|Exam Name||:||California Teacher of English Learners|
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English attracts freshmen from all ingredients of the world.
Comstock pictures/Comstock/Getty pictures
interpreting the numerous English language learner instructor certifications that are available is confusing. The certifications constantly are recognized by way of a number of acronyms. picking out which certification to pursue truly is dependent upon the sub-population you wish to train, where you are looking to train, how tons you're in a position to make investments and your organisation's preference.probably the most important factors when determining a certification is making bound it is from a credible company and meets the skills for the job you want. certified teachers are in excessive demand both within the u.s. and around the globe.
The Council of the wonderful city colleges and los angeles Unified faculty District have launched the first section of a nationwide initiative to improve the great of academic substances for English-language freshmen—and the working towards for lecturers who work with them.
the primary items of the partnership are core college math substances, designed with the purpose of preparing greater English-freshmen to take Algebra I by means of 9th grade.
The council, which represents more than 70 of the nation's enormous urban faculty districts, all started a procuring consortium under the premise that the mixed purchasing vigour of districts that serve hundreds of thousands of ELL students would compel publishers to enrich the great of substances they produce for these students.
"This became definitely born of frustration on the part of public faculty methods all across the country that they couldn't discover the materials that they obligatory in particular for English-beginners," observed Michael Casserly, executive director of the Council of the notable metropolis colleges.
"as opposed to being in a place where the substances have been dictated through the people selling them, we truly decided what we might be doing is telling the publishers what it's we mandatory."
The consortium permits any faculty district in the nation to join and purchase the substances. more than a dozen districts have already expressed interest, Casserly said.
education Week has written in regards to the struggles challenges academics face with English-learner materials that commonly fail to strike the appropriate stability.
Many publishers do not include assist and strategies that support academics assist their college students' realizing of texts and unfamiliar ideas. And the agencies that do often err on the facet of oversimplification, failing to have interaction or problem the English-inexperienced persons, educators argue.
research backs those claims.
A 2015 study out of the institution of California, l. a., discovered that policies and courses for toddlers of immigrants and English-inexperienced persons tend to center of attention on their need for remediation and simple abilities, in place of easy methods to expose them to higher-order pondering skills.
la Unified leaders feel the new materials will assist the district narrow a protracted-standing math-discovering hole between its native English-talking college students and those who are nonetheless researching English.
usual, about 30 % of center college students within the district meet state math necessities. among former ELLs reclassified as English educated, about 28 % meet the specifications.
For English-rookies, there is a pdrecipitous drop—simplest two % attain that level, noted Hilda Maldonado, senior govt director of variety, researching, and instruction for the district.
"absolutely we're now not happy with these effects and we consider we are able to do enhanced," Maldonado stated.
Three publishers—Curriculum acquaintances, imagine discovering Inc., and Open Up aid—labored with la Unified and the Council of the splendid city faculties for more than a yr to create the lecture room materials and professional development for teachers. Their intention changed into to help lecturers simultaneously toughen students' math and language abilities.
"We put plenty on our educators and we predict them ... to close success gaps, get students at proficiency and we don't always provide them the support they want," Maldonado referred to. "We actually centered how we could get enhanced materials in entrance of teachers in order that they could in turn improvement the college students."
How 5 Districts unencumber ELLs' Math potential
educating substances for English-novices Are in brief supply. That could quickly trade
English-learners Are a diverse community. How Can colleges Meet Their needs?
look at: ELL classes often center of attention on fundamental competencies, now not larger-Order pondering
document: English-newbies regularly Denied Full access to STEM schooling
photograph credit score: Sixth graders at KIPP Washington Heights middle college in big apple remedy problems at a whiteboard. --Mark Abramson for schooling Week
Sequoyah center faculty’s 2018 trainer of the year mentioned she wasn’t planning to be a trainer but she says education found her.
Kristen Huffty teaches 7th grade English and Literacy at Sequoyah core college and has been there for 4 of her 18 years in schooling.
“A major in Texas asked me to do a long-time period sub (substitute instructing) job in her building,” Huffty referred to. “We had been pals for several years, and he or she told me that she had all the time thought that I had what it takes to be a teacher. She took an opportunity on me, even going so far as to pay for me to head returned to college so I might turn into certified. It changed my life!”
