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HP0-A21 - NonStop Kernel Basics - Dump Information

Vendor : HP
Exam Code : HP0-A21
Exam Name : NonStop Kernel Basics
Questions and Answers : 71 Q & A
Updated On : December 18, 2018
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HP0-A21 Questions and Answers

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HP0-A21 NonStop Kernel Basics

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HP0-A21 exam Dumps Source : NonStop Kernel Basics

Test Code : HP0-A21
Test Name : NonStop Kernel Basics
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 71 Real Questions

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HP HP NonStop Kernel Basics

HP says Itanium, HP-UX now not lifeless yet | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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  • at last week's red Hat Summit in Boston, Hewlett-Packard vp for business-common Servers and utility Scott Farrand became caught without PR minders by ServerWatch's Sean Michael Kerner, and can have slipped off message slightly. In a video interview, Farrand suggested that HP became moving its strategy for mission-essential programs far from the Itanium processor and the HP-UX operating gadget and toward x86-based mostly servers and pink Hat enterprise Linux (RHEL), via a mission to deliver company-vital performance to the Linux operating gadget called undertaking Dragon Hawk, itself a subset of HP's challenge Odyssey.

    undertaking Dragon Hawk is an effort to deliver the high-availability elements of HP-UX, similar to ServiceGuard (which has already been ported to Linux) to RHEL and the Intel x86 platform with a combination of server firmware and application. Dragon Hawk servers will run RHEL 6 and supply the means to partition processors into as much as 32 remoted virtual machines—a know-how pulled from HP-UX's technique aid supervisor. Farrand pointed out that HP became positioning Dragon Hawk as its future mission-essential platform. "We definitely help (Itanium and HP-UX) and love all that, however going ahead our approach for mission-essential computing is moving to an x86 world," Farrand advised Kernel. "it's now not by using accident that individuals have de-committed to Itanium, primarily Oracle."

    HP vice chairman Scott Farrand, interviewed at purple Hat Summit by Sean Michael Kerner of ServerWatch

    considering HP remains anticipating judgement in its case in opposition t Oracle, that commentary may additionally have made a few americans in HP's enterprise critical techniques unit choke on their morning coffee. And sources at HP say that Farrand drifted slightly off-course in his feedback. The company's legit line on venture Odyssey is that it's in parallel to and complementary to the business's investments in Itanium and HP-UX. A supply at HP talked about Farrand not noted a part of HP's task Odyssey briefing notes to that impact: "venture Odyssey comprises persevered funding in our established mission-essential portfolio of Integrity, NonStop, HP-UX, OpenVMS as well as our investments in building future mission-crucial x86 platforms. supplying Serviceguard for Linux/x86 is a step towards attaining that mission-vital x86 portfolio."

    undertaking Odyssey, besides the fact that children, is HP's clear road ahead with consumers that have not bought into HP-UX in the past. without a help for Itanium previous crimson Hat Enterprse Linux version 5, and with RHEL being increasingly critical to HP's approach for cloud computing (and, pending litigation, help for Oracle on HP servers), in all probability Farrand was simply a little bit forward of the company in his pronouncement.

    Tip of the hat to Ars reader Caveira for his tip on the ServerWatch story.

     

    comfy resource Partitions (Partitioning inner a Single replica of HP-UX) | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the booklet 

    useful resource partitioning is whatever thing that has been integrated with the HP-UX kernel when you consider that version 9.0 of HP-UX. through the years, HP has steadily elevated the functionality; today which you can supply a miraculous stage of isolation between purposes working in a single reproduction of HP-UX. The latest version gives both useful resource isolation, whatever thing that has been there from the beginning of aid partitions, and protection isolation, the latest addition. determine 2-18 shows how the resource isolation capabilities makes it possible for distinct applications to run in a single reproduction of HP-UX while ensuring that each and every partition gets its share of materials.

    within a single copy of HP-UX, you've got the capability to create distinct partitions. To every partition that you would be able to:

  • Allocate a CPU entitlement the use of complete-CPU granularity (processor sets) or sub-CPU granularity (justifiable share scheduler)
  • Allocate a block of memory
  • Allocate disk I/O bandwidth
  • Assign a set of users and/or utility methods that should still run in the partition
  • Create a protection compartment across the techniques that ensures that strategies in different cubicles can not communicate or send signals to the techniques in this comfortable resource Partition
  • One enjoyable characteristic of HP's implementation of useful resource partitions is that inside the HP-UX kernel, we instantiate varied copies of the reminiscence management subsystem and distinctive manner schedulers. This ensures that if an software runs out of manage and makes an attempt to allocate extreme quantities of components, the device will constrain that utility. for example, when we allocate four CPUs and 8GB of reminiscence to Partition 0 in determine 2-18, if the application operating in that partition attempts to allocate more than 8GB of memory, it is going to delivery to web page, however there's 32GB of memory on the device. similarly, the tactics working in that partition are scheduled on the four CPUs that are assigned to the partition. No procedures from other partitions are allowed to run on these CPUs, and processes assigned to this partition don't seem to be allowed to run on the CPUs that are assigned to the other partitions. This guarantees that if a procedure working in any partition spins out of manage, it cannot influence the efficiency of any software working in any other partition.

    a brand new feature of HP-UX is safety containment. this is really the migration of functionality purchasable in HP VirtualVault for many years into the regular HP-UX kernel. here's being performed in a method that permits valued clientele to select which of the safety features they wish to be activated for my part. The safety-containment feature permits clients to make certain that strategies and functions running on HP-UX may also be remoted from different techniques and applications. notably, it is viable to erect a boundary around a gaggle of procedures that insulates these tactics from IPC conversation with the rest of the techniques on the gadget. it is additionally feasible to define entry to file systems and network interfaces. This feature is being integrated with PRM to supply cozy resource Partitions.

    useful resource Controls

    The resource controls attainable with cozy useful resource Partitions include:

  • CPU controls: which you could allocate a CPU to a partition with sub-CPU granularity using the justifiable share scheduler (FSS) or with whole-CPU granularity the usage of processor sets.
  • true memory: Shares of the physical memory on the system will also be allocated to partitions.
  • Disk I/O bandwidth: Shares of the bandwidth to any volume neighborhood can also be allocated to each partition.
  • extra particulars about what is viable and the way these elements are implemented are provided beneath.

    CPU Controls

    A CPU will also be allocated to at ease useful resource Partitions with sub-CPU granularity or complete-CPU granularity. both of those points are implemented inner the kernel. The sub-CPU granularity capacity is implemented by the FSS.

    The fair share scheduler is implemented as a second degree of time-sharing on good of the standard HP-UX scheduler. The FSS allocates a CPU to every partition in huge 10ms time ticks. When a specific partition gets access to a CPU, the procedure scheduler for that partition analyzes the procedure run queue for that partition and runs these tactics the use of average HP-UX manner-scheduling algorithms.

    CPU allocation by the use of processor units (PSETs) is somewhat distinctive in that CPU supplies are allotted to each of the partitions on entire CPU boundaries. What this ability is that you just assign a undeniable number of whole CPUs to each and every partition in preference to a share of them. The scheduler in the partition will then schedule the procedures which are running there most effective on the CPUs assigned to the partition. this is illustrated in determine 2-19.

