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developers who use DB2 hook up with access databases operating on equipment i midrange systems and system z mainframes from applications working on windows, Unix, and Linux methods will gain better aid for triggers and kept processes, amongst other enhancements, with the newest free up of the software, version 9.7, which IBM announced remaining week.
DB2 connect is a piece of data access middleware it is used to entry DB2 databases running on equipment i and system z servers. The application offers far off applications the ability to create, replace, manage, and manipulate DB2 databases working on host techniques using numerous structured strategies, together with SQL, APIs, ODBC, JDBC, ODBC, embedded SQL for Java (SQLJ), DB2 call level interface (CLI), personal home page, Perl, and Ruby on Rails.
some of the key enhancements IBM has delivered with version 9.7 is more robust guide for saved method and trigger language. the new free up brings multiplied aid for implicit casting, the introduction of modules, new functions, and more than a few new statistics forms, the application massive says.
the brand new release also brings aid for SQL replication and federation with DB2 on Linux, Unix, and windows (DB2 on LUW), with Informix Dynamic Server, and with web features. Enhancements to DB2 pureXML, including the ability to include XML in enterprise analytics, are additionally included, IBM says.
builders can also take advantage of alternative SQL language syntax in the new release, including option SQL language syntax for DELETE statements, the RID_BIT scalar function, and the FOR replace clause for opt for INTO statements, IBM says. New be part of methods, as well as a brand new scripting and command line development tool, CLPPlus, are additionally included within the new free up.
all of the DB2 connect statistics sever shoppers and drivers had been more suitable, the software massive says. a new add-in for visible Studio 2008 is additionally obtainable. The middleware also works with IBM’s Optim construction and administration equipment.
protection has also been stronger with version 9.7, together with advancements in separation of obligations, stronger isolation of safety and auditing, and superior separation among application building companies. Rounding out protection improvements are guide for AES encryption, Transport Layer safety (TLS), and improved assist for comfortable Sockets Layer (SSL).
DB2 connect edition 9.7 becomes obtainable June 19. IBM presents a couple of DB2 connect products for a considerable number of hosts, client gadgets, uses, and licensing preferences. For more tips on edition 9.7, see the IBM application announcement letter.
application and data Integration Between Linux and OS/four hundred
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newsIBM DB2 Will target Oracle Database builders IBM this week announced a brand new version of its flagship DB2 database with application with a purpose to deliver compatibility with functions developed for Oracle databases.
Embedded in IBM's coming near near DB2 9.7, code-named "Cobra" and slated for unlock in June, is software that provides compatibility with EnterpriseDB Corp.'s Postgres Plus advanced Server database, which helps all Oracle records kinds, SQL syntax, semantics and different applications developed with Oracle PL/SQL kept approaches. Postgres advanced Server is constructed on the open supply PostgreSQL database.
"The set of applied sciences we've delivered will help developers of custom purposes and packaged functions install to DB2," said Bernie Spang, director of method, analytics and facts administration for IBM's application neighborhood.
For IBM, it be the first time the business has licensed technology from a provider of open source database utility, though EnterpriseDB founder Andy Astor talked about the software embedded in DB2 is based on proprietary code.
"this is not an open supply play," Astor stated. "everything else we do is open supply but that is likely one of the ways we make our funds, by way of promoting that compatibility know-how both to vendors like IBM, during this case, and to users in the form of Postgres Plus superior Server."
EnterpriseDB features to a couple of valued clientele together with FTD and Sony on-line amusement which have migrated applications developed for Oracle databases to Postgres Plus. The take care of IBM "gives them with confirmed functionality for enabling compatibility between DB2 and functions written for Oracle," said 451 community analyst Matthew Aslett in an electronic mail.
"Database migrations are advanced, time-consuming, expensive and infrequent, so any functionality that makes the manner simpler is going to be welcomed through these organizations which are organized to make the start," he brought.
The licensing pact is the first by using EnterpriseDB, however Astor talked about others are being negotiated.
IBM is hoping the move will encourage more purchasers to migrate to its InfoSphere Warehouse 9.7 enterprise version, an information-cleaning and enterprise analytics platform based on DB2 and technology IBM received from Cognos.
the brand new free up is centered at bringing records mining, analytics and cubing to departments of agencies and smaller corporations, Spang stated. also new in DB2 is help for performing simultaneous transactions across XML and relational statistics.
