|Exam Name||:||Constructing Enterprise-level Routing Networks|
|Questions and Answers||:||400 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 25, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure GB0-280 Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure GB0-280 Full Version|
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SHENZHEN, China, April 17, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Huawei kicked off its 16th annual global Analyst Summit (HAS) yesterday in Shenzhen, China. on the adventure, Huawei business business group (Huawei commercial enterprise) together with Vanke and the Shenzhen massive information research Institute of wise metropolis, as well as world analysts and opinion leaders, collectively mentioned the importance of connectivity and intelligence as enterprises and governments look to speed their transition to digital.
In his keynote speech titled "leading New ICT – Intelligence, Connectivity and Platform", Qiu Heng, President of international advertising and marketing, Huawei enterprise business community, pointed out: "Huawei commercial enterprise's new positioning is to supply ubiquitous connectivity and pervasive intelligence to executive and business customers, along with our partners. through creating a digital platform that integrates new ICT, we are dedicated to constructing a great ICT basis for the digital world, helping consumers comprehensive their digital transformation."
In connectivity, a container in which Huawei leads, Qiu Heng highlighted AirEngine, the Wi-Fi 6 AP supported by way of Huawei's 5G applied sciences, and CloudEngine, the quickest information middle network switch for the AI era. Qiu Heng explained that Huawei permits pervasive intelligence via incorporating AI into its products, cloud and business solutions. He added the realm's first application-defined AI digital camera, demonstrating that Huawei's strength lies not best in cell digicam features, but additionally in business-level cameras. Qiu Heng also shared how Huawei's All-Flash OceanStor Dorado contains clever capabilities and is the realm's fastest All-Flash storage solution.
Huawei's digital platform speeds up the digital transformation of vertical industries
Huawei's digital platform addresses the core challenge of digital transformation, specifically a way to connect the physical and digital worlds to activate dormant information in the physical world. The business enablement platform connects IT and OT information, aggregates the capabilities of a number of industries, and invariably accumulates trade expertise in response to trade necessities. It additionally seamlessly connects trade developers to accelerate innovation and facilitate the quick building of vertical industries.
Simon Li, associate general supervisor, Wanyi technology, Vanke, shared how Huawei's digital platform has enabled Vanke to digitally radically change. He mentioned: "The multi-enterprise, multi-region and multi-carrier mannequin positioned new requirements on Vanke's digitization. Huawei supplied a digital platform that integrates applied sciences equivalent to large information, IoT and AI to assist us improve a variety of offline corporations and a unified online Vanke through a digital, clever campus. consequently, we finished carrier-based mostly services, product-based mostly features, platform-based products, and ecosystem-based platforms."
Chen Dongping, President, Shenzhen massive facts research Institute of sensible city, additionally attended the summit. He expressed his hopes for the longer term: "The difference between the digital platform of the digital era and the informatization platform of the economic age lies in the proven fact that the digital platform helps an entire city, whereas an informatization platform simplest supports an business. with out a unified city-stage digital platform, there would be no real smart cities or digital governments."
AirEngine, the Wi-Fi 6 AP supported by Huawei's 5G applied sciences, to power connectivity and intelligence
Huawei enterprise's flagship products are main the market in connectivity and intelligence. here's clear with Huawei's AirEngine, the area's first business Wi-Fi 6 AP, which leverages Huawei's 5G applied sciences to achieve the industry's maximum throughput cost. according to a check report from Tolly, a leading independent verify lab, Huawei's Wi-Fi 6 is 1 Gbps faster than the nearest competitive providing. relying on 5G wise Radio technology, Huawei's Wi-Fi 6 insurance area is forty% enhanced than that of the business Wi-Fi 6 requirements. applying acceleration know-how, Huawei's Wi-Fi 6 has a latency as low as 10ms, which is lessen than the industry Wi-Fi 6 general via 50%, and therefore no jitters are skilled when the use of digital fact (VR) or Augmented reality (AR). by using making use of 5G cellular mobile know-how to Wi-Fi, Huawei's Wi-Fi 6 prevents automatic Guided cars (AGV) from dropping data packets during AP switches, and might roam across the campus with excessive efficiency.
Huawei commercial enterprise's "Platform + AI + Ecosystem" strategy specializes in cooperation with companions to provide ubiquitous connectivity and pervasive intelligence for government and commercial enterprise shoppers. moreover, Huawei provides a digital platform that integrates a number of new ICT to support customers complete their digital transformation. currently, more than 700 cities around the globe, and 211 of the Fortune global 500 groups, including 48 of the suitable a hundred, have chosen Huawei enterprise as their companion in digital transformation.