She got her undergraduate degree from Liberty school in Lynchburg, Virg., and her graduate degree from Dallas Theological Seminary.
She and her family got here to Oklahoma from Texas for her husband’s job.
“every person we talked to noted Edmond colleges had been the best in the state,” Huffty observed.
She teaches three sections of English, two sections of Literacy and one part of center of attention, a analyzing guide type.
one of the most important influences on her life in schooling become her mother.
“My folks were massively influential, in particular my mother,” Huffty pointed out. “She wrote babies’s curriculum and in reality modeled for me the way to be a superior instructor.
My dad is a pastor, and however he teaches in a lots diverse context, he confirmed me a way to thoroughly prepare and current an appetizing message/lesson that individuals will be aware.”
Huffty observed she believes what she teaches is crucial as a result of English is all about conversation.
“in case you can talk neatly, believe significantly about what you read and listen to, and combine that learning into your work and your relationships, the area is your oyster,” Huffty stated.
“fact-finding is as convenient as pressing a button at the present time, so doling out potential and suggestions is no longer the largest center of attention of education. educating students of all ages to parent actuality from fiction, helping them apply that fact to their lives, and knowing the way to relate interpersonally is the focus of training for the twenty first century. in case you don’t have those abilities and the ability to make the most of them, lifestyles is exponentially more complex.”
Her philosophy of schooling is each infant can gain knowledge of and develop and be prepared for all times; they just do not all do it in the same way.
Huffty mentioned she hopes when her college students leave her classification they'll be aware of they have got been created to fill a role nobody else can fill.
“They’re priceless! even if it’s the literature we study, the writing tasks we finished, or the discussions we now have together, my classification is there to assist them prepare for that role of a lifetime,” she referred to.
academics now not most effective train, however they additionally be trained from their college students.
“I even have learned so a good deal from my students,” Huffty observed. “they all have such diverse life experiences and backgrounds, and they come at existence with such distinct viewpoints. I’ve learned to hearken to and appreciate these transformations, even when i may no longer at all times agree with them.”
activities LIKE PATCHWORK QUILT
Huffty referred to memorable activities are like a patchwork quilt in her intellect.
“there are such a lot of students and so many studies that create the reminiscences I actually have of training,” Huffty pointed out. “No two are the same, however I don’t think i will be able to ever forget them.
“I’ve damage alongside youngsters who've misplaced folks and held fingers with a father or mother whose young son committed suicide. I’ve been bitten (difficult!) on the breast by way of an angry pupil. I’ve mediated the screaming suits of fogeys within the throes of a bitter divorce and comforted their sobbing child.
“I’ve also had the joy of seeing a struggling reader have a lightbulb second, and had a good time with college students who discover an author they love. I’ve had students have faith me and open up to me issues they wouldn’t tell their top-quality friends. I’ve examine wonderful books and exquisite poems to center schoolers who fell in love with what they heard. I even have considered children become impressed to trade their world. I have laughed with my college students, lots, and i like to share these humorous experiences. americans don’t remember how middle college teachers can like eleven- to 14-year old children, but I think they’re wonderfully fun and humorous! educating is exhilarating and exhausting, and i wouldn’t want to do the rest.”
She and her husband, Rodney, met in school and should be celebrating their twenty eighth anniversary in June. they have three daughters. Kelsy is 24 and lives in California. She attended Memorial high college and the university of principal Oklahoma. Kally is 23 and she or he additionally attended Memorial. She went to Colorado Christian university and now lives in Colorado. Kacey is 21, went to Memorial, attends Liberty college and lives in Virginia.
Huffty observed she likes to travel and he or she volunteers with a company called YoungLife.
“i'm a foodie and like to try new foods, and i examine plenty,” Huffty noted. “We attend North Church.”
anything that almost all individuals don’t know about her is when she lived in Quito, Ecuador, she ate guinea pigs and lizard eggs.
“I’ve additionally been to emergency rooms on three continents,” Huffty pointed out.
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Katrina Lujan’s 13-or-so seventh-graders appeared lively last Friday afternoon as they laughed and joked with one another during a class break at Challenger Middle School.
While most of the students spoke to each other in English — very loudly — a few more subdued students opted to chat softly in their native tongue, Spanish. The walls surrounding the students were plastered with motivational posters and a hefty amount of plaid wrapping paper.
“Because they had AZELLA testing,” Lujan said.
