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DS-200 - Data Science Essentials Beta - Dump Information

Vendor : Cloudera
Exam Code : DS-200
Exam Name : Data Science Essentials Beta
Questions and Answers : 60 Q & A
Updated On : December 13, 2018
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DS-200 Questions and Answers

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DS-200 Data Science Essentials Beta

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DS-200 exam Dumps Source : Data Science Essentials Beta

Test Code : DS-200
Test Name : Data Science Essentials Beta
Vendor Name : Cloudera
Q&A : 60 Real Questions

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Cloudera Cloudera Data Science Essentials

Cloudera partners with bank Rakyat Indonesia on facts-driven event to enhance growth and speed up economic Inclusion in Indonesia | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

SINGAPORE, Nov. 20, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Cloudera, Inc. CLDR, +6.64% the up to date platform for computing device researching and analytics optimized for the cloud, nowadays announced that PT. financial institution Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk (BRI), one of the vital greatest state-owned banks in Indonesia, has deployed Cloudera commercial enterprise to harness the vigour of their statistics to deliver more advantageous capabilities to its clients and speed up monetary inclusion in Indonesia. with the aid of powering its large information platform with Cloudera, the financial establishment has expanded its client base and superior its fraud detection ability via machine getting to know.

click on to tweet: @Cloudera partners with @Bank_BRI_ID on records-pushed event to raise boom, speed up economic inclusion and boost fraud detection through #machinelearning [bit.ly]

founded in 1895, BRI focuses on microfinance loans and serves approximately 30 million retail customers via greater than four,000 branches, contraptions and rural service posts in Indonesia. To extra develop its business, the financial institution necessary to harness the total value of their consumer facts to not only hold latest shoppers however additionally acquire new ones.

With the huge amount of client information won over the years, the financial institution set out on a mission to digitalize its operations via deploying a modern information management platform that become scalable, comfortable and compliant. by means of replacing its legacy system with Cloudera business, the financial institution become in a position to analyze 5 years' worth of ancient facts and use the derived insights to enrich its credit scoring equipment. The insights derived additionally printed a deeper figuring out of its customers' conduct. Armed with this potential, BRI is now capable of pressure extra revenue by means of go-promoting and upselling services that are most imperative to particular person present consumers.

BRI has always been dedicated to the Indonesian government's 2020 Go Digital vision and has focused on accelerating the cost of financial inclusion in Indonesia.  prior to now, BRI distributed loans in typical models which are sometimes time-ingesting and require a prolonged technique. This changed into an impediment in using the cost of monetary inclusion. through adopting an information-driven method and applying machine learning, BRI has improved the uptake of digital loans and more desirable the productivity degree of processing credit score loans by up to 50%, reducing processing time from two weeks to 2 days. in accordance with the international Findex Database 2017 record, nearly 50% of the adults in Indonesia now personal a checking account, reflecting the growth the nation has made in boosting economic inclusion. And BRI goals to extra narrow this monetary inclusion hole by means of providing enhanced entry to their loans with the introduction of an app.

To tackle the mounting issues around facts protection from both regulators and buyers, BRI has additionally currently embarked on a pilot assignment to raise its fraud detection device. Cloudera information Science Workbench is getting used to boost a laptop studying model for fraud detection by way of leveraging facts from distinct facts sets. The model might be deployed and served in true-time with the aid of applying HBase as its backend facts shop. With the newly developed fraud detection gadget, BRI could be in a position to technique and detect fraud in real time by way of highlighting anomalies present in the flow of activities coming from multiple consumer touch aspects corresponding to ATMs and information superhighway banking portals.

"we are committed to providing features that perpetually tackle consumer demands while reducing risks," said Indra Utoyo, Director of IT and Operations, BRI. "Cloudera's relaxed, scalable and compliant platform has empowered us to investigate our huge extent of information, which in consequence enabled us to make insights-pushed choices that helped reduce churn, boost pockets share, and superior avoid fraud. We additionally chose Cloudera as a result of its mighty reference in the Indonesian market and the mighty technical support offered by means of its local and international teams." 

"To live ahead of the competition, banks need analytics and laptop getting to know to gain a complete realizing of their purchasers as a way to bring greater personalised choices, conform to rules, and in the reduction of hazards," pointed out Mark Micallef, vp for Asia Pacific and Japan, Cloudera. "we're pleased to help BRI trap new boom alternatives and tackle complex company challenges."

About PT. financial institution Rakyat Indonesia (Persero), Tbk PT financial institution Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk (BRI) engages in the provision of familiar banking services. The firm operates during the following segments: Micro, Retail, corporate, Others, and Subsidiaries. The Micro segment presents banking functions to individual consumers and micro-entrepreneurs. The Retail segment serves particular person valued clientele and small and medium entrepreneurs with the aid of proposing banking capabilities, deposit items, and business or purchaser loans. The company section gives special loans, cash administration, and different loan facilities to state-owned agencies and non-state owned corporations businesses. The Subsidiaries segment specializes in shariah banking functions, agribusiness, and remittances provided through the company subsidiaries. The business turned into established by Aria Wiriatmaja on December 16, 1895 and is headquartered in Jakarta, Indonesia. For extra advice on BRI, log on to https://bri.co.identity.

About ClouderaAt Cloudera, we accept as true with that information can make what's impossible these days, possible the next day. We empower individuals to transform complex facts into clear and actionable insights. We carry the up to date platform for machine gaining knowledge of and analytics optimized for the cloud. the realm's largest agencies have faith Cloudera to help resolve their most challenging enterprise issues. be trained greater at www.cloudera.com.

join with ClouderaAbout Cloudera: cloudera.com/more/about.htmlRead our vision weblog: vision.cloudera.com/ and Engineering blog: blog.cloudera.com/observe us on Twitter: twitter.com/clouderaVisit us on facebook: facebook.com/clouderaSee us on YouTube: youtube.com/consumer/clouderahadoop/featuredJoin the Cloudera group: neighborhood.cloudera.com/read about our shoppers' successes: cloudera.com/extra/shoppers.html

Cloudera and associated marks and emblems are registered emblems of Cloudera, Inc. All different enterprise and product names may be emblems of their respective owners.

This press release carries forward-searching statements including, among different issues, statements regarding the anticipated performance and benefits of Cloudera's choices. The words "trust," "may also," "will," "plan," "expect," and similar expressions are supposed to determine ahead-looking statements. These forward-searching statements are area to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. If the dangers materialize or assumptions show fallacious, specific consequences may vary materially from the results implied by means of these ahead-searching statements. risks consist of, however are not confined to, risks described in our filings with the Securities and alternate commission (SEC), together with our form S-1 Registration observation, and our future studies that we may additionally file with the SEC from time to time, which could cause actual outcomes to vary from expectations. Cloudera assumes no duty to, and does not at the moment intend to, replace this kind of ahead-looking statements after the date of this free up.

View fashioned content material to down load multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cloudera-companions-with-financial institution-rakyat-indonesia-on-statistics-pushed-event-to-raise-growth-and-accelerate-monetary-inclusion-in-indonesia-300753547.html

supply Cloudera, Inc.

Copyright (C) 2018 PR Newswire. All rights reserved


Cloudera Qualifies facts Scientists With New Certification program | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

hands-On Certification Prepares records Scientists for success With actual-World statistics; facts Science challenge starts off March 31

PALO ALTO, CA--(Marketwired - Mar 26, 2014) - Cloudera, the chief in business analytic records administration powered with the aid of Apache Hadoop™, these days announced the business's first palms-on records science certification, referred to as Cloudera certified skilled: information Scientist (CCP: DS). made from a knowledge Science necessities exam, a twice-annual statistics Science problem, and a couple of preparatory and enablement components, Cloudera's facts scientist certification software helps developers, analysts, statisticians, and engineers get journey with principal huge facts tools and ideas and validate their expertise while helping prospective employers identify elite, incredibly knowledgeable records scientists. The next Cloudera statistics Science challenge starts off March 31, 2014.

industry Faces scarcity of qualified statistics Scientists

organisations are increasingly storing huge quantities of data in Hadoop to streamline the route to actionable insights, develop advanced analytics models, and build large records tools that were prior to now inconceivable for most businesses. consequently, the demand for records scientists is at an all-time high. records scientists possess a rare aggregate of engineering capabilities, statistical advantage, and area count number competencies it truly is difficult to discover. Job openings for records scientists some distance outpace the restrained supply of those totally in-demand people, and the advantage gap is widening. The situation is advanced through the incontrovertible fact that there has traditionally now not been a clearly based skill set or institution degree that someone may acquire to qualify as a knowledge scientist. agencies in quest of to employ their first facts scientists frequently have little concept what credentials to seek in a candidate.