Jeffrey Schwartz is editor of Redmond magazine and also covers cloud computing for Virtualization overview's Cloud file. moreover, he writes the Channeling the Cloud column for Redmond Channel accomplice. observe him on Twitter @JeffreySchwartz.
however that db2set has been around for a long time, it looks that db2set isn't all the time smartly understood. based on IBM’s documentation, the IBM DB2 Profile Registry command (db2set) enables for centralized handle of environmental variables. study on to be trained more...
one of the vital first troubleshooting alternatives I ever had with DB2 LUW concerned db2set. That became with DB2 UDB 5.0 and became more than a decade ago. Now I’m the use of DB2 9.7 and i’m still using db2set, so it certainly has some staying energy. youngsters that db2set has been around for a while, in speaking to other DBAs it looks that db2set isn't all the time well understood.
in line with IBM’s documentation, the DB2 Profile Registry command (db2set) permits for centralized control of environmental variables. There are varied levels of the Profile Registry.
From personal adventure, I actually have discovered some wonderful things about db2set. as soon as, when varied DBAs were trying to make use of db2set on the identical time to replace values for a similar instance, my db2set -all output displayed inconsistent values. This became readily mounted with the aid of readily picking out the whole set of updates we wanted to make and then having one grownup do all the db2set instructions. Of route, that turned into on a outdated free up of DB2 so it can now not be an argument with DB2 9.7.
I also found that DB2SYSTEM and DB2INSTDEF, that are set on the international degree, can deliver some first rate suggestions. just by way of looking on the DB2SYSTEM variable, i used to be as soon as able to examine that an entire ambiance had been set up incorrectly using a file equipment reproduction method versus a common and supported DB2 approach. That one discovery saved me a lot of troubleshooting time.Are you and DB2SET Acquainted?
Most of us have had as a minimum some publicity to db2set. be aware this?$> db2set db2comm=tcpip
Or maybe in case your shop makes use of SAP, you have got used this special combination registry variable which units numerous values by the use of one profile registry replace.$> db2set DB2_WORKLOAD=SAP however have you used this one? $> db2set -lr
If not, you could be lacking some decent assistance. When using the –lr option with db2set, which you could see all the supported registry variables that can be found for us with the product version for this setting up.
Who can replace the DB2 profile registry? The reply depends on the operating gadget. On a UNIX platform, somebody who holds SYSADM for the example can replace registry values for that example. On windows, when extended security is enabled, a SYSADM who belongs to the DB2ADMNS community can set and update the registry values.
When the usage of the DB2 Command Line to trade a DB2 Profile variable value at the local or default example stage, the command is effortlessly:db2set <variable>=<value>
instance:db2set DB2COMM=tcpip db2stop db2start
(whereas the new value for DB2COMM is instantly stored within the profile registry, the change is not utilized unless a restart.)DB2SET Helps Itself
in case you want greater information, it's convenient to get it. DB2SET gives a command line aid choice it is in reality helpful! simply including a question mark to the conclusion of the db2set command returns a full screen of information.
$> db2set ?$> db2set ? DBI1300N db2set displays, units, or eliminates DB2 profile variables. db2set [variable=[cost]] [-g|-i instance [db-partition-number]] [-all] [-null] [-r [instance] [node-number]] [-n DAS node[-u user[-p password]]] [-l|-lr] [-v] [-ul|-ur] [-?|-h]
The command alternatives are:-g access the international profile variables. -i Specifies the illustration profile to make use of as a substitute of the latest or default. -n Specifies the far off DB2 Administration Server node name. -u Specifies the user identification to use for the Administration Server attachment. -ul access the person profile variables -ur Refreshes user profile variables -p Specifies the password to use for the admin server attachment. -r Resets the profile registry for the given instance. The default/latest instance might be used if none is provided. -l Lists all illustration profiles. -lr Lists all supported registry variables. -v Verbose mode. -? shows the command aid message. -h same as -? option. -all shows all occurrences of the native ambiance variables as described in: * The environment, denoted through [e] * The user level registry, denoted by [u] * The node stage registry, denoted by means of [n] * The illustration stage registry, denoted by [i] and * The international level registry, denoted by way of [g] -null units the variables cost to null at the distinct registry level to prevent searching up the value within the subsequent registry degree as defined in the variable cost search order. Notes: * db2set without a variable identify displays all defined variables. * db2set <variable> shows <variable>'s price. * db2set <variable>= (nothing) deletes the <variable>. * db2set <variable>=<cost> modifies the <variable>'s cost. * db2set <variable> -null units <variable>'s cost to NULL. * db2set <variable> -all displays all defined <variable>'s values. * db2set -ur refreshes the existing person profile. * db2set <variable> -ul displays defined <variables> at the person degree. * db2set -all shows all defined variables in all registry ranges.