    02fig19.gif

    figure 2-19 CPU Allocation by the use of Processor sets Assigns complete CPUs to each Partition

    The configuration proven in figure 2-19 shows the system split into three partitions. Two will run Oracle circumstances and the other partition runs the rest of the processing on the device. This capacity that the Oracle processes operating in partition 1 will run on the two CPUs assigned to that partition. These approaches will not run on every other CPUs within the gadget, nor will any strategies from the different partitions run on these two CPUs.

    comparing FSS to PSETs is premier accomplished using an example. you probably have an eight-CPU partition that you just need to assign to three workloads with 50% going to at least one workload and 25% going to every of the others, you have the choice of developing PSETs with the configuration illustrated in figure 2-19 or developing FSS groups with 50, 25, and 25 shares. The difference between the two is that the strategies operating in partition 1 will both get 100% of the CPU cycles on two CPUs or 25% of the cycles on all eight CPUs.

    memory Controls

    In figure 2-19, we see that each of the partitions during this configuration also has a block of memory assigned. here's optional, however it offers one other stage of isolation between the partitions. HP-UX 11i brought a brand new memory-handle technology referred to as memory resource groups, or MRGs. here is implemented via presenting a separate memory supervisor for each and every partition, all operating in a single copy of the kernel. This provides a very amazing degree of isolation between the partitions. as an instance, if PSET partition 1 above became allocated two CPUs and 4GB of reminiscence, the reminiscence manager for partition 1 will manipulate the memory allocated by the tactics in that partition in the 4GB that changed into assigned. If those techniques try to allocate more than 4GB, the reminiscence supervisor will birth to web page out reminiscence to make room, even if there could be 16GB of reminiscence accessible within the partition.

    The default conduct is to enable unused memory to be shared between the partitions. In different words, if the application in partition 1 is just the usage of 2GB of its 4GB entitlement, then methods within the other partitions can "borrow" the attainable 2GB. although, as quickly as approaches in partition 1 start to allocate extra reminiscence, the reminiscence that changed into loaned out should be retrieved. there is an choice on MRGs that permits you to "isolate" the reminiscence in a partition. What that capacity is that the 4GB assigned to the partition will not be loaned out and the partition will not be allowed to borrow memory from any of the other partitions both.

    Disk I/O Controls

    HP-UX supports disk I/O bandwidth controls for both LVM and VxVM volume agencies. you set this up by way of assigning a share of the bandwidth to each extent community to each partition. LVM and VxVM each call a activities offered by way of PRM so that it will reshuffle the I/O queues to make sure that the bandwidth to the quantity community is allocated in the ratios assigned. as an example, if partition 1 has 50% of the bandwidth, the queue will be shuffled to ensure that every different I/O request comes from tactics in that partition.

    One factor to notice right here is that as a result of here's carried out via shuffling the queue, the controls are lively handiest when a queue is constructing, which happens when there's rivalry for I/O. here's probably what you want. It invariably does not make experience to constrain the bandwidth accessible to one application when that bandwidth would go to waste if you did.

    security Controls

    The newest feature introduced to aid partitions is security containment. With the introduction of protection containment in HP-UX 11i V2, we now have built-in some of this functionality with resource partitions to create at ease aid Partitions. There are three predominant aspects of the protection containment product:

  • cozy booths
  • pleasant-grained privileges
  • role-based access manage
  • These aspects were obtainable in comfortable models of HP-UX and Linux however have now been built-in into the base HP-UX in a way that allows for them to be optionally activated. Let's look at every of those in aspect.

    cubicles

    The intention of cubicles is to permit you to provide handle of the interprocess conversation (IPC), gadget, and file accesses from a group of tactics. this is illustrated in determine 2-20.

    02fig20.gif

    determine 2-20 security booths Isolate groups of procedures from each different

    The processes in each compartment can freely speak with each different and may freely access information and directories assigned to the partition, but no access to strategies or information in different cubicles is approved except a rule has been defined that makes it possible for that particular access. additionally, the community interfaces, including pseudo-interfaces, are assigned to a compartment. conversation over the community is proscribed to the interfaces within the local compartment unless a rule is defined that enables entry to an interface in a different compartment.

    quality-Grained Privileges

    natural HP-UX provided very primary manage of special privileges, akin to overriding permission to entry information. commonly speakme, the foundation consumer had all privileges and other clients had none. With the introduction of safety containment, the privileges can now be assigned at a extremely granular level. There are roughly 30 separate privileges so you might assign.

    The mixture of these excellent-grained privileges and the function-primarily based entry handle we focus on in the next section allows you to assign particular privileges to selected users when running particular commands. This offers the ability to implement very unique safety guidelines. bear in mind, though, that the extra safety you need to impose, the greater time could be spent getting the configuration installation and confirmed.

    function-based mostly access Controls (RBAC)

    in many very comfy environments, valued clientele require the capability to cripple or remove the basis user from the system. This ensures that if there's a a success break-in to the equipment and an intruder positive factors root entry, she or he can do little or no damage. in order to supply this, HP has carried out position-based access handle within the kernel. here is built-in with the best-grained privileges in order that it's possible to outline a "person admin" position as somebody who has the potential to create directories beneath /home and may edit the /and many others/password file. that you would be able to then assign one or more of your equipment directors as "consumer admin" and they'll be able to create and adjust user debts most effective while not having to understand the basis password.

    here's implemented by using defining a set of authorizations and a group of roles that have these authorizations in opposition t a selected set of objects. a different illustration would be giving a printer admin authorization to birth or stop a selected print queue.

    imposing these using roles makes it a great deal simpler to retain the controls over time. As clients come and go, they can be faraway from the checklist of clients who have a selected position, however the position continues to be there and the different clients aren't impacted via that exchange. you can additionally add one other object to be managed, like another print queue, and add it to the printer admin role and all the clients with that function will instantly get that authorization; you would not have so as to add it to every person. A pattern set of roles is shown in determine 2-21.

    02fig21.gif

    determine 2-21 a simple instance of Roles Being Assigned Authorizations

    comfy useful resource Partitions

    a captivating perspective of relaxed aid Partitions is that it's basically a group of applied sciences which are embedded within the HP-UX kernel. These include FSS and PSETs for CPU handle, reminiscence resource agencies for reminiscence controls, LVM and VxVM for disk I/O bandwidth handle, and protection containment for technique verbal exchange isolation.

    The product that makes it viable to define cozy resource Partitions is technique useful resource manager (PRM). all the different technologies can help you manage a gaggle of procedures working on an HP-UX example. What PRM does is make it a lot more straightforward that you can outline the controls for any or all of them on the identical set of methods. You do that by defining a gaggle of users and/or approaches, known as a PRM group, after which assigning CPU, reminiscence, disk I/O, and security entitlements for that group of procedures. figure 2-22 provides a a little bit modified view of Fig ure 2-18, which contains the protection isolation besides the useful resource controls.

    02fig22.gif

    determine 2-22 A Graphical representation of useful resource Partitions with the Addition of security Controls

    This diagram illustrates the means to manage each substances and security containment with a single answer. One aspect to make about PRM is that it doesn't yet enable the configuration of the entire features of the underlying know-how. for instance, PRM controls businesses of tactics, so it would not provide the ability to configure the position-based mostly entry control features of the security-containment know-how. It does, although, help you define a compartment for the strategies to run in and will also permit you to assign one or greater community interfaces to each and every partition in case you outline the security points.

    The default habits of protection booths is that methods should be in a position to talk with any method working within the identical compartment however should not in a position to communicate with any methods working in another compartment. however, file entry makes use of regular file equipment security by way of default. here is accomplished to be sure that unbiased software vendor purposes may be able to run during this atmosphere without changes and without requiring the person to configure in doubtlessly complicated file-gadget safety guidelines. although, in case you have an interest in tighter file-equipment protection and are willing to configure that, there are facilities to can help you do this. For community access, that you can assign dissimilar pseudo-LAN interfaces (eg. lan0, lan1, and so on.) to a single physical community interface card. This offers you the potential to have extra pseudo-interfaces and IP addresses than true interfaces. this is fine for protection cubicles and SRPs because you can create as a minimum one pseudo-interface for each and every compartment, enabling each and every compartment to have its personal set of IP addresses. The community interface code within the kernel has been modified to ensure that no two pseudo-interfaces can see every others' packets notwithstanding they are the use of the identical physical interface card.