Cloudera Addresses Demand for facts Scientists via practicing and Certification

because the world chief in Hadoop training and skilled certification, Cloudera is addressing the common business want for records scientists with its new CCP:DS certification. Designed and led by Cloudera's personal elite team of statistics scientists, the CCP:DS software helps aspiring statistics scientists improve and prove out the knowledge they should be successful with real-world commercial enterprise information.

besides the certification examination, the software comprises an non-compulsory three-day Introduction to information Science course focused on educating facts experts to construct computing device getting to know fashions and implement complicated recommender methods with Hadoop as a platform the use of trade-usual equipment like Python and Apache Mahout. Cloudera also offers a 60-question data Science essentials practice look at various for candidates to self-verify their examination-readiness, and a free information Science problem solution package consisting of a reside facts set, a step-by using-step tutorial, and an in depth clarification of the strategies required to reach on the proper consequences for true-world facts science questions concentrated on classification, clustering, and collaborative filtering of web analytics. 

once candidates have handed the statistics Science necessities examination, they should then correctly comprehensive a Cloudera information Science problem, offered twice annually. by using passing Cloudera's examination and are living-information problem, CCP:DS-credentialed people have established their means to work with big statistics and construct market-crucial facts science fashions beneath actual-world conditions on the very highest level. Cloudera certified expert: facts Scientist is the area's most effective certification that gives proof of authentic adventure and expertise establishing a creation-able facts science answer it truly is peer-evaluated for accuracy, scalability, and robustness.

Introducing the facts Science problem: Detecting Anomalies in Medicare Claims Cloudera's second records Science problem opens on March 31, 2014. contributors will have three months to finished the challenge. Designed through Cloudera's Director of records Science, Sean Owen, the records Science challenge asks aspiring statistics scientists to observe viable mistakes and anomalies in Medicare claims using a large set of anonymized healthcare information. a success challengers might be capable of reply questions, including:

  • Which scientific approaches have the highest relative variance in cost?
  • Which three providers had the maximum standard quantity claimed for the largest variety of methods?
  • based on quantity and kind of processes claimed, which three suppliers and areas are least just like the others?
  • determine 10,000 sufferers that appear obviously to need evaluate for viable blunders or anomalies. Describe some normal points in these patients.
  • To gain knowledge of extra concerning the statistics Science problem or to register, please talk over with: http://cloudera.com/content/cloudera/en/working towards/certification/ccp-ds/problem/register.html

    be part of us for a webinar in regards to the existing facts Science problem on April 10: http://go.cloudera.com/LP=385

    What facts Scientists Say about CCP:DS: "The certification software that Cloudera has put together goes past the written test, together with a problem this is designed to verify the statistics scientist skills in a good deal superior depth than could be finished in a numerous alternative questionnaire. From my perspective, this makes the exercise a good deal more compelling, advantageous, and meaningful than any other certification obtainable nowadays. you are really solving issues through facts evaluation in a full simulation of instances records scientists face within the box."- Luis Quintela, Samsung SDS, Cloudera certified skilled: data Scientist

    "CCP:DS goes a long method against doing away with ambiguity about who and what a knowledge scientist is. Being linked to Cloudera earns speedy appreciate, as well. since the exam is in accordance with real-world challenges and is thoroughly vetted by using some of the world's right experts, the certification does the hard work of pre-evaluating candidates against the distinctive totally technical areas that could otherwise be complex to qualify."- David F. McCoy, exclusive company, Cloudera certified knowledgeable: statistics Scientist

    "i'm pumped to earn the CCP:DS credential! It holds genuine weight out there since it replicates a real, sufficiently elaborate massive statistics state of affairs i would see on the job and requires a professional-degree method to fixing complications. The exam captured the entire valuable aspects of statistics science and computer discovering, and the challenge made the adventure absolutely non-trivial."- Stuart Horsman, Cloudera, Cloudera licensed professional: facts Scientist

    gain knowledge of more About Cloudera's training and professional Certification classes To learn more about Cloudera's complete providing of massive records practising courses and expert certifications, including the brand new CCP: facts Scientist program, please talk over with:http://school.cloudera.com.

    About Cloudera Cloudera is revolutionizing business facts management by using offering the primary unified Platform for large information, an commercial enterprise statistics hub constructed on Apache Hadoop™. Cloudera offers firms one place to save, technique and analyze all their information, empowering them to lengthen the price of present investments whereas enabling simple new how you can derive value from their statistics. best Cloudera offers everything vital on a adventure to an enterprise information hub, together with software for enterprise essential statistics challenges such as storage, entry, management, evaluation, safety and search. because the main educator of Hadoop experts, Cloudera has informed over 20,000 individuals global. Over 900 companions and a pro expert services group aid convey stronger time to cost. at last, most effective Cloudera gives proactive and predictive aid to run an commercial enterprise data hub with confidence. leading groups in each business plus accurate public sector companies globally run Cloudera in production.www.cloudera.com

    join with Cloudera read our vision weblog: http://imaginative and prescient.cloudera.comFollow Cloudera on Twitter: http://twitter.com/clouderaFollow Cloudera institution on Twitter: http://twitter.com/ClouderaUVisit us on facebook: http://www.facebook.com/cloudera

    Cloudera, Cloudera Platform for large records, Cloudera enterprise basic version, Cloudera commercial enterprise Flex edition, Cloudera commercial enterprise statistics Hub edition and CDH are trademarks or registered emblems of Cloudera in the united states and in jurisdictions all the way through the realm. All different business and product names may be change names or logos of their respective owners.


    Addressing facts Scientist skills scarcity, Cloudera Launches New Certification software | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mar 28, 2014

    To handle the growing demand for records scientists, Cloudera has launched what it calls the business's first palms-on records science certification. made from an information Science essentials exam, a twice-annual information Science problem, in addition to preparatory and enablement resources, Cloudera's data scientist certification application - Cloudera certified professional: records Scientist (CCP:DS) - is geared toward assisting builders, analysts, statisticians, and engineers get journey with huge facts tools and concepts and validate their talents.

    A provider of Hadoop practising and knowledgeable certification, Cloudera presents a unified Platform for large information, an business facts hub built on Apache Hadoop. Following a contemporary funding circular of $one hundred sixty million (led with the aid of T. Rowe rate, and including an investment via Google Ventures and an affiliate of MSD Capital, L.P., the inner most investment firm for Michael S. Dell and his family unit), Cloudera also currently acquired what become described as a big equity investment from Intel, making it Cloudera's biggest strategic shareholder and a member of its board of administrators.  The investment became talked about to be Intel's single greatest facts center expertise funding in its historical past.

    in keeping with Cloudera, it's launching the statistics science certification application now to tackle to address a pressing challenge within the IT trade: job openings for information scientists are presently outpacing the provide of those in-demand laborers, a situation this is complicated through the undeniable fact that there has historically no longer been a certainly based ability set or university diploma that a person could acquire to qualify as a knowledge scientist. in response to Cloudera, the outcomes is that groups trying to appoint their first statistics scientists generally are doubtful about what qualification to look for in a candidate.

    Designed and led by means of Cloudera’s own crew of facts scientists, the CCP:DS application includes an non-compulsory three-day Introduction to records Science path focused on educating facts gurus to build desktop researching models and enforce complicated recommender programs with Hadoop as a platform the usage of trade-usual tools like Python and Apache Mahout. Cloudera additionally presents a 60-query records Science necessities observe examine for candidates to self-examine their exam-readiness, and a free statistics Science problem solution kit together with a reside records set, a step-by means of-step tutorial, and a detailed rationalization of the methods required to arrive on the suitable outcomes for true-world facts science questions concentrated on classification, clustering, and collaborative filtering of internet analytics.

    as soon as candidates have passed the information Science necessities exam, they have to flow a Cloudera facts Science problem, provided twice annually. via passing Cloudera's examination and are living-records challenge, CCP:DS-credentialed individuals could be able to reveal their potential to work with massive information and build market-significant information science fashions below true-world circumstances at a excessive level.

    in response to Cloudera, the Cloudera licensed professional: statistics Scientist certification is unique in that it provides proof of capabilities setting up a construction-able facts science answer that has been peer-evaluated for accuracy, scalability, and robustness.

    To gain knowledge of extra concerning the information Science problem or to register, go right here.

