|Exam Name||:||Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions|
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|Updated On||:||February 20, 2019|
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HP0-894 exam Dumps Source : Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions
Test Code : HP0-894
Test Name : Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 117 Real Questions
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EUC with HCI: Why It matters
during this, the newest installment in our collection of home windows Server 2003 administration tutorials, we will take a glance at the procedure of implementing IPSec on a home windows Server 2003 equipment. we are going to also study one of the crucial methods you deserve to be aware about when performing this implementation on a reside community. after we're all achieved, we will seem back on the system and weigh up the professionals and cons, seeking to reply one essential question: Is it price seeing that an IPSec implementation for your network?IPSec 101
before wading into a proof of a way to implement IPSec, we should still first take a second to introduce you to, or refresh your capabilities of, this free and extremely advantageous formula of securing community transmissions.
On a theoretical level, IPSec is a framework designed to supply protection for IP based network traffic. On a realistic degree, it is a community layer protocol that encrypts statistics so that it cannot be 'sniffed' from the community and then consequently study or altered. IPSec achieves this functionality through two protocols called IPSec Authentication Header (AH) and IPSec Encapsulating safety Payload (ESP).
IPSec AH doesn't truly encrypt data, but it does deliver authentication and assured information integrity. In different words, with IPSec AH, a person can study the statistics in a transmission, however they cannot alter it. Nor can somebody false the supply of the statistics. IPSec ESP, in distinction, makes a speciality of securing the information within the transmission, notwithstanding it does additionally give some authentication, and a measure of data integrity checking.
The good information is that in a home windows Server 2003 IPSec implementation, as with most others, you don't deserve to choose from IPSec AH and IPSec ESP. you could use each protocols to get the full benefit of IPSec – authentication, certain integrity of data, and encrypted data transfer.IPSec and home windows Server 2003
Now that we have recapped what IPSec is and does, we will get on with taking a look at how to put in force it.
IPSec performance is provided on a home windows Server 2003 device during the IPSec services carrier. So, the 1st step in configuring IPSec is to make certain that this is running in your server with the aid of looking within the features MMC. On a site controller, the features MMC can be accessed in the course of the Administrative tools menu. The IPSec provider is configured to delivery instantly by default, so unless it has been stopped or disabled, your check should be nothing greater than cursory.
determine 1.(click for a larger photo)The next a part of imposing IPSec is deciding on and assigning an IPSec policy. IPSec guidelines, once assigned, outline what actions may still be performed on incoming network site visitors that does or doesn't meet a unique standards.
IPSec policies, and their components, are configured during the IP safety coverage management MMC snap-in. There isn't any shortcut to this MMC on the administrative equipment menu, so you'll need to open a clean MMC and then add the snap-in to it. upon getting finished this, you're going to be in a position to start working within the IP protection administration MMC snap-in as proven in determine 1.constitution of policies
The houses of an existing rule may also be seen by way of double-clicking the rule from in the IPSec safety guidelines snap-in. The properties web page for one of the crucial default policies, that are discussed in a moment, is shown in determine 2.
figure 2.(click for a bigger photo)As discussed, guidelines outline what actions are carried out on network site visitors when the server is using IPSec. policies are constituted of rules that outline what site visitors should be coated by way of the coverage, what kind of authentication mechanism should be used (more about the alternatives for authentication later during this collection), and what occurs to traffic when it does or does not meet the criteria specific within the coverage. This remaining process is customary as the filter motion. which you can also outline even if or not this rule applies to all community connections, simply those originating from the LAN, or simply from far flung connections.
As you could see from figure 2, there are three guidelines in this policy. the primary defines that protection may still be requested for all IP site visitors, and that the protection should use Kerberos (outline) for authentication and encryption. The 2d rule defines that every one ICMP site visitors (akin to that linked to ping and tracert) (define) is approved and not using a request for protection. The third rule (<default>) defines what occurs to site visitors that does not conform to both of the first two rules.
WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The transition of valued clientele away from home windows Server 2003 is being described as a $10 billion international opportunity. To take skills of that probability, Hewlett-Packard Co. and Microsoft nowadays at Microsoft's global accomplice conference right here rolled out a new joint application -- the HP Microsoft home windows Server 2003 application – to rally companions, a yr to the day before windows Server 2003 conclusion of existence.
in keeping with HP and Microsoft, there are more than 11 million servers working home windows Server 2003. Microsoft pronounced there are more than 22 million licenses that should be migrated.
"we have executed the analysis and located that 60% of shoppers don't have any migration plan in location and handiest 12 months to head earlier than help ends," referred to Doug Oathout, HP's vice president of channel companions, alliances and OEM marketing.
And therein lies the partner chance.
The HP Microsoft home windows Server 2003 application is designed to support companions flow consumers to a brand new Microsoft OS, servers, storage and networking wrapped with HP support features and HP fiscal features. it be purchasable instantly.
"Our simple route to market is during the channel, with the intention of helping consumers move safely, right now and correctly to a new OS comparable to windows Server 2012 R2," mentioned Jim Ganthier, vice president of international advertising for HP's server division.
