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we have used the term abstraction and may spend a moment talking about what it means in regards to kernel design. when we consider the project of resource administration, we have to investigate the degree of handle we wish to implement in our management scheme. probably the most hints of the alternate comprises grouping particular person components of a gadget resource into uniform-sized blocks, chunks, extents, pages, etc. the provision of the resource is then tracked at the degree of these granular instruments, as a result reducing the complexity of kernel statistics structures.
A basic case is that of reminiscence management. a laptop's physical RAM incorporates circuits representing single bits of records storage; these are mixed into units of eight and called bytes. An operating gadget combines bytes into phrases (for HP-UX, a word is 32 bits, or 4bytes; here is real for both narrow and vast kernels). The note is still a extremely small quantity of storage space, and if the kernel essential to manipulate every notice (with the aid of control, we suggest retain song of which words are presently getting used, which can be free, and who is the usage of what), the volume of memory crucial to build such constructions may easily require as a lot house as or more than the reminiscence being managed!
To cut back this administration overhead, we make the managed unit measurement larger than a notice. In UNIX, here's completed by combining sequential physical phrases of memory into gadgets called page frames (on HP-UX the page body is 4096 bytes, or 1024 phrases). Now the project of holding song of what's free and what is in use turns into a whole lot easier. here is a really simple layer of abstraction; the kernel manages page frames, which you and i know are in fact blocks of phrases made of bytes that are 8-bits each.
a latest UNIX kernel may use multiple layers of abstraction. Let's proceed with our dialogue of simple reminiscence administration. UNIX kernels regularly make use of a scheme whereby a technique that requires a couple of page frames to hold its code is assigned an accurately sized location in a digital web page-frame map. digital web page frames are mapped to certain actual web page frames by means of processor hardware and helping kernel tables (discussed later during this book). This extra layer of abstraction drastically simplifies considerations akin to allowing two or more approaches to share the same view of executable code, shared libraries, shared reminiscence, and other manner-level shared objects.
There are constructions within the kernel to preserve tune of every point at every abstraction layer. Entities at better layers effectively aspect to the tracking buildings on the reduce layers. lessen degree aid attributes are inherited by means of the upper abstraction layers.
Care should be taken in determining the measurement of every administration unit—too enormous and you may waste a restrained aid; too small and the overhead of the monitoring structures may be excessive. The kernel clothier invariably walks a quality line between comfort and efficiency. As you look at aid administration, word the granularity of control the kernel has over its charges.
Ang Cui has lots of vigour. With enough time he can take manage of fairly much any networked gadget. He may watch you through your iSight or music the Netflix on your wise television. but he has larger fish to fry, so your Catfish marathons are protected for now. From him, as a minimum.
A Columbia PhD pupil in computer science, Cui has been working for the final 5 years on developing offensive assaults and defensive options for vulnerabilities in embedded instruments. This Thursday his enterprise, purple Balloon safety—cofounded by means of Cui's guide Sal Stolfo—will current proof that its safety software, the "symbiote," can protect a typical IP office cellphone from malicious attacks. And this IP mobilephone demo is barely the starting.
finally, the symbiote could protect pretty much any linked gadget that you can feel of.
"definitely [IP phones] are just computer systems too, and they're working these tremendous secret proprietary operating methods that very few people have truly seen, and extremely few individuals have really validated the protection of," Cui instructed us in a contemporary interview. "and also you know, the work that now we have been doing in the lab is to reveal that those things are just as insecure because the usual intention computer systems you have, and once you take advantage of these issues there are actually advantages to that over just getting root access to a server somewhere, which is what every person in safety mostly has been focused on for the ultimate always."