    Cloudera is protecting a webinar concerning the present records Science problem on April 10. Go here for tips.


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    Essential Science: Linking infections and Alzheimer’s disease | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia. Dementia describes a progressive neurological disease which affects multiple brain functions, including memory. The exact causes are uncertain. What is known about the origins of Alzheimer’s disease is the connection between the condition and a build-up of plaques of the protein amyloid beta. Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into the wrong shape, allowing many copies of that protein to stick together. The protein leads to a loss of brain tissue and the onset of Alzheimer's disease manifestations, such as cognitive decline. What is less clear is what causes the plaque (fibril-like structures) to develop. The new connection with amyloid beta protein and infection is based on the link between the protein and the human body’s defense mechanism. The right hand diagram is of the brain of a person suffering from Alzheimer s disease

    The right hand diagram is of the brain of a person suffering from Alzheimer's disease

    Garrondo

    Research indicates that an alternative protein called LL37 is very similar to amyloid-beta. LL37 (as an antimicrobial peptide) play a role in the immune response, battling infections. Production of antimicrobial peptides and proteins is an important means of host defense in animals. When amyloid beta was examined it was found that it has similar infection fighting properties. These proteins are not however, in normal circumstances, produced in response to an infection. That said, there could be circumstances where amyloid beta accumulates and cause tissue degeneration in response to an infection. By carrying out tests using mice that had been genetically altered to have Alzheimer’s disease, scientist discovered that plaques of amyloid beta surrounded a site of infection when Salmonella bacteria were introduced. This effect was also shown with viral infections. It is possible, therefore, that when particular infections occur the body overreacts and amyloid beta proteins are directed to infection sites along with LL37. This may occur if there are repeated infections with high numbers of contaminating microorganisms. Where there is too many amyloid beta proteins, the balance becomes toxic and Alzheimer’s disease begins to emerge. This occurs more readily with older people. This is because an invasive pathogen - be it a virus, fungus or bacterium - enters the brain by passing through a membrane (the blood-brain barrier.) This barrier becomes more 'leaky' as people age. Once the pathogen crosses, the brain’s defense system activates to tackle the invader, through the production of the sticky beta amyloid proteins. PET scans showing the differances between a normal older adult s brain and the brain of an older adu...

    PET scans showing the differances between a normal older adult's brain and the brain of an older adult afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. — On photo (left to right): PET scan of normal brain, PET scan of Alzheimer’s disease brain.

    National Institutes of Health

    This finding caused broadcaster PBS to tweet: "Alzheimer's disease could be a late-blooming symptom of a brain infection that occurred earlier in life..." Similarly, health technology company IMS Health APAC (@IMSHealthAPAC) commented: " [#Therapy] #Alzheimer's disease may stem from toxic remnants of brain's attempt to fight off infection." Commenting on the research, lead scientist Dr. Rudolph Tanzi said: “While our data all involve experimental models, the important next step is to search for microbes in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients that may have triggered amyloid deposition as a protective response.” He also added: “If we can identify the culprits – be they bacteria, viruses, or yeast – we may be able to therapeutically target them for primary prevention of the disease.” The new research was carried out at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The findings of the research are published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The research paper is titled “Amyloid- peptide protects against microbial infection in mouse and worm models of Alzheimers disease.” In related news, Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite may be a specific infection that has a connection with Alzheimer's disease. Research using mice has shown that the parasitic infection leads to a disruption of neurotransmitters in the brain. In turn, this appears to trigger neurological disease. Importantly, this trigger primarily affects those already predisposed to such a disease. Scanning electron micrograph of a pair of Schistosoma mansoni

    Scanning electron micrograph of a pair of Schistosoma mansoni

    Davies Laboratory Uniformed Services University Bethesda, MD

    T. gondii is a commonly occurring parasite, globally, infecting a third of the world's population. The reason why the parasite is linked to Alzheimer's disease is because it leads to a significant increase in glutamate, which is the major neurotransmitter in the brain (transmitting excitatory signals between neurons.) This article is part of Digital Journal's regular Essential Science columns. Each week we explore a topical and important scientific issue. Last week we examined a lens that can produce clear magnification of nanoscale objects. Remarkably the lens was made from paint whitener on a sliver of glass. The week before we looked at the topic of sending ultrasonic signals through animals tissue in order to program medical devices.

    From the cosmos to fusion plasmas, PPPL presents findings at global APS gathering | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Still of superimposed videos of the mass/spring experiment described in, 'A key step toward understanding the development of heavenly bodies.' In the videos, the untethered sphere moves farthest from the center post and closest to the edge. However, when the angular momentum is calculated in each case, the weakly-tethered mass gains angular momentum while the untethered one does not. Credit: Derek M. H. Hung More than 135 researchers and students from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) presented their latest findings at the 60th annual meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics—a worldwide gathering focused on fundamental plasma science research and discoveries. Some 1,700 participants from more than two dozen countries joined the November 5-to-9 event in Portland, Oregon, presenting posters and talks on topics ranging from astrophysical plasmas to nanotechnology to magnetic confinement fusion experiments. Included among PPPL staffers were members of the Science Education Department who presented their work focused on workforce development and diversity, and chaired this year's Education and Public Outreach Committee that organized events ranging from a plasma science teachers day to a plasma science expo for students and the general public.

    Among PPPL presenters was Seth Davidovits, a 2017 graduate of the Program in Plasma Physics in the Princeton University Department of Astrophysical Sciences, who spoke as winner of the Marshall N. Rosenbluth Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Award for his dissertation on the theory and simulation of turbulence in suppressing fluids. Davidovits is now a post-doctoral research fellow at Princeton and PPPL.

    Invited talks by PPPL scientists covered topics ranging from the formation of stars and planets to the development of computer codes for predicting and avoiding disruptions of fusion plasmas. These talks included the following:

    Developing a path to stable tokamak operation

    Among the hurdles to capturing and controlling the power of fusion that drives the sun and stars is the risk of disruption of plasma, the hot, charged state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei that fuels fusion reactions. Disruptions can halt the reactions and damage the doughnut-shaped devices called tokamaks that confine the plasma in magnetic fields. Operators of tokamaks must therefore develop real-time control of plasma instabilities that can lead to disruptions while pushing plasma toward the best possible performance.

    Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University, headed by Egemen Kolemen of PPPL and Princeton, have conducted real-time analyses that predict approaching disruptions and reduce instabilities while maintaining high performance. Such performance, called "high beta," is the ratio of plasma pressure—a key ingredient in fusion reactions—to the confining magnetic field. The higher the ratio, signifying the creation of relatively high pressure with relatively low magnetic fields, the better the confinement and control of the plasma and its ability to create fusion.

    The real-time analyses employed both physics-based and machine learning computer programs, or algorithms, that the researchers developed. The first type uses physics first-principles while the second uses data gleaned from previous experiments. The physicists used both types to control plasma experiments on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, a DOE Office of Science user facility operated by General Atomics in San Diego, California.

    The physics-based analysis detected growing instabilities prior to disruptions thousands of times faster than a statistical Monte Carlo approach. The analysis showed that plasma becomes "touchy" and produces minor variations in equilibrium before an instability called a "tearing mode" that can lead to disruptions sets in.

    However, the physics-based algorithms could accomplish only so much. So researchers applied data-driven machine learning techniques that utilized two-to-three years of DIII-D instabilities and disruptions. The best machine learning algorithms then predicted DIII-D disruptions more than 90 percent of the time. "Taken together, the two algorithms proved that accurate prediction of instabilities could better enable the stabilization of high-performance plasmas without leading to disruptions," Kolemen said. Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    A key step toward understanding the development of heavenly bodies

    The cosmos is a void dotted with stars and an ever-increasing number of newly-observed planets discovered beyond our solar system. However, the formation of these stars and planets out of clouds of interstellar dust and gas remains mysterious.

    The study of black holes provides clues to the solution of this mystery. Illustrations of black holes typically depict them as vacuum cleaners sucking up all matter and light. In reality, clouds of dust and gas called accretion disks swirl around black holes, gradually moving closer and closer until they are trapped by the black holes and fall into them. Experiments led by researchers studying the Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) at PPPL help verify one of the proposed models for how this process works.

    Typical orbits, such as those that planets carve around our sun, continue for billions of years because their angular momentum—the conservation of which causes ice skaters to spin faster when pulling in their arms—prevents the planets from falling into the sun. In an accretion disk, forces such as friction can cause objects to lose their angular momentum but are insufficient to explain how quickly matter falls into the body that the disk orbits. MRI can provide an explanation.