The Huawei international Analyst Summit 2019 runs from April 16 to 18, with assorted parallel classes. Attendees encompass trade experts from worldwide, all of whom deliver entertaining insights into a variety of issues and traits. For greater details, please seek advice from: https://www.huawei.com/en/press-movements/movements/has2019
Cloud-native router startup DriveNets has followed up its February funding announcement by way of claiming its virtualized routing application, dubbed network Cloud, can guide 400G-per-port routing and be scaled as much as a whopping 768 Tbit/s, making it (might be) the optimum means router on offer.
The "maybe" is a safety internet for DriveNets : The enterprise's CEO, Ido Susan, says he's 99.999% certain that others can't in shape it. That, he says, is as a result of incumbent router carriers are nonetheless pitching chassis-primarily based hardware systems with baked-in software that can simplest scale so far, whereas DriveNets is proposing a disaggregated structure comprising its cloud-native, application-primarily based device that runs on excessive-spec white container servers (working Broadcom's Jericho2 software-on-chip switch-router merchant silicon). "we've taken the method of the webscales [in their data centers] and utilized it to [carrier] routing and switching -- the proof point will be enabling operators to improvement from disaggregation," Susan tells mild reading.
The CEO laid out his method to the market -- including a disruptive company mannequin according to a flat license payment for the community Cloud software, no remember what number of servers it's operating on -- in February, when the enterprise announced $110 million in funding.
Now DriveNets is upping the ante with these throughput and potential claims and, just as importantly, an engagement with an unidentified Tier 1 operator that Susan is confident will become a paying consumer.
The operator, which is trying out the community Cloud setup in its lab, "has supplied design validation [for the system] and now it be within the technique of trying out and challenging the utility, testing the recuperation mode, running clusters etc… as with any early drop there had been bugs, so there's a nonetheless loads of work to be completed in the coming weeks, however quickly we may be capable of screen the whole performance," says the CEO.
The end intention, says Susan, is to reveal that a virtualized, disaggregated routing platform can support the provider advent and beginning needs, as smartly because the skill necessities, of subsequent-era community operators, offering the pliability that might be mandatory to assist all manner of cloud and 5G capabilities. "here is all about constructing a cluster of shared materials for multi-provider operations," stresses Susan.
Why this mattersDriveNets has the hallmarks of a market disruptor -- skilled staff, expertise already within the box, financial backing -- it is concentrated on the sweet spot of a couple of major industry gamers, most primarily Cisco, Juniper, Nokia and Huawei.
it's now not only maintaining the power on these dependent providers with bulletins comparable to ultra-modern, nevertheless it's additionally reminding the world's community operators, which might be at present re-evaluating their community architectures and due to the fact how they can design greater bendy and "cloud-pleasant" networks, that there is an choice for the routing wants.
And DriveNets is leveraging its event and the industry contacts of its senior executives to sow a seed in the minds of those community operators -- it had assorted conferences with most important community operators throughout MWC19 in Barcelona and has a narrative so as to fit into their network playbook, with its promises of much lessen comparative complete charge of deployment alluring to cost-mindful CFOs.
whether these community operators will comfortably use the DriveNets proposition to place extra demands on their latest suppliers, or opt to are attempting anything new, will become clearer in 2020, when network Cloud may still have some best deployment examples to element against. meanwhile, Susan and his group should be inflicting some anxious moments within the carrier company routing groups of the router market leaders.
For more on this, see:
— Ray Le Maistre, Editor-in-Chief, light studying
Oct 06, 2018 (Euclid Infotech Ltd by way of COMTEX) -- lately, China mobile Hong Kong enterprise confined (CMHK) introduced that it will associate with Huawei to build a 5G-ready comprehensive transport community overlaying 5G transport, commercial enterprise private strains, and residential broadband. This task marks CMHK's transformation from offering pure mobile features to mounted-cell convergence (FMC) capabilities, and strengthens the strategic partnership between Huawei and CMHK over network development.
CMHK is a unconditionally-owned subsidiary of China cellular constrained. all over its transformation to an FMC carrier provider, CMHK has joined fingers with Huawei to discover network development techniques and research network architecture and technology evolution for 5G.
With the Intent-pushed network (IDN) structure and uNetBuilder digital platform, Huawei's 5G-competent comprehensive transport community solution offers FlexE, Ethernet digital inner most community (EVPN), phase Routing, PAM4-based 50GE, 96-wavelength 200G OTN equipment, and different new services and technologies. Leveraging the network Cloud Engine (NCE) that implements conclusion-to-end, unified handle and administration and clever O&M, Huawei is in a position to assist CMHK readily construct a 5G-capable complete transport network protecting inner most line and residential broadband services at the highest quality TCO.
