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HP0-760 - NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level 2) - Dump Information

Vendor : HP
Exam Code : HP0-760
Exam Name : NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level 2)
Questions and Answers : 148 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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HP0-760 Questions and Answers

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HP0-760 NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level 2)

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HP0-760 exam Dumps Source : NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level 2)

Test Code : HP0-760
Test Name : NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level 2)
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 148 Real Questions

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HP NonStop Kernel Advanced (Level

HP security Voltage's SecureData commercial enterprise: Product overview | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

HP obtained Voltage security in April 2015, rebranding the platform as "HP security Voltage." The product is a knowledge encryption and key generation answer that includes tokenization for protecting sensitive business facts. The HP protection Voltage platform comprises loads of products, equivalent to HP SecureData enterprise, HP SecureData Hadoop, HP SecureData funds and the like. this article specializes in HP SecureData commercial enterprise, which contains HP layout-protecting Encryption (FPE), HP comfy Stateless Tokenization (SST) expertise, HP Stateless Key management, and information overlaying.

Product features

HP SecureData enterprise is a scalable product that encrypts both structured and unstructured records, tokenizes data to stay away from viewing by way of unauthorized clients, meets PCI DSS compliance necessities, and gives analytics.

The middle of HP SecureData business is the Voltage SecureData management Console, which gives centralized coverage administration and reporting for all Voltage SecureData systems. an extra element, the Voltage Key administration Server, manages the encryption keys. coverage-controlled utility programming interfaces permit native encryption and tokenization on many different structures, from safety counsel and experience managers to Hadoop to cloud environments.

The platform employs a different method referred to as HP Stateless Key administration, which potential keys are generated on demand, in accordance with policy stipulations, after clients are authenticated and authorized. Keys may also be regenerated as needed. the use of stateless key management reduces administrative overhead and costs by using getting rid of the key store -- there's no deserve to keep, preserve music of and again up every key it's been issued. Plus, an administrator can link HP Stateless Key administration to an organization's id management gadget to enforce function-based entry to information on the container degree.

FPE is based on superior Encryption common. FPE encrypts information without altering the database schema, but does make minimal adjustments to functions that need to view cleartext data. (in lots of cases, handiest a single line of code is modified.)

HP SecureData commercial enterprise's key administration, reporting and logging strategies support shoppers meet compliance with PCI DSS, medical health insurance Portability and Accountability Act and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, in addition to state, country wide and European statistics privateness regulations.

HP SecureData business is suitable with virtually any type of database, including Oracle, DB2, MySQL, Sybase, Microsoft SQL and Microsoft Azure SQL, among others. It supports a wide selection of operating techniques and structures, together with home windows, Linux, AIX, Solaris, HP-UX, HP NonStop, Stratus VOS, IBM z/OS, Amazon internet capabilities, Microsoft Azure, Teradata, Hadoop and many cloud environments.

agencies that put into effect HP SecureData commercial enterprise can expect to have full end-to-conclusion records insurance plan in 60 days or less.

Pricing and licensing

prospective shoppers must contact an HP income representative for pricing and licensing assistance.

assist

HP offers average and premium guide for all HP protection Voltage products. commonplace aid comprises entry to the options portal and on-line help requests, the on-line competencies base, email support, business hours telephone guide, four-hour response time and a aid desk package.

premium support contains the same aspects as commonplace help, but with 24x7 telephone aid and a two-hour response time.


HP Contributes supply Code to Open supply community to develop Adoption of Linux | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

PALO ALTO, Calif.--(enterprise WIRE)--continuing its efforts to increase consumer adoption of Linux, HP (NYSE:HPQ) today announced the contribution of its Tru64 UNIX superior File gadget (AdvFS) supply code to the open source group.

The AdvFS supply code contains capabilities that raise uptime, raise protection and support be certain highest efficiency of Linux file programs. HP will make a contribution the code as a reference implementation of an commercial enterprise Linux file gadget under the phrases of widespread Public License edition 2 for compatibility with the Linux kernel, in addition to give design documentation, verify suites and engineering elements.

Linux is among the most widespread examples of free application and open source building, and source code continues to attract pastime from builders, the user group and shoppers. HP, which ships a Linux server on the cost of 1 per minute, has long offered open supply alternate options to clients and contributed to the open source community to velocity market development.

The source code serves as a prosperous expertise base to strengthen ongoing construction of Linux by providing a finished foundation for Linux kernel builders to leverage and increase Linux file gadget performance.

Developed by using HP, AdvFS has been deployed for greater than sixteen years by means of firms during the world. It simplifies file and storage management, permits online gadget backups and increases facts availability. the combination of key AdvFS file equipment aspects also hastens the roadmap of future solutions designed to reinforce Linux for commercial enterprise consumers.

“To ensure the maximum ranges of records protection and availability, Linux valued clientele want full and instant access to dependent know-how,” observed Martin Fink, senior vp and popular manager, business important methods, HP. “We continue to invest our engineering materials in the development of that expertise, whereas working with the open supply group to ensure accessibility and seamless integration.”

increasing Linux performance and advancing productiveness

business calls for for improved solutions are driving the Linux kernel development neighborhood to focus on the development of file equipment performance. at present, file systems are being developed through an open neighborhood technique. HP’s contribution fuels these efforts.

“HP’s contribution of the advanced File system code, coupled with their standard resource dedication to Linux, will greatly speed up the building and business availability of more suitable equipment performance for Linux,” said Jim Zemlin, government director, Linux basis. “The expertise and engineering components being made attainable for subsequent-technology file gadget projects are proof that HP is a real open supply neighborhood chief.”

Linux market chief

HP prolonged its international lead within the Linux market with 38.6 % of revenue market share for the primary quarter of 2008, in response to IDC. HP additionally holds the No. 1 Linux server market position in unit shipments, with 36.4 percent of market share international.(1)

“HP’s contribution quickens the building of future Linux file systems, making certain more suitable gadget efficiency to satisfy our increasingly demanding needs,” talked about Professor Giovanni Aloisio, chief govt officer of the Italian Southern Partnership for advance Computational Infrastructures (SPACI) in southern Italy. “Linux is enjoying a significant function in our constructing of a supercomputing grid environment operating HP Integrity servers. we have used many technologies over the years, including Tru64 UNIX with the superior File gadget, and this announcement assures SPACI of continued Linux boom to conduct enormous new analysis.”

The Tru64 UNIX superior File equipment source code, design documentation and check suites are available by means of touring http://advfs.sourceforge.internet. greater assistance on open source and Linux at HP is obtainable at www.hp.com/go/linux.

About HP

HP specializes in simplifying know-how experiences for all of its shoppers – from individual patrons to the biggest agencies. With a portfolio that spans printing, own computing, application, features and IT infrastructure, HP is among the world’s biggest IT agencies, with earnings totaling $110.4 billion for the 4 fiscal quarters ended April 30, 2008. greater tips about HP is accessible at www.hp.com.

word to editors: more information from HP, including hyperlinks to RSS feeds, is attainable at www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/.

(1) IDC worldwide Quarterly Server Tracker, may also 2008.

This information liberate consists of forward-searching statements that contain risks, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove wrong, the consequences of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries may range materially from these expressed or implied by way of such ahead-searching statements and assumptions. All statements other than statements of old truth are statements that could be deemed ahead-looking statements, together with but not confined to statements of the plans, strategies and targets of administration for future operations; any statements concerning expected development, efficiency or market share concerning products and features; anticipated operational and monetary outcomes; any statements of expectation or perception; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions encompass the execution and efficiency of contracts by using HP and its valued clientele, suppliers and companions; the achievement of expected consequences; and other hazards that are described in HP’s Quarterly document on form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended April 30, 2008 and HP’s different filings with the Securities and change fee, including however now not limited to HP’s Annual report on kind 10-okay for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2007. HP assumes no duty and does not intend to update these ahead-looking statements.