The Arizona English Language Learner Assessment, she clarified. Lujan’s students, who have been identified as intermediate English-language learners based on their AZELLA scores, take the test yearly to track their mastery of English, their second language.
Her students took the writing, reading and grammar portions last week, but still had their oral proficiency test coming up. So she covered the instructional posters on the wall. No cheating.
A loud iPhone timer sounded — Lujan’s cue to get the first part of the students’ highly structured, two-hour English language development block started. The students quieted down almost immediately.
They would start the day with an hour of writing and reading comprehension and end it with an hour of grammar, Lujan said. Today, they would edit and peer-review reading summaries they had written in a prior class.
“OK, ready?” Lujan asked her students. Yes, they replied, more or less in unison. They got to work.
Arizona has required students like Lujan’s, known as ELLs, to spend hours of their school day, every day, segregated from the rest of the student body in what has come to be known as the English-only language development block.
Lujan’s intermediate ELL students spend two hours a day in the English immersion block, while beginner ELL students stay there for four — the majority of their school day.
The state has mandated English immersion blocks for ELL instruction since the late 2000s, despite arguments by public school educators and researchers that the model doesn’t work.
Last Thursday, however, Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey signed a bill that eliminates the four-hour block model and gives districts far more autonomy in how they instruct ELL students in Arizona’s public schools.
Under the new law, kids in grades kindergarten through 6 are required to spend 120 minutes per day, 500 minutes per week or 300 hours per year in English immersion. Students in grades 7 through 12 have to spend 100 minutes per day, 500 minutes per week or 300 hours per year in immersion.
The law also allows school districts and charter schools to utilize structured English immersion and “alternative English instruction” models of their choosing, as long as they are research-based and approved by the State Board of Education.
The Legislature attempted to pass similar legislation last year, but Senate President Steve Yarbrough shot it down in a Senate Rules Committee hearing.
THE PATH FORWARD
Local school districts and educators who spoke with the Arizona Daily Star voiced support for the new English language development requirements and the slashing of the four-hour block.
“I kind of have to pinch myself because we’ve waited for this so long,” said Patricia Sandoval-Taylor, the director of language acquisition services in the Tucson Unified School District, the city’s largest.
Roughly 5,000 of TUSD’s 45,000 students are classified as ELLs, Sandoval-Taylor said, and the district has been fighting for autonomy in the way it teaches them for years.
Quashing the four-hour block, specifically, has been a top lobbying priority for TUSD in the last few years, Sandoval-Taylor said, because the block severely hindered high school ELL students’ ability to achieve academically and graduate on time.
With the new law, TUSD hopes to restructure its curriculum so ELL high school students can earn credits toward graduation in content areas like history or science while also fulfilling English language development requirements.
Under the previous block model, students could not earn content credit and would end up failing or dropping out of school because they were so far behind on credits.
TUSD is also considering ways to get ELL students involved in more dual-language curriculum programs — a possibility that had previously been off the table since 2000, when the voter-initiated Proposition 203 banned bilingual education for students who weren’t already fluent in English.
The new requirements don’t explicitly address dual-language education for ELL students — they only mandate English immersion for the set number of minutes every day, week or year.
But given the new curriculum flexibility, Sandoval-Taylor hopes there is room for school districts to incorporate dual-language aspects into the alternate English language development models they will submit to the state for approval.
“We’re hoping (the new law) will allow more (ELL) students to have access to dual-language programs and still meet the requirements that the state has in place,” Sandoval-Taylor said. “Our (dual-language) programs have lots of research to back up student achievement.”
Dual-language curriculums often lead to better English acquisition for English-language learners down the line, said Mary Carol Combs, a professor at the University of Arizona’s College of Education.
“Research has consistently shown that if you teach a child in his or her first language and develop literacy abilities, those abilities transfer into English,” Combs said. “What that essentially means is the more instruction a school provides in Spanish, the more English it will yield down the road.”
The Sunnyside Unified School District, a district whose student body is almost 13 percent English-language learning, also hopes to give ELL students some degree of dual-language education.
Sunnyside used to offer rich two-way dual-language programs for ELL and English-proficient students, but had to “slowly abandon them” after Proposition 203 banned ELLs from participating in them, according to district Superintendent Steve Holmes.
The district had to ditch the programs because there weren’t enough students who could enroll in them, after losing that critical base of Spanish-speaking ELL students.