In a series of key technical common and practical exams geared up through CMHK, Huawei has verified fabulous performance and handed all of the tests successfully, eventually profitable this project.
5G is now, transport first. CMHK's cooperation with Huawei to construct a 5G-competent complete transport network marks a brand new step forward in their transport community construction. Drawing on finished event in 5G transport community construction and advanced applied sciences, Huawei will aid CMHK construct a excessive-common, most appropriate-event finished transport network and develop diverse capabilities to achieve business success.
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I love networking. I’m sick, I know. But there’s something just… primal about making the roads and highways that allow one computer to talk to another.
For all my love of networking, though, my home network has remained fairly bare-bones simple – a setup of ages-old Apple Airport Extreme and Express stations smattered through the house for WiFi on a Cat6 backbone.
The throughput wasn’t great, the range even less-so due to my home’s construction… but it worked, and it was easy to administrate.
Thus, when Rob contacted me about looking at TRENDnet’s new 802.11ac router, the TEW-827DRU ($189.99), I was a bit hesitant. I’ve tried other routers and keep going back to the same problem – they either don’t have the distance, or they don’t have the throughput.
Older model n-band networks revert the whole network back to g-band or slower speeds the minute you get a non n-class device on it, and newer ones don’t seem to have the signal strength to pry my old Airports out of my house.
But, it had been a little while since I’d looked, and TRENDnet promised me great things – with its MIMO, it didn’t revert the whole network backward, and it promised enterprise-class administration options and coverage. Oh, and it was also ac-band at the top end, making it one of the fastest SOHO routers available. So fast, in fact, that they didn’t even have a USB-based card ready yet for it, so I’d have to use a second router as a bridge.
Challenge Accepted.The Hardware
You’ve seen a router before, right? TRENDnet doesn’t try to reinvent the wheel here, opting for a brushed black finish with shiny black detail. The front indicator lighting is provided by blue LEDs that are bright enough to land an airplane. They’re bright enough that they’re clearly visible (without being nuisances) in a fully lit room, alleviating the need to guess whether your router is actually routing anything.
Once they start strobing in a dark room, however, you may wish to be concerned if you have epileptic issues. Save your electrical tape, though… one of the nicest physical features that TRENDnet was kind enough to include was an “LED off” switch on the back, which takes the air-traffic-control navigation down to a sleek black front again.
Also along the back of the router are four Gigabit Ethernet ports and a WAN port, typical fare for a SOHO router but a bit underwhelming for one at nearly $200. I run a 32-port switch off this network, so it’s not terribly inconvenient for me. The Airport Extreme I was using before was only three ports (only Jobs knows why), so I guess this is an upgrade to me… but I find it a bit lacking for anyone who has several devices.
Along with the four Ethernet ports are two USB3 ports for attaching USB hard drives or printers. This is a nice, but fairly standard feature for a router at this price point. Two USB ports is nice, the lack of an eSATA port is a little puzzling, though.
The four antennae are provided in the box and screw on like one would expect. I will note here that these did not impress me – they don’t like to stay in the position you put them in. I had two different routers to test this on so I feel I was able to rule out the “it’s just mine” issue. Once in place, each antenna will fall over very easily if disturbed – enough so that a good knock of my desk will shake the unit enough for one to drop. It’s the only part of the build that feels lackluster so far, but it’s also the only “moving parts.”Setup And Administration
Oh, TRENDnet… where do I begin? Let’s start with the positives, of which there are a lot.
First, there is the default security. Every router is sent with a unique hard-coded default admin password, WiFi network name and setup URL. This means that a rogue reset, whether intentional or accidental, isn’t going to allow any old user to hop on and get control before you do unless they are at the router. It’s common-sense thinking and should be industry standard, yet somehow still isn’t. Even in enterprise equipment, this somehow doesn’t always happen. The information is presented on a sticker along with the router’s MAC address and serial, which is great if you remember to take said sticker off and put it somewhere safe (i.e., not attached to the router for anyone to just snap a picture of).
Second, there are a LOT of options in the administration. A LOT. There are all sorts of different types of firewall options, network control options, logging options, and even built-in packet capturing. Changes that you make stack in RAM and are applied through a separate process, so the router only needs reset once, even if you tweak a ton of items. Settings can also be exported to a file that can be passed back to the router easily on a hard reset, so you can get right back to where you were.