The symbiote is a tiny piece of code, about 200 bytes, this is injected into an IP mobilephone's kernel (the aspect that bridges functions and hardware-stage data processing) without impacting computing pace or device performance. And the symbiote is working-system agnostic, that means it may run on and monitor any equipment devoid of being tailor-made to a selected OS. When it's injected, the symbiote makes use of Cui's firmware contrast tool, Firmware Reverse evaluation Konsole (FRAK) to unpack the device's firmware, change its signing key (a primary safety feature) and repack. Then it runs within the history, and randomly samples finished code at regular intervals to ensure that nothing bizarre is occurring.
with out knowing certain specifics about an OS, the symbiote can still set up a baseline for ordinary habits in a tool the usage of functions which are shared amongst several types of firmware and may fairly be expected to be current. In Cui's demonstration, two IP phones sit down side by side. One is working the symbiote and the different is never. When Cui launches an attack, the unguarded mobile is easily exploited, but the symbiote on the other phone detects the intrusion and indicators Cui through calling his cellular telephone. When he answers, an automated message says, "hey neighbor. My IP cell has been pon3d."
The intention of pink Balloon security is to present the symbiote as a protection answer for all embedded devices. If an IP phone can be hacked, so can some other cyber web-enabled equipment, however since the symbiote is OS agnostic it will possibly readily translate to any machine—even a rice cooker—and be included seamlessly. diverse symbiotes operating on the equal network might even computer screen each and every different as an extra method of checking for extraordinary pastime on any one device.Does the world really want a Smartphone-managed Rice Cooker?
the area might also now not, however according to Panasonic, Japan definitely does. The company's new SR-SX2…examine more examine
Cui and Stolfo have increasingly gained frequent consciousness for his or her analysis, a physique of work that consists of intensely creepy however nonetheless badass hacks. In 2011 they confirmed a flaw in HP printer firmware that was the excellent entryway for an assault. If a hacker could get somebody to print a malware-tainted document, like a resume, from any centered HP printer, she may take over the entire aspect and coach the printer to send her copies of whatever it turned into printing, or supply her with access to the community server.
almost immediately after Cui exposed the vulnerability, HP launched a patch. "We found 201 HP laser jet printers within the DOD's community that have been susceptible to my attack like 5 months after the patch turned into out. We found two in HP [headquarters]" just through publicly accessible IP addresses.
For his next hack in 2012, Cui discovered the IP mobile vulnerability in Cisco workplace telephones that the symbiote now secures. He demonstrates the attack on a standard-problem Columbia university cell sitting on his desk, though he emphasizes that Cisco is not the handiest enterprise producing vulnerable gadgets. "On the cell, there's simply no indication that the rest ordinary is happening. And it just always forwards the entire statistics to my laptop where i will be able to list the sound or do something. it's simply a laptop put into a plastic shell that appears like a cell."
After Cui presented the IP cellphone hack at a conference in December, Cisco went the way of HP and launched a patch for their internet phones on January 17. After their patch led to telephones to crash, they launched a revision on February 14 to "disable the native console port" or reduce the telephones off from the internet, which is like fixing a hangnail by means of amputating your hand..
Cui hopes that after he and Stolfo existing the symbiote, although, businesses will begin to undertake it as an alternative to what Stolfo calls "the patch and pray components." "The smarter producers will get it that having this expertise interior their machines reduces their complications dramatically," Stolfo says.
"The traditional method for safety is you be aware every little thing the system is supposed to do and also you really practice a template of what it'll do, and what it shouldn't," Cui says. "but this idea that you should cozy a device with out figuring out the way it works, that is anything it really is a departure from common operating method and the way of pondering security… With the symbiote the customer can do it, the dealer can do it and neither has to look forward to the other."
The weaknesses Cui has identified to date have offered clear examples of security risks. When he assessed publicly attainable records about which executive businesses used at-possibility Cisco phones, Cui found areas of instant problem. "We discovered videoconference contraptions in district lawyer's workplaces in a number of states. definitely sensitive places of work. And if you have an embedded machine like a videoconference unit you have eyes and ears. This is never just an IP handle."
during his five years at Columbia, Cui has come to take into account that his research may have major implications for the espionage and intelligence communities. "How do you be certain you win cyber conflict?" he asks casually. "Some guy available does not simply say, ‘k boys, hack ‘em, and provides ‘em hell,' and then you start hacking. What you do is you recon. You preposition your items, and when the change is flipped you either win it or lose it before the combat even starts... If the defender gets there first it's terrific and you win always, but if the attacker receives there first you lose continually."