    The security integration into PRM for comfy aid Partitions uses the default compartment definitions, apart from network interface rules. Most modern functions require network access, so this become deemed a requirement. When the usage of PRM to define an SRP, you have the capacity to assign at the least one pseudo-interface to each partition, along with the aid controls discussed past during this section.

    person and system assignment

    as a result of the entire strategies operating in the entire SRPs are running in the same reproduction of HP-UX, it is critical to make sure that clients and techniques get assigned to the appropriate partition as they arrive and go. so as to simplify this manner throughout the entire SRP technologies, PRM provides an application manager. this is a daemon it is configured to grasp what clients and purposes should be working in each of the described SRPs.

    resource Partition integration with HP-UX

    as a result of useful resource partitioning and PRM have been delivered in HP-UX in 1995, this expertise is thoroughly built-in with the operating equipment. HP-UX features and equipment akin to fork(), exec(), cron, at, login, ps, and GlancePlus are all integrated and will react correctly if comfortable resource Partitions are configured. for example:

  • Login will query the PRM configuration for user records and should beginning the clients' shell in the relevant partition according to that configuration
  • The ps command has two command-line alternate options, –P and –R, in order to either show the PRM partition every manner displayed is in or best display the procedures in a particular partition.
  • GlancePlus will group the numerous information it collects for all the techniques working in each and every partition. that you would be able to also use the GlancePlus consumer interface to movement a manner from one partition to a different.
  • The result is that you get a product that has been better time and again through the years to deliver a robust and complete solution.

    greater details on relaxed useful resource Partitions, including examples of a way to configure them, could be offered in Chapter eleven, "comfy aid Partitions."


    Works on My desktop | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    one of the vital insidious boundaries to continual start (and to continual movement in application beginning often) is the works-on-my-machine phenomenon. any individual who has worked on a application development team or an infrastructure support group has experienced it. any individual who works with such teams has heard the phrase spoken right through (attempted) demos. The difficulty is so regular there’s even a badge for it:

    most likely you have got earned this badge yourself. I have a few. make sure you see my trophy room.

    There’s a longstanding way of life on Agile teams that can also have originated at ThoughtWorks across the turn of the century. It goes like this: When a person violates the ancient engineering precept, “Don’t do anything stupid on intention,” they should pay a penalty. The penalty may be to drop a greenback into the crew snack jar, or anything a great deal worse (for an introverted technical class), like standing in entrance of the group and singing a tune. To clarify a failed demo with a glib “<shrug>Works on my computing device!</shrug>” qualifies.

    it might probably now not be possible to keep away from the issue in all situations. As Forrest Gump observed…smartly, you know what he noted. but we are able to lower the difficulty through paying consideration to a number of obtrusive issues. (sure, I understand “evident” is a be aware to be used advisedly.)

    Pitfall #1: Leftover Configuration

    difficulty: Leftover configuration from outdated work permits the code to work on the development atmosphere (and maybe the verify ambiance, too) while it fails on other environments.

    Pitfall #2: development/examine Configuration Differs From production

    The solutions to this pitfall are so corresponding to those for Pitfall #1 that I’m going to group the two.

    answer (tl;dr): Don’t reuse environments.

    commonplace condition: Many builders deploy an atmosphere they like on their computing device/laptop or on the team’s shared construction atmosphere. The environment grows from project to task as more libraries are brought and more configuration alternatives are set. sometimes, the configurations battle with one a further, and teams/people frequently make guide configuration adjustments depending on which venture is lively at the moment.

    It doesn’t take long for the building configuration to develop into very diverse from the configuration of the target production atmosphere. Libraries which are latest on the building gadget can also now not exist on the production device. You might also run your native assessments assuming you’ve configured things the identical as construction handiest to discover later that you simply’ve been using a different version of a key library than the one in production.

    delicate and unpredictable adjustments in conduct occur throughout development, examine, and creation environments. The condition creates challenges no longer only all the way through building however additionally all the way through production assist work once we’re trying to reproduce stated habits.

    solution (lengthy): Create an remoted, committed building ambiance for each and every task.

    There’s a couple of practical approach. that you would be able to doubtless think of a number of. listed below are a couple of chances:

  • Provision a brand new VM (in the community, on your desktop) for each and every mission. (I needed to add “locally, on your computing device” as a result of I’ve realized that in lots of higher companies, developers have to start via bureaucratic hoops to get access to a VM, and VMs are managed fully by using a separate purposeful silo. Go figure.)
  • Do your development in an remoted ambiance (including testing within the lessen tiers of the examine automation pyramid), like Docker or an identical.
  • Do your construction on a cloud-based construction atmosphere it is provisioned by the cloud company for those who define a new challenge.
  • install your continuous Integration (CI) pipeline to provision a fresh VM for each and every build/test run, to ensure nothing should be left over from the last build that may pollute the results of the present construct.
  • install your continuous beginning (CD) pipeline to provision a clean execution atmosphere for higher-degree testing and for production, in place of promoting code and configuration data into an current atmosphere (for a similar cause). word that this method additionally gives you the capabilities of linting, vogue-checking, and validating the provisioning scripts within the regular course of a construct/installation cycle. easy.
  • All those alternate options gained’t be possible for every imaginable platform or stack. decide on and judge, and roll your personal as appropriate. In established, all this stuff are relatively effortless to do in case you’re engaged on Linux. All of them may also be accomplished for different *nix systems with some effort. Most of them are fairly handy to do with windows; the most effective subject there is licensing, and if your company has an business license, you’re all set. For different structures, comparable to IBM zOS or HP NonStop, expect to do some hand-rolling of tools.

    the rest that’s possible on your circumstance and that helps you isolate your development and look at various environments might be useful. in case you can’t do all these items on your condition, don’t agonize about it. just do what that you would be able to do.

    Provision a brand new VM in the community

    if you’re working on a desktop, desktop, or shared building server operating Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, home windows, or OSX, then you definately’re in good shape. that you would be able to use virtualization software comparable to VirtualBox or VMware to stand up and tear down local VMs at will. For the much less-mainstream systems, you may should construct the virtualization tool from supply.

    One factor I always advocate is that developers domesticate an angle of laziness in themselves. neatly, the correct kind of laziness, that's. You shouldn’t consider perfectly chuffed provisioning a server manually more than as soon as. take some time all the way through that first provisioning recreation to script the stuff you discover along the manner. you then received’t ought to be aware them and repeat the same mis-steps again. (well, unless you enjoy that sort of aspect, of route.)

    for example, listed below are just a few provisioning scripts that I’ve come up with when I vital to installation building environments. These are all in accordance with Ubuntu Linux and written in Bash. I don’t understand in the event that they’ll help you, but they work on my computing device.

    if your business is running RedHat Linux in creation, you’ll likely wish to modify these scripts to run on CentOS or Fedora, so that your development environments could be reasonably close to the goal environments. No massive deal.

    if you need to be even lazier, that you would be able to use a device like Vagrant to simplify the configuration definitions on your VMs.

    an additional aspect: some thing scripts you write and anything definition info you write for provisioning tools, preserve them beneath edition manage together with each and every task. be certain some thing is in edition manage for a given undertaking is every thing imperative to work on that undertaking…code, assessments, documentation, scripts…everything. this is reasonably crucial, I suppose.

    Do Your construction in a Container

    a method of isolating your development ambiance is to run it in a container. many of the equipment you’ll read about in case you look for counsel about containers are really orchestration equipment intended to support us control distinct containers, typically in a creation ambiance. For native construction purposes, you truly don’t need that lots performance. There are a couple of practical containers for this aim:

    These are Linux-primarily based. whether it’s functional so that you can containerize your construction atmosphere is dependent upon what technologies you need. To containerize a building ambiance for yet another OS, equivalent to home windows, may additionally no longer be worth the effort over simply operating a full-blown VM. For different platforms, it’s probably inconceivable to containerize a construction environment.

    boost in the Cloud

    this is a relatively new alternative, and it’s possible for a restricted set of technologies. The advantage over constructing a native construction ambiance is that you should arise a sparkling environment for every undertaking, guaranteeing you won’t have any components or configuration settings left over from outdated work. listed below are a couple of alternatives:

    predict to see these environments enrich, and are expecting to look greater gamers during this market. assess which technologies and languages are supported so see no matter if one of these could be a fit on your wants. on account of the rapid tempo of change, there’s no sense in listing what’s obtainable as of the date of this text.

