NexGen hybrid SSD array for virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) as it would have with traditional disk storage. And Fort Worth, Texas-based Aerospace Optics Inc. acquired a Nimbus Data S-Class all-SSD array for about 10% of what it would have cost to buy hybrid arrays from later vendors.Hybrid flash for VDI storage
David Blaisdell, assistant IT director at Colby-Sawyer College, said he expects his NexGen n5 storage system to allow him to implement VDI storage for $28 per desktop. That figure is speculative because it is based on supporting 600 virtual desktops with one storage system. The college has less than one-third of that number of virtual desktops now, but Blaisdell said his testing indicates the SSD-powered NexGen has the horsepower to support all 600.
The first phase of Colby-Sawyer's desktop virtualization project includes 200 desktops. The college acquired 300 VMware View licenses, and Blaisdell said he has server hardware to accommodate 300 virtual desktops to get halfway to his eventual goal.
"We have plenty of performance for the 300, and I think one storage unit will give us all the capacity and performance for our target of 600 to 700 virtual desktops," Blaisdell said. "We're seeing a peak of 4,000 IOPS now when generating new desktops. But in testing with Iometer and Windows 7, we can push 25,000 IOPS with one virtual desktop. If we can get to 600 virtual desktops with one storage system, I'll be quite pleased. And so far with our numbers, it looks like we'll be able to do that."
Blaisdell said storage performance was his major obstacle for VDI storage: "We didn't need a big storage footprint in terms of terabytes, but we did anticipate a need for performance."
Colby-Sawyer's main storage is a Hewlett-Packard Inc. (HP) LeftHand SAN. Blaisdell said he considered adding more HP storage to get through the first VDI phase, but "we would have to come back 12 months later and add storage as we expanded. So, that's when we started looking at these other next-generation storage vendors that could provide higher performance."
Blaisdell realized flash would be required. NexGen uses Fusion-io Inc. ioDrive solid-state devices along with spinning disk in a hybrid configuration. He knew members of NexGen's team from their days with LeftHand, so he brought in an n5-100 system with 1.28 TB of solid-state storage and 22 TB of raw hard-drive capacity for testing. He purchased it about a month later, in May.
"If we had used traditional spinning disk and bought enough up front for 600 desktops, we would've spent three times what our budget was," Blaisdell said. "We would've probably purchased enough for 200 desktops for phase one, and then would have had to add more for performance."
The NexGen box remains dedicated to VDI, although Blaisdell said he may add another system for disaster recovery after the vendor delivers asynchronous replication. He will likely eventually use NexGen for SQL Server and other applications with high performance requirements, he said.All-SSD array accelerates SQL database
Michael Perry, vice president of information systems for Aerospace Optics, said he found Nimbus was a lower-cost option to mainstream storage vendors. Before looking at Nimbus, he said he was considering buying a hybrid EMC Corp. VNX with less than one-half terabyte of solid-state drives for more than 10 times what his Nimbus S-Class all-SSD array cost. Another alternative was to add flash to an underperforming NetApp Inc. FAS2020 array, but that would have cost $100,000 just for an additional 2 TB of flash.
"We're a small company. I just could not see going [to] the president again saying, 'You know that $40,000 I just spent? Well, I didn't get my money's worth. So now I want to spend another $100,000,'" Perry said. "EMC was in the range of $64,000 just to get less than half a terabyte raw. The Nimbus system cost $37,500 for 2.5 TB. You can buy 10 Nimbus systems for the price of an EMC box."
Perry said he began researching all-SSD arrays last November as part of a project to virtualize as many of Aerospace's servers as possible. He settled on Nimbus after talking to the vendor's executives at a trade show in April and doing more research afterwards. "My consultant got on the line with their CEO after the show and discussed their architecture. Our question was, 'Was it a true SAN from the bottom up, or PC-based with a bunch of drives in it?'"
Satisfied the S-Class is a true SAN, Perry installed a Nimbus system as storage for Aerospace Optics' frequently accessed enterprise resource planning (ERP) application, which uses a larger SQL Server database. He said the flash array reduced his SQL backup times from 18 minutes to three minutes.
Perry said he and his users are now hooked on flash. He uses his NetApp FAS2020 disk systems for backup, placing one at a colocation site and using SnapMirror to move server images off-site.
"I'm the kid on the motorcycle who's discovered he likes going 150 miles per hour, and he just can't go back to 55," Perry said. "Once you've had the speed and responsiveness of an SSD, you just don't want to go back. My people need their stuff up, and they need it to be responsive."
Perry has 24 production employees who hit his ERP server for training reports, videos and other high-resolution content, he said. "If the system wasn't responsive, you have 24 people waiting five seconds every minute. Before long, that adds up to $100,000 of lost productivity in a year."
Perry will likely add a second S-Class system soon, he said. "There's a saying in IT that you can never have too much bandwidth, too big of a display or too much storage. You can eat up storage fast."
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