© 2008 Hewlett-Packard building enterprise, L.P. The counsel contained herein is area to alternate devoid of note. The simplest warranties for HP products and capabilities are set forth within the express warranty statements accompanying such products and capabilities. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an extra warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial mistakes or omissions contained herein.


Works on My computing device | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

one of the most insidious limitations to continual beginning (and to continuous move in software start frequently) is the works-on-my-laptop phenomenon. any one who has worked on a software development crew or an infrastructure help crew has experienced it. anyone who works with such groups has heard the phrase spoken throughout (attempted) demos. The situation is so typical there’s even a badge for it:

in all probability you have earned this badge your self. I even have a number of. you'll want to see my trophy room.

There’s a longstanding lifestyle on Agile groups that may additionally have originated at ThoughtWorks around the turn of the century. It goes like this: When a person violates the ancient engineering principle, “Don’t do anything else stupid on purpose,” they need to pay a penalty. The penalty could be to drop a greenback into the crew snack jar, or some thing a good deal worse (for an introverted technical category), like standing in front of the team and singing a music. To explain a failed demo with a glib “<shrug>Works on my computing device!</shrug>” qualifies.

it will possibly no longer be viable to steer clear of the issue in all situations. As Forrest Gump talked about…smartly, you be aware of what he observed. however we will reduce the difficulty via paying attention to a couple of obtrusive things. (yes, I have in mind “glaring” is a observe for use advisedly.)

Pitfall #1: Leftover Configuration

problem: Leftover configuration from old work enables the code to work on the building environment (and maybe the check atmosphere, too) while it fails on different environments.

Pitfall #2: development/test Configuration Differs From construction

The options to this pitfall are so comparable to these for Pitfall #1 that I’m going to group the two.

answer (tl;dr): Don’t reuse environments.

general situation: Many builders installation an atmosphere they like on their computing device/computing device or on the crew’s shared development environment. The ambiance grows from venture to venture as more libraries are brought and greater configuration alternate options are set. occasionally, the configurations conflict with one one more, and teams/people regularly make guide configuration changes reckoning on which assignment is lively in the meanwhile.

It doesn’t take long for the development configuration to become very different from the configuration of the target production atmosphere. Libraries that are latest on the building gadget can also now not exist on the construction gadget. You may additionally run your native checks assuming you’ve configured things the same as production best to find later that you just’ve been the usage of a special edition of a key library than the one in creation.

refined and unpredictable adjustments in behavior happen across development, check, and production environments. The condition creates challenges not most effective all the way through building but also right through creation aid work once we’re trying to reproduce stated behavior.

answer (long): Create an remoted, dedicated construction environment for each and every task.

There’s a couple of functional strategy. that you may likely suppose of a few. listed below are just a few chances:

  • Provision a brand new VM (in the neighborhood, for your computer) for every project. (I had to add “in the neighborhood, for your machine” as a result of I’ve learned that in many bigger companies, developers ought to bounce through bureaucratic hoops to get access to a VM, and VMs are managed fully with the aid of a separate purposeful silo. Go figure.)
  • Do your construction in an remoted ambiance (together with checking out within the reduce ranges of the examine automation pyramid), like Docker or equivalent.
  • Do your construction on a cloud-based mostly building atmosphere that's provisioned through the cloud company should you define a brand new assignment.
  • installation your continual Integration (CI) pipeline to provision a fresh VM for each build/examine run, to be sure nothing may be left over from the last construct that could pollute the effects of the present build.
  • installation your continuous birth (CD) pipeline to provision a sparkling execution ambiance for larger-degree checking out and for production, in place of promoting code and configuration information into an latest ambiance (for a similar cause). word that this approach also gives you the talents of linting, fashion-checking, and validating the provisioning scripts within the common direction of a construct/set up cycle. handy.
  • All these options won’t be feasible for each conceivable platform or stack. opt for and choose, and roll your personal as acceptable. In well-known, all these things are fairly convenient to do in case you’re working on Linux. All of them may also be finished for different *nix techniques with some effort. Most of them are reasonably effortless to do with windows; the simplest issue there is licensing, and in case your company has an commercial enterprise license, you’re all set. For other structures, corresponding to IBM zOS or HP NonStop, expect to do some hand-rolling of equipment.

    anything that’s possible in your condition and that helps you isolate your building and examine environments can be useful. if you can’t do all this stuff to your circumstance, don’t agonize about it. just do what you can do.

    Provision a brand new VM in the neighborhood

    if you’re working on a computing device, computer, or shared building server working Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, windows, or OSX, you then’re in first rate form. which you could use virtualization utility corresponding to VirtualBox or VMware to stand up and tear down local VMs at will. For the much less-mainstream platforms, you may should construct the virtualization tool from supply.

    One thing I usually suggest is that builders cultivate an angle of laziness in themselves. smartly, the right type of laziness, that is. You shouldn’t think perfectly happy provisioning a server manually more than once. take the time all the way through that first provisioning recreation to script the stuff you find alongside the manner. then you definitely received’t ought to bear in mind them and repeat the same mis-steps again. (well, until you relish that sort of issue, of route.)

    for example, listed here are a number of provisioning scripts that I’ve get a hold of after I crucial to install development environments. These are all in response to Ubuntu Linux and written in Bash. I don’t know if they’ll assist you, but they work on my machine.

    if your business is working RedHat Linux in construction, you’ll doubtless wish to adjust these scripts to run on CentOS or Fedora, so that your construction environments might be moderately near the target environments. No huge deal.

    in case you need to be even lazier, you can use a tool like Vagrant to simplify the configuration definitions in your VMs.

    a further issue: whatever thing scripts you write and some thing definition files you write for provisioning tools, maintain them beneath edition manage together with each project. be certain anything is in edition handle for a given mission is everything critical to work on that assignment…code, exams, documentation, scripts…every little thing. here is quite critical, I believe.

    Do Your building in a Container

    a technique of setting apart your development environment is to run it in a container. lots of the equipment you’ll examine if you happen to look for advice about containers are truly orchestration equipment meant to aid us control distinct containers, usually in a construction atmosphere. For local construction purposes, you basically don’t need that a good deal performance. There are a few useful containers for this aim:

    These are Linux-primarily based. whether it’s purposeful so you might containerize your development atmosphere depends on what technologies you need. To containerize a construction atmosphere for yet another OS, such as home windows, can also no longer be worth the trouble over just working a full-blown VM. For different systems, it’s likely inconceivable to containerize a construction atmosphere.

    advance in the Cloud

    here's a relatively new choice, and it’s possible for a restricted set of technologies. The skills over building a native construction atmosphere is that you can get up a fresh ambiance for each and every venture, guaranteeing you gained’t have any accessories or configuration settings left over from outdated work. here are a couple of options:

    are expecting to peer these environments enhance, and are expecting to see greater avid gamers during this market. investigate which applied sciences and languages are supported so see even if one of those will be a healthy to your wants. because of the quick tempo of trade, there’s no experience in checklist what’s obtainable as of the date of this article.

    Generate verify Environments on the Fly as a part of Your CI build

    once you have a script that spins up a VM or configures a container, it’s effortless to add it to your CI build. The capabilities is that your exams will run on a pristine ambiance, with no chance of false positives due to leftover configurations from outdated versions of the application or from other applications that had up to now shared the identical static examine atmosphere, or as a result of examine facts modified in a previous look at various run.

    Many people have scripts that they’ve hacked as much as simplify their lives, but they may also not be proper for unattended execution. Your scripts (or the tools you utilize to interpret declarative configuration necessities) must be able to run without issuing any prompts (such as prompting for an administrator password). They also need to be idempotent (this is, it received’t do any damage to run them varied times, in the case of restarts). Any runtime values that ought to be supplied to the script ought to be purchasable with the aid of the script because it runs, and not require any guide “tweaking” earlier than each run.