    Generate look at various Environments on the Fly as a part of Your CI construct

    upon getting a script that spins up a VM or configures a container, it’s easy so as to add it to your CI construct. The expertise is that your assessments will run on a pristine atmosphere, and not using a probability of false positives because of leftover configurations from outdated models of the application or from other purposes that had prior to now shared the identical static check ambiance, or as a result of verify data modified in a old verify run.

    Many americans have scripts that they’ve hacked up to simplify their lives, however they can also not be proper for unattended execution. Your scripts (or the equipment you utilize to interpret declarative configuration requisites) need to be in a position to run devoid of issuing any prompts (such as prompting for an administrator password). They also should be idempotent (that's, it received’t do any damage to run them diverse times, in the case of restarts). Any runtime values that need to be offered to the script need to be accessible by means of the script as it runs, and not require any guide “tweaking” previous to each run.

    The idea of “producing an environment” might also sound infeasible for some stacks. Take the recommendation broadly. For a Linux environment, it’s relatively general to create a VM whenever you want one. For different environments, you may additionally now not be capable of do just that, but there can be some steps that you may take in keeping with the typical idea of creating an environment on the fly.

    as an instance, a group working on a CICS utility on an IBM mainframe can define and start a CICS ambiance any time via operating it as a common job. in the early Nineteen Eighties, we used to do this robotically. because the Nineteen Eighties dragged on (and continued through the Nineteen Nineties and 2000s, in some corporations), the world of company IT became more and more bureaucratized unless this ability became taken out of developers’ hands.

    strangely, as of 2017 only a few development teams have the alternative to run their personal CICS environments for experimentation, construction, and initial trying out. I say “strangely” as a result of so many different facets of our working lives have superior dramatically, whereas that aspect appears to have moved in retrograde. We don’t have such problems engaged on the front conclusion of our functions, however when we flow to the lower back end we fall through a form of time warp.

    From a simply technical point of view, there’s nothing to stop a construction group from doing this. It qualifies as “producing an environment,” in my opinion. that you can’t run a CICS system “in the cloud” or “on a VM” (at least, no longer as of 2017), but that you could practice “cloud considering” to the problem of managing your components.

    in a similar fashion, which you can practice “cloud considering” to other supplies to your environment, as well. Use your imagination and creativity. Isn’t that why you chose this container of labor, in any case?

    Generate production Environments on the Fly as a part of Your CD Pipeline

    This advice is relatively lots the equal because the outdated one, apart from that it occurs later in the CI/CD pipeline. after getting some sort of automatic deployment in place, you can extend that technique to include immediately spinning up VMs or instantly reloading and provisioning hardware servers as a part of the deployment procedure. At that point, “deployment” actually means growing and provisioning the target ambiance, as opposed to moving code into an present environment.

    This approach solves a number of complications past simple configuration variations. for example, if a hacker has added anything to the construction atmosphere, rebuilding that ambiance out-of-source that you handle eliminates that malware. americans are discovering there’s value in rebuilding production machines and VMs commonly even though there are not any alterations to “installation,” for that cause as well as to steer clear of “configuration float” that occurs once we apply alterations over time to an extended-working instance.

    Many companies run windows servers in production, certainly to guide third-birthday party packages that require that OS. an issue with deploying to an current windows server is that many functions require an installer to be present on the goal instance. frequently, guidance security americans frown on having installers obtainable on any production example. (FWIW, I trust them.)

    in case you create a windows VM or provision a home windows server on the fly from managed sources, then you definitely don’t need the installer once the provisioning is finished. You received’t re-set up an utility; if a change is vital, you’ll rebuild the total instance. you could prepare the environment earlier than it’s obtainable in production, and then delete any installers that were used to provision it. So, this strategy addresses more than just the works-on-my-desktop problem.

    When it comes to lower back-end programs like zOS, you received’t be spinning up your own CICS regions and LPARs for construction deployment. The “cloud pondering” if that's the case is to have two similar construction environments. Deployment then becomes a matter of switching traffic between the two environments, in preference to migrating code. This makes it more straightforward to implement production releases with out impacting consumers. It also helps alleviate the works-on-my-laptop problem, as checking out late within the start cycle happens on a real construction environment (even if consumers aren’t pointed to it yet).

    The ordinary objection to this is the charge (it's, prices paid to IBM) to help twin environments. This objection is always raised by way of people who haven't completely analyzed the fees of all the delay and transform inherent in doing issues the “ancient method.”

    Pitfall #three: disagreeable Surprises When Code Is Merged

    issue: different groups and individuals tackle code determine-out and determine-in in a lot of ways. Some checkout code once and adjust it right through the direction of a venture, might be over a length of weeks or months. Others commit small alterations generally, updating their local copy and committing adjustments many times per day. Most groups fall somewhere between these extremes.

    frequently, the longer you keep code checked out and the greater changes you're making to it, the more suitable the possibilities of a collision if you merge. It’s additionally likely that you will have forgotten precisely why you made every little change, and so will the different americans who have modified the equal chunks of code. Merges can also be a trouble.

    all the way through these merge routine, all other cost-add work stops. everyone is making an attempt to determine how to merge the changes. Tempers flare. everybody can claim, precisely, that the equipment works on their machine.

    answer: a simple strategy to keep away from this sort of aspect is to commit small alterations commonly, run the examine suite with each person’s adjustments in place, and contend with minor collisions at once before reminiscence fades. It’s notably less disturbing.

    The best part is you don’t want any special tooling to do that. It’s just a question of self-self-discipline. then again, it most effective takes one individual who keeps code checked out for a very long time to mess all and sundry else up. Be aware of that, and kindly support your colleagues establish good habits.

    Pitfall #4: Integration mistakes found Late

    problem: This difficulty is akin to Pitfall #3, however one stage of abstraction greater. in spite of the fact that a group commits small alterations generally and runs a finished suite of automatic exams with every commit, they might also journey huge considerations integrating their code with other add-ons of the answer, or interacting with different functions in context.

    The code might also work on my machine, in addition to on my team’s integration check atmosphere, however as quickly as we take the next step ahead, all hell breaks free.

    solution: There are a few solutions to this difficulty. the first is static code evaluation. It’s becoming the norm for a continual integration pipeline to encompass static code evaluation as a part of each build. This occurs earlier than the code is compiled. Static code analysis equipment investigate the supply code as textual content, trying to find patterns that are widespread to result in integration blunders (among different things).

    Static code analysis can detect structural issues within the code such as cyclic dependencies and excessive cyclomatic complexity, as well as other basic issues like dead code and violations of coding necessities that are inclined to boost cruft in a codebase. It’s just the variety of cruft that motives merge hassles, too.

    A related recommendation is to take any warning level errors from static code evaluation equipment and from compilers as precise error. amassing warning level errors is a very good method to become with mysterious, surprising behaviors at runtime.

    The 2nd answer is to integrate accessories and run computerized integration verify suites frequently. deploy the CI pipeline so that when all unit-level assessments move, then integration-degree exams are executed immediately. Let disasters at that level destroy the build, simply as you do with the unit-degree checks.

    With these two methods, that you would be able to realize integration blunders as early as viable in the delivery pipeline. The prior you become aware of an issue, the easier it is to repair.

    Pitfall #5: Deployments Are Nightmarish All-evening Marathons

    difficulty: Circa 2017, it’s nevertheless average to find organizations where individuals have “unencumber parties” on every occasion they deploy code to construction. free up events are only like all-nighttime frat parties, simplest devoid of the enjoyable.

    The difficulty is that the first time purposes are done in a production-like ambiance is when they are carried out within the actual creation environment. Many concerns handiest become visible when the crew tries to set up to production.

    Of route, there’s no time or funds allotted for that. people working in a rush may additionally get the system up-and-operating somehow, but regularly at the can charge of regressions that pop up later within the sort of production support considerations.