probably the most common approach to verify the set of values saved in the DB2 Profile Registry is to make use of the db2set –all command. right here’s an illustration.db2set -all [e] DB2PATH=C:\application information\IBM\SQLLIB [i] DB2PROCESSORS=0,1 [i] DB2INSTPROF=C:\ProgramData\IBM\DB2\DB2COPY1 [g] DB2_COMPATIBILITY_VECTOR=MYS [g] DB2_EXTSECURITY=yes [g] DB2SYSTEM=LOCKSMITH [g] DB2INSTDEF=DB2 [g] DB2ADMINSERVER=DB2DAS00
offered you have the suitable authority, which you can additionally use the SYSIBMADM.REG_VARIABLES administrative view, which will also be queried to get the registry settings from all database partitions. The outcomes set can be different from what you would see when the use of the db2set -all. The mismatch can turn up if a DB2 registry variable is configured using the db2set command after the illustration has been began. REG_VARIABLES only returns the values that were in effect when the instance become started.
here’s an example:db2 "select CHAR(REG_VAR_NAME,35) AS REGVAR, CHAR(REG_VAR_VALUE,35) AS cost, level FROM desk(REG_LIST_VARIABLES()) AS REG ORDER via 3,1" REGVAR value stage ------------------------- ----------------------------------- ----- DB2PATH C:\program information\IBM\SQLLIB E DB2ADMINSERVER DB2DAS00 G DB2INSTDEF DB2 G DB2SYSTEM LOCKSMITH G DB2_COMPATIBILITY_VECTOR MYS G DB2_EXTSECURITY yes G DB2INSTPROF C:\ProgramData\IBM\DB2\DB2COPY1 I DB2PROCESSORS 0,1 I thinking concerning the Future
With each and every new version of DB2, the profile registry alternate options are discipline to alternate. So previous to upgrading, or performing a brand new set up, one investigation I undertake is to be taught about the various options for db2set as they practice to that certain product level. The IBM DB2 counsel middle is at all times my resource for that. For DB2 9.7, which you can discover tips for the db2set profile registry alternate options starting at http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/db2luw/v9r7/index.jsp?theme=/com.ibm.db2.luw.admin.regvars.doc/doc/c0004934.html. Drilling down from that link will give you all of the details.last techniques
occasionally there are some very positive Profile Registry variables that will also be set to enrich performance or support DBAs solve utility considerations. It’s like opening a surprise present, you are aware of it can be some thing first rate, but you’re just not sure how decent it might be unless you appear. once you unwrap the suggestions about db2set, you will keep in mind a way to use that capabilities as a present in your DB2 atmosphere.
» See All Articles via Columnist Rebecca Bond
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Developers who use DB2 Connect to access databases running on System i midrange systems and System z mainframes from applications running on Windows, Unix, and Linux systems will gain better support for triggers and stored procedures, among other enhancements, with the latest release of the software, version 9.7, which IBM announced last week.
DB2 Connect is a piece of data access middleware that is used to access DB2 databases running on System i and System z servers. The software gives remote applications the capability to create, update, control, and manage DB2 databases running on host systems using a variety of structured methods, including SQL, APIs, ODBC, JDBC, ODBC, embedded SQL for Java (SQLJ), DB2 call level interface (CLI), PHP, Perl, and Ruby on Rails.
One of the key enhancements IBM has delivered with version 9.7 is more robust support for stored procedure and trigger language. The new release brings expanded support for implicit casting, the creation of modules, new functions, and a range of new data types, the software giant says.
The new release also brings support for SQL replication and federation with DB2 on Linux, Unix, and Windows (DB2 on LUW), with Informix Dynamic Server, and with Web services. Enhancements to DB2 pureXML, including the capability to include XML in business analytics, are also included, IBM says.