Now, please allow me to revisit that packet capturing for a second. HUGE props there, TRENDnet… this is easily one of the most useful features I find on enterprise equipment, and it’s a BEAR to not have that at home when I run a switched network. The router is exactly where I need that feature to be, and the admin panel makes it as simple as hitting a few buttons, doing what I need to, and having it downloaded to me right off the web interface to open up in Wireshark. Not having to ARP-poison my own network just to get a good pcap is a blessing and a half.
Also of enterprise level is the system logging. The admin panel provides a full and complete log of each process the underlying hardware is executing, which allows you to see if someone has hijacked your device (WW-DRT style) to execute malicious code. The Syslog is exportable automatically to a machine on the network capable of receiving the updates, so you don’t need to log into the interface to access it.
The TEW-827DRU features a great set of options for traffic and network control; frankly, too many to list here. The basics of UPNP, “games settings” and application allowances are all there for the home user, and are accompanied by the lower-level port forwarding, static routes, scheduling and rules that more enterprise-based users will be looking for. Probably the hardest part of it is figuring out what on earth TRENDnet might have named them all (for instance, port forwarding named as “Virtual Server” settings?). There’s even automatic Denial-of-Service attack prevention.
And this is where the router’s interface starts to go south. There are so many options, and so many of them not with their industry-conventional names, that it becomes very difficult to find where to enable or disable something. Further, it’s not terribly clear what any one option does if it’s not a standard name… the manual is of little help, and the options often do not provide sufficient direction to even know if you’re filling them out properly. Thanks to the misnomer of port forwarding, it took me three tries to figure out how to get a couple of ports rolling – I simply didn’t even know where I should be putting it (there are two other areas on the router that are labeled something similar to port forwarding, but the actual name TRENDnet uses is “Virtual Server”).
There are still bugs I am trying to quash in this setup due to poorly labeled options that make it nearly impossible to find what I’m looking for. I’m sure they’re IN there – I feel like I could find a new kitchen sink if I look hard enough, but probably under the name of “liquid transportation.”
What is extremely useful, is that TRENDnet provide a demo site for the web interface for you to check out yourself. Flick through the different options and you’ll see how the naming conventions are. Good looking, but not completely straightforward.Extras Of Note
TRENDnet just doesn’t stop on cramming things in here…
Outside of my favorite feature of having tcpdump built-in, the administration side has some other great additions that are very well-suited for a network enthusiast. There’s automatic support for dynamic DNS services (dyndns and no-ip.org are built-in), a handy feature for those running a home network but serving a couple of services to the outside world. The built-in diagnostic tools also include netstat (extremely useful), traceroute and nslookup directly in the interface along with the more basic but ever-helpful ping.
There’s also a full built-in VPN suite (which works wonderfully for up to 25 users) which is actually very painless to set up and is based on OpenVPN. After configuring a couple of simple settings, the router creates a client setup file for you and points you where to download OpenVPN’s client software. That’s it… simple, effective, and functional.
The USB device attachment features a lot more than basic attached storage, as well. File sharing from the USB drive can include sharing as an iTunes library, a DLNA media server, or Samba server in easy-to-configure sections. That may handle your internal needs, but just in case you need to share, there’s a full FTP server that you can configure off of it. And if you perhaps don’t have all the media you wanted on there, there’s a fully integrated bit-torrent client to get more.The Usage Environment
My house is a nightmare of randomly interspersed concrete block and brick walls among timber construction. The central router needs to serve from a basement alcove on one side and fuel a network that runs a forty-foot span in one direction and twenty feet in the other on the x-axis, about twenty feet on the z-axis and about -5 to +30 on the Y. Brick, concrete, tile, old wiring… you name it, I’ve got it. My house can stop g-band (2.4GHz) wireless at about twenty feet from source and n-band at about 10 feet. The distance from my central router (basement, back of house) to my office (2nd floor, front of house) is a bit under twenty feet as the crow flies, through a 6-inch concrete foundation and two brick walls. To call it sub-optimal is an understatement… but it also makes a great testing ground.
In my office, I equipped one TEW-827 unit in “Bridge mode” to serve as a hotspot from the central router. I then plugged my computer into the LAN ports on that unit. I would then attempt to do basic connections through my network (to the outside world and internally) using SpeedTest for the outside and Linux-based file transferring internally. The internal transfers came from my server, which is hardwired to the switch that the central router feeds.