    One of the experiments at PPPL simulates this process using a unique rotating water-filled device. Video is recorded of a water-filled red plastic ball as it moves away from the center of the device. A spring in the experiment connects the ball to a post to simulate magnetic forces. Position measurements of the ball indicate that the behavior of its angular momentum is consistent with the MRI predictions of developments in a real accretion disk.

    Researchers are now conducting experiments using spinning liquid metals to study what happens in accretion disks with actual magnetic fields present. The experiments confirm how strongly the magnetic field affects the metal and pave the way toward a clear understanding of the role the fields play in accretion disks. The combined results mark a significant step toward a more complete explanation of the development of heavenly bodies. Support for this research comes from sources including the DOE Office of Science, the National Science Foundation, and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

    Twist and turn: A new understanding of the rotation of fusion plasma

    Direct measurement of the main-ion velocity in fusion plasmas provides insight into the turbulent transport of momentum and the mechanisms that generate plasma rotation. Understanding rotation of the main ions provides a key to validating models of turbulent momentum transport.

    Such measurements, led recently by physicist Brian Grierson of PPPL on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics, are distinct from the commonly measured rotation of carbon and other impurities that swirl within the plasma. The distinction, which provides improved understanding of the ability of the plasma to generate its own "intrinsic rotation," has two principal aspects:

  • First, the main-ion rotation in the outer regions of the plasma is twice the rate of the impurity rotation. This finding is consistent with the different pressure forces and the neoclassical flows between the bulk plasma and the low-concentration carbon impurity.
  • Second, increasing the plasma density causes the main-ion rotation speed to evolve from a constant value across the profile, to a hollow profile, meaning that the edge of the plasma rotates faster than the center of the plasma. This difference in the shape of the rotation profile tells physicists whether the plasma is responding to a strong and large scale self-generated torque, which plays a key role in maintaining the stability of the plasma.
  • If only the impurities were measured, physicists might incorrectly conclude that the plasma is generating a torque that causes the plasma rotation to peak, which would not be the case. It is therefore essential to measure the bulk—or main ion —plasma rotation when studying the intrinsic rotation of fusion plasmas.

    "Understanding how turbulence generates rotation in fusion reactors is important, because in future larger machines the ability to drive rotation with high power neutral beam injection will be relatively small," says Wayne Solomon, deputy director of the DIII-D Program. Strong intrinsic rotation will thus be key to stable plasmas. Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    No longer whistling in the dark

    Magnetic reconnection, the snapping apart and violent reconnection of magnetic field lines in plasma, occurs throughout the universe and can whip up space storms that disrupt cell phone service and knock out power grids. Now scientists at PPPL and other laboratories, using data from a NASA four-satellite mission that is studying reconnection, have developed a method for identifying the source of waves that help satellites determine their location in space.

    The team of researchers, led by PPPL physicist Jongsoo Yoo, have correlated magnetic field measurements taken by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission that is orbiting at the edge of the magnetic field that surrounds the Earth. The findings identified the source of the propagation of "whistler waves"—waves with whistle-like sounds that drop from high to low and stem from reconnection—whose detection orients the satellites relative to reconnection activity that can affect the Earth.

    The research marks development of "a new methodology for measuring how the wave propagates in reconnection," said Yoo. The source, he said, is what are called "tail electrons"—particles with energy that is far greater than that of the bulk electrons in reconnecting field lines. "What we prove is that you couldn't have whistler waves without the active X-line"—the central reconnection region—"so whistler waves indicate that reconnection is near," Yoo said.

    The team now plans to investigate the development of whistler waves near the electron diffusion region, the narrow region in the magnetosphere and laboratory experiments where electrons separate from field lines before reconnection takes place. Results could prove relevant to the MMS mission, whose goals include uncovering the role that electrons play in facilitating reconnection. Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science, NASA, and the National Science Foundation.

    Using the right magnetic fields for the job

    As it does for a spinning top, rotation helps smooth out any wobbles or instabilities in the hot, charged plasma that fuels circular fusion devices known as tokamaks. One way to control this rotation is to create asymmetric perturbations, or ripples, in the plasma with external magnetic coils. Now physicist Nik Logan of PPPL and PPPL researchers have validated predictions of the optimal ripples for their desired "neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque" (NTV)—a fancy way of saying their effect on the rotation.

    Validation of these predictions on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility enables optimization of external coils to control the plasma rotation, a major factor in plasma stability. The ripples themselves are "non-resonant," which means that they impact the momentum of plasma rotation but not the plasma's density and energy. The validation allows researchers to arrange and design coils to produce the most effective 3-D perturbations from an infinite array of possibilities, which could prove beneficial to both existing and future tokamak devices. Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    For ITER: A new way to monitor the stability of fusion plasmas

    Plasma, the soup of free-floating electrons and atomic nuclei that fuels fusion reactions, exhibits many types of behavior, or modes, when perturbed by magnetic forces in doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house the reactions. New findings led by physicist Zhirui Wang of PPPL clearly distinguish between modes and offer the potential for understanding and controlling the impact of perturbations on instabilities called edge localized modes (ELMs) and for the real-time monitoring of plasma stability.

    "Such monitoring can serve as the key to an integrated approach for disruption prediction and avoidance in future reactors such as ITER," the international tokamak under construction in France, Wang said.

    Researchers first developed a model for extracting the dominant modes that stem from the response of plasma to externally applied 3-D magnetic fields. Some modes can suppress ELMs while others can lead to disruptions, so extracting the dominant type can be crucial for predicting disruptions.

    The physicists then validated their model with experiments on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility and on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in China. In both cases, the model provided accurate descriptions of the development of modes and correctly extracted the dominant modes.

    Going forward, the findings can enable researchers to quantitatively identify the stability of dominant modes, and to predict disruptions or optimize RMPs for suppressing ELMs. "We can monitor the stability of the mode and predict at what point it becomes unstable," Wang said. "The model has fit the experiments quite well." Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    An effective paradigm for characterizing and forecasting tokamak disruptions

    High-reliability disruption prediction and avoidance are critical needs for next-step tokamaks such as ITER. PPPL scientists led by Steven Sabbagh, a senior research physicist and adjunct professor at Columbia University on long-term assignment to PPPL, have developed a unique Disruption Event Characterization and Forecasting (DECAF) code.

    The code provides a unified paradigm that automates the analysis of tokamak data to determine chains of events leading to disruptions and to forecast their evolution. The approach supports a range of methods ranging from first-principles physics analysis to empirical models to provide a flexible framework for evaluating the proximity of plasma states to a disruption event.

    An expanding data base of tokamak activity in the United States, Asia, and Europe continues to be collected for the code to successfully produce insights into the forecasting of disruptions. Support for this work comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    Provided by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    This Phys.org Science News Wire page contains a press release issued by an organization mentioned above and is provided to you “as is” with little or no review from Phys.Org staff.


    Do Proteins Hold the Key to the Past? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In October, 2010, an Italian religious historian named Alberto Melloni stood over a small cherrywood box in the reading room of the Laurentian Library, in Florence. The box was old and slightly scuffed, and inked in places with words in Latin. It had been stored for several centuries inside one of the library’s distinctive sloping reading desks, which were designed by Michelangelo. Melloni slid the lid off the box. Inside was a yellow silk scarf, and wrapped in the scarf was a thirteenth-century Bible, no larger than the palm of his hand, which was falling to pieces.

    The Bible was “a very poor one,” Melloni told me recently. “Very dark. Very nothing.” But it had a singular history. In 1685, a Jesuit priest who had travelled to China gave the Bible to the Medici family, suggesting that it had belonged to Marco Polo, the medieval explorer who reached the court of Kublai Khan around 1275. Although the story was unlikely, the book had almost certainly been carried by an early missionary to China and spent several centuries there, being handled by scholars and mandarins—making it a remarkable object in the history of Christianity in Asia.

    Melloni is the director of the John XXIII Foundation for Religious Sciences, an institute in Bologna dedicated to the history of the Church. He had heard of the Marco Polo Bible, but he was unaware of its poor condition until a colleague spotted the crumbling book at an exhibition at the library, in 2008, and pitched a project to restore it and find out more about its past. “It was like a sort of Cinderella among the beautiful sisters,” Melloni said. Like other people accustomed to handling old texts or precious historical objects, Melloni has a special regard for what Walter Benjamin called their aura: “a strange weave of space and time” that allows for an intimation of the world in which they were made. “You have in your hand the manuscript,” Melloni said. “But also the stories that the manuscript is carrying.”