from time to time, for a second, Cui's constant assuredness will crumple to contemplation in regards to the magnitude of the topics he researches and the field he has entered. "here's some of the issues that I all the time felt extraordinary about, because loads of times i might see anything like this, and it be four o'clock in the morning, and it be dark in my house, and that i seem to be round and it's either i am insane or i'm incorrect or like the world is actually atypical someway as a result of I can't might be be the primary grownup to have completed this," he says.
issues about embedded machine security have percolated quietly for years, however the situation is finally spreading in a extra meaningful method. The subsequent step for crimson Balloon safety is discovering a huge-scale network environment during which to run a pilot of the symbiote. "This actually is the realm's most comfy IP cell," Cui says. "we will take this and put it into creation in a huge environment. i might volunteer to make use of this cell, but no one calls me at work." He turns and facets to the exploited workplace cell. "Dude, you understand that thing has been recording this whole time, correct?"
graphic by using Shutterstock
The findings come from a recent client survey performed to evaluate client satisfaction. consumers determined UC4's top strengths as product performance, multi-platform assist and the company's committed focus on job scheduling options.
"The survey proven that we are heading in the right direction in looking ahead to what our consumers want," talked about Mark Loehr, COO of UC4 software. "providing an event-pushed job scheduling solution is not sufficient. We proceed to carry a top quality solution with multi-platform capabilities and commercial enterprise-wide performance."
UC4's job scheduling solution, UC4:international, has a different platform-unbiased architecture that gives expanded protection whereas protecting the supply and usability of the data. With UC4:global, facts centers can automate IT methods on greater than 30 different applications and operating techniques.
"We failed to want to be mainframe centric with our platform option. We necessary a job scheduler that could perform in a multi-platform atmosphere," observed Bob McKey, techniques analyst, Shands Healthcare. "UC4:world has changed our mainframe job scheduler and we assume that it can be in a position to tackle our integrated go-platform job scheduling needs for home windows, AIX, and the mainframe."
The survey additionally concluded that purchasers chose UC4:global on account of its prosperous product aspects and excessive concepts from different clients.
About UC4 software
UC4 software is the exceptional chief in business job scheduling. based in 1985, the business is identified as one of the crucial job scheduling industry's suitable carriers. more than 750 organizations international, together with many Fortune 500 agencies, have installed its flagship product, UC4:global. valued clientele encompass Mattel, Air items, Cadbury Schweppes, Columbia school, T-techniques, Robert Bosch and the Mayo foundation. The business has offices in Europe, the united states and Australia, and is supported by way of a network of partners in more than 30 countries everywhere. For more suggestions, talk over with www.UC4.com.
UC4:world is a world-leading technology answer for adventure-pushed job scheduling, providing centralized manage and monitoring of IT approaches across all systems and structures all through the commercial enterprise. UC4:international supports finished technique management for enterprise solutions similar to SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, and Siebel, in addition to all working techniques, including windows, Linux, UNIX, OpenVMS, HP NonStop Kernel, OS/400, MPE/ix, z/OS, BS2000/OSD and GCOS 8.
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We live in a world where there are more ways than ever to communicate. These numerous methods enhance a company’s ability to engage with customers and staff, but they also present unique challenges, especially for those of us in large organizations.
How do you break through all the noise? How do you make sure policies and guidance are properly understood? Clear, consistent communication is key.
Here are three simple ways to make sure your message gets through.
1. Remember the rule of seven.
It’s one of the oldest marketing principles out there -- a person should be exposed to your message seven times to ensure it’s remembered and understood. Many apply this rule to product marketing, but I believe this applies to internal communications as well.
One of the most basic mistakes someone can make is thinking, “I’ve sent it, so they must have read it.” Odds are, if you’ve only sent a communication once, it will be forgotten within hours. For your message to stick, it should be put out there at least seven times, and not just as an email. Consider reinforcing your message via a post on Facebook, at a staff meeting, during workshops and maybe even on physical signage hung up on the walls.