    And it’s all as a result of, at each and every stage of the start pipeline, the device “worked on my laptop,” even if a developer’s computing device, a shared check atmosphere configured otherwise from construction, or another unreliable ambiance.

    solution: The answer is to configure each environment throughout the start pipeline as near creation as feasible. the following are accepted guidelines that you just could need to regulate counting on local cases.

    if in case you have a staging environment, instead of twin construction environments, it can be configured with all inner interfaces live and exterior interfaces stubbed, mocked, or virtualized. however here is so far as you're taking the concept, it's going to probably eliminate the need for unencumber parties. but if you can, it’s respectable to proceed upstream within the pipeline, to in the reduction of surprising delays in merchandising code alongside.

    test environments between building and staging may still be operating the identical edition of the OS and libraries as production. They may still be remoted on the acceptable boundary according to the scope of checking out to be carried out.

    initially of the pipeline, if it’s possible, boost on the same OS and same accepted configuration as construction. It’s seemingly you don't have as plenty memory or as many processors as within the production environment. The building ambiance also do not need any are living interfaces; all dependencies external to the utility will be faked.

    At a minimal, in shape the OS and unlock degree to production as intently as that you could. as an instance, if you’ll be deploying to windows Server 2016, then use a windows Server 2016 VM to run your quick CI construct and unit test suite. home windows Server 2016 is in keeping with NT 10, so do your building work on windows 10 since it’s additionally in response to NT 10. similarly, if the creation atmosphere is home windows Server 2008 R2 (according to NT 6.1) then advance on windows 7 (also according to NT 6.1). You won’t be in a position to get rid of every single configuration difference, however you may be capable of stay away from nearly all of incompatibilities.

    comply with the identical rule of thumb for Linux aims and construction programs. for example, in case you will installation to RHEL 7.3 (kernel version 3.10.x), then run unit assessments on the same OS if viable. in any other case, seek (or construct) a edition of CentOS in accordance with the same kernel version as your production RHEL (don’t anticipate). At a minimal, run unit checks on a Linux distro based on the identical kernel edition as the target construction instance. Do your building on CentOS or a Fedora-primarily based distro to minimize inconsistencies with RHEL.

    in case you’re the usage of a dynamic infrastructure management method that comprises constructing OS circumstances from supply, then this problem turns into plenty less complicated to control. that you may build your construction, look at various, and production environments from the equal sources, assuring edition consistency right through the beginning pipeline. however the truth is that only a few businesses are managing infrastructure in this manner as of 2017. It’s more likely that you’ll configure and provision OS cases in line with a published ISO, and then install programs from a non-public or public repo. You’ll should pay close consideration to models.

    in case you’re doing development work on your own desktop or desktop, and also you’re the use of a cross-platform language (Ruby, Python, Java, and so forth.), you could think it doesn’t count which OS you use. You might have a nice building stack on home windows or OSX (or some thing) that you simply’re comfy with. nevertheless, it’s a good suggestion to spin up a local VM working an OS that’s nearer to the construction ambiance, simply to evade sudden surprises.

    For embedded construction where the development processor is different from the target processor, consist of a assemble step for your low-degree TDD cycle with the compiler alternate options set for the target platform. this can expose blunders that don’t turn up should you collect for the development platform. sometimes the identical version of the equal library will display different behaviors when accomplished on distinctive processors.

    a further suggestion for embedded development is to constrain your construction ambiance to have the same memory limits and different resource constraints because the goal platform. that you may catch definite types of blunders early via doing this.

    For some of the older returned conclusion platforms, it’s feasible to do development and unit testing off-platform for comfort. relatively early in the beginning pipeline, you’ll wish to add your source to an ambiance on the target platform and build and test there.

    as an instance, for a C++ software on, say, HP NonStop, it’s effortless to do TDD on something native ambiance you love (assuming that’s possible for the classification of software), the use of any compiler and a unit checking out framework like CppUnit.

    in a similar way, it’s handy to do COBOL building and unit checking out on a Linux instance the use of GnuCOBOL; lots quicker and more convenient than using OEDIT on-platform for high-quality-grained TDD.

    however, in these cases, the target execution ambiance is terribly different from the development environment. You’ll are looking to pastime the code on-platform early in the beginning pipeline to get rid of works-on-my-computing device surprises.

    abstract

    The works-on-my-computing device difficulty is among the main reasons of developer stress and lost time. The main reason for the works-on-my-machine problem is adjustments in configuration across building, verify, and construction environments.

    The basic information is to keep away from configuration ameliorations to the extent possible. Take pains to be certain all environments are as corresponding to construction as is useful. Pay attention to OS kernel versions, library models, API versions, compiler models, and the versions of any home-grown utilities and libraries. When changes can’t be avoided, then make word of them and treat them as hazards. Wrap them in verify circumstances to provide early warning of any issues.

    The 2d suggestion is to automate as an awful lot checking out as feasible at diverse stages of abstraction, merge code commonly, build the software commonly, run the computerized test suites commonly, set up often, and (where feasible) construct the execution environment frequently. this could assist you discover problems early, whereas the most contemporary adjustments are nevertheless sparkling in your mind, and whereas the considerations are nonetheless minor.

    Let’s fix the area in order that the next technology of software builders doesn’t take into account the phrase, “Works on my laptop.”


    HP0-A21 NonStop Kernel Basics

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    Microsoft and DGM&S Announce Signaling System 7 Capabilities For Windows NT Server | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    NEW ORLEANS, June 3, 1997 — Microsoft Corp. and DGM & S Telecom, a leading international supplier of telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving distributed intelligent network, have teamed up to bring to market signaling system 7 (SS7) products for the Microsoft® Windows NT® Server network operating system. DGM & S Telecom is porting its OMNI Soft Platform &#153; to Windows NT Server, allowing Windows NT Server to deliver services requiring SS7 communications. Microsoft is providing technical support for DGM & S to develop the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server-based product for the public network.

    The SS7 network is one of the most critical components of today’s telecommunications infrastructure. In addition to providing for basic call control, SS7 has allowed carriers to provide a large and growing number of new services. Microsoft and DGM & S are working on signaling network elements based on Windows NT Server for hosting telephony services within the public network. The result of this collaborative effort will be increased service revenues and lowered costs for service providers, and greater flexibility and control for enterprises over their network service and management platforms via the easy-to-use yet powerful Windows NT Server environment.

    “Microsoft is excited about the opportunities that Windows NT Server and the OMNI Soft Platform will offer for telecom equipment suppliers and adjunct processor manufacturers, and for service providers to develop new SS7-based network services,” said Bill Anderson, director of telecom industry marketing at Microsoft. “Windows NT Server will thereby drive faster development, further innovation in service functionality and lower costs in the public network.”

    Microsoft’s collaboration with DGM & S Telecom is a key component of its strategy to bring to market platforms and products based on Microsoft Windows NT Server and independent software vendor applications for delivering and managing telecommunications services.

    Major hardware vendors, including Data General Corp. and Tandem Computers Inc., endorsed the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server solution.

    “With its high degree of availability and reliability, Data General’s AViiON server family is well-suited for the OMNI Soft Platform,” said David Ellenberger, vice president, corporate marketing for Data General. “As part of the strategic relationship we have established with DGM & S, we will support the OMNI Soft Platform on our Windows NT-compatible line of AViiON servers as an ideal solution for telecommunications companies and other large enterprises.”

    “Tandem remains the benchmark for performance and reliability in computing solutions for the communications marketplace,” said Eric L. Doggett, senior vice president, general manager, communications products group, Tandem Computers. “With Microsoft, Tandem continues to extend these fundamentals from our NonStop Kernel and UNIX system product families to our ServerNet technology-enabled Windows NT Servers. We are pleased that our key middleware partners such as DGM & S are embracing this strategy, laying the foundation for application developers to leverage the price/performance and reliability that Tandem and Microsoft bring to communications and the Windows NT operating system.”

