|Exam Name||:||High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2|
|Questions and Answers||:||131 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 21, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure C4040-332 Dump|
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C4040-332 exam Dumps Source : High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2
Test Code : C4040-332
Test Name : High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 131 Real Questions
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Utility storage enterprise extends assist for IBM HACMP
Fremont, Calif., Jan. 31, 2007--3PAR® announced today 3PAR InServ® Storage Server support for IBM® high Availability Cluster Multi-Processing for AIX (HACMP). HACMP cluster expertise is IBM's flagship high-availability know-how that gives monitoring, failure detection, and automatic recuperation of business functions on IBM AIX servers. For the primary time, HACMP purchasers can deploy Utility Storage -- an easy, in your price range, and vastly scalable storage platform -- to enrich their mission-essential AIX environments.
IBM’s AIX operating equipment is the strategic platform of choice for a lot of corporations with mission-critical environments where downtime can cause misplaced salary, client dissatisfaction, and popularity harm. To avoid these issues, corporations commonly installation excessive-availability cluster applied sciences equivalent to HACMP along with extremely accessible, excessive-end storage systems. despite the fact, however these storage techniques can offer excessive ranges of storage efficiency, scalability, and excessive availability, they're expensive to put in force and may be complex to administer. As an choice, businesses can also decide on more reasonably priced twin-controller, midrange storage -- however in doing so, they compromise availability and face accelerated downtime risk.
3PAR Utility Storage resolves this predicament by using offering a extremely attainable, massively scalable, clustered structure that provides excessive and predictable stages of efficiency -- even under failure circumstances -- for less cost than excessive-end arrays. This includes strong far flung replication capabilities, by means of 3PAR far off replica, for catastrophe restoration of AIX environments. additionally, 3PAR Multipath I/O (MPIO) for IBM AIX provides standard and effective direction failover and recovery for top-availability environments.
3PAR Utility Storage introduces completely new levels of simplicity and efficiency to particularly accessible AIX environments. as an instance, 3PAR skinny Provisioning allows for one-time provisioning of mission-essential logical storage to AIX programs while reducing deployed actual capacity by way of 50 % or extra. 3PAR virtual reproduction, developed on thin replica know-how, allows users to take a whole lot of reservationless, non-duplicative snapshots of mission-crucial data sets, proposing good value entry to many feasible recovery aspects.
3PAR InServ Storage Server guide for IBM HACMP know-how is presently obtainable with IBM device p5 servers.
3PAR is a company of utility storage, a simple, efficient, and vastly scalable tiered-storage array for utility computing that lets valued clientele serve greater with less. For extra advice, discuss with http://www.3par.com.
February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited marvelous durability. One may even say legendary sturdiness, if you need to take its background the entire means again to the equipment/3 minicomputer from 1969. this is the precise beginning point within the AS/four hundred household tree and here's when massive Blue, for extremely sound criminal and technical and advertising reasons, determined to fork its items to tackle the interesting needs of huge corporations (with the equipment/360 mainframe and its follow-ons) and small and medium organizations (starting with the equipment/three and moving on throughout the device/34, device/32, system/38, and system/36 in the 1970s and early Nineteen Eighties and passing throughout the AS/four hundred, AS/400e, iSeries, device i, and then IBM i on vigour programs platforms.
It has been a protracted run indeed, and many consumers who have invested within the platform started means again then and there with the early models of RPG and moved their functions forward and changed them as their businesses advanced and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, moving on up via RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free form. Being on this platform for even three a long time makes you a relative newcomer.
there is an extended run ahead, seeing that we trust that the corporations that are still running IBM i programs are the real diehards, the ones who have no intention of leaving the platform and that, at the least according to the survey data we've been privy too, are desiring to continue investing in, or even expand their investments in, the IBM i platform.