Migrations will take about 200 days on normal, the enterprise referred to, so the time for valued clientele and companions to get begun is now. purchasers that don't migrate off of the operating equipment previous to home windows Server 2003 conclusion of life risk having applications that develop into non-compliant with executive laws, which is chiefly critical for healthcare and financial capabilities groups; and lacking protection updates and patches, which leaves methods prone to hackers.
shoppers that update their OS can predict to look performance enhancements and stronger start on business consequences that line-of-company managers are seeking, in accordance with Ganthier.
Addressing the readiness of partners to capture this new business chance, HP suggested that 60% of its partners have the capabilities capabilities required. still, the vendor will supply partners with a brand new set of tools that have been collectively developed with Microsoft.
the brand new tools will enable companions to habits essential assessments for valued clientele, which could develop into migration alternatives, Ganthier said.
"We're taking the better of what we recognize along with Microsoft and packaging it up so companions can learn how to do assessments in line with greatest practices in the business," he observed.
The HP Microsoft home windows Server 2003 application contains:
The carriers are also presenting income and advertising substances around the new application, together with special promotions for home windows Server and Microsoft OS license mixtures when a associate replaces a windows Server 2003 installing; HP economic functions with aggressive financial incentives; sales enablement and working towards components; the home windows 2003 conclusion-of-guide adventure kit; and co-marketing property.
domestic > Articles > Certification > Microsoft Certification
This core exam covers infrastructure for networks that encompass greater than 350 users, at the least three physical locations, and as a minimum three area controllers. find out what that you can are expecting to look on the exam and the way you could more advantageous prepare for it.
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Clustering SQL Server 2005 Services in Windows Server 2003 has been greatly enhanced from SQL 2000 on Windows 2000 clusters. There are quite some excellent articles in the internet offering guidance on cluster topics ranging from preparation, installation and configuration to post installation maintenance. On the other hand, the enhancements by the new versions also created certain confusions regarding cluster group failover behaviors due to the fact that the new failover behaviors are significantly different from what we used to expect from the older versions. The proof is that there are some questions posted in news groups complaining about something like "My SQL Server 2005 database engine failed last night. But the resource group didn't fail over to the passive node. Is the failover cluster not working? Why? Help! ".
To answer this kind of questions, we need to drill down to several basic Windows Server 2003 cluster concepts. There are several configuration items within the Windows 2003 Cluster Administrator tool that we need to explore in more details to get a better understanding about how the cluster failover works according to these configuration settings. This is important because it can help us take full advantage of the new failover mechanism offered by Windows Server 2003 and SQL Server 2005 to design a better failover solution to fit in individual Service Level Agreement (SLA) requirements.
About Cluster Administrator (CluAdmin.exe)
Cluster Administrator is a Microsoft Windows administrative tool to manage clusters in your domain. It is not part of the Administrative Tools programs by default. It is available after the Windows Cluster services are installed in your servers. It can also be installed in your Windows XP professional workstation as part of the Windows Server 2003 Admin tools Pack (adminpak.msi) installation. The pack can be downloaded from Microsoft website http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=c16ae515-c8f4-47ef-a1e4-a8dcbacff8e3&displaylang=enConfigure Cluster Properties
Once you have this tool ready for use either in Cluster node servers or in your local workstation, and you have administrative privileges to the clusters in your network, then you can launch it to examine, configure and manage a wide variety of cluster properties. This article will only focus on the following two levels of properties that have significant impacts on SQL cluster resources failover behaviors. The two levels of cluster properties are Group level and Resource level. Group properties have impact on all resources under the group, while Resource properties can have impact on its own resources most of the time with the exception of the "Affect the group" option, which will be covered with more details later in the article.
There are a number of Group and Resource cluster properties available for us to configure. However, we only focus on the ones that matter the failover behaviors. You will find these properties by right click on a Group or Cluster Resource and select Properties.Group Level Properties:
Failback: The properties can be found under Failback tab of a group properties window. It specifies what should happen when the group comes back online, and finds itself owned by a node other than its original primary node. Choose "Prevent Failback" to prevent the group from failing back to a failed node that returns to online status. Choose "Allow Failback" to enable failback. You should also specify that the failback will either occur immediately or within a specified span of hours.
What does this mean: In most cases, we should stick with the default setting of "Prevent Failback" to prevent an additional unnecessary failover. This will leave you more room and time to determine what caused the service failure and plan on a better time to fail it back once the root cause of the problem gets resolved. Otherwise, you will find your SQL services may have to be interrupted for twice as the cluster service trying to go back to its original primary node during an unpleasant time ( for a 24x7 server, any time could be unpleasant time unless it is scheduled ).Resource Level Properties:
You can find these properties by right-click on the concerning Resource, and select Properties. The following properties are under the Advanced tab in the Resource Properties window.
Restart: to specify whether or not to restart the resource if it fails.