Developers can also take advantage of alternative SQL language syntax in the new release, including alternative SQL language syntax for DELETE statements, the RID_BIT scalar function, and the FOR UPDATE clause for SELECT INTO statements, IBM says. New join methods, as well as a new scripting and command line development tool, CLPPlus, are also included in the new release.
All of the DB2 Connect data sever clients and drivers have been enhanced, the software giant says. A new add-in for Visual Studio 2008 is also available. The middleware also works with IBM’s Optim development and administration tools.
Security has also been enhanced with version 9.7, including improvements in separation of duties, better isolation of security and auditing, and better separation among application development groups. Rounding out security improvements are support for AES encryption, Transport Layer Security (TLS), and improved support for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
DB2 Connect version 9.7 becomes available June 19. IBM offers a number of DB2 Connect products for various hosts, client devices, uses, and licensing preferences. For more information on version 9.7, see the IBM software announcement letter.
Application and Data Integration Between Linux and OS/400
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As one of Europe's leading suppliers of DB2 services, my organization has been involved in a vast number of technical support calls and incidents with our customers. These situations range from the tragic to the downright bizarre, but each and every one can be avoided (or at least mitigated) with the right processes and procedures in place.
In this column, I'd like to take you on a quick tour of some of my favourite DB2 support incidents and war stories for Linux, UNIX and Windows. All of these actually happened, but I have omitted some details in order to keep them suitably anonymous. With thanks to the many Triton consultants that contributed, and still bear the scars of their involvement.Issue 1: The Law of Unintended Consequences
This one started (as many do) with a call for help from one of our DB2 customers. All of the rows had been deleted from a critical table in a pre-production environment. The junior DBA had bravely admitted to accidentally connecting to the wrong system to clear down the table, but couldn't understand why he'd been able to delete the rows as he shouldn't have had the authority to do so.
In all such circumstances, the priority is always to get the data back and the developers working again. This was quickly accomplished with a standard recovery using a recent backup and no problems were encountered. We then turned our attention to the task of figuring out how the junior DBA had been able to delete the data in the first place.
After much investigation, we discovered the following:
Needless to say, the FED_NOAUTH parameter was rapidly set back to NO and normal authentication checking was reinstated.
Many of us spend a lot of time tuning databases and applications, but how often do we think about our own performance? Time and again, we see examples of DBAs and support staff that are taking the long way round and using more time than necessary to perform routine tasks. One particular aspect of this is the use of the command line versus a GUI such as the DB2 Control Center.
I know plenty of people who are passionate supporters of the GUI, and indeed it can be a very good way to quickly accomplish one-off activities such as an ad-hoc reorg. However, there are plenty of situations where use of the command line (or better still, DB2 commands embedded in a simple script) will make much more sense. The task is then easily repeatable, actions and their results can be recorded (by redirecting the output to a text file), and a script is a lot easier to hand over to a colleague than pages of instructions and GUI screenshots!
A common example is the routine process of promoting database objects between development, test and production environments. A good script can accomplish that task in a fraction of the time needed to do the same thing from the GUI, and utilities such as db2look can be used to compare database structures to ensure consistency.
Many of us are working in environments where the SQL presented to DB2 is not written directly by a human being, but generated automatically by a tool. Common examples include Java frameworks, 3GLs and business intelligence tools such as Cognos in this example.
In this example, the customer reported a long elapsed time for a Cognos-generated query (over 30 minutes) running against a DB2 9.5 database, with the query consistently failing due to the DB2 temp space being exceeded. The users repeatedly increased the temp space and re-tried the query, but with exactly the same result each time. In desperation they even ran the DB2 Index Advisor and created additional indexes, but temp space still blew before the query finished.
A support incident was opened, and analysis using a third-party query monitoring tool showed a very high query execution cost. Further examination of the actual SQL being generated by Cognos showed a Cartesian join of two tables, each with more than 25M rows in, with the new indexes not being used at all. Going back to the Cognos definitions showed a key database relationship had not been defined to Cognos, so it had to filter vast amounts of data locally.
The solution was simply to re-work the Cognos report definitions to add the missing database relationships. This caused Cognos to generate correct JOIN predicates and the reports ran to successful completion in under 2 minutes. The developers were also educated to look at both the Cognos and generated "native" SQL in the future.