to date, we don't seem to be in a recession and heaven inclined there usually are not one, so the priorities that IBM i shops have are not the ones that they'd a decade in the past during the peak of the notable Recession. lower back then, as turned into the case in just about all IT companies, IBM i retail outlets were hunkering down and were attempting to cut fees in all ways viable, including deferring system improvements and migrations as well as slicing lower back on different tasks. most effective 29 percent of the 750 IBM i shops that participated in the 2019 IBM i industry Survey, which HelpSystems did lower back in October 2018, were concerned about decreasing IT spending. this is a remarkably low stage, and i believe is indicative of how notably robust the economy is – excepting probably the most fits and begins we saw on the conclusion of 2018 and right here in early 2019 that make us frightened and will beginning inserting power on things. listed below are the excellent issues as culled from the survey:
dealing with the growth in statistics and in identifying the analytics to chew on that statistics ranked a little bit larger on the 2019 IBM i industry Survey than did cutting back fees, and i consider over the long haul these concerns will develop into greater critical than modernizing applications and coping with the IBM i talents shortages which are a perennial fret. each of those issues are being solved as new programmers and new tools to make new interfaces to database purposes are becoming more standard and as applied sciences akin to free kind RPG, which looks extra like Java, Python, and personal home page, are being greater largely deployed and, importantly, can be picked up greater at once by using programmers experienced with these other languages.
Given the character of the customer base, it looks not going to me that protection and excessive availability will no longer proceed to be fundamental concerns, besides the fact that children that the IBM i platform is among the many most at ease systems in the world (and never just since it is obscure, but because it is highly tricky to hack) and it has a number of excessive availability and catastrophe restoration equipment (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) attainable for people that need to double up their methods and offer protection to their applications and records. The bar is regularly bigger than standard backup and restoration for many IBM i shops within the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These corporations can’t have security breaches, and they can’t have downtime.
there's a astonishing volume of stability in the IBM i client base that we suppose, at this factor, is reflective within the steadiness of the IBM i platform and big Blue’s personal belief that it needs a match IBM i platform to have an ordinary match power systems enterprise. all of us know that the energy programs hardware company has just became in five quarters of income growth – some thing we mentioned lately in setting up our own profits mannequin for the power methods business – but what we did not recognize, and what you should know, is that within the 2nd and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i element of the enterprise grew greatly faster than the overall vigour programs enterprise, and the only purpose that this didn't take place in the ultimate quarter of 2018 is that revenue of IBM i machinery in this autumn 2017 turned into fairly robust and represented a really challenging examine. The point is, the IBM i company has been raising the vigour methods type common. (These guidelines in regards to the IBM i business come compliments of Steve Sibley, vice president and offering manager of Cognitive methods at IBM.)
IBM’s own fiscal stability of the vigour platform – which has been bolstered by way of a movement into Linux clusters for analytics and high efficiency computing simulation and modeling in addition to with the aid of the adoption of the HANA in-memory database by means of SAP customers on huge iron machines together with Power8 and now Power9 techniques – helps IBM i shoppers suppose extra assured in investing within the latest IBM i platform. The recent proof from a number of diverse surveys, no longer simply the one achieved by way of HelpSystems every year, suggests that groups are by means of and large both continuing to invest in the platform or even in some situations are planning to increase their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.
As which you can see, the sample of investment plans for the IBM i platform, as shown within the chart above, has now not modified very plenty at all in the past four years. it is a remarkably sturdy sample with however a bit wiggling right here and there that may additionally not even be statistically big. just below a quarter of IBM i shops have said during the past 4 years that they plan to enhance their funding in the platform in each yr, and just beneath half say that they are protecting steady. This does not mean that the equal agencies, yr after 12 months, are investing greater and different organizations are staying pat, 12 months after year. it is much more possible that each handful of years – extra like four or 5 – shoppers upgrade their systems and expand their ability, and they then sit tight. The ask yourself is that the break up isn’t showing some distance fewer groups investing and much greater sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t know what their plan is as each prior 12 months involves a detailed is a little stressful, but it surely is honest and shows that a significant portion of shops produce other priorities other than hardware and working system enhancements. we now have mentioned this earlier than and we are able to say it once again: We feel that the individuals who respond to surveys and browse weekly publications focused on the IBM i platform are the most lively stores – the ones more likely to reside extraordinarily present on hardware and software. So the pace of adoption for brand spanking new technologies, and the expense of investment, may still be higher than within the precise base, a good deal of which doesn't exchange plenty in any respect.