What does this mean: For most resources, the Restart option should be selected because you want all cluster resources to be kept online.
Affect The Group: If selected, the group will fail over when the resource fails. The Threshold and Period values determine how many times the Cluster Service will attempt to restart the resource for a specific attempts within a specified period of time before the group fails.
What does this mean: This may be the most important single item to configure. There are only a handful of resources should have this option turned on. And if it is turned on for the resource, the Threshold and Period values control whether you want the Group to fail over to the other node(s) immediately or try to recover on the same node for the specified times within the period of time. Usually we would want it to fail over to the other node immediately because trying to recover on the same node could possibly be a waste of time without knowing the cause of the issue. The following Resource should usually have the "Affect the group" option turned on:- SQL Server database engine service
You may want to disable "Affect the group" option for the following resources to avoid unessential resources bringing down the entire group and the SQL engine.
In case these resources fail, investigations and manual restart should be performed without impacting the SQL engine service.
Below are the steps to configure SQL Server Agent Service so that a failure to the SQL Agent resource does not affect the group
Polling: Use the Looks Alive and Is Alive parameters to specify how often the Cluster Service polls the resource to determine if it is up
What does this mean: Usually we should use the default values of "Use values from resource type" unless you have a compelling reason for otherwise.
Pending Timeout: specify the amount of time a resource can be in a pending state before the Cluster Service fails the resource.
What does this mean: Same tactic as Polling should be applied to Pending Timeout. If there are issues with your cluster that require adjusting this parameter to avoid certain problems, you may want to tackle the root cause rather than playing around with the number unless this is your last resort.
Dependencies: This property is under Dependencies tab in the Resource Properties window to specify what other cluster resources are required online as a prerequisite for the resource to maintain online status.
What does this mean: This is the cluster resource internal integrity checking mechanism and it is a very important property to configure. For example, if the master database resides on cluster share H drive, then we have to make sure SQL Service has a dependency on H drive, such that SQL Service will wait for H drive being online before trying to bring itself online. Otherwise we will see error message if H drive is still in the process of bringing online when the SQL service resource is trying to start up.On the other hand, we should eliminate unnecessary dependencies for SQL services. We may want to remove SQL dependencies to resources not essential to database engine. For example, a dump/backup drive may not be a good candidate as a SQL dependency. (Noted that some database backup software does require this explicit dependency to make the drive available for operations)File Share in Cluster
In addition to the above two levels of properties, share folders used by critical SQL functionalities such as log shipping and snapshot replications, should be made as cluster resources. Local Windows folder share names on each node may be lost when failover occurs.For example, you create a folder share named "My_File_Share" on share drive F of the active node. If you don't defined the share folder as a FileShare cluster resource, the share name "My_File_Share" may not be recognized in the cluster after drive F fails over to another node. So the best practice to keep your folder share names is to make them cluster resources in the same group of the SQL engine services. To create a Clustered file share, please see KB article How to create file shares on a cluster (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/224967) for detailed steps.Conclusions
The above provided basic descriptions and configuration guide lines of the following configurable items: Failback, Dependencies, Restart, Affect Resource Group and its child parameters. All of the items could have significant impact on the SQL cluster group's failover behaviors. Users should be aware of the implications before implementing any of settings, and should test the adjusted environments to see if the changes match with your design expectations before roll out to production environments.
There are many ways to add fault tolerance to network services and resources running on Windows Server 2003 servers, and all without the hassle of third-party software. Find out how to use them in this chapter from Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Insider Solutions.This chapter is from the book
In This Chapter
Optimizing Disk Management for Fault Tolerance
Maximizing Redundancy and Flexibility with Distributed File System
Simplifying Fault Tolerance with Volume Shadow Copy
Optimizing Disk Utilization with Remote Storage
Optimizing Clusters to Simplify Administrative Overhead
Leveraging Network Load Balancing for Improved Availability
Realizing Rapid Recovery Using Automated System Recovery (ASR)
Because more and more businesses rely on constant and uninterrupted access to their IT network resources, many technologies have been created to help ensure continuous uptime of servers and applications. Windows Server 2003 is inline with these new technologies to meet the demands of the modern business model that seeks to provide a fault-tolerant network environment where unexpected downtime is a thing of the past. By combining Windows Server 2003 technologies with the appropriate hardware and general best practices, IT organizations can realize both file-level and system-level fault tolerance to maintain a high level of availability for their business-critical applications and network services.
This chapter highlights the features available in Windows Server 2003 that target fault tolerance and provides best practices for their implementation of and application to the IT environment. On the file-system side, in addition to proper disk management and antivirus protection, Windows Server 2003 provides Distributed File System (DFS), Volume Shadow Copy (VSC), and Remote Storage technologies. Related to system-level fault tolerance, Windows Server 2003 includes the Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) and Network Load Balancing (NLB) technologies to provide redundancy and failover capabilities.