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    The restoration took eighteen months. Ten thousand pieces of the Bible were reassembled. In the process, Melloni was determined to subject the document to the latest scientific analysis. “We should do on this Bible the type of thing that would be done on the ‘Mona Lisa,’ ” Melloni told his colleagues. He contacted the cultural-heritage center at the Polytechnic University of Milan, the largest scientific school in Italy, to ask advice. In addition to standard conservation tools, like ultraviolet photography and infrared spectroscopy, which is used to study pigments, the experts there suggested proteomics. “It was the first time I heard the word ‘proteomic’ in my life,” Melloni recalled.

    Proteomics is the study of the interaction of proteins in living things. Where genomics studies humans’ roughly twenty thousand genes, proteomics is concerned with the shifting array of proteins assembled by those genes—our biological content, more or less, from albumin, which makes up sixty per cent of our blood proteins, to beta-amyloid, a family of brain molecules that can be a potential sign of Alzheimer’s disease. Proteomics aims for completeness. The proteome of a single human cell, which might contain billions of proteins, is sometimes compared to an atlas. It can guide geneticists or drug companies to early markers of a disease, or to the precise mechanism of aging, or to promising targets for cancer treatment. The field has been made possible by spectacular advances in data analysis and in lab instruments, which become cheaper and more powerful each year. Top-of-the-line mass spectrometers now allow chemists to sort through thousands of types of proteins in a sample, and to study them, one molecule at a time.

    Since 2000, proteomics has attracted the attention of a small clutch of scientists who believe that it has the potential to immensely expand our knowledge of the past. Under the right conditions, proteins can survive for millions of years. In recent years, proteomic studies of art works and archeological remains have yielded biological information of startling clarity, revealing gossamer-thin layers of fish glue on seventeenth-century religious sculptures and identifying children’s milk teeth from pits of previously unrecognizable Neolithic bones. In 2008, researchers were able to sequence the proteins of a harbor seal that remained on the surface of six-hundred-year-old cooking pots found at an Inuit site in northern Alaska. Three years later, chemists found a hundred and twenty-six different proteins in a mammoth femur. With new proteomic techniques emerging constantly, the field has a heady, chaotic atmosphere of possibility. At a four-day conference called Ancient Proteins, held this summer in Copenhagen, presentations had titles such as “Biologics in Art: Whaaat???,” “Palaeoproteomic Analysis of Binding Media and Adhesives in Ancient Egypt,” and “Through the Looking Glass, and What Amino Acids Found There.”

    Melloni arranged to have some fragments of the Bible sent to Milan. In the fall of 2011, a few pieces arrived at the laboratory of Pier Giorgio Righetti, a tall, slender chemist in his seventies, with a neat beard, like Trotsky’s. Righetti is known in the world of proteomics for his work on electrophoresis, a process that helps to sort molecules by size and by electrical charge. He comes across as a happy man, prone to finishing his sentences with a long, high-pitched laugh. Once, when we were riding the subway together in Milan, we walked onto a platform just as the train was coming in. “Yes, yes, yes! We are lucky! We are lucky!” he yelled as he ran up to the doors, as if this were the best thing to happen to him in years.

    Righetti started out studying the proteins of maize, in 1971. Back then, a laboratory might spend years sequencing a single protein. “Now proteomics is like when you are looking at a starry sky,” Righetti said. Unlike the genome, which stays largely the same, an organism’s proteome changes all the time. Our cells produce different proteins when we are asleep, when we are afraid, and when we are sick. Proteins from the past are the biological remnants of a specific instant: a supper of seal, an ailing mammoth. “It is frozen,” Righetti said. “A certain moment in the life of this fellow.”

    Testing the Marco Polo Bible was the first time that Righetti had studied something old. He has an affinity, however, for subjects that are historical and romantic. His father was an elementary-school teacher and a poet. As a boy, Righetti dreamed of studying literature, but was afraid of being poor. Alongside his chemical research, he has written two novels and is currently at work on a third, a story about the Palestinians since Biblical times. His scientific papers often have literary titles that belie their abstruse content. (A 2007 paper called “Sherlock Holmes and the Proteome” was about hexapeptide ligand libraries.) For the study of the Bible, Righetti read at least six books about Marco Polo.

    In the lab, he struggled with the manuscript pieces. They were badly withered and resistant to the normal technique for removing proteins, which is done with a solvent. One evening, in desperation, a colleague of Righetti’s warmed one of the fragments in a microwave. “A bloody microwave!” Righetti said. It worked.

    After running the samples through a mass spectrometer, Righetti and his team identified eight biomolecules from the Bible, which had been thought to be made from fetal lambskin. But the proteins belonged to cows, proving that the parchment was vellum—made from vealskin—and indicating, along with evidence from the text, that it was probably made in southern France sometime before 1250.

    Righetti was elated to see seven-hundred-and-fifty-year-old proteins showing up clearly in the data. He described the findings in a paper, which added to the small but growing literature about the proteomics of medieval manuscripts. “We felt it was a big, big success,” he told me. But Righetti had a nagging feeling that the experiment might be a one-off. Not only have most historians not heard of proteomics, but the testing generally involves sacrificing part of the artifact, making it difficult to acquire objects to study. “Nobody would ever let you,” Righetti said. “We had the pieces sent to us from Florence because this Bible was in smithereens.”

    At the end of the restoration project, Melloni flew to Beijing and presented the Bible to an audience at the library of Peking University. The air was slightly humid. When he opened the pages, they fluttered briefly, as if responding to a memory. “They had a sense of movement,” Melloni recalled. “Like they were wings.”

    The day that Righetti’s paper was published, in the spring of 2012, he was at the library of the University of Zaragoza, in northern Spain. A curator had invited Righetti to look at the collection and discuss possible research. There were some medieval Bibles and an early Torah on a parchment scroll. As Righetti feared, the awkward question of destructive sampling came up. Although the samples required for proteomic analysis can be as small as a pinhead, many people entrusted with priceless objects are, by instinct and by training, deeply averse to giving them up. “Conservators are well named. They are very conservative,” Matthew Collins, the chair of paleoproteomics at the University of Cambridge, told me. In Zaragoza, Righetti told the librarian that he was keen to study the Torah. “I asked him, ‘Could I take a tiny bit?’ ” he recalled. “That was the end of the conversation.”

    Righetti was walking across the campus when his phone rang. It was Gleb Zilberstein, an inventor who works out of Rehovot, Israel. The scientists had collaborated, on and off, for more than a decade. In his own way, Zilberstein, who is forty-nine, had been thinking about the scientific analysis of literature for some time. He is a fan of Umberto Eco’s work on semiotics, which proposes multiple ways to interpret a text, and he had often wondered about the chemical interaction between an author and the pages on which he works. “Each person wants to understand cultural life things through the prism of his experience,” Zilberstein told me. “My experience is tools for analytical chemistry.”

    Reading Righetti’s paper that morning, Zilberstein had been struck by an idea. His latest startup was a project to develop plastics with charged ions on their surface which would draw microbes and bacteria off other substances. He wanted to use the technology in food and drinks packaging. Zilberstein wondered if it could also be applied on works of art. In theory, researchers could use the charged plastics to remove proteins—in fact, almost any chemical—from an artifact without destroying part of it in the process. Even the most treasured documents and canvases could be analyzed for tantalizing traces that might remain on or near their surface: sweat, saliva, or signs of disease; evidence of an artist’s diet, drugs, even DNA. “You can find out what you ate, how you hurt, how the author was treated,” Zilberstein told me.

    Righetti was excited. He often describes Zilberstein, who does not have a Ph.D. and has never held a formal post at a university, as a genius. “I will be honest,” Righetti said. “He is much better than me. He is much more brilliant.” On the phone in Zaragoza, he encouraged Zilberstein to pursue the idea. “Professor Righetti said, ‘O.K. Just do it,’ ” Zilberstein recalled. “Like a Nike slogan.”

    Zilberstein decided to go to the State Library of Russia, in Moscow, to test his hunch. He had grown up in northern Kazakhstan, in a family of Soviet military engineers. His grandmother Sara built airplanes; his father, Victor, made torpedoes. As a student, in the late eighties, Zilberstein spent two years in Moscow doing his military service. He avoided most of his infantry duties by designing bulletproof vests and inventing a new kind of paint for crash-test dummies which changed color on impact. He also killed a lot of time in the city’s theatres and concert halls. “I think it was the crucial period for me,” he said. He liked to spend his afternoons in the state library.