So if we needed to modify this facts to tackle the entire base, there can be far fewer websites that are investing greater money, way more organizations that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer websites which are contemplating moving off the IBM i platform. I consider the distribution of statistics is doubtless anything like 10 percent of shops haven't any concept what they're doing funding intelligent with IBM this yr, 5 percent are pondering moving some or all of their purposes to one more platform, possibly 10 % are investing more this yr, and the closing 75 percent are sitting tight. this is only a bet, of path. so far as we will tell, the cost of attrition – what number of sites we truly lose every 12 months – just a tad over 1 percent. So the expense of move of purposes off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and purposes, may not be any place close as high within the overall base because the facts above suggests. what's alarming, perhaps, is that the fee of moving some or all functions off the platform is balanced in opposition t folks that say they're going to enhance investments. most likely these are hopeful survey takers, and people who feel it is easy to move discover it isn't and people who think they are going to discover the funds to make investments will now not.
What we do comprehend is that if the fee of utility attrition become anyplace close as excessive as these surveys imply, then the IBM i business would now not be becoming, however shrinking. And we understand it isn't shrinking, so we believe there is a disconnect between planning and fact, each on the upside and the downside.
in case you drill down into the facts for the 2019 IBM i industry Survey, there have been 13 percent of retailers that referred to they'd be relocating some applications to a new platform, and a further 9 p.c that mentioned they had been going to circulate all of their functions off IBM i. (This number is in keeping with the contemporary ALL400s survey carried out by John Rockwell.)
Anyway, respectable success with that.
Porting functions from one platform to yet another, of buying a new suite on that new platform, is an exceptionally complicated assignment. It isn't like attempting to trade a tire whereas using down the street, as is a standard metaphor, but somewhat like making an attempt to take the tire off one automobile relocating down the toll road and installing it on another motor vehicle driving beside it within the adjoining lane with out crashing either vehicle or smashing into any one else on the road. Optimism abounds, but when push involves shove, very few businesses are attempting any such maneuver, and after they do, it's always as a result of there is a corporate mandate, more instances than now not led to by a merger or acquisition, that pits any other platform against IBM i working on energy systems. corporations that say they are making this kind of stream off IBM i are sanguine for his or her own personal causes, perhaps, however they are not necessarily useful about how lengthy it might take, what disruption it'll cost, and what most suitable benefit, if any, may be realized.
if you do the mathematics on the chart above, eight-tenths of the bottom has no concept how long a move will take, one other 1.7 percent thinks it'll take more than 5 years, and 3 percent say it'll take between two years and five years. most effective three.4 p.c of the overall base say they could do it in below two years. We feel all of those numbers are optimistic, and the organizations who might with ease go away OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time ago and those that are stay have a tougher time, not an easier time, moving. If this had been now not real, the IBM i base would be a hell of an awful lot smaller than the one hundred twenty,000 consumers we suppose are obtainable, in line with what big Blue has instructed us during the past. this is the difference between concern or pressure or culture and the truth of trying to stream a enterprise off one platform and onto an additional. These moves are all the time a great deal harder than they look on the entrance end, and we suspect most of the merits also don’t materialize for those that do bounce systems.
on the average attrition expense recommended via this survey information – 9 p.c move off the platform in someplace between 365 days and more than five years, with most businesses not being in a position to see more than five years into the longer term it is a neat trick – the installed base would decrease dramatically. it is hard to say how far on account of the wide selection of timeframes within the survey. If it turned into 9 % of the base inside two years – call it four.5 percent of the bottom per yr – then within a decade the normal base would cut back from 120,000 IBM i websites global down to about 72,000. this may dramatic certainly. however at a 1 percent attrition rate per 12 months, the base remains at 107,500 enjoyable shoppers (not sites and never installed machines, each of that are bigger) by means of 2029. We think there's each chance that the attrition fee will definitely gradual and drop under 1 p.c as IBM demonstrates dedication to the vigour techniques platform and its IBM i working device. There are all the time some new consumers being introduced in new markets, to make certain, but the bleed expense (despite the fact that it's small) continues to be doubtless an order of magnitude bigger than the feed expense.