Side note here, I had some problems with this setup that are worth mentioning. The upstairs unit did not always like to stay in bridge mode if it lost signal for long enough. It would occasionally lock up and reset, dumping all of its settings. I tried using the other model in its place and had the same issue, so I assume this to be a firmware problem. It is really nice to have two identical units, as I’m able to rule out a lot of “just this one” issues! The issue seemed to happen most in the early testing phase, when I was still leaving my old central router in place and setting the bridge router up to test its receiving throughput. Once the bridge router consistently received strong signal from the central router, the problem disappeared… but this means an outage on one router could cause me to have to re-calibrate the second.Speed And Range
When TRENDnet said “Oh, don’t worry about that. It’ll work fine,” regarding my house construction, they really weren’t kidding. External transfers (from the web) both in and out maxed out my 50Mbps ISP connection with nary a problem. Internal file transfers happened at an appreciable clip – a transfer from a RAID6 array on my home server coasted along at a snappy 64MB/s… not bad at all, given the environment (currently, the ac-band should be capable of up to about 160MB/s under ideal conditions).
The biggest reason for this speed boost is the amount of data that can be shoved into transmissions between 802.11ac devices. The bandwidth difference from even n-band is simply not comparable, and not having to “fail back” to g-band across the connection due to older devices is a godsend.
Coverage was suitably impressive, as well. The ac band worked well across most of the first floor and reached the 2nd floor for the bridge router with enough gas to maintain a good connection. On the fallback g band network (2.4GHz), there were only two spots in the house that did not get at least 2 of 3 visible bars on phones, and they wouldn’t be where someone would be trying to use a device. Even then, it stayed on the network and DHCP table, it was just slower.
What was most impressive was the consistency of the connection quality on the ac-band even with non-802.11ac devices (as there really aren’t all that many) clogging up the network. Throughout the range, until you were in a position where signal strength dropped to nearly nonexistent, it felt like you were standing right next to the router. Response was snappy even if there was more than one device in the vicinity, which is a testament to the execution of both the 802.11ac MIMO protocol and its beam-shaping. Some of the ac-band compliance has also taught the router makers some physical tricks that can still be used even as it falls back to n-band for other devices.Final Thoughts
There are really two questions to answer here. The first is, “Do I need to move to an 802.11ac router?” If you’re using an older (2-3 years or more) n-band router, this answer is a simple yes. The difference is like going from night to day both in speed and in range. Since routers are always backwards-compatible, your old devices will still work with a few of the benefits learned from making the new routers. The n-band isn’t going away anytime soon and the ac-band still has LOTS of theoretical room to grow, so this is a good time to step in and sit down for a while, content in the step forward.
The next question is, “Do I need a TRENDnet TEW-827DRU router if I’m going to upgrade?” At an asking price of $189.99USD, it sits in the middle of a slew of candidates. However, I would say TRENDnet outshines many with its robust configuration and its nearly enterprise-level control, even if it leaves a bit to be desired in the clarity of setup. Most ac-band routers are currently targeted as premium gaming-based products, which routinely are a lot of hype and pretty packaging over a basic, well-functioning but low-frills unit. TRENDnet is offering the reverse – it’s a basic wrapping around a very well-featured and solid performer with good range. Given the option, I’ll choose that anytime, which is why it gets our Editor’s Choice award.
TRENDnet TEW-827DRU AC2600 Router
Quantum computers have long been on the horizon, with a rolling estimate that quantum computers would be available “in 20 years”. However, recent breakthroughs have meant we could have enterprise-level quantum computers far sooner than previously estimated.
As well as the multitude of benefits that are promised by the potential processing power of quantum computers, they are expected to fundamentally change how we encrypt sensitive communications across the internet.
In anticipation of this, the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (Nist) is currently reviewing a series of proposed post-quantum cryptographic algorithms, which will be published once the selection process is complete.
“It is going to take another five to seven years for a new cryptographic cipher to be introduced through Nist and it may take longer. That is too late,” observes John Prisco, CEO of Quantum Xchange.
Rather than building upon existing cryptographic algorithms, quantum key distribution (QKD) instead transmits the key at the quantum level, separate to the encrypted message. Although QKD is a technology that is still very much in its infancy, recent developments now mean it may become a viable form of defence.
QKD operates by transmitting elementary particles, such as photons, between a transmitter and a receiver. The behaviour of elementary particles is random, and when used to generate a stream of random data, makes it an ideal method for generating a cryptographic key.
“Typically, when we are deriving a key, the key might be made of a million photons and it is likely the final key we settle on is only made of 100,000 photons,” says Prisco. “In order for someone to intercept the key, the content of the key is never transmitted all at once; it is transmitted a photon at a time.”Elementary particles cannot be cloned
An advantage of using elementary particles is that they cannot be cloned. While some of the quantum properties could be copied, not all them can be duplicated. Furthermore, the nature of elementary particles means the very act of observing such a particle changes the state of the particle, thereby alerting the sender and receiver to the fact that the signal has been intercepted, thus halting the message.