System administrators have long since relied on Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) technologies to provide levels of fault tolerance for their server disk resources. And though the technology is a familiar mainstay in server management, its importance should not be overlooked. There are a couple of ways to leverage RAID to optimize disk management in Windows Server 2003. The first is creating RAID disks using disk controller configuration utilities, and the second is creating the RAID disks using dynamic disk configuration from within the Windows Server 2003 operating system.Hardware-based RAID Solutions
Using two or more disks, different RAID-level arrays can be configured to provide fault tolerance that can withstand disk failures and still provide uninterrupted disk access. Hardware-based RAID is achieved when a separate RAID disk controller is used to configure and manage the disks participating in the RAID array. The RAID controller stores the information on the array configuration, including disk membership and status.
Implementing hardware-level RAID configured and stored on the disk controller is preferred over the software-level RAID configurable within Windows Server 2003 Disk Management because the Disk Management and synchronization processes in hardware-level RAID are offloaded to the RAID controller. With Disk Management and synchronization processes offloaded from the RAID controller, the operating system will perform better overall.
Another reason to provide hardware-level RAID as a best practice is that the configuration of the disks does not depend on the operating system. This gives administrators greater flexibility when it comes to recovering server systems and performing upgrades.
Because there are many hardware-based RAID solutions available, it is important to refer to the manufacturer's documentation on creating RAID arrays to understand the particular functions and peculiarities of the RAID disk controller in use.Using Dynamic Disk RAID Configurations
Windows Server 2003 supports two types of disks: basic and dynamic. Basic disks are backward-compatible, meaning that basic partitions can be accessed by previous Microsoft operating systems such as MS-DOS and Windows 95 when formatted using FAT; and when formatted using NTFS, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows .NET Server 2003 can access them.
Dynamic disks are managed by the operating system and provide several configuration options, including software-based RAID sets and the capability to extend volumes across multiple disks. Though there are several configuration options, including spanned and stripped volumes, the only really fault tolerant dynamic disk configurations involve creating mirrored volumes (RAID 1) or RAID 5 volumes as described in the following list:
Mirrored Volume (RAID 1). Mirrored volumes require two separate disks, and the space allocated on each disk must be equal. Mirrored sets duplicate data across both disks and can withstand a single disk failure. Because the mirrored volume is an exact replica of the first disk, the space capacity of a mirrored set is limited to half of the total allocated disk space.
RAID 5 Volume. Software-based RAID 5 volumes require three or more disks and provide faster read/write disk access than a single disk. The space or volume provided on each disk of the RAID set must be equal. RAID 5 sets can withstand a single disk failure and can continue to provide access to data using only the remaining disks. This capability is achieved by reserving a small portion of each disk's allocated space to store data parity information that can be used to rebuild a failed disk or to continue to provide data access.
Most disk-related administrative tasks can be performed using the Disk Management MMC snap-in. This tool is located in the Computer Management console, but the standalone snap-in can also be added in a separate Microsoft Management Console window. Disk Management is used to identify disks, define disk volumes, and format the volumes.
New Feature in the Windows Server 2003 Disk Management Console
A new feature in the Windows Server 2003 Disk Management console enables administrators to also manage disks on remote machines.
To use the Disk Manager to create a software-based RAID, the disks that will participate in the array must first be converted to dynamic disks. This is a simple process by which the administrator right-clicks on each disk in question and chooses Convert to Dynamic, as shown in Figure 22.1.
Figure 22.1 Convert basic disks to dynamic.
The system will require a reboot to complete if the system volume is being converted to Dynamic. After the disks are converted, perform the following steps to set up a Mirrored volume or RAID 1 of the system volume:
Click Start, All Programs, Administrative Tools, Computer Management.
In the left pane, if it is not already expanded, double-click Computer Management (local).
Click the plus sign next to Storage, and select Disk Management.
In the right pane, right-click the system volume and choose Add Mirror.
Choose the disk on which to create the mirror for the system volume and click Add Mirror.
The volumes on each disk start a synchronization process that might take a few minutes or longer, depending on the size of the system volume and the types of disks being used. When the mirrored volume's status changes from Re-synching to Healthy, select File, Exit in the Computer Management console to close the window.
Diskpart.exe is a flexible command-line disk management utility that performs most of the functions available to it with the Disk Management console. Using diskpart.exe, both basic volumes and dynamic volumes can be extended whereas the Disk Management can only extend dynamic volumes. The real value of using Diskpart.exe is that it can be run with a script to automate volume management. This is particularly useful when automating server builds across several servers that have the same characteristics. For more information on automatic server installations, refer to Chapter 11, "Implementing Windows Server 2003."
Extend a Basic Volume Using Diskpart.Exe
If you want to extend a basic volume using diskpart.exe, the unallocated disk space must be on the same disk as the original volume and must be contiguous with the volume you are extending. Otherwise, the command will fail.