when they do feel about making the flow, IBM i shops recognize precisely the place they wish to go, and this reply has been steadily changing through the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the upward push and home windows Server as an option is on the wane. within the newest survey, 52 % of the companies that stated they have been relocating all or some of their functions to one more platform spoke of they had been settling on windows Server, whereas 34 p.c selected Linux. This displays the relative popularity of home windows Server and Linux in the datacenters of the area at huge, and might be tipped just a little extra heavily in opposition t Linux compared to the relaxation of the world. apparently, 10 p.c of those polled who said they had been relocating were AIX structures, and a different 4 p.c were going upscale to system z mainframes – as not going as this may additionally appear. platforms are inclined to roll downhill; they do not usually defy gravity like that.
The factor about such surveys is that they demonstrate intent, not action. We often intend to do a lot more than we actually can accomplish, and moving systems after spending decades of build up advantage isn't continually a very sensible circulation until the platform is in actual crisis – like the Itanium programs from Hewlett Packard commercial enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s working MPE or the Sparc techniques from Oracle operating Solaris. These were once tremendous systems with massive put in bases and tremendous income streams, but now, IBM is the last of those Unix and proprietary structures with its power systems line. And it is by using a ways the largest and for certain the only 1 displaying any growth.connected reviews
The IBM i Base Did certainly circulate On Up
The IBM i Base Is able to move On Up
funding And Integration indicators For IBM i
security nevertheless Dominates IBM i dialogue, HelpSystems’ 2018 Survey reveals
The IBM i Base not As Jumpy as it Has Been
The Feeds And Speeds Of The IBM i Base
IBM i Priorities For 2017: Pivot To defense
IBM i trends, issues, And Observations
IBM i Survey receives better As Numbers develop
the place Do these IBM i Machines Work?
discovering IBM i: A game Of forty Questions
it's time to inform Us What you're up to
IBM i industry Survey: The significance Of Being Earnest
What’s Up in the IBM i marketplace?
IBM i marketplace Survey Fills within the Blanks
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Even with the popularity of open source and Linux, commercial Unix platforms are still an important part of most data centers. The most widely used versions of Unix are IBM's AIX, Hewlett-Packard's HP-UX and Solaris from Oracle-Sun. In this tip, I offer an overview of recent enhancements made to each of these Unix distributions.IBM AIX
AIX 6 was released in November 2007 and updated in October 2009. AIX 7 was just released in August 2010. Since AIX 7 is brand new, I'll examine features of both versions.
AIX 6 and 7 are available in three editions:
AIX 6 introduced Workload Partitions (WPARs), software-based virtualization that allows multiple AIX environments to run on a single system. WPARs provide isolation from other processes and WPARs. Each WPAR may have unique administrator control, network addresses, file systems, users and groups. Processor and system resources are shared and apportioned between WPARs.
WPARs share a single global instance of AIX as compared with Logical Partitions (LPARs), each of which runs an independent copy of AIX. When the WPAR global instance is patched, all subordinate WPARs inherit the patch. AIX 7 adds Trusted Kernel Extensions, which can limit access to specific kernel extensions to particular WPARs. With Life Application Mobility, applications in a WPAR can be moved without stopping and re-starting, so workloads can be balanced across multiple systems.
AIX 6 also provides numerous security enhancements:
Availability enhancements in AIX 6 include:
AIX 7 introduces Cluster Aware, which provides commands and APIs to create clusters of individual AIX systems. These clusters may be managed as a single group, you can monitor events and disk space, and performance data for the entire cluster is available.
Also new in AIX 7 is the Event Infrastructure, used by Cluster Aware, which can monitor pre-defined system events.HP-UX
HP-UX 11i was originally released in 2000 and the latest major version is HP-UX 11i v3 (11.31), released in 2007. The latest update (6th) to 11.31 was in March 2010.
HP-UX is provided in one of four combinations of operating system and application bundles, called an operating environment (OE):
The Virtual Server Environment provides virtualization capabilities and workload management tools. Hardware and software isolation is achieved using a hard partition, or nPartition, which establishes boundaries that completely protect one virtual machine from any faults in another (including software, hardware or electrical faults). In HP-UX 11.31, dynamic nPartitions can be modified while the partition is in use.