    The OMNI Soft Platform from DGM & S Telecom is a family of software products that provide the SS7 components needed to build robust, high-performance network services and applications for use in wireline and wireless telecom signaling networks. OMNI Soft Platform offers a multiprotocol environment enabling true international operations with the coexistence of global SS7 variants. OMNI Soft Platform accelerates deployment of telecommunications applications so that service providers can respond to the ever-accelerating demands of the deregulated telecommunications industry.

    Programmable Network

    DGM & S Telecom foresees expanding market opportunity with the emergence of the “programmable network,” the convergence of network-based telephony and enterprise computing on the Internet.

    In the programmable network, gateways (offering signaling, provisioning and billing) will allow customers to interact more closely with, and benefit more from, the power of global signaling networks. These gateways will provide the channel to services deployed in customer premises equipment, including enterprise servers, PBXs, workstations, PCs, PDAs and smart phones.

    “The programmable network will be the end of one-size-fits-all service and will spawn a new industry dedicated to bringing the power of the general commercial computing industry to integrated telephony services,” said Seamus Gilchrist, DGM & S director of strategic initiatives. “Microsoft Windows NT Server is the key to future mass customization of network services via the DGM & S Telecom OMNI Soft Platform.”

    Wide Range of Service on OMNI

    A wide ranges of services can be provided on the OMNI Soft Platform, including wireless services, 800-number service, long-distance caller ID, credit card and transactional services, local number portability, computer telephony and mediated access. OMNI Soft Platform application programming interfaces (APIs) are found on the higher layers of the SS7 protocol stack. They include ISDN User Part (ISUP), Global System for Mobile Communications Mobile Application Part (GSM MAP), EIA/TIA Interim Standard 41 (IS-41 MAP), Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) and Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP).

    The OMNI product family is

  • Global. OMNI provides standards-conformant SS7 protocol stacks. OMNI complies with ANSI, ITU-T, Japanese and Chinese standards in addition to the many other national variants needed to enter the global market.

  • Portable. Service applications are portable across the platforms supported by OMNI. A wide range of computing platforms running the Windows NT and UNIX operating systems is supported.

  • Robust. OMNI SignalWare APIs support the development of wireless, wireline, intelligent network, call processing and transaction-oriented network applications.

  • Flexible. OMNI supports the rapid creation of distributed services that operate on simplex or duplex hardware. It supports a loosely coupled, multiple computer environment. OMNI-Remote allows front-end systems that lack signaling capability to deploy services using the client/server model.

  • DGM & S Telecom is the leading international supplier of SignalWare &#153; , the telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving intelligent and programmable network. DGM & S Telecom is recognized for its technical innovations in high-performance, fault-resilient SS7 protocol platforms that enable high-availability, open applications and services for single- and multivendor environments. Founded in 1974, DGM & S Telecom offers leading-edge products and solutions that are deployed

    throughout North America, Europe and the Far East. DGM & S is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Comverse-Technology Inc. (NASDAQ “CMVT” ).

    Founded in 1975, Microsoft (NASDAQ “MSFT” ) is the worldwide leader in software for personal computers. The company offers a wide range of products and services for business and personal use, each designed with the mission of making it easier and more enjoyable for people to take advantage of the full power of personal computing every day.

    Microsoft and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corp. in the United States and/or other countries.

    OMNI Soft Platform and SignalWare are trademarks of DGM & S Telecom.

    Other product and company names herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.

    Note to editors : If you are interested in viewing additional information on Microsoft, please visit the Microsoft Web page http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/ on Microsoft’s corporate information pages. To view additional information on DGM & S, please visit the DGM & S Web page at (http://dgms.com/)


    IO Visor challenges Open vSwitch | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) has enabled both agility and cost savings, triggering plenty of interest and activity in both the enterprise and service provider spaces. As the market begins to mature and organizations operationalize both NFV and software-defined networking (SDN), questions around nonstop operations arise. An area of recent focus is how do you provide nonstop operations during infrastructure code upgrades? The IO Visor Project claims it can implement nondisruptive upgrades unlike competitor Open vSwitch.  

    The fundamental challenge IO Visor tries to address is the operational impact of coupling input/output (I/O) with networking services. For example, if an OVS user wants to install a new version of OVS that adds packet inspection, a service disruption to the basic network I/O functionality is required.

    IO Visor claims to solve this problem by decoupling the I/O functionality from services. The IO Visor framework starts with the IO Visor Engine -- an in-kernel virtual machine (VM) that runs in Linux and provides the foundation of an extensible networking system. At the heart of the IO Visor Engine is Extended Berkley Packet Filter (eBPF). EBPF provides a foundation for developers to create in-kernel I/O modules and load and unload the modules without rebooting the host.

    It's worth noting that in-kernel I/O normally results in greater performance than solutions that run in user space. For example, the ability to run an IO Visor-based firewall should hypothetically offer performance increases over a firewall running in user space.

    Use case

    Is IO Visor in search of a problem that doesn’t exist, or are projects like this one the future of network function virtualization?

    The IO Visor project provided this use case: In a typical OVS environment today, updating the firewall function requires a restart of OVS or even a host reboot. Leveraging the IO Visor plug-in architecture, on the other hand, the in-kernel firewall plug-in would simply unload and reload. The bridging, router and Network Address Translation (NAT) functions would continue to operate.

    It’s early days for IO Visor, while OVS is mature and stable. Currently operational across thousands of environments, OVS provides carrier-grade performance. Most SDN users have reliably leveraged OVS and its extensive network of contributors and commercial products. In contrast, PLUMgrid is the only production-ready IO Visor-based platform I’m aware of.

    With all this said, I’m intrigued by the idea of abstracting I/O from network functions. The abstraction of I/O coupled with network function plug-ins adds flexibility to virtualized network architecture. I’ll be watching the project closely. What do you think: Is IO Visor in search of a problem that doesn’t exist, or are projects like this one the future of network function virtualization? 


    Works on My Machine | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    One of the most insidious obstacles to Continuous Delivery (and to continuous flow in software delivery generally) is the works-on-my-machine phenomenon. Anyone who has worked on a software development team or an infrastructure support team has experienced it. Anyone who works with such teams has heard the phrase spoken during (attempted) demos. The issue is so common there’s even a badge for it:

    Perhaps you have earned this badge yourself. I have several. You should see my trophy room.

    There’s a longstanding tradition on Agile teams that may have originated at ThoughtWorks around the turn of the century. It goes like this: When someone violates the ancient engineering principle, “Don’t do anything stupid on purpose,” they have to pay a penalty. The penalty might be to drop a dollar into the team snack jar, or something much worse (for an introverted technical type), like standing in front of the team and singing a song. To explain a failed demo with a glib “<shrug>Works on my machine!</shrug>” qualifies.

    It may not be possible to avoid the problem in all situations. As Forrest Gump said…well, you know what he said. But we can minimize the problem by paying attention to a few obvious things. (Yes, I understand “obvious” is a word to be used advisedly.)

    Pitfall #1: Leftover Configuration

    Problem: Leftover configuration from previous work enables the code to work on the development environment (and maybe the test environment, too) while it fails on other environments.

    Pitfall #2: Development/Test Configuration Differs From Production

    The solutions to this pitfall are so similar to those for Pitfall #1 that I’m going to group the two.

    Solution (tl;dr): Don’t reuse environments.

    Common situation: Many developers set up an environment they like on their laptop/desktop or on the team’s shared development environment. The environment grows from project to project as more libraries are added and more configuration options are set. Sometimes, the configurations conflict with one another, and teams/individuals often make manual configuration adjustments depending on which project is active at the moment.

    It doesn’t take long for the development configuration to become very different from the configuration of the target production environment. Libraries that are present on the development system may not exist on the production system. You may run your local tests assuming you’ve configured things the same as production only to discover later that you’ve been using a different version of a key library than the one in production.

    Subtle and unpredictable differences in behavior occur across development, test, and production environments. The situation creates challenges not only during development but also during production support work when we’re trying to reproduce reported behavior.