The syntax for Diskpart.exe is as follows:Diskpart.exe /s script
The script referenced by the utility is a text file that will include the specific instructions necessary for the desired function. For example, to extend a volume using unallocated space on the same disk, the associated script file would look like this:Select Volume 2 Extend Exit
Most of us have hopefully managed to get off the sinking ship that was Windows XP. As much of a recent memory as that has become, a new end of life is rearing its head, and it's approaching fervently for those who haven't started planning for it. Microsoft's Windows Server 2003, a solid server operating system that's now about eleven and a half years old, is heading for complete extinction in just under 300 days. Microsoft has a fashionable countdown timer already ticking.
Seeing as we just finished our second server migration in a single week (a personal record so far), sharing some of the finer aspects of how we are streamlining these transitions seems like a timely fit. This braindump of sorts is a collection of best practices that we are routinely following for our own customers, and they seem to be serving us well so far.
The best practices below all assume that you have gone through a full inventory of your current servers, taking note how many servers are still in production and what ongoing workloads they support. If you don't know where you stand, you have no idea where you're heading -- so stop reading here and start getting a grasp on your current server layout. I'm going to pen a fuller piece about how to inventory and plan a server move that addresses all of the non-technical criteria.
Microsoft has put together a fairly good four-step first party guide that you can follow on their Server 2003 EOL website, but as you can expect, it's chock full of soft sells on numerous products you may or may not need, so take it with the usual grain of salt and get an expert involved if necessary.
Given you have a solid inventory, a plan for replacement, and hardware to get the job done, here's a rundown of some of the things saving us hours of frustration.
There's Nothing Wrong with Re-Using Servers -- In Some Cases
Need to re-deploy another physical server after ditching 2003? Refurbishing existing servers for usage in your upgraded environment is not sinful, like some traditional MSPs or IT consulting firms may make it out to be. Many of the voices always pushing for "buy new!" are the ones who are used to making fat margins on expensive server purchases, so follow the money trail when being baited into a brand new server when it may not be necessary.
The last server I just finished deploying was a re-purposed Dell PowerEdge R210 1u rack mount server that was previously being underutilized as a mere Windows 7 development sandbox. With only a few years of age, and no true production workload wear (this is a lower end box, but it was used as anything but a server), the box was a perfect fit for the 20-person office it would end up supporting for AD, file shares, print serving, and other light needs.
We didn't just jump to conclusions on OK'ing the box to be placed back into production, mind you. Re-use of the server was wholly contingent upon the unit passing all initial underlying diagnostics of the existing hardware, and upon passing, getting numerous parts upgrades.
For this particular Dell R210, we ended up installing the max amount of RAM it allows (16GB), the second fastest CPU it could take (a quad core Intel Xeon X3470), dual brand new Seagate 600GB 15K SAS hard drives, and a new Dell H200 Perc RAID controller to handle the disks. A copy of Windows Server 2012 R2 was also purchased for the upgrade.
We also picked up a spare power supply for the unit to have on hand in case the old one dies, since the unit doesn't have warranty anymore. Having a spare HDD on hand doesn't hurt, either, for those planning such a similar move. You don't have to rely on manufacturer warranty support if you can roll your own, and the two most likely parts to fail on any server are arguably the PSU and HDDs.
Instead of spending upwards of $5000-$6000 on a proper new Dell PowerEdge T420 server, this customer spent about half a thousand on refurbishment labor, and another $2000 or so in parts. In the end we ended up saving thousands on what I found to be unnecessary hardware.
We also did a similar upgrade on an HP Proliant DL360e just a week prior. Second matching CPU installed, RAM increased, brand new Samsung 850 Pro SSDs put into a RAID 1, Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard, and a couple of extra fans. We took a capital outlay that would have been no less than $5K and turned it into a $2K overhaul.
Want to go the extra mile with the refurbished system and extend fan life? On all of our overhauls, we lubricate all of the server fans with a few drops of sewing machine oil. You can read about how great of a cheap lease on life this is per this TechRepublic blog post. A $5 bottle at Ace Hardware has lubricated dozens of servers and still has years of oil left.
One last key: it's super important to ensure you are using the right software to diagnose the system's internals with all parts being installed. On server overhauls, we run diagnostics before the system is approved for an overhaul, and also after all new parts go in. Unlike a workstation where we can afford downtime due to a bad part in many cases, a server doesn't have this kind of leeway for being down.
Almost every server maker out there has custom software for testing their boxes. Our favorite server OEM, Dell, has excellent utilities under the guise of Dell Diagnostics that can be loaded onto a DVD or USB stick and ran in a "Live CD" style. Only after all tests pass with flying colors is a box allowed to go back into production.
In addition, we always stress test servers days before they are meant to be placed back into production with a free tool by JAM Software called HeavyLoad. It does the equivalent of red-lining a car for as many hours as you wish. We usually stress a server for 6-10 hours before giving it a green stamp of being ready for workloads again.
In another related scenario last year, we had a client who had dual Dell PowerEdge 2900 servers in production. We refurbished both, and kept one running as the production unit on Windows Server 2012, with the second clone kept in the server cage as a hot spare and as a parts depot. It was a rock solid plan that is humming away nicely to this day, one year later nearly to the day.