A suitable analogy to QKD would be a symmetric key (a one-time pad), plus a hard-drive filled with random data, given to someone in order to enable secure communications with them. This would be less expensive than current QKD methods, but far slower and more cumbersome.
Quantum decoherence limits the range of QKD. This could be overcome by installing quantum repeaters approximately every 50km (31 miles) to extend the range of the signal, but these are not yet ready for real-world deployment.
Some QKD techniques have been able to transmit a QKD signal 400km (nearly 250 miles), but these are cryogenically cooled to near absolute zero and have extreme vacuum requirements. “These are not commercial,” says Prisco. “They are really just educational and laboratory research projects.”
This was highlighted in a white paper by the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), which is part of UK’s GCHQ, after it concluded that whilst QKD held potential, it was not yet – at the time in 2016 when the report was published – suitable for deployment. The review highlighted that QKD “has fundamental practical limitations, does not address large parts of the security problem and is poorly understood in terms of potential attacks.”
However, Quantum Xchange, in conjunction with ID Quantique, are developing a solution to this. “ID Quantique have developed a QKD protocol, in association with the University of Geneva, called Coherent One-Way, which allows their key to be transmitted about 100km,” says Prisco. “That is great for what they are doing in Geneva, but really doesn’t work for most of the other geographically large countries and certainly not in the United States.”
Therefore, Quantum Xchange, together with Battelle Memorial Institute, have developed a system of trusted nodes. Rather than boosting the signal to extend the range, trusted nodes receive and then retransmit the encrypted signal onwards to the next trusted node, until the signal reaches the final destination.
A trusted node consists of a quantum receiver linked to a quantum transmitter, which is housed in a secure boundary, designed to prevent tampering. These have been engineered to allow the quantum system components – the Quantum Key Controller (QKC) and the Quantum Key Engine (QKE) – to fit within a standard ATCA (advanced telecommunications computing architecture) board or blade, a standard telecommunications form factor, which is protected from intrusion and certified to the FIPS 140-2, level 3 standard.
“If somebody was intending to break in, they would have to break into your guarded facility, [and then] they would have to take the cover off the transmitter,” says Prisco. “This is protected by a secure memory tamper detection module. When that is tampered with, every key that is stored inside the trusted node turns to zero.”
When powered and enabled by the QKC, the QKE continuously generates a stream of qubits, measures error rates and performs error correction and privacy amplification operations to maintain a store of qubits that can be used to generate encryption keys. These qubits are transferred to the QKC, where they are used as an entropy source that is shared by the two nodes.
“To say there is a zero chance of breaking this is mathematically incorrect, but it is ironclad,” says Prisco. “An intruder would have to guess the state of each photon and make that guess a million times in row – such as flipping a coin a million times and guessing whether it is going to be heads or tails.”
While the QKC and QKE are responsible for – and generate – all the key material, the Trusted Node Controller (TNC) is responsible for routing that material to the various endpoints within the overall network. As the TNC is the outward (network-facing) portion of the trusted node, no unencrypted key information is ever found within the TNC. Instead, all of the information that is transmitted through the trusted node network is encrypted by the quantum keys shared within the appropriate quantum blade that connects the trusted nodes.
Quantum Xchange are currently deploying a QKD network in the United States, to be used solely for the transmission of quantum cryptographic keys between entities that need to securely transmit confidential data.
The network currently stretches between lower New York and New Jersey, with the proposed route to continue to Washington DC in the next three to six months. “We have fifteen intermediary sites along the route, which we can use to access customers in cities like New York, Washington and Baltimore,” says Prisco.Ease of access
Quantum Xchange’s trusted node network is designed for ease of access and minimum disruption, and will not require companies to adapt their existing security policies. “We are not asking customers to change the way they transmit their data,” says Prisco.
“They can transmit their data exactly the way they transmit their data today, with the same encryptors. The only thing that we are doing is adding an overlay network that is separate from their data network.”
One of the problems with previous QKD systems was that they were slow. Transfer speeds were typically measured in kilobits per second. However, recent developments have witnessed a five to ten-fold increase in key transmission rates, bringing them into the megabit per second range. “There is no significant additional latency so the user experience will be as fast as they are accustomed to,” says Prisco.
The eventual goal will be for this QKD network to extend across middle America and then to the west coast. “The systems can transmit a key as far as needed using Trusted Node technology,” says Prisco. “Our plan is to deploy nationwide.”
Nist is currently assessing Quantum Xchange’s trusted node network. “They are testing us in the laboratory and will eventually certify us as FIPS 140-2 Level 3 compliant,” says Prisco. “This helps in terms of providing QKD to federal agencies, the US Department of Defense and intelligence agencies, as well as the defence industrial base that will have intellectual property that they will want to protect.”