This particular issue happened in a development environment where DB2 for LUW 9.7 was the back-end database, but it could really have been any other RDBMS. A highly-skilled offshore team was developing a new application, with a local system administration team looking after the OS support.
Triton was originally contacted as a one-off exercise, as the developers were complaining about consistently poor query performance and asking to move to another RDBMS as DB2 was clearly not up to the job. We found a surprisingly common situation: the team of developers, highly skilled in SQL and able to formulate complex queries, were completely focused on the application code and no one was looking after the data. Consequently, there was no backup regime in place, no RUNSTATS or other housekeeping, and the only indexes were primary ones created when the database was first designed. Not surprising then that the query performance had been so poor — none of the tables had ever had stats collected.
Further questioning revealed that the developers had no DB2-specific knowledge whatsoever, and no desire to learn. As far as they were concerned, the database was a black box that they could throw SQL at and get data back.
We quickly implemented a basic set of automated housekeeping procedures that resolved the performance issues and made the developers happy. However, in the process we uncovered a lot of data quality issues (such as developers coding inefficient SQL to get around duplicate data that shouldn't exist). A more formal design review of the database was conducted, and we were asked to provide an ongoing remote DBA service to avoid the same issues arising in the future.
This is a great example of how "finger trouble" can cause red faces and application outage. The Senior DBA for a major public services application took his annual vacation, leaving a recently-trained Junior DBA in charge. Responding to a request to clear down a development database, the Junior DBA fired up his telnet session, dropped and re-created the relevant database and congratulated himself on a job well done ... until the phones started ringing with users complaining that they couldn't use the production application. The DBA had accidentally dropped a critical production database, thinking that he was connected to the UAT system.
To his credit, the DBA was quick to own up to the mistake and Triton was called in to assist with the recovery. This was conducted without further drama, but the best part of a business day had been lost by the time everything was back to normal.
We received a frantic call one evening from a customer asking for immediate help. DB2 had "hung" and no activity could be performed on the production database. As the OLTP system had a 24x7 online SLA, it was not surprising that the senior management was waiting when we arrived at the customer site. Upon investigation, it became apparent that DB2 was looking for an active transaction log file that had gone "missing" and was nowhere to be found.
After investigation, the story started to become clearer. In a desperate attempt to create some space on the production database server, a junior sysadm had stumbled upon the DB2 transaction log directory (which in this case housed both the active and archived logs) and thought, "Hmm, this directory could do with some clean-up." Using his judgment of the age of the files, he deleted some of them. He gained space but unfortunately lost an active transaction log file in the process.
Despite our advice that a restore from a previous backup was the only solution to their problem, the local Oracle DBA with some DB2 knowledge tried various methods to "trick" DB2, like creating a dummy log file with the same name as the missing one, not knowing that the DB2 transaction log files have header information within them. After a lot of delay, it was finally agreed to carry out a restore from the most recent backup. This proved somewhat of a challenge since no backups were stored on disk. So, the correct tape had to be found and mounted. The restore and subsequent rollforward to a consistent point in time did successfully take place and sighs of relief could be heard in the early morning hours. Even though some hours of business had been lost, jobs had been saved! And yes, even the junior sysadm was allowed to stay on since he owned up to his mistake...
Here's a nightmare support scenario: a broken database on an unsupported version of DB2, with no backups or log files to recover the database.
An erroneous script had deleted a few transaction log files that had a 'last changed' date of more than 45 days. The same script had caused other errors and a database restart was required, but the database did not start. The database was looking for an old log file, which had just been deleted by the script. As the policy was to retain the backups and archive logs for 30 days, this log file was deleted from the archive logs too.
The database was tiny — less than 50GB. Nevertheless, it was a very important one, with a number of web facing apps relying on it for important features. To make matters worse, the version of DB2 in use had passed its "End of Service" date, so DB2 support was not willing to investigate (though they were happy to guide).
When we got involved a few hours after the incident, panic had set in. Based on information available (saved snapshots and db2diag.log file), we were able to conclude that there was a transaction which started in the log file the database was looking for. This transaction was never completed. The rate of change of data was so small, the configured log numbers could go on for more than 45 days.