    The conception of “producing an atmosphere” may additionally sound infeasible for some stacks. Take the advice widely. For a Linux atmosphere, it’s fairly standard to create a VM on every occasion you need one. For other environments, you may no longer be in a position to do just that, however there may be some steps that you could take in response to the universal concept of developing an environment on the fly.

    for example, a crew engaged on a CICS application on an IBM mainframe can define and begin a CICS atmosphere any time by way of operating it as a common job. within the early 1980s, we used to do that routinely. because the Nineteen Eighties dragged on (and continued through the Nineteen Nineties and 2000s, in some companies), the realm of company IT grew to become increasingly bureaucratized unless this capacity was taken out of developers’ hands.

    strangely, as of 2017 very few building teams have the choice to run their personal CICS environments for experimentation, development, and initial checking out. I say “strangely” because so many different points of our working lives have improved dramatically, while that element looks to have moved in retrograde. We don’t have such problems engaged on the entrance conclusion of our applications, however once we flow to the lower back end we fall through a sort of time warp.

    From a merely technical element of view, there’s nothing to cease a development team from doing this. It qualifies as “producing an atmosphere,” for my part. which you can’t run a CICS gadget “in the cloud” or “on a VM” (as a minimum, no longer as of 2017), but that you would be able to practice “cloud thinking” to the challenge of managing your substances.

    in a similar way, which you can practice “cloud thinking” to different supplies on your environment, as neatly. Use your imagination and creativity. Isn’t that why you chose this box of work, in spite of everything?

    Generate construction Environments on the Fly as a part of Your CD Pipeline

    This suggestion is fairly a whole lot the same as the old one, apart from that it happens later in the CI/CD pipeline. upon getting some variety of automatic deployment in location, which you can lengthen that procedure to encompass immediately spinning up VMs or automatically reloading and provisioning hardware servers as a part of the deployment process. At that point, “deployment” basically skill developing and provisioning the goal ambiance, as opposed to moving code into an existing environment.

    This approach solves a number of issues past elementary configuration adjustments. for instance, if a hacker has introduced anything to the creation ambiance, rebuilding that environment out-of-source that you simply control eliminates that malware. individuals are discovering there’s price in rebuilding creation machines and VMs often however there aren't any alterations to “set up,” for that intent as well as to prevent “configuration go with the flow” that occurs once we follow changes over time to a long-running instance.

    Many groups run windows servers in construction, primarily to assist third-birthday celebration applications that require that OS. a controversy with deploying to an current home windows server is that many applications require an installer to be present on the goal illustration. generally, information security individuals frown on having installers purchasable on any production illustration. (FWIW, I agree with them.)

    if you create a home windows VM or provision a home windows server on the fly from controlled sources, then you definately don’t want the installer as soon as the provisioning is complete. You gained’t re-set up an application; if a transformation is essential, you’ll rebuild the complete illustration. that you can put together the atmosphere before it’s accessible in production, after which delete any installers that have been used to provision it. So, this strategy addresses more than simply the works-on-my-desktop problem.

    When it comes to lower back-conclusion methods like zOS, you won’t be spinning up your own CICS areas and LPARs for construction deployment. The “cloud considering” if so is to have two identical construction environments. Deployment then turns into a be counted of switching traffic between the two environments, as opposed to migrating code. This makes it less complicated to implement creation releases without impacting clients. It additionally helps alleviate the works-on-my-desktop issue, as testing late in the beginning cycle occurs on a real creation atmosphere (even if valued clientele aren’t pointed to it yet).

    The average objection to here is the can charge (it is, charges paid to IBM) to help twin environments. This objection is always raised by means of people who have not totally analyzed the charges of all of the extend and transform inherent in doing things the “old means.”

    Pitfall #three: unpleasant Surprises When Code Is Merged

    problem: distinct groups and individuals address code investigate-out and check-in in various methods. Some checkout code as soon as and alter it throughout the course of a task, perhaps over a length of weeks or months. Others commit small changes often, updating their native copy and committing adjustments repeatedly per day. Most teams fall someplace between those extremes.

    frequently, the longer you maintain code checked out and the more changes you're making to it, the more advantageous the chances of a collision for those who merge. It’s additionally probably that you're going to have forgotten precisely why you made every little exchange, and so will the other people who've modified the same chunks of code. Merges can also be a hassle.

    all over these merge movements, all different price-add work stops. every person is making an attempt to determine a way to merge the alterations. Tempers flare. every person can claim, accurately, that the system works on their computer.

    answer: an easy option to avoid this sort of thing is to commit small alterations generally, run the look at various suite with everybody’s adjustments in region, and contend with minor collisions at once earlier than memory fades. It’s extensively less annoying.

    The better part is you don’t want any particular tooling to try this. It’s just a query of self-discipline. nonetheless, it most effective takes one individual who maintains code checked out for a very long time to clutter each person else up. Be aware about that, and kindly help your colleagues establish respectable habits.

    Pitfall #4: Integration blunders found out Late

    problem: This issue is akin to Pitfall #3, but one degree of abstraction better. although a crew commits small changes frequently and runs a complete suite of automated exams with every commit, they might also adventure huge considerations integrating their code with different add-ons of the solution, or interacting with other functions in context.

    The code may additionally work on my desktop, as well as on my team’s integration examine atmosphere, but as quickly as we take the next step ahead, all hell breaks free.

    answer: There are a couple of options to this difficulty. the first is static code evaluation. It’s fitting the norm for a continuous integration pipeline to encompass static code analysis as part of each build. This happens earlier than the code is compiled. Static code analysis equipment investigate the source code as text, trying to find patterns that are typical to result in integration mistakes (amongst other things).

    Static code evaluation can realize structural problems within the code comparable to cyclic dependencies and high cyclomatic complexity, in addition to different primary complications like dead code and violations of coding necessities that are likely to increase cruft in a codebase. It’s simply the form of cruft that explanations merge hassles, too.

    A related suggestion is to take any warning stage error from static code evaluation equipment and from compilers as precise errors. gathering warning level blunders is a good way to emerge as with mysterious, surprising behaviors at runtime.

    The second answer is to integrate components and run automatic integration verify suites commonly. install the CI pipeline in order that when all unit-stage exams move, then integration-level assessments are performed automatically. Let disasters at that degree wreck the construct, just as you do with the unit-degree checks.

    With these two strategies, you could notice integration blunders as early as possible within the delivery pipeline. The earlier you observe a problem, the more convenient it's to fix.

    Pitfall #5: Deployments Are Nightmarish All-evening Marathons

    problem: Circa 2017, it’s still ordinary to find agencies where individuals have “free up parties” on every occasion they set up code to construction. free up events are only like several-nighttime frat events, handiest with out the fun.

    The difficulty is that the first time purposes are accomplished in a construction-like atmosphere is when they're finished within the real construction environment. Many issues only come into sight when the group tries to set up to production.

    Of path, there’s no time or funds allotted for that. individuals working in a rush may get the equipment up-and-operating by hook or by crook, but regularly on the can charge of regressions that pop up later in the type of production help issues.

    And it’s all as a result of, at each stage of the delivery pipeline, the system “worked on my desktop,” even if a developer’s desktop, a shared verify atmosphere configured in another way from production, or every other unreliable atmosphere.

    answer: The solution is to configure every atmosphere all over the delivery pipeline as close to production as viable. right here are accepted guidelines that you may wish to alter counting on local cases.

    if in case you have a staging ambiance, in place of twin production environments, it will be configured with all internal interfaces are living and exterior interfaces stubbed, mocked, or virtualized. besides the fact that here's as far as you take the thought, it will likely dispose of the need for unlock events. but if which you can, it’s respectable to proceed upstream in the pipeline, to in the reduction of sudden delays in advertising code along.

    verify environments between building and staging may still be running the equal version of the OS and libraries as construction. They may still be isolated at the applicable boundary in response to the scope of testing to be performed.

    at the start of the pipeline, if it’s feasible, enhance on the identical OS and identical typical configuration as creation. It’s possible you don't have as a lot reminiscence or as many processors as in the creation environment. The building atmosphere additionally would not have any live interfaces; all dependencies exterior to the software could be faked.