We have numerous clients running such refurbished servers today and they are extremely happy not only with the results, but also with the money they saved.
Move to Windows Server 2012 R2 Unless You Have Specific Reasons You Can't
I've talked about this notion so many times before, it feels like I'm beating the dead horse. But it's an important part in planning for any new server to be in production for the next 5-7 or so years for your organization, so it's not something that should be swept under the rug.
There is absolutely zero reason you should be installing servers running on Windows Server 2008 R2 these days. That is, unless you have a special software or technical reason to be doing so. But aside from that, there are no advantages to running Windows Server 2008 R2 on new servers going forward. We've put Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 through extensive paces already in live client environments and the former is leagues ahead of the latter as far as stability, performance, resource usage, and numerous other areas, especially related to Hyper-V, clustering, and related functions.
Need further reason to stay away from Windows Server 2008? Seeing as we are already halfway through 2014, you would be doing yourself a disservice since Microsoft is cutting support for all flavors of 2008 by January of 2020. That's a mere sliver of just over five years away -- too close for comfort for any server going into production today.
Server 2012 R2 is getting support through January of 2023 which is much more workable in terms of giving us wiggle room if we need to go over a five year deployment on this next go around, with room to spare.
At FireLogic, any new server going up is Windows Server 2012 R2 by default, and we will be anxiously waiting to see what is around the corner as Windows Server releases seem to have a track record lately of only getting markedly better.
A quick note on licensing for Windows Server 2012 R2: do know that you can run three full instances of Windows Server 2012 R2 on any Standard copy of the product. This includes one physical (host) instance for the bare metal server itself, and two fully licensed VMs at no charge via Hyper-V off the same box.
It's an awesome fringe benefit and we take advantage of it often to spin up VMs for things like RDS (Remote Desktop Services). You can read about the benefits of Server 2012 licensing in a great post by Microsoft MVP Aidan Finn.
Ditch the SANs: Storage Spaces Is a Workable, Cheaper Alternative
Like clockwork, most organizations with large storage needs or intent to do things like clustering, are listening to the vendors who are beating the SAN (Storage Area Network) drum near incessantly. If the clock were turned back just four to five years, I could see the justification in doing so. But it's 2014, and Microsoft now lets you roll your own SAN in Server 2012 and up with a feature I've blogged about before, Windows Storage Spaces.
I recently heard a stat from an industry storage expert that nearly 50 percent or more of SANs on the market run Windows behind the scenes anyway, so what's so special about their fancy hardware that justifies the high price tags? I'm having a hard time seeing the benefits, and as such, am not looking at SANs for clients as first-line recommendations. Unless there's a good reason Storage Spaces can't do it, we're not buying the SAN line any longer going forward.
The premise is very simple. Tie sets of JBOD roll your own DAS (direct attached storage -- SATA/SAS) drives in standard servers running Server 2012 R2 into storage pools which can be aligned into Storage Spaces. These are nothing more than fancy replicated, fault tolerant sets of DAS drives that can scale out storage space without sacrificing performance or the reliability of traditional SANs.
Coupled with Microsoft's new age file system, ReFS, Storage Spaces are highly reliable, highly scalable, and future proofed since Microsoft is supporting the technology for the long haul from everything I am reading.
While Storage Spaces aren't bootable volumes yet, this will change with time, probably rendering the need for RAID cards also a moot point by then, as I questioned in a previous in-depth article on Storage Spaces.
You can read about Microsoft's own internal cost savings and tribulations in a post-SAN world for their Windows Release team, which has far greater data storage needs than any business I consult with.
Clean Out AD/DNS For All References to Dead Domain Controllers
This nasty thorn of an issue was something I had to rectify on a client server replacement just this week. When domain controllers die, they may go to server heaven, but their remnants are alive and well, causing havoc within Active Directory and DNS. It's important to ensure these dead phalanges are cleansed before introducing a new Windows Server 2012 R2 server into the fold, as you will have an uphill battle otherwise.
In a current Windows Server 2003 environment, you can easily find your complete list of active and dead domain controllers via some simple commands or GUI-based clicks. Match this list with what you actually still have running, and if there are discrepancies, it's time to investigate if any of the dead boxes were handling any of your FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation) roles. A simple way to view what boxes are in control of FSMO in your domain can be found on this article.
While a potentially dangerous operation, if any dead boxes are shown as controlling any FSMO roles, you need to go through and seize those roles back onto an active AD controller (NOT on a potential new Windows Server 2012 R2 box). The steps to handle this are outlined here.
In most small/midsize organizations we support, the FSMO roles are held by a single server, and we can easily transition these over to new Windows Server 2012 R2 instances after the Windows Server 2012 R2 box is promoted as a domain controller.
Be sure that you also do a metadata cleanup of AD for all references of the old dead DCs, and finally, clean out your DNS manually for any references leftover as well -- this includes fine tooth combing ALL forward and reverse lookup zones for leftover records. Even a single remaining entry to a dead box could cause messes you want to avoid down the road.