    Soon after graduating from Novosibirsk State University, with a degree in physics, in 1994, Zilberstein immigrated to Israel. But he is often in Moscow, and he knew that the library’s collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century manuscripts had a serious problem. When cheap, mass-produced paper was invented, in the nineteenth century, it transformed printing and publishing. But the paper was slightly acidic, and, over time, it darkened and became brittle. In late 2012, Zilberstein visited the state library and proposed his technology as a way to remove acids from the archival notebooks and letters there. He didn’t mention anything about historical research. Zilberstein has a salesman’s ear. “Gleb, out of twenty inventions he would make, he would choose the one you want to buy,” a former colleague told me. The library’s director at the time was a physicist, and he agreed to let Zilberstein try.

    Zilberstein asked to work on the papers of Mikhail Bulgakov, the modernist playwright and novelist. Zilberstein reveres Bulgakov—a 1988 TV movie of Bulgakov’s “Heart of a Dog” is his favorite film—and he was upset by what he found. The librarians seemed powerless to stop the papers from falling apart. “It was horrible,” he said. In the next two years, Zilberstein made several trips to the manuscript department, testing different prototypes of his plastics on Bulgakov’s notebooks and drafts.

    Zilberstein has a powerful bearing. He has brown ringlets down to his shoulders, and he dresses more like a session musician or a Mediterranean night-club owner than like a “higher-technology person,” which is how he describes himself. When he explained how he got permission to experiment on some of the most valuable artifacts in modern Russian literature, he sometimes gave the impression that their custodians did not fully understand what he was doing. “I always have chemistry between me and the library people,” Zilberstein told me at one point. But, unlike other scientists who have been involved in proteomic studies, Zilberstein doesn’t view most conservators as inherently risk averse. Instead, he sees them—for the most part—as isolated, underfunded, and eager to learn more about the objects in their care. “They like if you give some crazy proposal,” he told me. “Each librarian likes some crazy things.”

    The charged plastics removed acidic residues from Bulgakov’s papers. But other chemicals turned up as well. As a young man, Bulgakov practiced medicine. In 1916, he was posted to an isolated hospital near Smolensk, where he became addicted to morphine. Toward the end of his life, when he was finishing “The Master and Margarita,” the bewitching, hallucinatory novel for which he is best known, Bulgakov suffered from nephrosclerosis, a painful kidney disease. Bulgakov redrafted the novel many times, and Zilberstein decided to test the writer’s notebooks and typewritten pages for signs of illness or medication.

    Zilberstein sampled ten pages of Bulgakov’s notes and found morphine on every one. The heaviest opiate traces were on an outline for “The Master and Margarita” from 1937 or 1938, which was on cheap, square notepaper and included drawings of blue-and-red crescent moons and an arrow pointing to the phrase “The Witches’ Sabbath.” Zilberstein felt as if he were using a magnifying glass to find hidden information in the novel. With the help of a former classmate, Zilberstein matched the drug traces to samples of prewar Moscow morphine from the archive of the city’s police department.

    He sent the results to Milan. Zilberstein hadn’t told Righetti much about his work in Moscow during the previous two years. “I tried to make a gift,” he said. He and Righetti submitted the Bulgakov findings to the Journal of Proteomics in the summer of 2015. One reviewer criticized Zilberstein’s method. In order to collect the morphine residues, he had covered the manuscript pages with plastic beads. The reviewer pointed out that beads could be left behind in the documents. Zilberstein tweaked his technique, grinding up the beads and embedding them in small pieces of ethylene-vinyl-acetate film.

    In the fall, Zilberstein returned to Moscow with the new EVA films and repeated the tests. This time, he also picked up twenty-nine human proteins, mostly from sweat and saliva, including three biomarkers of the renal disease that killed Bulgakov, in March, 1940. Seventy-five years after his death, Bulgakov’s molecules were all over his papers, and Zilberstein had found them, while leaving the documents intact. “This was the opening of the Ali Baba cavern,” Righetti told me.

    In early 2017, Righetti set out to extract bubonic plague from the state archives in Milan. He had long been entranced by Alessandro Manzoni’s nineteenth-century novel “The Betrothed,” with its description of the epidemic that hit the city in 1630. After the success with the Bulgakov papers, Righetti had begun to discreetly approach collections in Milan that had documents from the period of the plague, to see if they might hold traces of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that had caused the disease. Eventually, Righetti learned that he could simply examine the city’s death records.

    Unlike the Marco Polo Bible or Bulgakov’s notes, the paper in the Milan archives was made from cotton and was in excellent condition. Righetti, who had retired from his official university duties, spent weeks poring over the columns of the dead. Half the city’s population succumbed during the plague. “I selected the dirtiest pages,” Righetti said. One evening, he returned to his apartment and found red spots on his legs. “I said to my wife, ‘Gee, I took the pestis,’ ” he recalled. Righetti’s wife, Adriana, who is also a biochemist, laughed at him. “She was right, thanks to God,” Righetti said.

    Zilberstein flew in from Israel to help with the analysis. He and Righetti placed the EVA films in the bottom right-hand corners of the pages, where they had been most frequently handled. One of Righetti’s former colleagues, a chemist named Alfonsina d’Amato, ran the samples last March. “The harvest was incredible,” Righetti said. They extracted more than six hundred proteins from the plague records, including seventeen from the family of Yersinia pestis. Along with traces of the plague, there were rat and mouse proteins, hints of goat milk and of anthrax bacteria, and smatterings of tobacco, chickpea, rice, carrots, and maize, indicating the diet of the clerks who chronicled the disaster. Taken individually, none of the proteins found on the records was surprising. (The bacterium that causes anthrax is stable and naturally occurring.) But together they conjured an infested city, where vermin ran over the freshly written names of the dead. “We repeated the experiments over and over again to make sure that this was real,” Righetti said.

    Righetti and Zilberstein published a paper on the plague results, and they were featured on Italian TV. Their method of protein extraction captured attention, too. “I basically stand in awe of the concepts that he has been developing,” Collins, the Cambridge professor, said of Righetti. Collins is an archeologist who started out studying the proteins of fossilized shellfish, in the eighties. “For the first few decades of my career, it was a pretty miserable process,” he said. But the advent of proteomics and mass spectrometry has transformed his work. “We are simply riding on the back of this incredible technology,” he said. “Righetti has been a leader in that, and we are just following.” Collins, too, uses a nondestructive technique to take samples from historical documents, but his is much simpler: it relies on capturing the proteins from rubbings that conservators routinely make with erasers. Since 2011, Collins has used the rubbings to gather biological information about medieval European cattle, sheep, and goats. He calls his work “bio-codicology”—an updated form of the traditional study of physical manuscripts.

    Collins cautioned that historical proteomic techniques are still in their infancy. “We still need to learn what these things mean,” he said. But when you realize that the surface of any old object might be bearing newly discernible biological information—that you are holding a manuscript and you are also holding the stories that the manuscript is carrying—it makes you look again at the world’s libraries and archives, and wonder what secrets they contain. In 2015, researchers at the Folger Shakespeare Library, in Washington, D.C., swabbed the gutter of a Bible from 1637 and found DNA belonging to at least one Northern European, who had acne. The library did not publicize the experiment, which it code-named Project Dustbunny, partly because it took a moment to digest the implications. “It became really clear to us that, in addition to having a great research library for humanists, we have a bio-archive,” Michael Witmore, the library’s director, told me. The Folger holds a property deed that Shakespeare kept with his personal papers. “It is the shiver of proximity,” Witmore said. “The sense that a living person or a community is nearby.”

    In May, Zilberstein invited me to St. Petersburg, where he was going to analyze the notebooks of Johannes Kepler, the seventeenth-century astronomer. Zilberstein had become fascinated by Kepler after completing the plague study. One of the reasons for the outbreak in Milan was the invasion of northern Italy by troops from the Holy Roman Empire, who devastated the countryside and brought germs.

    During the year of the plague, Kepler was working as a mathematician for General Albrecht von Wallenstein, who was in charge of the Imperial Army. Kepler died that November, in Regensburg, and Zilberstein wondered if there might be a connection. Earlier this year, Zilberstein tracked down Peter Michael Schenkel, who used to work for the Kepler Commission, which since 1934 has edited the astronomer’s papers. Schenkel had indexed all twelve thousand pages of Kepler’s surviving work. Zilberstein called him at home. “He asked me whether Kepler was ever in Milan,” Schenkel told me, laughing. “I don’t know how he found my address.”