    At a minimal, fit the OS and release level to creation as intently as you could. for instance, if you’ll be deploying to windows Server 2016, then use a home windows Server 2016 VM to run your brief CI build and unit check suite. windows Server 2016 is in line with NT 10, so do your construction work on home windows 10 because it’s also in accordance with NT 10. in a similar fashion, if the creation ambiance is home windows Server 2008 R2 (in response to NT 6.1) then increase on home windows 7 (also in accordance with NT 6.1). You gained’t be in a position to dispose of each configuration difference, however you could be capable of prevent nearly all of incompatibilities.

    follow the identical rule of thumb for Linux targets and construction systems. for instance, if you will set up to RHEL 7.3 (kernel edition 3.10.x), then run unit exams on the same OS if viable. in any other case, look for (or build) a version of CentOS in keeping with the same kernel edition as your creation RHEL (don’t count on). At a minimal, run unit checks on a Linux distro in line with the equal kernel edition because the target production instance. Do your development on CentOS or a Fedora-primarily based distro to reduce inconsistencies with RHEL.

    if you’re using a dynamic infrastructure management strategy that contains building OS instances from source, then this issue turns into much simpler to control. you can build your building, look at various, and construction environments from the identical sources, assuring version consistency right through the beginning pipeline. however the fact is that very few organizations are managing infrastructure during this approach as of 2017. It’s more likely that you just’ll configure and provision OS situations in line with a printed ISO, and then deploy packages from a private or public repo. You’ll have to pay shut consideration to models.

    in case you’re doing construction work in your personal computer or desktop, and you’re the usage of a go-platform language (Ruby, Python, Java, and so on.), you may consider it doesn’t matter which OS you employ. You might have a pleasant development stack on windows or OSX (or whatever thing) that you simply’re at ease with. then again, it’s a good suggestion to spin up a local VM working an OS that’s nearer to the creation environment, just to prevent surprising surprises.

    For embedded development the place the construction processor is distinctive from the target processor, encompass a collect step to your low-degree TDD cycle with the compiler alternatives set for the goal platform. this can expose error that don’t turn up if you happen to collect for the construction platform. on occasion the identical edition of the equal library will exhibit different behaviors when performed on distinct processors.

    a further recommendation for embedded construction is to constrain your construction environment to have the identical reminiscence limits and different aid constraints because the goal platform. which you can capture certain styles of errors early by doing this.

    For some of the older lower back conclusion platforms, it’s feasible to do development and unit testing off-platform for convenience. pretty early in the delivery pipeline, you’ll wish to upload your supply to an environment on the target platform and construct and test there.

    as an instance, for a C++ utility on, say, HP NonStop, it’s convenient to do TDD on something local atmosphere you like (assuming that’s possible for the class of software), the usage of any compiler and a unit checking out framework like CppUnit.

    similarly, it’s handy to do COBOL construction and unit trying out on a Linux illustration the use of GnuCOBOL; lots faster and more convenient than using OEDIT on-platform for best-grained TDD.

    besides the fact that children, in these situations, the target execution ambiance is awfully diverse from the construction ambiance. You’ll wish to endeavor the code on-platform early in the beginning pipeline to dispose of works-on-my-laptop surprises.

    summary

    The works-on-my-computer difficulty is without doubt one of the leading causes of developer stress and lost time. The leading cause of the works-on-my-computer difficulty is variations in configuration across construction, verify, and creation environments.

    The basic tips is to steer clear of configuration ameliorations to the extent viable. Take pains to make certain all environments are as similar to creation as is practical. Pay consideration to OS kernel versions, library models, API types, compiler versions, and the types of any home-grown utilities and libraries. When variations can’t be prevented, then make be aware of them and treat them as hazards. Wrap them in examine instances to give early warning of any issues.

    The second recommendation is to automate as a great deal testing as possible at distinct ranges of abstraction, merge code frequently, build the utility commonly, run the automatic look at various suites commonly, set up generally, and (where feasible) build the execution atmosphere frequently. this could assist you realize issues early, while probably the most recent alterations are nevertheless clean to your intellect, and whereas the considerations are nevertheless minor.

    Let’s fix the realm so that the subsequent technology of software builders doesn’t take into account the phrase, “Works on my desktop.”


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    Tamper-Evident Boot with Heads | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Learn about how the cutting-edge, free software Heads project detects BIOS and kernel tampering, all with keys under your control.

    Disclaimer: I work for Purism, and my experience with Heads began as part of supporting it on Purism's hardware. As a technical writer, I personally find ads that mask themselves as articles in technical publications disingenuous, and this article in no way is intended to be an advertisement for my employer. However, in writing this deep dive piece, I found that mentioning Purism was unavoidable in some places without leaving out important information about Heads—in particular, the list of overall supported hardware and an explanation of Heads' HOTP alternative to TOTP authentication, because it requires a specific piece Purism hardware.

    Some of the earliest computer viruses attacked the boot sector—that bit of code at the beginning of the hard drive in the Master Boot Record that allowed you to boot into your operating system. The reasons for this have to do with stealth and persistence. Viruses on the filesystem itself would be erased if users re-installed their operating systems, but if they didn't erase the boot sector as part of the re-install process, boot sector viruses could stick around and re-infect the operating system.

    Antivirus software vendors ultimately added the ability to scan the boot sector for known viruses, so the problem was solved, right? Unfortunately, as computers, operating systems and BIOSes became more sophisticated, so did the boot-sector attacks. Modern attacks take over before the OS is launched and infect the OS itself, so when you try to search for the attack through the OS, the OS tells you everything is okay.

    That's not to say modern defenses to this type of attack don't exist. Most modern approaches involve proprietary software that locks down the system so that it can boot only code that's signed by a vendor (typically Microsoft, Apple, Google or one of their approved third-party vendors). The downside, besides the proprietary nature of this defense, is that you are beholden to the vendor to bless whatever code you want to run, or else you have to disable this security feature completely (if you can).

    Fortunately, an alternative exists that is not only free software, but that also takes a completely different approach to boot security by alerting you to tampering instead of blocking untrusted code. This approach, Heads, can detect tampering not only in the BIOS itself but also in all of your important boot files in the /boot directory, including the kernel, initrd and even your grub config. The result is a trusted boot environment with keys fully under your own control.

    In this article, I describe some of the existing boot security approaches in more detail, along with some of their limitations, and then I describe how Heads works, and how to build and install it on your own system.

    Why Boot Security Matters

    To understand why having a secure boot process matters so much, it's useful to understand one of the most common threats on a Linux system: rootkits. A rootkit is a piece of software attackers can use to exploit vulnerabilities in the kernel or other software on the system that has root privileges, so it can turn normal user-level access into root-level access. This ability to escalate to root privileges is important, because although in the old days, all network services ran as root, these days, servers more often run as regular users. If attackers find a flaw in a network service and exploit it so they are able to run commands locally, they will only be able to run those commands as the same user. The rootkit allows them to turn those local user privileges into root privileges, whereby they then can move on to the next step, which is installing backdoors into your system, so they can get back in later undetected.

    Although sometimes attackers will install a backdoor that just has a service listening on an obscure port all the time, kernel backdoors are preferred because once they exploit the kernel, they then can mask any attempts by your OS to detect the attack. After all, if you want to know what files are in a directory, or which processes are running, you have to ask the kernel. If you can exploit the kernel, you can hide your malicious processes or files from prying eyes. Many rootkits also will set up a kernel backdoor for attackers automatically as part of the automated attack.