One of the reasons why Quantum Xchange’s method of QKD could prove so effective is that many of the smart fibre providers in the Unites States have excess capacity. “Back in the late eighties when we were building competitive power communication networks, we would put in a lot more fibre; usually 144-fibre cables when we perhaps only needed six-fibre,” says Prisco.
“The reason for that is construction costs were high and cable costs were low, so you may as well put in as much fibre in as you can, as you are only opening that trench once.”Working alongside BT
Although this particular QKD service will be available only in the US, ID Quantique are currently working alongside BT to develop a viable QKD service for the UK. Since 2016, BT have been building a 100km (just over 60 miles) QKD link between the BT Labs at Adastral Park and Cambridge University, with trusted nodes in Ipswich, Newmarket and Bury St Edmunds.
Each of these nodes is housed in a BT exchange and forms part of the local BT telecommunications infrastructure. “This is the first time that this has been done. There are other QKD systems out there but none have gone as far as we have,” says Andrew Lord, head of optics research at BT. “It has been installed in BT exchange buildings, so it has all the CE markings that are needed and it has passed all the tests.”
But how far is the UK from having a QKD network? “It is sooner than we think, but not as soon as we would like. A QKD network is further away than dedicated bespoke links for special customers who might need it,” says Lord.
“We are already working with customers who are doing those kinds of trials. These will be links of few tens of kilometres backing up a customer’s centre of operations, or they could be for financial transactions.”
Currently, BT’s QKD link is still very much a prototype, but it demonstrates how QKD could be deployed. “The hardware is not rocket science, it is just a pragmatic engineering exercise of getting it to work in these real-life situations,” says Lord.
“Even when you have done that, you need to put it into a service, so you have to put in a key management wrap over the top – It is all well and good having all these keys, but how are you going to make them available for use?”Increased risk
The risk posed by transmitting confidential information over the internet now exists far beyond the time of when the message is transmitted.
Organisations need to begin preparing for the impact that quantum computers will have on information security, by familiarising themselves with transmission methods that are secure against attacks from quantum computers. It is now a case of “when”, rather than “if”, such attacks will begin to occur. Therefore, planning and preparation are of the utmost importance.
While QKD systems are currently the only communications method that could promise to be genuinely quantum-safe, the range limitations of earlier QKD technologies made it impractical over long distances. Trusted nodes promise to mitigate that limitation by providing a practical, certifiable, key-management system of a long-distance QKD.
“You have got to plan for today, as there are so many nefarious actors harvesting data today, along with encryption keys,” says Prisco. “You really need something today to protect your data transmission and the only thing that can protect it is a quantum key.”
"The scars" and "that horrible world" are some of the terms for network management, according to one who's been in the trenches.
Kailem Anderson was with Cisco Systems for 12 years prior to joining fiber-optics giant Ciena last year. As vice president of portfolio and engineering for the Blue Planet, a software division of Ciena, he is trying to help avoid such pain for those who must keep networks running.
"I managed customer networks, and I spent a lot of time hiring analysts to watch the network, to watch alarms, and to build big strings of rules," for networking monitoring, says Anderson. His breezy Aussie accent gives a certain lightness to what sounds like a rather miserable affair.
At $26 million in revenue in 2018, Blue Planet was a tiny fraction of Ciena's roughly $200 million in software revenue in 2018 and $3 billion in total revenue. But it increased by a healthy 66%, and it can bring higher profit margin than Ciena's optical networking equipment sale. It also offers the company a recurring revenue stream that is highly appreciated by Wall Street. Those economic aspects, plus the fact that it can be strategic in designing customers' networks, make it an important part of where Ciena is headed as a company.
Also: Is Google's Snorkel DryBell the future of enterprise data management?
Figuring out what's gone wrong in a network involves detective work at several levels of what's known as the "stack" of protocols, the Open Systems Interconnect, or "OSI." Some information comes from the bottom of the stack, if you will, the "layer one," which consists of the physical medium of transmission. That could be, for example, coaxial cabling or fiber-optic links.
At the next layer above that, layer two, raw bits are packaged into bundles, such as Ethernet frames, and there's all kinds of information to be gleaned about the state of those frames of data as they move through the fibers and cables of the network. The next layer up is layer three, where data is packaged as Internet-addressable packets, again, with lots of their owing information to be gleaned, such as routing and switching information about where the packets are going.
From there, one can go on up to higher levels, layers four through seven, the domain of applications, and get information about who an individual application is placing its data into those internet packets and whether it is having any trouble doing so.