“In an ideal setting, we would have the flexibility we would need for students or parents that want to take advantage of a structured English immersion model, but we would also have equal flexibility for students that want to have accessibility to a dual-language program,” Holmes said.
Holmes hopes to decrease segregation of ELLs under whatever model Sunnyside ends up proposing to the state, he said.
The isolating aspect of ELL segregation affects students negatively emotionally and socially, he said.
“I do believe it has created a stigma for students,” Holmes said. “That lack of exposure into other settings also creates a potential social barrier for students who aren’t going to feel comfortable because they don’t interact with other students in the other (non-block) parts of the day.”
Tucson ELL teachers hope to see districts take advantage of the flexibility the new requirements provide.
Miriam Romero, an ELL resource teacher at Carrillo K-5 and Arizona’s English Language Teacher of the Year, said she is glad the four-hour block has been mitigated, but thinks of it more as a “good first step” than a final destination.
“I’m glad we’re moving away from (the block) and I hope we can have a more inclusive way of teaching English in our schools because it’s the right thing to do,” Romero said. “It’s the necessary thing to do. In the real world, (students) are all going to be together, so they should in school.”
Romero said she was never a fan of the four-hour block because of the segregative and achievement-related consequences, but she also loathed it on a more personal level.
The idea of segregating ELLs into classrooms isolated from the general student population reminded her of stories her grandparents told her about their days in school as non-native English speakers — where they too were segregated from the mainstream student population, even if they could speak, read and write in English.
“At that time, it was if you had a last name that sounded Hispanic, they would ask you questions very quickly in English,” Romero said. “They wouldn’t translate it. Nothing. And if the kid didn’t answer everything in English or was shy, they would be put into these separate classes.”
Romero said she never wanted her students to feel like her grandparents did, that Spanish was lesser in some way and that English was the only “academic” language. That’s why she is happy the English language development model is changing.
Like Holmes and Sandoval-Taylor, Romero said she hopes the state will consider allowing dual-language education for ELL students.
“With that flexibility, I hope it’s not just minutes — I hope its flexibility to maybe bring in kids’ native language into the classroom, as well,” Romero said. “And then maybe even cutting the two hours.”
There is a lingering question following the state’s push to change ELL requirements: Why now?
Why are legislators listening to school districts, educators and researchers after decades of seemingly sticking their heads in the sand?
“I think there’s a will now,” Holmes said. “Demographically, you’re seeing shifts across districts where (ELL education) used to be the problem of only a few districts.”
Legislators are also realizing the breadth of the issue, Holmes said, because of hard AZMerit, AZELLA, high school dropout and graduation data showing Arizona’s ELL students are struggling and have been for decades.
Francesca Lopez, an associate dean at the UA’s College of Education who researches ELL student achievement, concurs with Holmes. A prime example, Lopez said, is Arizona’s ELL student graduation rate.
Only 18 percent of Arizona’s ELLs graduate from high school. That’s the worst rate in the country, Lopez said.
Data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress also shows the failings of ELL education in Arizona under the four-hour block system.
When you look at NAEP scores from fourth-grade ELL students in Arizona, California and Texas — similar states with similar ELL populations — you can see Arizona’s students consistently perform the worst, Lopez said.
In California, students scored slightly better, on average. The state, like Arizona, mandates English-only instruction for ELLs, but allows waivers for bilingual education if parents want it.
In Texas, scores far exceeded those in California or Arizona. That’s because Texas mandates bilingual education for ELLs, Lopez said.
“Bilingual children outperformed monolingual children,” Lopez said. “We know through research that speaking two languages, learning two languages is very advantageous to our cognitive abilities. And it’s not seen immediately, but it’s seen over time.”
THE END OF THE DAY
As Katrina Lujan’s fifth period with her ELL students came to a close, they wrote a brief about what work they need to do on their reading summaries at the start of next period.
“What happened with your body (paragraph) yesterday?” Lujan asked a girl wearing a pink hoodie.
“I didn’t put it in order?” the girl responded with hesitation.
“You didn’t put it in order!” Lujan said with a smile, apparently happy to see the dots connecting for one of her students.
The iPhone alarm blared again.
“All right, three-minute break!” Lujan said with a raised voice. “Don’t be late!”