The options available were to extract the data from the latest backup image (using tools like High Performance Unload) or extract the data from the damaged database (using db2dart). The latter option was chosen as this would allow us to recover the most recent data.
Without further delay, we ran db2dart on the database to check for any errors and to get the Tablespaceid, Tableid and the total number of pages allocated to each table. We were then able to use the information to build the db2dart command with the DDEL option to extract the data in delimited format. db2dart with the DDEL option is interactive (i.e., when the command is run, it prompts for the tablesapce id, tableid and the page range to extract the data). This meant that the extract could not be scripted but had to be done manually for each of the 300+ tables.
Once that mind-numbing task was complete, we created a new database with the DDL that was available (thankfully, they had a db2look output from the production database less than a week before the incident). Finally, we loaded the extracted data to the new database and ran runstats on the table and indexes.
After a few hiccups and 15 hrs of db2dart, import/load, runstats and data fixes, the database was available for the application. The database was down for more than 20 hours, but it was back in once piece with nearly no data loss. Quite an achievement under the circumstances!
We often have to ask customers for the DB2 diagnostic log file (db2diag.log), only to be told "it's too large to send" or "it's taking too long to open." This is because the DB2 diagnostic files have been appended only since time immemorial, their growth only restricted by the maximum space available in the file system they reside in. The only way to curb this growth would be to rename the files, which would then force the creation of new ones. Scripts had to be written to automate this process and to delete old files after a certain period. Many customers didn't have these processes in place.
With the advent of DB2 9.7, all this is now history! The new DIAGSIZE database manager parameter allows a DBA to control the maximum sizes of the DB2 diagnostic log and administration notification log files. When this parameter is set to a non-zero value (which is the default pre-DB2 9.7 behaviour), a series of 10 rotating diagnostic log files and rotating administration notification log files (only on UNIX and Linux) are used. It is also smart enough to clean up old log files from the diagnostic log directory. When the 10th file is full, the oldest file is deleted, and a new file is created.
The customer was using HADR to a remote server for resilience, running in ASYNC mode to minimize the performance impact. No cluster software was used for monitoring/failover, but the HADR state was being monitored on a regular basis using a shell script.
On the primary site, a few disks failed, which caused some of the tablespaces to be put in "Rollforward Pending" State. Transactions accessing data in these tablespaces failed but the others were successful. The last run of the HADR State monitoring script indicated a Peer State, and therefore it was decided to issue a TAKEOVER command on the DR Site to switch roles. When the application started, some transactions failed with the same error as on the primary site — not good!
A list tablespaces command showed a number of tables in "Rollforward Pending" state. To get out of the pending state, the ROLLFORWARD command was issued with the list of affected tablespaces. The rollforward was trying a retrieve a log, which was a few thousand logs older than the current one. Not surprisingly, this log was not available in the archive. After a few more tries, the ROLLFORWARD option was given up and the database was restored from the latest backup image and the application started.
So what happened? We went through the db2diag.log and the notification logs. We could see that there were physical errors reported in some of the tablespaces on the DR site (HADR Standby) around 100 days prior to the incident. This was reported in the db2diag.log, and the affected tablespaces were "excluded from the rollforward set." Based on other entries in the db2diag file, we were able to confirm that the log file requested for rollforward on the DR site was used at the time the physical errors occurred there. HADR continued to apply logs for the other tablespaces and was reporting to be in "Peer" State. In reality, some of the tablespaces were being ignored.
I'll round off my top ten with one of the most basic issues we encounter, but unfortunately one of the most common. It's amazing how many DB2 sites don't have basic procedures in place for contacting IBM support in the event of a serious DB2 issue.
If you're having a serious production problem and you need IBM's assistance, every minute is vital. That is not the time to be scrabbling around to try to dig out customer numbers and URLs for the IBM Support Portal. We have even seen situations where the IBM support site is blocked by the organisation's web browsing policy!
IBM is generally happy for you to open "test" PMRs to prove that the process works and ensure you can contact them quickly and efficiently if the need arises. Finally, don't forget that it's possible for your IBM Business Partner to open and manage your PMRs for you — we do this for many of our customers as a matter of course.
I hope you'll be able to learn something from at least some of these scenarios, and take steps to avoid similar situations happening in your environment.
See all articles by Julian Stuhler
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