Take the example where there is an transponder failure on one of two optical links. That leads to a route change in the multi-protocol label system, or MPLS. The network equipment reports congestion along the IP route as a link shoulders the burden of more traffic, and an end user experiences heavy delays using the network. All these are part of the same problem, Anderson explains, but getting from the user experience to the transponder failure can be a mystery.
Traditionally, a systems administrator sees the various items in a disparate fashion, with signals at each of the OSI layers coming from different telemetry systems, such as SNMP monitors, the systems log, a third thing that tracks "flows," and then information coming from an individual piece of equipment, such as information about a recent configuration change -- none of which are coordinated.
What looks like bad user performance from one angle looks like an MPLS routing issue or an IP bandwidth issue at another level, leading to a serious piece of detective work to find the culprit, the transponder failure.
Also: Google Brain, Microsoft plumb the mysteries of networks with AI
A ticket gets created, and it ping-pongs between teams, with no one team having visibility into the other side, says Anderson. "Eventually they solve it, they have engineers inspect the matter, but it's very inefficient."
Sys admins must try and construct systems of rules as to what every possible combination of factors could mean. "They spend 1,000s of hours building these rules," says Anderson. "It's a zero sum game to spend that time to identify all the different scenarios."
Instead, Blue Planet tools can train the network software using a combination of labeled examples, known as supervised learning and reinforcement learning, where the computer explores states of affairs and possible next steps.
With that combination, the software can be trained to identify patterns "up and down the stack" that are difficult to piece together with a rules-based system.
"We want to have the system learn to identify those scenarios, to basically help us get to the root cause much more quickly, and to use that information to close the loop," he says, and then have a supervisor come into the picture only once that outline has been determined.
Also: Intel-backed startup Nyansa chases the total problem in the AI of network monitoring
The tools necessary to do this are mostly starting from off-the-shelf machine learning models, says Anderson. "Most of this, yes, we can get from the cloud guys," he says, referring to the various enterprise-grade machine learning offerings in cloud computing facilities. "We use them all," though the tools can also be run solely on-prem. "It's six and one half dozen of the other at the moment, but I think analytics is ultimately a good thing to move into the cloud."
Open-source tools such as SparkML play a big role in organizing all the telemetry data.
The technology of machine learning, says Anderson, has matured substantially in recent years to make the investment in labeling network events pay off.
"Five years ago I was playing with this and with the amount of effort that needed to go into labeling, the risk versus value I was getting was questionable," he says. "With the hardening of the algorithm, and the maturity of AI, that effort-to-reward ratio has compressed significantly. You only have to do a reasonable amount of tagging now and the outputs are significant."
Anderson maintains there is another dimension in the shift to machine learning, which is that a more comprehensive sense of the network emerges that may lead to different ways or structuring and maintaining networks.
Traditionally, many sys admins will simply turn off sources of information, says Anderson, which is understandable, because of the information overload, but it means that network administrators are throwing away important clues.
"That's the complexity in operating with a million different data sources," he observes. "The traditional way to mange an operations team is to filter the information, almost turn off the information that is too much.
"At Cisco, if I was running a service provider network, I would get in the vicinity of a million events a day, and I might have an operations team of 40 to 50 people who have to handle all that."
As a consequence, admins end up only looking for "what they deem fair scenarios," and "are turning off performance-based scenarios," information about the relative quality of the network.
But, says Anderson, "you don't want to turn off the information, you want to funnel it, and use it to identify what conditions are driving consistent scenarios,Must read
"Eventually, solutions could be different if they're trained," he offers. Data may lead to structuring things differently. "Usually, you have a planned network condition, but then an actual network condition; through learning, you might find the actual is more optimal than planned, and then execute a policy" based on that new insight.
There are new frontiers to achieve, such as delivering analysis of the data in a "graph database" format, says Anderson. "We are in the operations and network world, and so you want to visualize all this in a network graph concept." Some customers "want to see it just programmatically propagate to northbound systems that are going to leverage that information, to be able to visualize with a graph database and have APIs to send that northbound information to the BSS layer."
The one catch at the moment in all this is that systems administrators are not yet ready to close the loop, so to speak, and let machine learning completely take over and automate both detection and resolution of network issues.
"This isn't a tech limit, it's a cultural aspect," he says. Machine learning systems are probabilistic, not deterministic. Hence, while they can detect many failure issues, there is a reluctance to automate what could be a false positive scenario. "You only need to screw up .0001% of the time and that's a big issue."
"I still think we are a little bit away in terms of closing the loop, I think it's trust in the technology. It will happen incrementally, where you can close the loop on something non-catastrophic, that doesn't create a failure scenario, where there is low risk, and then other areas over time
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