Software-only isolation is achieved using a virtual partition, or vPar, which runs its own instance of HP-UX and has its own share of CPU, memory and I/O. HP-UX 11.31 introduces dynamic memory migration between vPars and allows mixed vPar versions within a single nPartition.
Dynamic Root Disk allows cloning and updating of a running root file system, assisting in system recovery and reducing downtime during upgrades.
Unified File Cache integrates the different mechanisms used for file caching: page cache and buffer cache. This eliminates the possibility of file system inconsistencies when using system calls that depend on differing mechanisms.
Encrypted Volume File System 2.0 provides AES encryption at the file or volume level. Security containment isolates system resources and provides fine-grained privileges and role-based access control.Oracle Solaris
Solaris 10 was first released in 2005. Updated releases are named by the month and year of release. The latest update, also called Update (U8), is Solaris 10 10/09, released in October 2009.
The Zettabyte File System (ZFS), introduced early in Solaris 10, can now support the root file system and be used to boot the system. Support for user- and group-level disk quotas has also been added to ZFS.
Solaris Zones and Solaris Containers provide virtualization and resource containment. Zones isolate one or more application services within the operating system. A Container is a Zone that also manages operating system resources to prevent one Zone from consuming all real system resources. Recently added resource management features allow CPU usage to be limited in multiple ways: fair-share, capped or dedicated. Memory and network bandwidth resources can also be managed.
A Zone may establish a separate instance of the TCP/IP networking stack through an Exclusive IP Zone, allowing the Zone to have a unique network configuration.
Logical domains (now called Oracle VM Server for SPARC) provide a higher level of virtualization abstraction. A logical domain runs a virtual machine within which an operating system can be booted, halted and rebooted (requires Solaris 10 11/06, U3, or later). Other operating systems supported by SPARC hardware may also be supported. Ubuntu Linux can be run in a logical domain.
Many security features previously available in a special release of Solaris called Trusted Solaris have been incorporated into the regular release as of Solaris 10 5/08 (U5). Solaris Trusted Extensions include fine-grained privileges using Mandatory Access Control for policy-based access to system resources such as devices, files, networks, printing and window management. User Rights Management provides role-based access control and complies with the Federal Information Processing Standard.
About the author: King Ables holds BA and MSc degrees in computer science and has worked in customer support, software development, systems and network administration, and user education. He has written numerous technical articles for online and print journals and is author or co-author of three books on Unix and Linux.
Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.This chapter is from the book
One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many business executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the work is done. The truth is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult part of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.
Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to use IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install all these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the answer is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a new DBMS is driven by a business need or a new application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a new DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a new application. Sometimes a new DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or support to reject a new DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a new DBMS is driven by the desire to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops moving from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a new DBMS is installed, old applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The old DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to make the DBMS decisions for the organization. No business unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the permission of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. Business politics often work against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other business executives.Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, choose a default DBMS for the platform. Discourage deviation from the default unless a compelling business case exists—a business case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products have similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to choose a DBMS based solely on its ability to support a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is wise to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot go wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are popular and support just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the big three come MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. All of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed base is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the Big Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, certain predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an object DBMS is important for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with certain features that make them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. Refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I do not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a plan for selecting the appropriate DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be sure to consider each of these factors:
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a business one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can perform per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be found at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see Figure 2.1).
When choosing a DBMS, be sure to take into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very complex and is getting more complex with each new release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in Figure 2.2. You will need to plan for and support all the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for certain features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to use just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to plan and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a plan for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS softwareDBMS Architectures
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database applications. One wrong choice or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can cause poor performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of business and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should make the final architecture decision. Business experts should include representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.