    Rootkits aren't only a threat on servers; it's just that servers are accessible on the network all the time, and they run software that listens for requests. Although modern Linux desktop installs don't have any services listening on the network, there still are plenty of ways for attackers to launch code locally as your user—via the web browser is one of the most common ways, and malicious file attachments in email is another.

    The whole point of a rootkit is to make it difficult for you to detect it from the running OS, but you still always can boot the system from a live USB-based OS and examine the hard drive. Or, you could re-install the OS completely and be rid of the threat. Yet even in that case, you are relying on the BIOS to boot your live USB-based OS. Your BIOS is the first code your CPU executes when it boots. Once it loads, it detects the hardware on your system, initializes it, and then lets you boot either from an internal hard drive or perhaps from external USB or DVD media. If attackers were able to modify your BIOS, in theory, they could just re-install their backdoor in any kernel it loads and persist even with re-installing the OS or examining it from a live USB disk.

    The BIOS then becomes the root of trust for the entire rest of the system. Until you can trust it, you can't fully trust the rest of the code that executes after it.

    Next I describe some of the current approaches to secure the boot process, all of which involve executing only pre-approved code.

    Other Boot Security Methods

    It's easier to understand how Heads works, and how it is different from the existing approaches, once you understand how the existing approaches work. The main two approaches that provide boot security on modern systems are UEFI Secure Boot and Intel Trusted Boot.

    UEFI Secure Boot

    Of all of the different approaches to secure the boot process, UEFI Secure Boot is the most popular, and it's included in just about every modern laptop and desktop you would buy. The way that Secure Boot works is that the UEFI flash chip contains certificates for Microsoft and its approved third-party vendors. UEFI boot firmware that works with Secure Boot contains a signature created by the private keys of either Microsoft or its approved vendors. Secure Boot then checks that signature against its certificates, and if the signature matches, it allows the boot firmware to execute. If the signature doesn't match or is missing, Secure Boot will not allow it to run.

    Because it was initially designed for Windows, and initially Windows was the only OS that used it, Secure Boot often is thought of as a Microsoft-only technology, and many in the FOSS community spoke out against it because of the risk that it could be used to lock out a system from loading Linux. It's true that initially you could use Secure Boot only with Windows, but Linux distribution vendors like Red Hat and Ubuntu worked with Microsoft to get a boot "shim" signed that would allow them to load GRUB and boot their OSes.

    Of course, there still are plenty of Linux distributions that haven't gotten boot shim code signed by Microsoft, including Debian. This means that if you want to install Debian on a system with Secure Boot, you first must go into your UEFI settings and disable Secure Boot entirely before you are allowed to boot the USB installer—that is, if your UEFI software allows you to disable Secure Boot. Some lower-cost computers these days ship with stripped-down UEFI firmware that allow only a very minimal level of configuration, and on these systems, Secure Boot often is no longer optional.

    Secure Boot does have a mechanism that would allow you to replace the existing vendor certificates with your own, and that might be an option for Linux users who want to use Secure Boot on systems that don't use Microsoft-signed boot firmware. The process itself is somewhat complicated though, and the end result would boot your own custom-signed code but then would lock out anything not signed with your own signatures, such as a typical USB OS installer. Again, this is an option only if you first can disable Secure Boot to load your untrusted OS and modify UEFI, or else attempt the modification from a trusted OS.

    Intel Trusted Boot

    Along with Secure Boot, modern Intel computers also have the option of a security mechanism called Intel Trusted Boot. This mechanism takes advantage of the special capabilities of the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip on a system. The TPM is a standalone chip available on some motherboards that can act as its own Hardware Security Module (HSM) by generating its own cryptographic keys and performing cryptographic operations on-chip independent of the system CPU. The TPM also contains Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) that can contain measurements of executed code in the form of a chain of hashes. Generally, different PCRs are used to store measurements of different phases of the boot process.

    Intel Trusted Boot works by sending the measurements of code as it is executing over to the TPM where it is hashed and stored in a corresponding PCR. As new code is executed, it also gets hashed and combined with hashes of previous code in the PCR. The TPM allows you to seal secrets (disk decryption keys are common) within it that are unlocked only if the PCRs contain previously stored values. Combined with Secure Boot, Intel Trusted Boot allows you to detect tampering in boot-time executables.

    Secure Boot Limitations

    Secure Boot is the main way vendors provide boot-time security on modern computers, but it has quite a few limitations. The first big limitation is also its biggest claimed feature—that it requires boot code to be signed by keys under the vendor's control. This means if you did happen to want to run custom boot code, you must work with vendors to get them to sign your binary or else replace all of their certificates with your own and run only your own code.

    Another limitation is that although Secure Boot ensures that you are running code that has been signed, it doesn't ensure that you are running the same boot code that you ran previously. An attacker who was able to get access to one of the vendor signing keys could create a boot-time executable that would pass Secure Boot protections. What would happen to existing computers if one of the Microsoft (or other vendor) signing keys were leaked or forced to be shared with a nation state?

    Secure Boot is also proprietary software, so you have to take vendors at their word that there are no backdoors within it, and you also have less visibility into what code might be signed. In addition, Secure Boot validates only executables. It can't validate your initrd files or GRUB configs—both places where attackers could add malicious changes. Ultimately, the issue with Secure Boot is that it takes control of your computer and its security out of your hands and into the hands of vendors. If you fully trust your vendor, perhaps you are fine with that trade-off, but many people would prefer to have full control over their own software and hardware.

    Introduction to Heads

    Heads was created by Trammell Hudson to solve some of the trust issues and other limitations of Secure Boot by replacing it with a system that focuses on detecting tampering instead of blocking it. The idea with Heads is to capture a stable, trusted state in the BIOS and boot code, and then ensure that at each subsequent boot, the BIOS and boot code haven't changed. Heads is written under a free software license, so it not only can be inspected, but it also is reproducibly built, so if you were to get a pre-built Heads ROM, you also could build the same revision of Heads yourself and get the same result, thereby proving that the code wasn't tampered with at some point in the build process.

    Heads loads from within the open-source coreboot BIOS (or optionally LinuxBoot for some server platforms) and is actually its own standalone Linux kernel and runtime environment that performs tamper checks and then boots into your system kernel once everything checks out. Unlike with Secure Boot, it detects tampering using keys that are fully under your control—keys you can change at any point.

    Hardware Support

    Because Heads relies on coreboot or LinuxBoot, its current hardware support is somewhat limited to hardware that both supports either coreboot or LinuxBoot, has a TPM, and has someone who has defined that board's configuration, including coreboot settings and other options, and submitted it to Heads. Currently, that list is pretty small: Lenovo ThinkPad X220 and X230, the Purism Librem laptop line and a handful of servers.

    How Heads Works

    On the surface, Heads works similarly to Intel Trusted Boot in that it uses the TPM to verify measurements of itself to then unlock a secret. That's where the similarities end though, as Heads approaches boot security in a much different way, because its aim is to provide tamper detection, not tamper proofing. Heads will alert you to tampering, but it still provides you the ability to boot whatever software you want.

    You can break down the default Heads boot process into a few main phases:

  • The coreboot BIOS starts and loads the Heads kernel and initrd.
  • As code executes, measurements are sent over to the TPM chip.
  • Heads presents a TOTP/HOTP code to prove to the user that it hasn't been tampered with.
  • The user selects a boot option.
  • Heads checks all the files in /boot for tampering before loading the OS.
  • If the files all check out, Heads boots the OS.
  • Heads uses two different sets of keys to detect tampering. First it uses a shared secret stored in the TPM and also on either a TOTP authenticator application on your phone or on a special USB security token like the Librem Key. This shared secret is used to prove the BIOS itself hasn't been tampered with. The next set of keys is a set of trusted GPG public keys within a GPG keyring that you add to the Heads ROM. Once you know the BIOS hasn't been tampered with, you can trust that the GPG keyring it has within it hasn't been modified to add an untrusted key. Heads then uses that trusted keyring to verify all of the signatures on the files in /boot. In both cases, these are secrets that are fully under your control, and you can change them and reset signatures at any point.