    Solution (long): Create an isolated, dedicated development environment for each project.

    There’s more than one practical approach. You can probably think of several. Here are a few possibilities:

  • Provision a new VM (locally, on your machine) for each project. (I had to add “locally, on your machine” because I’ve learned that in many larger organizations, developers must jump through bureaucratic hoops to get access to a VM, and VMs are managed solely by a separate functional silo. Go figure.)
  • Do your development in an isolated environment (including testing in the lower levels of the test automation pyramid), like Docker or similar.
  • Do your development on a cloud-based development environment that is provisioned by the cloud provider when you define a new project.
  • Set up your Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline to provision a fresh VM for each build/test run, to ensure nothing will be left over from the last build that might pollute the results of the current build.
  • Set up your Continuous Delivery (CD) pipeline to provision a fresh execution environment for higher-level testing and for production, rather than promoting code and configuration files into an existing environment (for the same reason). Note that this approach also gives you the advantage of linting, style-checking, and validating the provisioning scripts in the normal course of a build/deploy cycle. Convenient.
  • All those options won’t be feasible for every conceivable platform or stack. Pick and choose, and roll your own as appropriate. In general, all these things are pretty easy to do if you’re working on Linux. All of them can be done for other *nix systems with some effort. Most of them are reasonably easy to do with Windows; the only issue there is licensing, and if your company has an enterprise license, you’re all set. For other platforms, such as IBM zOS or HP NonStop, expect to do some hand-rolling of tools.

    Anything that’s feasible in your situation and that helps you isolate your development and test environments will be helpful. If you can’t do all these things in your situation, don’t worry about it. Just do what you can do.

    Provision a New VM Locally

    If you’re working on a desktop, laptop, or shared development server running Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, Windows, or OSX, then you’re in good shape. You can use virtualization software such as VirtualBox or VMware to stand up and tear down local VMs at will. For the less-mainstream platforms, you may have to build the virtualization tool from source.

    One thing I usually recommend is that developers cultivate an attitude of laziness in themselves. Well, the right kind of laziness, that is. You shouldn’t feel perfectly happy provisioning a server manually more than once. Take the time during that first provisioning exercise to script the things you discover along the way. Then you won’t have to remember them and repeat the same mis-steps again. (Well, unless you enjoy that sort of thing, of course.)

    For example, here are a few provisioning scripts that I’ve come up with when I needed to set up development environments. These are all based on Ubuntu Linux and written in Bash. I don’t know if they’ll help you, but they work on my machine.

    If your company is running RedHat Linux in production, you’ll probably want to adjust these scripts to run on CentOS or Fedora, so that your development environments will be reasonably close to the target environments. No big deal.

    If you want to be even lazier, you can use a tool like Vagrant to simplify the configuration definitions for your VMs.

    One more thing: Whatever scripts you write and whatever definition files you write for provisioning tools, keep them under version control along with each project. Make sure whatever is in version control for a given project is everything necessary to work on that project…code, tests, documentation, scripts…everything. This is rather important, I think.

    Do Your Development in a Container

    One way of isolating your development environment is to run it in a container. Most of the tools you’ll read about when you search for information about containers are really orchestration tools intended to help us manage multiple containers, typically in a production environment. For local development purposes, you really don’t need that much functionality. There are a couple of practical containers for this purpose:

    These are Linux-based. Whether it’s practical for you to containerize your development environment depends on what technologies you need. To containerize a development environment for another OS, such as Windows, may not be worth the effort over just running a full-blown VM. For other platforms, it’s probably impossible to containerize a development environment.

    Develop in the Cloud

    This is a relatively new option, and it’s feasible for a limited set of technologies. The advantage over building a local development environment is that you can stand up a fresh environment for each project, guaranteeing you won’t have any components or configuration settings left over from previous work. Here are a couple of options:

    Expect to see these environments improve, and expect to see more players in this market. Check which technologies and languages are supported so see whether one of these will be a fit for your needs. Because of the rapid pace of change, there’s no sense in listing what’s available as of the date of this article.

    Generate Test Environments on the Fly as Part of Your CI Build

    Once you have a script that spins up a VM or configures a container, it’s easy to add it to your CI build. The advantage is that your tests will run on a pristine environment, with no chance of false positives due to leftover configurations from previous versions of the application or from other applications that had previously shared the same static test environment, or because of test data modified in a previous test run.

    Many people have scripts that they’ve hacked up to simplify their lives, but they may not be suitable for unattended execution. Your scripts (or the tools you use to interpret declarative configuration specifications) have to be able to run without issuing any prompts (such as prompting for an administrator password). They also need to be idempotent (that is, it won’t do any harm to run them multiple times, in the case of restarts). Any runtime values that must be provided to the script have to be obtainable by the script as it runs, and not require any manual “tweaking” prior to each run.

    The idea of “generating an environment” may sound infeasible for some stacks. Take the suggestion broadly. For a Linux environment, it’s pretty common to create a VM whenever you need one. For other environments, you may not be able to do exactly that, but there may be some steps you can take based on the general notion of creating an environment on the fly.

    For example, a team working on a CICS application on an IBM mainframe can define and start a CICS environment any time by running it as a standard job. In the early 1980s, we used to do that routinely. As the 1980s dragged on (and continued through the 1990s and 2000s, in some organizations), the world of corporate IT became increasingly bureaucratized until this capability was taken out of developers’ hands.

    Strangely, as of 2017 very few development teams have the option to run their own CICS environments for experimentation, development, and initial testing. I say “strangely” because so many other aspects of our working lives have improved dramatically, while that aspect seems to have moved in retrograde. We don’t have such problems working on the front end of our applications, but when we move to the back end we fall through a sort of time warp.

    From a purely technical point of view, there’s nothing to stop a development team from doing this. It qualifies as “generating an environment,” in my view. You can’t run a CICS system “in the cloud” or “on a VM” (at least, not as of 2017), but you can apply “cloud thinking” to the challenge of managing your resources.

    Similarly, you can apply “cloud thinking” to other resources in your environment, as well. Use your imagination and creativity. Isn’t that why you chose this field of work, after all?

    Generate Production Environments on the Fly as Part of Your CD Pipeline

    This suggestion is pretty much the same as the previous one, except that it occurs later in the CI/CD pipeline. Once you have some form of automated deployment in place, you can extend that process to include automatically spinning up VMs or automatically reloading and provisioning hardware servers as part of the deployment process. At that point, “deployment” really means creating and provisioning the target environment, as opposed to moving code into an existing environment.

    This approach solves a number of problems beyond simple configuration differences. For instance, if a hacker has introduced anything to the production environment, rebuilding that environment out-of-source that you control eliminates that malware. People are discovering there’s value in rebuilding production machines and VMs frequently even if there are no changes to “deploy,” for that reason as well as to avoid “configuration drift” that occurs when we apply changes over time to a long-running instance.

    Many organizations run Windows servers in production, mainly to support third-party packages that require that OS. An issue with deploying to an existing Windows server is that many applications require an installer to be present on the target instance. Generally, information security people frown on having installers available on any production instance. (FWIW, I agree with them.)

    If you create a Windows VM or provision a Windows server on the fly from controlled sources, then you don’t need the installer once the provisioning is complete. You won’t re-install an application; if a change is necessary, you’ll rebuild the entire instance. You can prepare the environment before it’s accessible in production, and then delete any installers that were used to provision it. So, this approach addresses more than just the works-on-my-machine problem.

    When it comes to back-end systems like zOS, you won’t be spinning up your own CICS regions and LPARs for production deployment. The “cloud thinking” in that case is to have two identical production environments. Deployment then becomes a matter of switching traffic between the two environments, rather than migrating code. This makes it easier to implement production releases without impacting customers. It also helps alleviate the works-on-my-machine problem, as testing late in the delivery cycle occurs on a real production environment (even if customers aren’t pointed to it yet).