Furthermore, be sure that the DBMS you select is appropriate for the nature and type of processing you plan to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers all the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports small to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors also market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to choose a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, do not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one type of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too complex for single users. Be sure to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and choose the appropriate DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to choose multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the same vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.DBMS Clustering
Clustering is the use of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names do a good job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in Figure 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main advantage of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they do not interfere with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, all the connected systems share the same disk devices, as shown in Figure 2.4. Each processor still has its own private memory, but all the processors can directly address all the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing enormous volumes of work. Great benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with heavy data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a heavy read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data need not be partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s Real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary benefit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can help an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.DBMS Proliferation
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a new DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to do so can cause a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can also cause confusion regarding which DBMS to use for which development effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term return on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with valid reasons and good ROI, be sure to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures do not take everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to perform similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing effective data management resources for your organization.Hardware Issues
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only part of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to say everything should run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be sure to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at small to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in return for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their business instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is possible to improve collaboration among partners, branch offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.
HOUSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bradmark Technologies, Inc., an established provider of enterprise monitoring and database administration tools, today announces the upcoming release of Surveillance™ version 4.2 for Sybase® Adaptive Server® Enterprise (ASE) Cluster Edition. This release bolsters Bradmark’s continuing development of its premier monitoring solution for Sybase data management products, enabling customers – including many that manage the world's most critical data – to cost-effectively maintain unprecedented performance and reliability.
“The new release of Surveillance for Sybase ASE Cluster Edition further demonstrates Bradmark’s commitment to provide best-in-class monitoring and surveillance solutions across the entire Sybase ASE product family,” said Brian Vink, Vice President, database product marketing, Sybase. “The world's most critical data in commerce, communications, finance and government runs on Sybase and we are pleased that partners such as Bradmark continue to provide complimentary solutions to help ensure an extremely reliable, high performance database environment.”
Surveillance for Sybase ASE Cluster Edition provides comprehensive views for cluster monitoring:
“Version 4.2 demonstrates Bradmark’s commitment to broaden and deepen the support for Sybase Surveillance customers,” said Brad Tashenberg, CEO, Bradmark Technologies, Inc. “With this new functionality, Bradmark also demonstrates its ability to deliver timely and functionally rich value to our Sybase customers.”
Surveillance is a real-time monitoring tool capable of overseeing the entire database environment with drill-down capability for quick problem identification. With Surveillance, a database administrator can view real-time performance data without writing scripts, determine the root cause of performance problems, and insure the well being of the user’s database environment. Difficult problems can be resolved in a fraction of the time required without such a product. Surveillance installs in minutes and, once configured, can begin monitoring right away.
Surveillance at the Sybase Greater China User Conference
On November 4-5, Bradmark Technologies will be a “Special Sponsor” at the Sybase Greater China Users Conference in Beijing. This two-day technical event will include a technical session on Surveillance monitoring for Sybase IQ. In addition, the Sybase ASE team will present their technical session, which will include Bradmark’s premier monitoring functionality for Sybase ASE Cluster Edition.
Surveillance 4.2 will be available November 30, 2008. Also, Bradmark will support the latest version of Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) Cluster Edition for AIX and HP-UX, which was just announced today at the Sybase Greater China User Conference. For more information, please visit www.sybase.com/press.
To request a free 30-day evaluation, visit www.bradmark.com and click on the Demo Request link, or contact your Bradmark representative directly: For Bradmark U.S.: (713) 621-2808, or toll-free (800) 621-2808; Bradmark EMEA: +31 (0) 251-268 248; Bradmark China: +86 1350 1079 225
Surveillance will also be available directly from Sybase, and can now be purchased on eShop, Sybase’s online store. For more information, or to place an order, please call 800-8-SYBASE, or visit www.sybase.com/partner/bradmark.
About Bradmark Technologies, Inc.
Founded in 1981, privately-held Bradmark Technologies, Inc. develops, markets, sells and supports data management solutions that provide anytime — anywhere access to managing database, application and operating system components. Bradmark’s innovative product suites detect and prevent problems before they adversely affect productivity, ensuring that IT environments are up and operating at peak performance. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, Bradmark has offices in Seattle, Washington, London, Munich, the Netherlands and Beijing. Additionally, Bradmark reaches global audiences through a network of Channel Partners and International Distributors. For additional information, visit www.bradmark.com.
Sybase and Adaptive Server Enterprise are registered trademarks of Sybase, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
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RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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