    Zilberstein picked me up from my hotel in St. Petersburg. It was a warm, breezy morning on the Baltic. He wore stone-washed jeans, a pale shirt with a pattern of small purple flowers, and a denim jacket with white patches on the elbows. He had brought along his son, Roman, who is in his early twenties and writes the software for Zilberstein’s inventions. Alongside his protein work, Zilberstein makes a range of portable sensors, which gauge levels of pollution, glucose, or hydration, and are compatible with smartphones. In 2012, in order to both test the technology and generate publicity, he and Righetti took formaldehyde readings next to Damien Hirst vitrines at the Tate Modern, in London. The scientists claimed that the artist’s sculptures were emitting formaldehyde at dangerous levels, and later published their findings in a scientific journal.

    Hirst threatened to sue. Righetti agreed that some of the calculations were wrong, and retracted the paper. “We said, ‘What the hell.’ And gave up,” Righetti told me. “I am a poor pensioner.” Zilberstein refused to sign the retraction. For the Kepler study, he had brought a new mercury sensor of his own design, to see if he could pick up any traces on the manuscripts. “Kepler for us is not Damien Hirst,” Zilberstein said. “It is more.” In the hotel, Roman showed me a black smartwatch he was wearing, which connected to the sensor and displayed the readings. Iridescent yellow letters spelled out “Hg”—the chemical symbol of mercury—and “VOC,” for “volatile organic compounds.”

    Kepler is an enigma in the history of science. He was born near Stuttgart in 1571 and lived in an age of conflict and acute religious paranoia. Fifty years after his death, his laws of planetary motion helped to bring about Newton’s scientific revolution, but he was fervently devoted to uncovering the designs of God. In 1620, he had to take over the legal defense of his mother, who was on trial for witchcraft. Kepler’s writings are a swirl of geometry and science fiction, astrology and breathtaking reason. He figured out that the planets in the solar system move in elliptical orbits; he also believed that the Earth sweated and farted just like we do. Between 1601 and 1612, he was the imperial mathematician at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, in Prague. Kepler was a slight man with poor eyesight, and many of his conclusions were based on the observations of his predecessor, the brilliant Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But the imaginative leaps were all Kepler’s. To prove that the Earth does not move at a uniform rate around the sun—it moves more slowly when it is farther away—he measured its orbit as if he were standing “in a watchtower” on the surface of Mars. “An idea of pure genius,” Einstein said.

    Catherine the Great, the Empress of Russia, bought Kepler’s papers in 1773 and brought them to St. Petersburg. Since 1938, they have been kept in the archives of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which are situated in a quiet courtyard behind the city’s zoological museum. There was a red tractor and a cottonwood tree in full bloom. The archives were behind a dull-brown metal door. “Very authentic,” Zilberstein said, nodding.

    Inside, a librarian brought out a volume of Kepler’s papers, bound in white leather. Zilberstein pulled on a pair of blue latex gloves. The reading room was quiet and crowded with other researchers. Cottonwood fluff floated outside the open windows. He put the mercury sensor, which looked like a thinner version of a needle used for pumping up a football, on the desk. After talking to Schenkel, Zilberstein had decided to test a paper that Kepler based loosely on the theories of the ancient Greek mathematician Hipparchus. Kepler worked on the text, on and off, for twenty-five years, and it remained unfinished at the time of his death. I sat next to Zilberstein as he turned the long, yellowing pages, which were dense with Kepler’s handwriting, tables of figures, crossings-out, and slender, geometric diagrams representing the Earth, the moon, and the sun. “The problems are very beautiful,” the astronomer wrote, of his Hipparchus study, in 1619. “The work itself impassable.”

    The EVA films were a dark, speckled green. Zilberstein had brought two sets: one for removing proteins and a new prototype, which contained chelating agents, a type of compound that can extract heavy metals. In 2010, Brahe’s skeleton was exhumed in Prague, and remains of gold, silver, and arsenic were found in his beard, bones, and hair. Brahe was an ebullient figure—he had a brass nose from a duelling incident—and a keen sponsor of alchemy, a common pursuit at princely courts at the turn of the seventeenth century. Zilberstein was curious to see if similar metals would turn up in Kepler’s papers. He spent an hour going through the Hipparchus pages, looking for what he called suspicious places—marks of spittle or discoloration—on which to put the films.

    Thirty-two pages in, next to the words “solis longitudinis,” Zilberstein found what looked like a set of Kepler’s fingerprints, in black ink, spreading across the right-hand margin. Carefully, he put seventeen films on the manuscript, including a control on a blank page at the back of the volume. He waved the mercury sensor over the desk from time to time. The rules of the archive prohibited photography. After a while, I noticed that Roman, who was sitting next to Zilberstein, had his iPhone casually angled toward his father. When Zilberstein turned a page that he found interesting, he coughed lightly, and Roman took a picture.

    We stood in the stairwell for a while, waiting for the films to work. Roman showed me some mercury readings, which had oscillated wildly, on his watch. Zilberstein was concerned about the state of the manuscript, which smelled slightly of mint, a sign that it had been treated with thymol, an antifungal chemical. “I’m not so happy with this paper,” he said. But he was relieved that the Hipparchus manuscript seemed to have been relatively undisturbed. According to the slip at the front of the volume, only sixteen people had requested the book since 1972. After an hour, Zilberstein returned to his desk and took out the films. Then he filled out the slip: “21/05/2018. Proteomic analysis.”

    Afterward, we walked along the waterfront toward the Peter and Paul Fortress and a fish restaurant that Zilberstein likes, which specializes in smelt, a delicacy of the city. Over lunch, he explained that, when he was growing up, the Soviet education system had observed a strict divide between science and the humanities. “It was an idea of complete separation,” Zilberstein said. “But now we try to break this barrier.” He sees the proteomic analysis of old books and cultural objects as a way for libraries and museums to reimagine their collections—and to animate the past—in an era of mass distraction and digitized content. “How to bring people back?” Zilberstein said. “Maybe it will be interesting to look at already existing cultural objects or literature from another angle.”

    I was taking notes and eating smelt at the same time. Zilberstein talked about the papers and the historical figures and objects he longed to explore: Nietzsche, Mozart’s Requiem, Orwell, the Brontë sisters, the Dead Sea scrolls. Occasionally, a piece of fish would fall onto the pages of my notebook, and I wondered whether it would be preserved and analyzed in centuries to come.

    The following day, Zilberstein had a meeting at the Hermitage Museum. The state rooms were mobbed with tourists, devices aloft. In an office upstairs, Zilberstein discussed proteomics with two scientists from the museum’s conservation department. Ultimately, Righetti and Zilberstein hope to commercialize their technology—including the complex analysis that it requires—and make it available to collections and to researchers who don’t have access to their own mass spectrometer. (Later in the summer, Zilberstein signed a preliminary contract with the Hermitage.) He described the service that he and Righetti could offer as a historical equivalent of 23andMe, the genetic-testing company, but with “samples from already dead people.”

    Others in the field have their own ideas. After Project Dustbunny, conservators at the Folger Shakespeare Library wondered how to best preserve documents for future analysis. One of the questions was whether dirt and fluff on the manuscript pages was suddenly valuable, containing troves of information about early-modern writers and the environments in which they lived. “We asked ourselves, ‘What is this field going to look like fifty years from now? What could these samples tell us?’ ” Witmore, the director, said.

    The rapid development of new techniques also inspires a measure of caution. Collins shared with me several recent proteomics papers that made spectacular claims that were later called into question. Because the analysis is so sensitive, there is always the risk that samples can be contaminated in the lab. The databases that are used to identify ancient proteins are also used by the food and drug industries, meaning that the most studied organisms—common plants and animals, or the agents of disease—are frequently suggested as matches, even in unlikely circumstances. “We often match to super-interesting things,” Collins told me. “But then you kind of begin to get nervous of what you have actually found.”

    Last month, in London, I met Caroline Tokarski, a professor at the University of Bordeaux, who carried out some of the first proteomic testing of paintings, almost twenty years ago. Tokarski is working with the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a new form of analysis, which will enable chemists to ascertain how proteins age and bond with one another inside art works. She took a glass slide out of her handbag which looked like it had a mote of dust on it. In fact, it was a speck from the lower-right quarter of Spinello Aretino’s “St. Mary Magdalen Holding a Crucifix,” one of the Met’s fourteenth-century religious masterpieces. “It is ten to fifteen micrograms,” Tokarski said. “It is really, really few.” But each year Tokarski gets more data from smaller samples. She has had a sample from Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Last Supper” in her laboratory for four years, but she has been afraid to touch it. “The question is: do we analyze this now, or do we still try and push the techniques?” Tokarski said. “Right now, she just sits in my office.”