Once you have a fully clean FSMO role structure, which sit on a healthy DC, you can initiate proper formal role transfer over to the Windows Server 2012 R2 box after you have promoted the system properly through Server Manager. Canadian IT Pro blog has an excellent illustrated guide on handling this.
Remember: your network is only as strong as its lowest common denominator, and that is the core of AD and DNS in most respects. A clean AD is a happy AD.
Getting "Access is Denied" Errors on New Windows Server 2012 R2 DC Promotion? Quick Fix
I lost hours on a recent migration to a Windows Server 2012 R2 server from a Windows Server 2003 R2 box due to this Access is Denied error. After cleaning out a few things which I thought may have been causing Server Manager's integrated ADPREP on 2012 R2 to bomb, I finally found the fix which was causing the below error:
The fix? The Windows Server 2003 R2 server had registry issues related to not giving a proper key permissions to the LOCAL SERVICE account on that box. Prior to the adjustment, the registry key in question only had read/write access to the domain and enterprise admins, which was fruitless for what ADPREP wants to see in a full domain controller promotion of a Windows Server 2012 R2 box.
The full fix is described on this blog post, and don't mind the references to Windows client systems -- the information is accurate and fully applies to Windows Server 2003 and likely Windows Server 2008 as well, depending on what your old server runs.
Other problems that could lead to this nasty error include having multiple IP addresses assigned to a single NIC on a domain controller (not kosher in general); using a non-Enterprise Admin or Domain Scheme Admin account to perform the promotion; and having the new Windows Server 2012 R2 server pointing its DNS requests to something other than a primary Windows DNS server, likely your old DC itself.
Follow Best Practices When Configuring 2012 R2 for DNS
DNS by and far is one of the most misconfigured, maligned, and misunderstood entities that make up a Windows network. If I got a dime for every time I had to clean up DNS in a customer network due to misconfiguration... you know the rest.
You can read my full in-depth post on how DNS should look inside a company domain, but here are the main points to take away:
Take some time to ensure the above best practices are followed when setting up your Windows Server 2012 R2 DNS, because an improperly configured network will cause you endless headache. Trust me -- I've been knee deep in numerous server cleanups in the last few years where DNS was the cause of dozens of hours of troubleshooting down the drain.
Use the Chance to Implement Resiliency Best Practices: Dual NICs, PSUs, RAID, etc
A server update is the perfect chance to implement the kinds of things I wrote about in a piece earlier last week outlining what good backbone resiliency looks like on critical servers and network components. If you are purchasing new equipment outright, there is no reason at all you shouldn't be spec'ing out your system(s) with at least the following criticals:
Most of the items on the above list aren't going to increase costs that much more. For the amount of productivity loss and headache that not having them will cost otherwise, the expense up front is well worth it in my eyes and that of my customers.
Promote, Test, Demote, Raise: 4 Keys to a Successful Domain Controller Replacement
PTDR is a goofy acronym, but it represents the four key items that we usually follow when implementing new domain controllers into an environment, and wiping away the vestiges of the legacy domain levels. These steps ensure that you aren't removing any old servers before the functionality of new replacements are fully tested.
It goes something like this:
Some of the enhancements made in the Windows Server 2012/2012 R2 functional levels are described in an excellent WindowsITPro post.
Virtualize Up Internally, or Better Yet, Virtualize Out via the Cloud
It's no secret that virtualizing is an easy way to reduce the need for physical hardware. We tend to prefer using Hyper-V from Microsoft, mostly in the form of Hyper-V that is baked into the full Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard edition. It's Microsoft's go-to type 2 hypervisor option that allows us to host VMs on domain controllers for companies that don't have money for extra separate servers and don't want to move VMs into the cloud.
The other option, which we haven't adopted with clients that widely yet, is the VMWare alternative called Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 which is a completely free type 1 hypervisor that lives natively on the raw bare metal itself. You heard right -- it's totally free, doesn't cost a dime, and is not feature crippled in any way. Do note that the sole purpose of this edition of Windows Server is to merely host Hyper-V virtual machines. It can'texplains why in detail.
For many organizations, especially ones either looking to move from expensive VMWare rollouts, or considering going down that path, Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 is an awesome option. It receives full support from Microsoft in terms of Windows Updates (there are relatively few needed each month, but they do come out) and follows the same exact support lifecycle policy as Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard, which has a sunset of Jan 2023.
While keeping VMs internally is a great first-party option, and getting more mature by the day, we are actively recommending to many clients that moving their VM needs off to services like Azure or Rackspace is a much better bet, especially for organizations with no formal IT staff and no MSP to fall back on. These platforms take care of the hardware maintenance, resiliency, geo-redundancy, and numerous other aspects that are tough to handle on our own with limited resources.
For example, we were at a turning point with a ticket broker who either needed to replace 4-6 standalone aging boxes with new ones, or opt to move them to the cloud as VMs. We ended up choosing to make the full move to Azure with the former boxes being converted into IaaS VMs. With the ability to create virtual networks that can be linked back to your office, we ended up tying those Azure machines back over a VPN being tunneled by a Meraki MX60 firewall. After stabilizing the VPN tunnel to Azure, the broker hasn't looked back.