Whenever we have information to communicate at ERA, we use many different channels. We offer web-based learning opportunities for our employees, so they’re aware and have the ability to ask their own questions. We create and circulate FAQs, so staff members are prepared to answer questions from affiliates. It’s not just one and done. With multiple and varied forms of communications, the message has a better chance of sticking. Importantly, everyone has the opportunity to understand and ask the questions they need in order to provide the best level of service.
2. Use each mode of communication for its intended purpose.
Otherwise, your communications may cause more harm than good. A great example of this is the use of instant messaging in corporate settings.
Most companies have some kind of internal chat platform set up, be it Slack, Yammer, Flock, Fleep, etc. These are great because they allow for quick questions, crowdsourcing, casual brainstorm sessions and a place for information sharing without adding to your massive pile of emails.
The downside of these platforms, however, is that their ease and speed can result in nonstop usage, which ironically adds to the massive pile of communications to sort through. It’s harder to flag important messages (as opposed to email), and it can be a huge time-waster when you have to dig through dozens of messages in your email inbox only to realize that the important conversation you were looking for actually took place in a chat.
The casualness and speed of the chat landscape can also diminish the integrity of business interaction. People have a tendency to treat corporate chats the same way they treat texting their best friend. While we shouldn’t discourage the playful, fun interactions, it is important to remember that these are still professional communications channels.
Not every communication has to be through email, but if there’s real business that is being communicated back and forth, it shouldn’t be in a chat app.
3. Treat your subject lines as headlines.
When reading the news, how often do you just skim the headlines instead of reading the full article? We do this because we’re busy but want to see what’s going on in the world. Maybe if there’s a really compelling headline, we’ll click and read more.
This is also how many people deal with their emails, which is why I’ve adopted a new approach. It’s extremely simple: I now insert specific deadlines into my subject lines. I’m not talking things like “Please Read”; I mean things like “Respond by Friday” or “Your Input Needed by Tuesday.” That way, even if the person doesn’t have time to read my full email right away, they at least have a sense of the timeline for which they need to respond.
The bottom line is, we’re all extremely busy and inundated with messages. Consistent and smart communications are vital to ensuring that employees and customers understand your brand, culture, values and offerings and have all the information they need to act.
Learn how to migrate and modernize stateless applications and run them in a Kubernetes cluster.
As mentioned in a prior post, Kubernetes is at its best when managing single-process containers. Nevertheless, Kubernetes aims to allow new and legacy workloads to take advantage of multiple cooperating processes with pods. Containers can be single-process, which is where pods come in. Kubernetes is not designed for single-process cloud-native applications, and in order to allow legacy applications to be ported, the authors of Kubernetes created a logical unit that maps very closely to traditional cloud deployments of multi-process applications.
A pod is a set of containers that are deployed on the same node, get a shared IP, inside the same kernel security group, and can use traditional interprocess communication techniques. Containers within a pod share the same lifecycle, and are managed by Kubernetes as a unit.
There is a lot to cover when it comes to pod design, and rather than try to cover everything in a single post, we’ll cover the basics, and then provide links to more detailed discussions where possible with follow up posts on subjects that we have not yet found quality detailed resources.
In this post, we’ll cover pod scheduling and how to maintain the quality of service by properly specifying resource limitations.Pod Scheduling: Priority and Quality of Service
Kubernetes uses several pieces of information in scheduling and evicting workloads on the cluster. Failure to set these parameters properly can result in performance problems, workload downtimes, and significant overall cluster health issues.
Resource Requests and Limits are the most obvious of these settings, but there are subtle implications to these settings which are not always understood up front.
All four of the standard service types (Deployments, StatefuSets, Jobs, and DaemonSets) accept a request and a limit for thee different types of compute resources: cpu, memory, and ephemeral-storage. Additionally, Kubernetes allows for a pod priority field to be set.Lifecycle of a Pod
At a very high level, the scheduler controller maintains a queue of pods to be deployed for the cluster and then for each workload in the queue looks for a node with enough available compute resources to fulfill the "request" for that pod and assigns the pod to that node. Limits are ignored during scheduling.