The students ran out the door in a frenzy, save for a few who stayed back and worked more on their briefs, confused expressions plastered on their faces.
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Rowell Elementary in Fresno is participating in a pilot program aimed at improving instruction for English language learners.Credit: Theresa Harrington/EdSource Today
Rowell Elementary in Fresno is participating in a pilot program aimed at improving instruction for English language learners.
“Turn and talk to your partner,” Judith Franco told her 4th grade students, after prompting them to think of specific plants and animals that help each other survive.
This is not an ordinary 4th grade science lesson. Franco’s classroom is a key part of a push in two California districts to use new instructional strategies to promote greater academic success among students not yet proficient in English.
In Franco’s class at Rowell Elementary in Fresno, Vanessa Arenas and Daniel Delgado, both 10, then turned to each other and talked about how fruit bats help plants to reproduce through pollination. Their classmates joined in with their own examples while Franco wrote them down on a whiteboard in front of the class.
Vanessa is a Spanish speaker who was still learning English when she came to school last year in third grade. By the end of the year, she tested as English proficient.
Instead of just listening to her teacher, Vanessa said she likes talking about science with her classmates. “I really like it because I get to share my ideas with my partner,” she said. “And they get to tell me if they agree or not.”
In Fresno Unified 22 percent of students are classified as English learners, the same as the statewide percentage. Yet, Fresno was ahead of the state in helping students become English proficient last year, with 18 percent achieving that goal in the district, compared to 11 percent statewide.
California adopts materials for new English learner approach
To help English learners graduate from high school ready for college and careers, the Fresno and Sacramento City school districts are partnering with the nonprofit research and policy organization WestEd on a pilot project called “Leading with Learning” that trains district staff in new K-6 instructional strategies that emphasize critical thinking and language development skills.
“Explaining your thinking is really important,” said Pamela Spycher, senior research associate for WestEd. “Collaborative conversations are where the learning happens.”
The pilot is intended to help districts implement the state’s English language arts/English language development curriculum framework, which stresses the importance of integrating language development for English learners into all subject areas.
“We’re seeing more writing that is revealing what the kids are learning,” she added. “The other thing we’re seeing more of – which I consider impact – is the kids actually talking with one another in small groups, explaining their thinking with the text in front of them.”
Report seeks English learner, special ed student supports
WestEd received a three-year, $3 million federal “Investing in Education” grant to conduct the pilot, which includes intensive teacher and principal training in selected schools, as well as training for instructional coaches and administrators districtwide. Those involved in the pilot hope it will become a model for districts throughout the state and country.
The pilot is especially important for California where nearly a quarter of students, about 1.4 million, come to school speaking a language other than English.
Although the project is aimed at English learners and low-income students, the teaching strategies are beneficial for all students, Spycher said. Grant reviewers from the U. S. Department of Education said the pilot showed promise because it provides ongoing training to staff districtwide.
“This project would be of benefit to the field due to its heavy focus on teacher and coach support, and the use of high quality tools and protocols,” one reviewer wrote.
The pilot emphasizes four strategies aimed at building students’ language skills in all classes, while providing necessary supports and positive classroom settings. These are:
Before receiving the grant last year, WestEd began work on these goals in three Fresno Unified schools including Rowell elementary and expanded to two other Fresno schools this year including Jackson elementary.
Next year, three more Fresno schools will be added, bringing the pilot to eight of the district’s 63 elementary schools. The project will culminate with a report on its effectiveness by an outside evaluator in December 2017.
Maria Maldonado, assistant superintendent of English learner services for the district, said she is already seeing major shifts in instruction based on the training, such as the probing questions Franco asked her class.
Rowell Elementary students Vanessa Arenas and Daniel Delgado discuss a science lesson.
After doing the science lesson, Daniel said he enjoys discussing science and other topics with his classmates.
“Sometimes, kids can’t think of an answer,” he said. “But when we share ideas, we help each other.”
Although Daniel is not an English learner, he said his teacher’s emphasis on academic vocabulary helped him to grasp the dual meaning of words. For example, he realized that the word “benefit” could mean either “to help” or “to get help,” after Franco asked students to write a sentence about how plants and animals benefit from their relationships with each other.
Principal Alice McClintock said it’s critical for English learners and their classmates to understand vocabulary words and how they fit into what they’re reading. It’s also important for them to be able to use academic language in their speaking and writing, she added.