When deciding on whether to go cloud or stay on premise, there are numerous decision points to consider. We help customers wade through these regularly. But you can follow the advice I penned in an article from about a year ago that went over the core criteria to use when outlining an intended path.
Evaluate What Internal Needs Can Be Offloaded to SaaS
Pinning up extra servers just to continue the age-old mess of "hosting your own" services internally, whether it's on-prem via Hyper-V or in the cloud on Azure IaaS, is just plain silly. SaaS offerings of every shape and size are trimming the number of items that are truly reliant on servers, meaning you should be doing your homework on what items could be offloaded into most cost-effective, less maintenance-hungry options.
For example, it's a no-brainer these days that Office 365, in the form of Exchange Online, is the best bet for hosting business email these days. Businesses used to host Exchange, their own spam filters, and archiving services -- all of which needed convoluted, expensive licensing to work and operate. Office 365 brings it all together under one easy to use SaaS service which is always running the latest and greatest software from Microsoft. I haven't been shy about how much my company loves Office 365, especially for email.
Another item that can likely be evaluated to replace traditional file shares is SharePoint Online. Our own company made the switch last year and we are nearing our year mark on the product soon. While we keep a small subset of files on-premise still (client PC backups; too large to keep in the cloud), the bulk of our day to day client-facing documentation and supporting files are all in SharePoint Online now, accessible from OneDrive for Business, the web browser, and numerous mobile devices. It's an awesome alternative to hosting file shares, if its limitations work with your business needs.
And for many companies, hosting their own phone server or PBX for VoIP needs has always been a necessity. But this day in age, why continue to perpetuate this nightmare when offerings like CallTower Hosted Lync exist? This hybrid UCaaS (Unified Communications as a Service) solution and VoIP telephone offering from CallTower brings the best of a modern phone system along with the huge benefits of Lync together into a single package. We have been on this platform ourselves, along with a number of clients, for a few months now and cannot imagine going back to the status quo.
Hosting your own servers has its benefits, but it also comes with its fair share of pains that can, as shown above, be avoided by using cost effective alternative SaaS offerings. We almost always offload capable needs to SaaS platforms where possible these days for customers as it continues to make business sense from a price, redundancy, and maintenance perspective.
Moving File Shares? Use the Chance to Clean House!
Most organizations don't have good formal policies for de-duplicating data, or at the least, ensuring that file shares are properly maintained and not flooded with needless data. If you haven't skimmed your file shares recently, a server move to Windows Server 2012 R2 is the perfect chance to evaluate what exists and what can go.
In some cases, we won't let clients move data onto clean volumes of a new Windows Server 2012 R2 server until we have been able to sit down with them and verify that old garbage data has been culled and cleaned out. Garbage in, garbage out. Don't perpetuate a bad situation any longer than needed. A server upgrade is ripe timing to force action here.
Is a Server Migration Above Your Head? Hire an Expert
Moving between servers is something warranted once every 5-7 years for most companies, and especially for smaller entities without IT staff, handling such a move first party is rarely a good idea. Companies like mine are handling these situations at least once a month now. We've (almost) seen it all, been there, and done that -- not to brag, but to say that professionals usually know what they are doing since we are doing this week in, week out.
The number of times we've been called in for an SOS on server migrations or email migrations gone south is staggering. And it's usually when we get the call which is generally the time it's too late to reverse course and start from scratch the right way. Customers hate emergency labor fees, but honestly, the best way to avoid them is to avoid the mess in the first place!
Not only can a professional help with the actual technical aspects of a Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2012 R2 server move, but also help evaluate potential options for slimming down internal needs and offloading as much as possible to SaaS or IaaS in the cloud. Increasingly, it is also important that organizations under PCI and HIPAA compliance umbrellas consider the finer aspects of end-to-end security such as encryption at-rest, in-transit, and other related areas. A professional can help piece such intricate needs into a proven, workable solution.
With Windows Server 2003 being deprecated in under 300 days at this point, if you haven't started thinking about moving off that old server yet, the time to start is right about now. Seeing as organizations such as healthcare offices and those that handle credit card payments have much to lose with failing HIPAA or PCI compliance, for example, there's no reason to procrastinate any longer.
Have any other best practices to share when moving off Server 2003? Share them below!
Photo Credit: dotshock/Shutterstock
Derrick Wlodarz is an IT Specialist who owns Park Ridge, IL (USA) based technology consulting & service company FireLogic, with over eight+ years of IT experience in the private and public sectors. He holds numerous technical credentials from Microsoft, Google, and CompTIA and specializes in consulting customers on growing hot technologies such as Office 365, Google Apps, cloud-hosted VoIP, among others. Derrick is an active member of CompTIA's Subject Matter Expert Technical Advisory Council that shapes the future of CompTIA exams across the world. You can reach him at derrick at wlodarz dot net.
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