    None of this uncertainty is helpful in persuading conservators to hand over their artifacts. “Some of them will freak out,” Dan Kirby, a former I.B.M. engineer who spent years developing a proteomics-testing technique for Harvard’s art museums, told me. “You have to creep up on them.” Many conservators regard any form of chemical reaction with a historic artifact, even at a molecular scale, as a form of interference. Zilberstein and Righetti’s EVA films must be ever so slightly damp—like a thumbprint—in order to work. “The term ‘nondestructive,’ you have to use it with care,” Tokarski told me. Collins quoted the graveyard scene from “Hamlet”—“Your water is a sore decayer”—to explain why some conservators might hesitate. He has not been allowed to use his eraser method at either the Bodleian Library, in Oxford, or the British Library, in London. “We have been told, ‘No one is ripping molecules out of books in my library!’ ” he said.

    More broadly, it is not hard to see why proteomics might appear threatening to humanities scholars, whose authority over the interpretation of manuscripts, paintings, and old objects has long gone unchallenged. Some disciplines related to the past, such as archeology, have always had a scientific bent. Others, like history and literary criticism, have not. Although museums have had chemists on their staff since the nineteenth century, conservation science—analyzing pigments, taking X-rays—has generally played a subordinate role to traditional forms of connoisseurship.

    Proteomics, with its research dollars and promise of hard data, has a disruptive quality. In St. Petersburg, I sensed that Zilberstein didn’t merely want to bring a new scientific tool to the aid of historians and literary scholars—he was interested in obtaining chemical data that could rewrite the historical record all by itself. “You know, historians and other people feed us with some stories,” he told me. “Now it is a good time to get objective information. Molecules, not people, start to talk. This is interesting.” Science has altered archeology beyond recognition since Collins entered the field, sharpening inferences and broad theories of the past with fine-grained data from the lab. “These new technologies allow us to get a level of detail that we never thought was possible,” he told me. A manuscript’s text is only part of its story. “What is history?” Collins asked. “When scientists start interacting with historical documents, when does history end and science begin?”

    “There is kind of a defensive crouch in the humanities about how we relate to the sciences,” Witmore said. Nonetheless, he predicted that proteomics-driven papers will start appearing in literary and historical journals in the next five years. “Whether it is data mining or proteomics or genomics, people in the humanities have potential new friends,” he said.

    In late July, I flew to Milan to learn the results of the Kepler investigation. I met Righetti at the university’s chemistry department. Since the Marco Polo Bible study, a steady stream of ancient things has come through his lab. We looked in on some colleagues who were having a tricky time with a stretch of four-thousand-year-old Egyptian papyrus. The papyrus contained a rare description of Heracleopolis, a ruined city on the Nile, but it had changed color during an experiment. A few chemists were gathered around a vacuum cupboard, where the papyrus lay under a glass bowl, trying to make the color change back.

    The Kepler study had also run into problems. Either because of the treatment of the papers in St. Petersburg or because of an error preparing the samples in Milan, the first attempt at analyzing proteins in the mass spectrometer had failed. “We are still cleaning the machine after a week,” Righetti said. “There was no way we could identify anything, so it was a disaster.” He was hoping to analyze another batch soon, but vacations were starting and it wasn’t always easy to reserve time on the instruments.

    There were much more intriguing results, however, from Zilberstein’s metal analysis. The chelating films had picked up traces of gold, silver, lead, and arsenic everywhere they had been placed, at between three and nine times the levels found on the control. Some of the mercury readings had been even higher. The constellation of metals recalled the findings of the Brahe exhumation, suggesting, to Zilberstein and Righetti, a connection between Kepler and alchemy. However, in contrast with Brahe, there is no record of Kepler conducting alchemy or consuming its remedies. (In the early seventeenth century, alchemy, in addition to pursuing the transmutation of metals into gold, was used for medicinal purposes.) Zilberstein and Righetti were thrilled, and confident in their findings. “Kepler was also an alchemist,” Righetti had told me in an e-mail a few days earlier. We got in his car to go and meet Zilberstein. Righetti rolled down the windows. “I worked forty-five years in science and nobody gave a damn,” he said. “Now every time we write a paper we get newspapers calling us up!”

    The scientists and their wives met for lunch at a restaurant on an upper floor of Milan’s Galleria, with a view of the Duomo. Since the trip to St. Petersburg, Zilberstein had been planning a more ambitious study of Kepler’s manuscripts, which would map the concentration of metals on their surface, and also patterns in the astronomer’s calculations and handwriting. Zilberstein took out his phone and started flicking through the clandestine images from the archive. He was transfixed by the regularity of Kepler’s penmanship, and wondered if it might contain coded messages. “I think people must reinvent their idea of who was Kepler,” Zilberstein said. “People must get this graphical information, this chemical information, this biochemical information. It will be much more curious than Dan Brown’s masterpieces.”

    Zilberstein and Righetti were buoyant. They went onto the balcony and took photos in front of the Duomo. Their analysis of the Kepler manuscripts is the first time, however, that their work has sought to challenge, rather than add texture to, the historical record. When I asked them if there had been any initial reaction, among scholars, to their idea that Kepler might have been an alchemist, the scientists looked momentarily bashful. “Very upset,” Righetti murmured. That morning, Zilberstein had received a skeptical e-mail from Schenkel, of the Kepler Commission. “He said he did not believe it,” Zilberstein said.

    I showed a draft of Righetti’s paper to Ulinka Rublack, a history professor at the University of Cambridge, who is an authority on Kepler’s life and writing. She, too, was unconvinced. Unlike Brahe, who was a wealthy aristocrat, Kepler was always hard up, and he avoided working with his hands, an unlikely combination for an alchemist. “He was the imperial mathematician. He was one of the most ambitious scientists,” Rublack said. “He would have needed a big lab and infrastructure to do it on any satisfying level.” Kepler’s writings, moreover, convey an intellectual life that was teeming enough as it was. “It really wasn’t how he saw himself, and what he was doing,” Rublack said. (Newton, by contrast, wrote extensively about alchemy.) In response to Zilberstein and Righetti’s findings, Schenkel examined everything that Kepler is known to have written about alchemy. Schenkel shared his report with me. The astronomer’s references are sparing, polite, and noncommittal. “I am no Chymicus,” Kepler wrote in 1604.

    As long as the metal traces are Kepler’s, however, the possibility that he consumed alchemical remedies remains. “You know, this is the great riddle,” Schenkel admitted. “I wonder myself.” Asserting that Kepler practiced alchemy is obviously more appealing than finding evidence that captures unspoken, even banal, fragments of the culture in which he lived. But that might be where the chief value of proteomic and chemical analysis of old papers ultimately lies. “It is the irony of history that the most obvious things are the least discussed,” Patrick Boner, a visiting scholar at the Catholic University of America, who has written a book about Kepler’s astrology, said. “The way that people conceptualized time, remedies, health, even their bathing—all these kinds of things that are very routine—were very informed by things like astrology and alchemy.”

    When I sent Righetti and Zilberstein’s Kepler draft to Boner, he told me he already knew their work, from their plague paper. “It’s opening a door,” he said. “The thing I appreciate about this project is how much more lies beyond any kind of written records.” Kepler once wrote, of his own search for knowledge in the movements of stars and matter and unimaginable things, rather than in the lessons of the printed word, “It is as though I had read a divine text, written into the world itself, not with letters but rather with essential objects, saying: ‘Man, stretch thy reason hither, so that thou mayest comprehend these things.’ ”

    Toward the end of lunch in Milan, Zilberstein and Righetti talked about a trip they had planned to Paris, to capture Casanova’s gonorrhea. They parted at the entrance of the Galleria, and I crossed the square with Righetti. He wanted to show me the city’s museum of twentieth-century art. It was a baking-hot afternoon, and Righetti looked like another tourist, with his camera and his phone on a lanyard around his neck. On the first floor, we stood for a while, looking at the paintings of Umberto Boccioni, a Futurist whom Righetti admires. We ended up in front of a small, brilliantly colored landscape called “Port Miou,” painted by Georges Braque when he was twenty-five. The sea was purple and the rocks were orange and the trees were red. Righetti leaned in close. “I would like to investigate these paintings. They were taking cocaine and heroin for sure,” he said, and started to laugh. “One of these days, we will do it.” ♦



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