    Next, let's look at more specifics of how Heads works by focusing on each of these two secrets and how they are used in their respective parts of the boot process.

    Boot Security and the TPM

    The very first thing Heads must do is prove to you that it can be trusted and that it hasn't been tampered with. The challenge is, if it has been tampered with, couldn't it lie to you and tell you everything is okay? This is where the TPM comes in. When you first set up Heads, you go through a process to reset the TPM and set up a new admin password (called taking ownership), and then Heads will generate a random secret and store it in the TPM (called sealing) along with the current valid measurements it will take to unlock that secret.

    Once the secret is sealed in the TPM, Heads will convert that secret into a QR code and display it on the screen, so you can scan it with your phone to add it to your TOTP authenticator application of choice (FreeOTP is a free software option that works on Android, for instance). If you have added Librem Key support into Heads, you also can store a copy of the secret onto Purism's Librem Key USB security token.

    When Heads boots, it then sends measurements of the code it executes over to the TPM. If the BIOS has been tampered with, those measurements won't match what was there before, and the TPM will not unlock the shared secret. In that case, Heads will output an error to the screen alerting you to the problem. If the measurements do match, the TPM will unlock the shared secret, send it to Heads, and Heads will combine the secret with the current time to convert it to a six-digit TOTP code that it will display on the screen. You then can compare that code to the six-digit TOTP code in your phone's app, and if they match, you know that the secret was valid. Alternatively, if you enabled Librem Key support, you could insert the device at boot, and Heads would generate a six-digit HOTP code and send it over USB. If it matched the code the Librem Key generated on itself, the Librem Key would blink green; otherwise, it would blink red.

    ""

    Figure 1. The Default Heads Boot Screen

    So if an attacker modifies the BIOS, the TPM will generate an error, but what if the attacker then resets the TPM with a different secret using the measurements from the tampered BIOS? Those measurements would match, and the TPM would unlock the new secret, but that secret would generate a different six-digit code from what your phone or Librem Key would generate, and you would know something suspicious was happening. Because the TPM is designed to be a tamper-proof device, you cannot extract the shared secret from it without providing valid measurements. If you reset the TPM, that secret is also erased.

    Boot Security and GPG Keys

    Once you have verified that the BIOS is trustworthy, you can move on to booting your OS. But before Heads will boot into the OS, it first checks all of the files within the /boot partition to make sure they haven't changed from when you last signed all of them. When you first set up Heads, you add one or more public GPG keys to a keyring within the Heads runtime environment. Heads provides a mechanism not only to add GPG keys to a standalone Heads coreboot ROM file, but you also can add them to the running BIOS. In that case, Heads actually will pull down a copy of the running BIOS, modify it on the fly, and then reflash it.

    Once you have a set of trusted GPG keys in the Heads keyring, you then can sign the files within /boot with your corresponding GPG private key using the Heads GUI. Heads will create a file containing sha256sums for all of the files within /boot and then sign that file with your GPG private key and store the signature in /boot as well. This will require that you have some kind of USB security token that has OpenPGP smartcard support, and Heads will prompt you to insert your USB GPG key whenever you sign these files.

    When you tell Heads to boot into your OS, it first gets flashed into the BIOS, and it can read your GRUB config file and provide you with a boot menu based on the options in that config file.

    Also, whenever you update or add a new kernel, change an existing initrd file, or modify your GRUB config, Heads will detect the change, showing you an error at the next boot. Along with that error will be an option to re-sign all of the files in /boot, in the case that you changed the files yourself. If you didn't expect those files to change, of course, then this could be a sign of tampering!

    Building and Installing Heads

    Heads is reproducibly built, which means that it's designed so that if multiple people were to build the same specific release of Heads with the same build options at different times on different systems, they should get the exact same binary. Because Heads runs on specific BIOS chips, it needs to cross-compile the kernel and other software for that platform, which means that in addition to building a complete Linux kernel and coreboot, you also will need to build a cross-compiler and supporting tools when you build Heads.

    Your local system also will need certain system libraries so you can build coreboot and Heads. On a Debian-based system, you can use apt to install them:

    sudo apt install git build-essential bison flex m4 zlib1g-dev ↪gnat libpci-dev libusb-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev dmidecode ↪bsdiff python2.7 pv libelf-dev pkg-config cmake

    For other systems, use your packaging tool to install the equivalent packages for your platform. Once those are installed, the next step is to get the most recent Heads source code and go into the root of that build directory:

    git clone https://github.com/osresearch/heads.git cd heads/

    The next step is to pull down any binary blobs your board might need for coreboot to boot. Go to the blobs/ directory inside Heads, and see if your board has a directory represented in there. If so, cd to it and read the instructions for how to pull down your binary blobs for coreboot. For instance, on Librem hardware:

    cd blobs/librem_skl/ ./get_blobs.sh

    Once you have gotten any blobs you may need, move back to the root of the Heads build directory. From there, you will see a boards/ directory, and within it are directories for each of the motherboards that Heads supports. Each of those boards has a corresponding configuration file inside its respective directory that set important options, such as what partition to use for /boot and for USB boot devices, what kernel options (if any) to pass along to the OS when it boots, and which init script to load into. These configuration files are already set up for the most part to work with the corresponding motherboard, but you should review the configuration file for your board and confirm in particular that the CONFIG_BOOT_DEV and CONFIG_USB_BOOT_DEV variables are pointing to the correct /boot and USB boot device, respectively.

    Once you are finished editing the configuration file, it's time to build Heads. Change back to the root of the Heads source code and set the particular board with an environment variable while running the make command. So for instance, to build for a ThinkPad X230, you would type:

    make BOARD=x230

    The first time you build Heads, it will take quite a long time! Just be patient as it builds GCC, coreboot, the Linux kernel and a number of other pieces of software. Subsequent builds will be a lot faster. If the build fails at some point in the process, make a note of what package it was attempting to build, and then check the corresponding build log for that software inside the logs/ directory. More often than not, if you see a build failure for a particular piece of software, it's because you are missing a development library on your system. Reviewing the log file should tell you which libraries are missing.

    Once Heads completes the build process, it will dump the corresponding coreboot ROM image into boards/<boardname>/coreboot.rom, so in the case of the above X230 example, it would be in boards/x230/coreboot.rom. You now are ready to install Heads as your BIOS by flashing that ROM image.

    Flashing Heads

    Once you have built your Heads coreboot ROM, the next step is to flash it over the top of your existing BIOS. How you flash Heads on your computer will vary depending on the specific motherboard you have for a number of reasons. First, each laptop uses its own set of flashrom options that are specific to the BIOS chip it has on board, so you will need to reference the flashrom options appropriate for your board. Check out the initrd/bin/flash.sh script from within the Heads code base for an example script that provides flashrom options for the supported boards. Note that this script is designed to be run from within the Heads environment itself with a relatively new version of flashrom (1.0 or above). Older flash chips (like on the ThinkPad boards) should work with older flashrom versions that you should be able to install via a package on your current Linux distribution, but newer boards (like on the Purism Librem laptops) will require a newer (1.0) flashrom program. In the latter case, Purism provides instructions here to pull down and build a current flashrom.