Once a pod is scheduled to a node, the kublet on that node picks up the change, and installs and starts the pod.
In Kubernetes versions < 1.8, pod priority is ignored by the scheduler; in 1.11, the above story is modified so that pods are scheduled in priority order. In 1.8-1.10 this feature was in alpha and had to be explicitly enabled in the Kubernetes config.Resource Limitations and Pod Priority
However, this story is complicated by the fact that since pods are allowed to have limits higher than their request, resource starvation is possible.
When a node hits its limit for memory or disk pods can be evicted and sent back to the scheduler for redeployment on another node. CPU, on the other hand, will be throttled back by the Linux kernel when limits are met.
(from: How to use resource requests and limits to manage resource usage of your Kubernetes cluster )Quality of Service Classes and What They Mean
In order to manage this process, Kubernetes defines three different Quality of Service Classes which allow you to control which pods will be evicted in case of resource starvation.
a. explicit requests and limits for CPU and memory
b. Limits that exactly match the memory/CPU requests for that container.
a. explicit requests and limits for CPU and memory
b. Limits that are greater than the requested amount for at least one container in the pod
Pods are evicted only if they are using more resources than the user-defined request. This means guaranteed pods will never be evicted, burstable pods will only be evicted if they are using more of the starved resource than allowed, and best effort pods can be preempted at any time.
Best Practices for Resource Requests and Limitations
There are a few important implications of this:
In this post we discussed how defining requests and limits are important for your deployments. We followed up with an explanation of the different Quality of Service classes that also need configuration when running production workloads.
Start from the beginning in this series:
Part 1: Best Practices for Designing and Building Containers for Kubernetes
Part 2: Managing Secrets in Kubernetes
kubernetes ,quality of service ,prioritization ,pod lifecycle ,limits ,cloud
It has been a little over 48 hours since the Intel kernel bug was first reported and while we don’t have an official comment from Intel yet, it looks like there are some additional details of what the actual problem is. Those in the know are allegedly under embargo but courtesy of AMD’s statement on what ‘isn’t’ wrong with their x86 processors, we have a fairly good idea of what the bug entails. The repercussions of this could have severe consequences for Intel’s standing as a company and as a supplier of x86 microprocessors – particularly in the enterprise ecosystem.AMD spills the beans: Hardware level speculative execution to blame for the Intel Kernel bug; cannot be patched using a microcode update and will require OS level KPTI to patch
Before we get into any other details, a background on the problem. The bug was discovered at a hardware level and pertains to an exploit that is capable of granting kernel level access to malicious parties. Since this exists at the hardware level, a patch via microcode is apparently not possible. The only known workaround is via the OS, which would require an OS re-design which Windows is working on and Linux has already rolled out.
Word on the street is that Microsoft is scrambling to get this patched come Tuesday and the changes were already seeded to beta testers running insider builds. Here’s the catch though, any patch could introduce a crucial time penalty to the system which basically means that in some instances the CPUs could drastically slow down. We have seen numbers quoted of up to 30%, but the conservative estimates point to a roughly 17% slowdown. So what exactly is the problem?
Well, before we get into that, here is the statement from AMD, which basically spilled the beans on what the issue is:
AMD processors are not subject to the types of attacks that the kernel page table isolation feature protects against. The AMD microarchitecture does not allow memory references, including speculative references, that access higher privileged data when running in a lesser privileged mode when that access would result in a page fault.
Since Intel has been very tight lipped about this issue, we can deduce fairly easily from this statement that the problem has to do with speculative references in Intel’s processors, which AMD CPUs don’t have. Speculative execution is basically a form of pre-emption which tries to predict what code is going to be run, and then fetch it and execute it before the actual order comes through and keeping pipelines ready. The point of this is to have the kernel absolutely ready for any command, instead of letting it wait around.
The problem, as it is clear from AMD’s comments, is that you can exploit this feature to speculatively execute code that would normally be blocked as long as you stop the actual code from running before a check can be performed. What this essentially means is that a ring-3-level user can read ring-0-level kernel data by using speculative execution since the privilege check won’t actually be performed till the code is executed on the main.