To reinforce these priorities, every teacher has posted classroom work in the school’s hallways, demonstrating how students share their thinking in writing.
“We’ve seen so much growth since last year,” McClintock said.
At Rowell Elementary, teachers post students’ writing in the school hallways to demonstrate their ability to express their thinking.
In a 6th-grade classroom, teacher James Sandifer stressed the importance of annotating texts to understand them, such as circling key words and making notes about meaning. Sandifer said he appreciates the training he receives from McClintock and WestEd, which promotes sharing and collaboration between teachers.
McClintock said teachers review texts for complexity during their training and talk about the importance of giving students time to think about what they’re learning.
Although Maldonado and McClintock said they are seeing great improvement in teaching and learning in the pilot schools, they agreed that all teachers are not at the same level in carrying out the teaching methods. About half have fully implemented it, while others are struggling with the transition to a new way of teaching, they said.
For many teachers it means breaking away from traditional teaching methods like lecturing from the front of the classroom.
“We need to keep working,” Maldonado said. “But I see a big difference.”
Already, McClintock said more students are testing as English proficient after initially being classified as English learners. That rate has soared from about 13 percent last year to 21 percent this year.
“That’s a huge jump,” she said, enthusiastically.
Similarly, Jackson Elementary Principal Karina Stenfort said in a project testimonial that the pilot has strengthened the abilities of educators at the school to teach language and writing, especially to English learners.
“I have seen the impact that this approach has had on our long-term English learners in particular,” she said. “We ended the year with the vast majority of our English learners showing great gains in academic language proficiency. That’s huge for us and we are very excited.”
Superintendents, but not teachers, give high grades to Common Core rollout
In Sacramento City Unified’s director of multilingual literacy Vanessa Girard said she’s optimistic that the pilot program will make a difference for students, but that it may take some time to see a spike in test scores.
“There’s an implementation curve, so to speak,” she said. “We did training almost right before the school year started, so that didn’t give teachers much time to gear up. I‘m not sure it will show a huge difference until kids have had year after year of teachers who are teaching this way.”
Officials are watching the “Leading with Learning” pilot to see if it could help teachers and districts statewide as they work to implement California’s integrated English language arts and English language development curriculum framework, said Tom Adams, deputy superintendent of public instruction in the California Department of Education.
“The next phase is getting down to adjusting classroom practice,” he said, explaining that many districts haven’t yet made instructional changes.
“We think of the WestEd project as a deeper implementation,” he said. “We hope to get some really good lessons learned out of there.”* Did not include grades 5-6.
California is lagging behind other states in properly overseeing the rise of charter schools and needs to do more to close the achievement gap for English learners, according to a research report released on Monday.
The report from Stanford University and Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) acts as the “state of the state” on the condition of pre-K and K-12 schools. The report focused on a number of issues from early childhood education, pensions, and teacher shortages.
Oversight of charter schools
California has more than 1,200 charter schools and about one student of every 10 attends one. In California, school districts act as what’s called “charter school authorizers” and have the authority to vet new charter schools and close poorly performing ones.
Dr. Susanna Loeb, the principal investigator for the report, said California does better than other states in terms of closing low-performing schools.
“On average, the charter schools where students are learning less tend to close more,” Loeb said. “This is how you’d want it to be.”
But, Loeb said, the state’s process of authorizing the opening of a charter school in the first place, is “very, very” decentralized.
Unlike many other states, the report said, California does not have an independent chartering board to oversee school districts and other charter school authorizers to ensure those districts with poor track records get noticed.
Loeb said funding for charter school authorizers is also a problem.
“The amount of extra resources they get for overseeing these schools is very small relative to other states,” Loeb said. “So we may not have the kind of oversight capacity that some of the other states do.”
Closing the achievement gap for English learners
California has more English learners in its pre-K and K-12 schools than any other state in the country.
But according to the Stanford/PACE report, these students are likely being taught by inexperienced teachers who may not be fully prepared to educate them.
“English learners are basically facing a double challenge,” said Dr. Lucrecia Santibañez, who contributed to the report.. “They have to learn content and language proficiency. And we found that a lot of teachers are unfortunately unprepared to teach them.”
The report also said that California is facing a severe shortage of bilingual teachers, which limits the state’s ability to further expand immersion programs for English learners.
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