    The usual objection to this is the cost (that is, fees paid to IBM) to support twin environments. This objection is usually raised by people who have not fully analyzed the costs of all the delay and rework inherent in doing things the “old way.”

    Pitfall #3: Unpleasant Surprises When Code Is Merged

    Problem: Different teams and individuals handle code check-out and check-in in various ways. Some checkout code once and modify it throughout the course of a project, possibly over a period of weeks or months. Others commit small changes frequently, updating their local copy and committing changes many times per day. Most teams fall somewhere between those extremes.

    Generally, the longer you keep code checked out and the more changes you make to it, the greater the chances of a collision when you merge. It’s also likely that you will have forgotten exactly why you made every little change, and so will the other people who have modified the same chunks of code. Merges can be a hassle.

    During these merge events, all other value-add work stops. Everyone is trying to figure out how to merge the changes. Tempers flare. Everyone can claim, accurately, that the system works on their machine.

    Solution: A simple way to avoid this sort of thing is to commit small changes frequently, run the test suite with everyone’s changes in place, and deal with minor collisions quickly before memory fades. It’s substantially less stressful.

    The best part is you don’t need any special tooling to do this. It’s just a question of self-discipline. On the other hand, it only takes one individual who keeps code checked out for a long time to mess everyone else up. Be aware of that, and kindly help your colleagues establish good habits.

    Pitfall #4: Integration Errors Discovered Late

    Problem: This problem is similar to Pitfall #3, but one level of abstraction higher. Even if a team commits small changes frequently and runs a comprehensive suite of automated tests with every commit, they may experience significant issues integrating their code with other components of the solution, or interacting with other applications in context.

    The code may work on my machine, as well as on my team’s integration test environment, but as soon as we take the next step forward, all hell breaks loose.

    Solution: There are a couple of solutions to this problem. The first is static code analysis. It’s becoming the norm for a continuous integration pipeline to include static code analysis as part of every build. This occurs before the code is compiled. Static code analysis tools examine the source code as text, looking for patterns that are known to result in integration errors (among other things).

    Static code analysis can detect structural problems in the code such as cyclic dependencies and high cyclomatic complexity, as well as other basic problems like dead code and violations of coding standards that tend to increase cruft in a codebase. It’s just the sort of cruft that causes merge hassles, too.

    A related suggestion is to take any warning level errors from static code analysis tools and from compilers as real errors. Accumulating warning level errors is a great way to end up with mysterious, unexpected behaviors at runtime.

    The second solution is to integrate components and run automated integration test suites frequently. Set up the CI pipeline so that when all unit-level checks pass, then integration-level checks are executed automatically. Let failures at that level break the build, just as you do with the unit-level checks.

    With these two methods, you can detect integration errors as early as possible in the delivery pipeline. The earlier you detect a problem, the easier it is to fix.

    Pitfall #5: Deployments Are Nightmarish All-Night Marathons

    Problem: Circa 2017, it’s still common to find organizations where people have “release parties” whenever they deploy code to production. Release parties are just like all-night frat parties, only without the fun.

    The problem is that the first time applications are executed in a production-like environment is when they are executed in the real production environment. Many issues only become visible when the team tries to deploy to production.

    Of course, there’s no time or budget allocated for that. People working in a rush may get the system up-and-running somehow, but often at the cost of regressions that pop up later in the form of production support issues.

    And it’s all because, at each stage of the delivery pipeline, the system “worked on my machine,” whether a developer’s laptop, a shared test environment configured differently from production, or some other unreliable environment.

    Solution: The solution is to configure every environment throughout the delivery pipeline as close to production as possible. The following are general guidelines that you may need to modify depending on local circumstances.

    If you have a staging environment, rather than twin production environments, it should be configured with all internal interfaces live and external interfaces stubbed, mocked, or virtualized. Even if this is as far as you take the idea, it will probably eliminate the need for release parties. But if you can, it’s good to continue upstream in the pipeline, to reduce unexpected delays in promoting code along.

    Test environments between development and staging should be running the same version of the OS and libraries as production. They should be isolated at the appropriate boundary based on the scope of testing to be performed.

    At the beginning of the pipeline, if it’s possible, develop on the same OS and same general configuration as production. It’s likely you will not have as much memory or as many processors as in the production environment. The development environment also will not have any live interfaces; all dependencies external to the application will be faked.

    At a minimum, match the OS and release level to production as closely as you can. For instance, if you’ll be deploying to Windows Server 2016, then use a Windows Server 2016 VM to run your quick CI build and unit test suite. Windows Server 2016 is based on NT 10, so do your development work on Windows 10 because it’s also based on NT 10. Similarly, if the production environment is Windows Server 2008 R2 (based on NT 6.1) then develop on Windows 7 (also based on NT 6.1). You won’t be able to eliminate every single configuration difference, but you will be able to avoid the majority of incompatibilities.

    Follow the same rule of thumb for Linux targets and development systems. For instance, if you will deploy to RHEL 7.3 (kernel version 3.10.x), then run unit tests on the same OS if possible. Otherwise, look for (or build) a version of CentOS based on the same kernel version as your production RHEL (don’t assume). At a minimum, run unit tests on a Linux distro based on the same kernel version as the target production instance. Do your development on CentOS or a Fedora-based distro to minimize inconsistencies with RHEL.

    If you’re using a dynamic infrastructure management approach that includes building OS instances from source, then this problem becomes much easier to control. You can build your development, test, and production environments from the same sources, assuring version consistency throughout the delivery pipeline. But the reality is that very few organizations are managing infrastructure in this way as of 2017. It’s more likely that you’ll configure and provision OS instances based on a published ISO, and then install packages from a private or public repo. You’ll have to pay close attention to versions.

    If you’re doing development work on your own laptop or desktop, and you’re using a cross-platform language (Ruby, Python, Java, etc.), you might think it doesn’t matter which OS you use. You might have a nice development stack on Windows or OSX (or whatever) that you’re comfortable with. Even so, it’s a good idea to spin up a local VM running an OS that’s closer to the production environment, just to avoid unexpected surprises.

    For embedded development where the development processor is different from the target processor, include a compile step in your low-level TDD cycle with the compiler options set for the target platform. This can expose errors that don’t occur when you compile for the development platform. Sometimes the same version of the same library will exhibit different behaviors when executed on different processors.

    Another suggestion for embedded development is to constrain your development environment to have the same memory limits and other resource constraints as the target platform. You can catch certain types of errors early by doing this.

    For some of the older back end platforms, it’s possible to do development and unit testing off-platform for convenience. Fairly early in the delivery pipeline, you’ll want to upload your source to an environment on the target platform and build and test there.

    For instance, for a C++ application on, say, HP NonStop, it’s convenient to do TDD on whatever local environment you like (assuming that’s feasible for the type of application), using any compiler and a unit testing framework like CppUnit.

    Similarly, it’s convenient to do COBOL development and unit testing on a Linux instance using GnuCOBOL; much faster and easier than using OEDIT on-platform for fine-grained TDD.

    However, in these cases, the target execution environment is very different from the development environment. You’ll want to exercise the code on-platform early in the delivery pipeline to eliminate works-on-my-machine surprises.

    Summary

    The works-on-my-machine problem is one of the leading causes of developer stress and lost time. The main cause of the works-on-my-machine problem is differences in configuration across development, test, and production environments.

    The basic advice is to avoid configuration differences to the extent possible. Take pains to ensure all environments are as similar to production as is practical. Pay attention to OS kernel versions, library versions, API versions, compiler versions, and the versions of any home-grown utilities and libraries. When differences can’t be avoided, then make note of them and treat them as risks. Wrap them in test cases to provide early warning of any issues.

    The second suggestion is to automate as much testing as possible at different levels of abstraction, merge code frequently, build the application frequently, run the automated test suites frequently, deploy frequently, and (where feasible) build the execution environment frequently. This will help you detect problems early, while the most recent changes are still fresh in your mind, and while the issues are still minor.

    Let’s fix the world so that the next generation of software developers doesn’t understand the phrase, “Works on my machine.”



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