    Another reason that flashing Heads varies for different platforms is that although you can update coreboot from within your own operating system using flashrom if it is already installed, if coreboot isn't already installed, some laptops require an initial hardware flash. For instance, unless you bought it from a special vendor, the Lenovo ThinkPad laptops come with a proprietary vendor-provided BIOS instead of coreboot, so they require an initial hardware flash to overwrite the vendor BIOS. This hardware flash means opening the laptop to expose the BIOS chip, connecting a Pomona clip to it that's attached to one of the many hardware platforms that support flashrom, such as a Raspberry Pi or Beaglebone Black. I cover these steps, including how to back up the existing BIOS, in a past Hack and / article: "Flash ROMs with a Raspberry Pi".

    ""

    Figure 2. Hardware Flashing a BIOS with a Raspberry Pi

    If your hardware already has coreboot installed, you should be able to install Heads purely from software by running flashrom from within the native OS. For instance, the Purism Librem laptops come with coreboot already installed (and plan to offer Heads as a pre-installed option in the near future), so you can use flashrom from within the regular operating system to flash the Heads BIOS without opening the machine. In this case, you will want to run flashrom first with the -r option, so it will pull down a backup of your existing BIOS to store on a USB thumb drive in case you ever want to revert back.

    Using Heads

    Once you have flashed Heads for the first time and rebooted, Heads will guide you through the initial setup. First you'll be prompted to add at least one public GPG key to the Heads keyring, which will require that you have the public key on some sort of USB thumb drive ending in .asc. Heads will mount the USB drive and find all possible .asc files on the device and then prompt you as to which of them you want to add. Once you have added the key, Heads will reflash the BIOS and reboot.

    Once Heads reboots with GPG keys in place, it will get a TPM error, because the TPM has not yet been set up, so it will guide you through setting up a password for your TPM and creating the initial TOTP/HOTP secret. After it reboots another time, you finally should see the default Heads boot menu that lets you select between your default boot option (not yet configured) or opening an Advanced menu of options.

    If you select default boot with no default boot option set, it will detect that state and guide you through selecting a boot option. At that point, it also should detect that you have not yet signed any files in /boot, and it also will guide you through that process (you will need your USB security token containing your GPG private keys at that point).

    Once all of the files have been signed and your default boot option has been set, you should be able to treat Heads much like a regular GRUB menu—boot the computer, confirm there are no alerts and just press Enter to boot into your default OS. Note that as you update software on your underlying OS, if your package updates change or add any files to the /boot directory, you'll get an alert the next time you reboot that files may have been tampered with. If you know that this was caused by your package update and not something malicious, you can just re-sign all of the files in /boot with your private GPG key.

    You can apply updates to Heads completely within the Heads menu. Within the Advanced options menu is a submenu that allows you to flash the BIOS. Within this menu, you can insert a USB drive containing *.rom files and have Heads flash them over the top of your current Heads ROM. There are two main flashing options: flash a ROM and flash a cleaned ROM. The first option is pretty self-explanatory, but in the case of a cleaned ROM, Heads will flash the BIOS, but it won't copy over any existing GPG public keys or other custom changes you may have made to Heads on top of the default ROM. Use this option if you ever want to revert back to a pure factory state (or flash some other non-Heads BIOS), and otherwise use the default flashing option to copy your keyring to the updated Heads ROM.

    Conclusion

    Although installing and using Heads is not for the faint of heart, if you have experimented with coreboot on systems in the past, it's not that much more complicated. If you want the best in boot security, the effort is definitely worth it, as you will end up with a system that can alert you you both to BIOS and kernel-level tampering but with keys completely under your control.

    Resources

    Signing Day: Huntley's Talesky, R-B's Curran sign with Upper Iowa | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Huntley linebacker Michael Talesky and Richmond-Burton two-way lineman Kyle Curran have not met each other, but that will change in a matter of months.

    The two will become teammates this summer at NCAA Division II Upper Iowa, the school to which they both recently committed. Talesky and Curran signed their National Letters of Intent on Wednesday, the start of the NCAA’s regular signing period for scholarship football players.

    Most of the area’s D-I and D-II players signed their letters Dec. 19 in the early signing period.

    Talesky (6-foot-0, 190 pounds) was a Northwest Herald All-Area first-team selection, while Curran (6-5, 260) was a second-teamer on the offensive line. He started on both lines for the Rockets, who were 11-2 and advanced to the Class 4A playoffs semifinals.

    “It was very nice,” Talesky said of receiving the scholarship offer from Peacocks coach Tom Shea and his staff. “I didn’t really expect myself to get there. It was just a blessing that it happened.”

    Upper Iowa is looking at Curran to play defensive tackle in its four-man front.

    “I always wanted to play at the next level,” Curran said. “My pride and joy is football. As I kept playing and we got farther into the playoffs, I thought, ‘If I’m good enough, they’ll find me.’ ”

    Rockets coach Mike Noll sent game videos on several seniors to colleges at different levels. Upper Iowa liked what it saw from Curran.

    “Kyle was our most physical player. He has a nonstop motor,” Noll said. “He plays as hard as he can all the time. He’s very committed and hardworking.”

    Noll talked to youth and high school coaches and, to the best of his knowledge, Curran never missed a practice from first grade on.

    “I’m really excited,” Curran said. “Coach Noll helped me form myself into a better player to play at the next level. I’m excited to see what the college coaches can do to help me excel in D-II football.”

    Talesky was one of the area’s leaders with 95 tackles, 13 tackles for loss and six sacks from his middle linebacker position. He was a third-year starter on a team that finished 6-4 and made the Class 8A playoffs.

    Red Raiders assistant coach Mike Slattery knew coaches on the Upper Iowa staff from when former Huntley player and assistant coach Casey Popenfoose played there. He notified the staff about Talesky.

    “He’s a definite playmaker,” Raiders head coach Matt Zimolzak said of Talesky. “He started at safety as a sophomore, then played outside linebacker his junior year and then as a senior played inside. Schools saw he had diverse abilities where he could play different positions. It’s a great fit for him.”

    Talesky said the coaches want him to add about 20 pounds to play outside linebacker. If he gets bigger during his career, he might be moved inside.

    Other college signings:

    • McHenry East graduate Ray Vohasek officially signed with North Carolina. Read Vohasek's story here.

    • McHenry West graduate Colton Folliard officially signed with Western Illinois. Read Folliard's story here.


    The role of open source in networking | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Technology is always evolving. However, in recent time, two significant changes have emerged in the world of networking. Firstly, the networking is moving to software that can run on commodity off-the-shelf hardware. Secondly, we are witnessing the introduction and use of many open source technologies, removing the barrier of entry for new product innovation and rapid market access.

    Networking is the last bastion within IT to adopt the open source. Consequently, this has badly hit the networking industry in terms of slow speed of innovation and high costs. Every other element of IT has seen radical technology and cost model changes over the past 10 years. However, IP networking has not changed much since the mid-’90s.

    When I became aware of these trends, I decided to sit with Sorell Slaymaker to analyze the evolution and determine how it will inspire the market in the coming years.

    The open development process

    Open source refers to the software, which uses an open development process that has allowed the computed functions to become virtually free. In the past, networking used to be expensive and licensing came at a high cost. It still has to run on proprietary hardware that is often under patent or trade-secret protection.

    The main disadvantages of proprietary hardware are the cost and vendor software release lock-in. A lot of major companies, such as Facebook, AT&T, and Google are using open source software and commodity white box hardware on a huge scale. This has slashed the costs dramatically and has split-open the barriers to innovation.

    As software eats the world, agility is one of the great benefits. Thus, the speed of change becomes less inhibited by long product development cycles and new major functionality can be achieved in days and months, not years. Blackberry is a great example of a company that did nothing wrong, over and above they had multi-year development cycles but still, they got eaten by Apple and Google.

    The white box and grey box

    The white box is truly an off-the-shelf gear while the grey box is taking off-the-shelf white box hardware and making sure it has, for example, specific drivers, version of the operating system so that’s it's optimized and supports the software. Today, many say they are a white box but in reality, they are a grey box.