The kernel layer is currently present in all processes’ virtual memory address space to ensure a fast handover during code execution but is completely invisible to all programs. The kernel will basically try to predict what code will be executed next and when a program makes a system call to the kernel, it will already be ready and primed for the handover. This can significantly increase execution times but as it is clear now, also represents a very troublesome security flaw since no privilege check is present at the kernel stage.
The only way to get around this hardware level feature is to use what is called a Kernel Page Table Isolation (KPTI) technique which will make the kernel completely blind to the system and remove it from the virtual memory space until a system call occurs. Basically, where it was an invisible stage hand hidden just behind the curtain, now it won’t be on the stage at all until it’s called. Needless to say, this could introduce severe time penalties in context-switching heavy situations where a lot of system calls are required. The Linux team also mulled over FUCKWIT (Forcefully Unmap Complete Kernel with Interrupt Trampolines) which should give you an idea of how frustrating the bug is for developers.
According to some sources, this number can range anywhere from 5% to 30% depending on which type of processor you have since modern CPUs have a feature called PCID which can reduce the performance hit. According to an existing KPTI workaround posted at Postgresql, you should expect a 17% best case slowdown and a worst case 23% slowdown. In any case, all sources agree that a slowdown will almost definitely occur and this is not something Intel can simply patch with a microcode update. AMD processors at this time are unaffected since they do not utilize speculative execution.
So the obvious next question becomes who will this impact and how will this impact end users. Well, the good news is, if you are reading this article you are probably a gamer or a PC tech enthusiast and you will see almost no difference once the patch is applied (gaming and basic rendering are not context-switching heavy payloads). Enterprise clients like Google EC2 and Amazon Compute Engine however, will be drastically affected since they use VMs which this can severely compromise. Secondly, as a general user, your passwords and other sensitive information may be stored in the kernel memory and this bug could be used to access that information (Update: Working proof of concept of password being pulled from kernel mem leak over here).
Windows is expected to roll out a patch come Tuesday and Apple should also follow up soon. All that remains is an official response from the company itself.Update: First benchmarks with KPTI work around from Phoronix showing performance degradation (1% to 53% depending on use case), gaming not affected
The folks over at Phoronix did some preliminary synthetic testing and were able to observe performance degradation that ranges from 19% to a massive 53% depending on the exact situation and benchmark tested. Scenarios that should show no effect are showing less than a 1% deviation from the initial benchmark. We expect other publications to do their own benchmarks as well once Intel responds.Update: Intel’s official response
Intel has rolled out their official response on this and assured that the bug won’t affect the average user (as we have already stated) and that they are actively working with other companies to resolve this:
Intel and other technology companies have been made aware of new security research describing software analysis methods that, when used for malicious purposes, have the potential to improperly gather sensitive data from computing devices that are operating as designed. Intel believes these exploits do not have the potential to corrupt, modify or delete data.
Recent reports that these exploits are caused by a “bug” or a “flaw” and are unique to Intel products are incorrect. Based on the analysis to date, many types of computing devices — with many different vendors’ processors and operating systems — are susceptible to these exploits.
Intel is committed to product and customer security and is working closely with many other technology companies, including AMD, ARM Holdings and several operating system vendors, to develop an industry-wide approach to resolve this issue promptly and constructively. Intel has begun providing software and firmware updates to mitigate these exploits. Contrary to some reports, any performance impacts are workload-dependent, and, for the average computer user, should not be significant and will be mitigated over time.
Intel is committed to the industry best practice of responsible disclosure of potential security issues, which is why Intel and other vendors had planned to disclose this issue next week when more software and firmware updates will be available. However, Intel is making this statement today because of the current inaccurate media reports.
Check with your operating system vendor or system manufacturer and apply any available updates as soon as they are available. Following good security practices that protect against malware in general will also help protect against possible exploitation until updates can be applied.
Intel believes its products are the most secure in the world and that, with the support of its partners, the current solutions to this issue provide the best possible security for its customers.
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