    With grey box, we are back into “I have a specific box with a specific configuration”. However, this keeps us from being totally free. Freedom is essentially the reason why we want white box hardware and open source software in the first place.

    When networking became software-based, the whole objective was that it gave you the opportunity to run other software stacks on the same box. For example, you can run security, wide area network (WAN) optimization stack and a whole bunch of other functions on the same box.

    However, within a grey box environment, when you have to get specific drivers, for example for networking, it may inhibit other software functions that you might want to run on that stack. So, it becomes a tradeoff. Objectively, a lot of testing needs to be performed so that there are no conflicts.

    SD-WAN vendors and open source

    Many SD-WAN vendors use open source as the foundation of their solution and then add additional functionality over the baseline. Originally, the major SD-WAN vendors did not start from zero code! A lot came from open source code and they then added utilities on the top.

    The technology of SD-WAN did hit a sore spot of networking that needed attention - the WAN edge. However, one could argue, that one of the reasons SD-WAN took off so quickly was because of the availability of open source. It enabled them to leverage all the available open source components and then create their solution on top of that.

    For example, let’s consider FRRouting (FRR), which is a fork off from the Quagga routing suite. It’s an open source routing paradigm that many SD-WAN vendors are using. Essentially, FRR is an IP routing protocol suite for Linux and UNIX platforms which includes protocol daemons for BGP, IS-IS, LDP, OSPF, PIM, and RIP. It’s growing with time and today it supports EVPN type 2, 3, and 5. Besides, you can even pair it with a Cisco device running EIGRP.

    There is a pool of over 60 SD-WAN vendors at the moment. Practically, these vendors don’t have 500 people writing code every day. They are all getting open source software stacks and using them as the foundation of the solution. This allows rapid entrance into the SD-WAN market. Ultimately, new vendors can enter really quickly at a low cost.

    SD-WAN vendors and Casandra

    Today, many SD-WAN vendors are using Casandra as the database to store all their stats. Casandra, licensed under Apache 2.0, is a free and open-source, distributed, wide column store and NoSQL database management system.

    One of the issues that some SD-WAN vendors found with Casandra was that the code consumed a lot of hardware resources and that it didn't scale very well. The problem was that if you have a large network where every router is generating 500 records per second and since most SD-WAN vendors track all flows and flow stats, you will get bogged down while managing all of the data.

    A couple of SD-WAN vendors went to a different NoSQL database management system stack that didn’t take up too much hardware resources and rather distributed and scaled much better. Basically, this can be viewed as both an advantage and a disadvantage of using open source components.

    Yes, it does allow you to move quickly and at your own pace but the disadvantage of using open source is that sometimes you end up with a fat stack. The code is not optimized, and you may need more processing power that you would not need with an optimized stack.

    The disadvantages of open source

    The biggest gap in open source is probably the management and support. Vendors keep making additions to the code. For example, zero-touch provision is not part of the open source stack, but many SD-WAN vendors have added that capability to their product.

    Besides, low code/no code coding can also become a problem. As we now have APIs, users are mixing and matching stacks together and not doing raw coding. We now have GUIs that have various modules which can communicate with a REST API. Essentially, what you are doing is, you are taking the open source modules and aggregating them together.

    The problem with pure network function virtualization (NFV) is that a bunch of different software stacks is running on a common virtual hardware platform. The configuration, support, and logging from each stack still require quite a bit of integration and support.

    Some SD-WAN vendors are taking a “single pane of glass” approach where all the network and security functions are administered from a common management view. Alternatively, other SD-WAN vendors partner with security companies where security is a totally separate stack.

    AT&T 5G rollout consisted of 5G

    Part of AT&T 5G rollout consisted of open source components in their cell towers. They deployed over 60,000 5G routers that were compliant with a newly released white box spec hosted by the Open Compute Project.

    This enabled them to break free from the constraints of proprietary silicon and feature roadmaps of traditional vendors. They are using disaggregated network operating system (dNOS) as the operating system within the white boxes. The dNOS' function is to separate the router’s operating system software from the router’s underlying hardware.

    Previously, the barriers to entry for creating a network operating system (NOS) have been too many. However, due to the advances in software with Intel’s DPDK, the power of YANG models and in hardware, the Broadcom silicon chips have marginally reduced the barriers. Hence, we are witnessing a rapid acceleration in the network innovation.

    Intel DPDK

    Intel’s DPDK that consists of a set of software libraries are a data plane development kit that allows the chipsets to process and forward packets in a lot quicker fashion. Therefore, it boosts the packet processing performance and throughput, allowing more time for data plane applications.

    Intel has built an equivalent of an API at the kernel level to allow the packet to be processed much faster. They also added AES New Instructions (NI) that allows an Intel chip to process encryption and decryption much faster. Intel AES NI is a new encryption instruction set that improves on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm and accelerates the encryption of data.

    Five years ago, no one wanted to put encryption on their WAN routers because of the 10x performance hit. However, today, with Intel, the cost of CPU cycles from doing the encryption and decryption is much less than before.

    The power of open source

    In the past, the common network strategy was to switch when you can and route when you must. Considerably, switching is fast and cheaper at gigabit speeds. However, with open source, the cost of routing is coming down and with the introduction of routing in the software; you can scale horizontally and not just vertically. 

    To put it in other words, instead of having a 1M dollar Terabit router, one can have 10x100 Gigabit routers at 10x10K or 100K, which is a significant 10x reduction in costs. It is close to 20x if one figures in redundancy. Today’s routers require a 1:1 primary/redundant router configuration, whereas when you scale horizontally, an M+N model can be used where one router can be used as the redundant for 10 or more production routers.

    In the past, for a Terabyte router, you would have to pay a heap as you needed a single box. Whereas today, you can take a number of Gigabyte servers and the combination of horizontal scaling allows the total of Terabit speeds.

    The future of open source

    Evidently, the role of open source will only grow in networking. Traditional networking leaders, such as Cisco and Juniper are likely to see a lot of pressure on their revenues and especially margins as the value add for proprietary will become less and less.

    The number of vendors getting into networking will also increase as the cost to create and deploy a solution is lower which will also challenge the big vendors. In addition, we will witness more and more gigantic companies, like Facebook and AT&T that will continue to use more open source in their networks to keep their costs down and scale out the next-generation networks, such as 5G, edge computing, and IoT.

    Open source will also bring about changes in the design of networks and will continue to push routing to the edge of the network. As a result, more and more routing will occur at the edge, so you don’t need to backhaul traffic. Significantly, open source brings the huge advantage of less cost to deploy routing everywhere.

    The biggest challenge with all the open source initiatives is standardization. The branches of source code and the teams working on them split on a regular basis. For instance, look at all the variations of Linux. So, when an AT&T or other big company bets on a specific open source stack and continues to contribute to it openly, this still does not guarantee that in 3 years this will be the industry standard.

    A larger retailer in the U.S. has chosen an overall IT strategy of using open source wherever possible, including the network. They feel that to compete with Amazon, they have to become like Amazon.

    Where to go from here?

    Every technology and product has its place and time. The said enterprises should start investigating where open source networking fits into their strategy. Some common use cases include:

  • Open VPN – Moving to opensource on remote connectivity.
  • Open Container Internetworking – Networking Kubernetes of other container environments in hybrid, multi-cloud architectures. Evolving from VNFs to CNFs.
  • Labs – Testing new concepts and features for virtually free.
  • Network Management – Open source and/or freemium tools that can add value with minimal investment.
  • Adding open source-based networking vendors into the RFP process, if nothing more than to put price pressure on the incumbent vendor.
  • This article is published as part of the IDG Contributor Network. Want to Join?

    Join the Network World communities on Facebook and LinkedIn to comment on topics that are top of mind.


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