|Exam Name||:||IBM WebSphere Portal 8.5 System Administration Core A|
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|Updated On||:||April 19, 2019|
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C2040-421 exam Dumps Source : IBM WebSphere Portal 8.5 System Administration Core A
Test Code : C2040-421
Test Name : IBM WebSphere Portal 8.5 System Administration Core A
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 58 Real Questions
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gadget i retail outlets concerned in Java-based mostly internet portals may additionally have an interest to listen to in regards to the latest free up of IBM‘s WebSphere Portlet manufacturing facility. big Blue says the latest liberate, edition 6.1.2, brings enhancements that allows you to permit builders to get net 2.0 applications up and working sooner than before.
WebSphere Portlet manufacturing unit is a home windows-based device designed to simplify the construction of J2EE portlet functions and dispose of the need for direct coding. The application runs on accurate of WebSphere application Server types 6 or 7, and helps all important working systems–including i5/OS and IBM i OS.
With version 6.1.2, IBM has delivered several enhancements that it says speeds development and renovation of portals, which is all the time a priority. a type of facets is the capacity to unexpectedly “re-brand” an entire net portal with a centralized theme from one vicinity.
group construction has also been more suitable because of new versioning capabilities and more superior capacity to establish and add files to source manage repositories.
This release also introduces a library of pre-built connectors for exposing Representational State transfer (leisure) capabilities from returned-conclusion programs. this may make it simpler to bring together purposes from reusable chunks of features–a key part of carrier oriented structure (SOA).
Portlet manufacturing unit clients can also now create and set up “widgets” to IBM’s Mashup center, the new IBM framework for quickly constructing, connecting, and deploying bunches of net 2.0 apps in new and fascinating combinations.
the new free up additionally adds greater development and deployment platforms. developers can work with the Portlet factory from within different IDEs, including Eclipse three.4, Rational software Developer and Rational application Architect 7.5, or WebSphere advice Developer edition 6.2. Deployment alternate options encompass WebSphere Portal Server, WebSphere Portal permit, WebSphere Portal extend, WebSphere Portal express, WebSphere utility Server, and the IBM Mashup center.
Portlet manufacturing unit delivered to IBM WebSphere Portal categorical
IBM Expects speedier Portal initiatives
IBM Makes Bowstreet, Micromuse Buys
Bowstreet Brings ‘Portlet manufacturing unit’ to iSeries
WebSphere Portal categorical comes to OS/400
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IBM has upgraded its high-conclusion business search product with an stronger consumer interface, and should announce subsequent week the provision of a business intelligence tool that can be used with it to analyze call middle facts.
OmniFind commercial enterprise version 8.5is now attainable and contours a new dashboard view of search effects, tight integration with different IBM collaboration products like Notes/Domino 8, and help for japanese, Korean and chinese characters.
The dashboard ability, called properly outcomes analysis, complements the natural search outcomes record with a graphical representation of effects. users can click on the dashboard's bar charts to refine their search outcomes.
"With this, we've taken a significant jump in findability," said Aaron Brown, application director of search and discovery at IBM's suggestions administration community.
moreover, OmniFind enterprise version 8.5 has hyperlinks to statistics in different IBM collaboration utility, like Notes/Domino eight and Lotus Quickr capabilities for WebSphere Portal, as well as to IBM FileNet P8 content material administration.
For customers who also haveOmniFind Analytics Editionand wish to analyze information collected of their consumer assist call facilities, IBM subsequent week will announce the availability of ProAct. This company intelligence software, developed at IBM's India analysis Laboratory and in use internally at IBM call centers, might be sold as a carrier engagement through theIBM Researchunit.
ProActis a textual content analytics tool designed to let agencies mine structured and unstructured records generated in name facilities and kept -- and sometimes forgotten -- in numerous repositories, like email inboxes, quick messages and transcribed call logs.
ProAct is in accordance with an IBM open-source software framework for constructing statistics evaluation equipment known as Unstructured suggestions administration analysis (UIMA). OmniFind business and OmniFind Analytics additionally use UIMA.
version eight.5 displays IBM's consciousness that enterprise search is becoming commoditized and that carriers in this market should lengthen their products' capabilities in ways that differentiate them, stated analyst Fern Halper, partner at Hurwitz & buddies. the new dashboard and text analytics capabilities are first rate examples of ways by which IBM can increase the price of OmniFind enterprise version, which competes at the excessive conclusion of the market towards offerings from Autonomy and quick Search & switch, Halper spoke of. "IBM is doing a fine job of considering a way to raise [the product]," she stated.
Susan Aldrich, analyst and senior vice chairman on the Patricia Seybold group, observed that whereas some commercial enterprise search items are designed as stand-alone applications, OmniFind business edition is more of a platform and suite of tools that IT departments at medium and large companies can customise for their specific wants. "A key value [of the product] is this stunning opennesss and extensibility," Aldrich observed.
informationIBM Buffs office and WebSphere Portal IBM this week announced new and updated items in its office family of collaboration products, including 19 position-based mostly built-in applications for medium and small company valued clientele. The enterprise also stated it is going to supply ad hoc web conferencing as a carrier for shoppers beginning in December.
The solutions give customizable business capabilities for certain industries or classes of company initiatives and operations – all constructed using IBM workplace items and selected third-birthday celebration applications.
although possibly a cliché by now, IBM officials additionally endured to emphasize the modifications between a “network-delivered” collaboration environment and one based mostly primarily on very own computer systems – peculiarly Microsoft’s view. “[With Workplace Solutions] you don't have to have Microsoft workplace,” says Larry Bowden, vp, of IBM workplace utility solutions.
IBM designed the solutions by discovering the job roles required for performing common sets of initiatives or operations inside a collection of vertical markets. on the same time, it considered the way to implement horizontal business roles inside normal companies’ IT environments, including procurement, finance and administration, customer service, and human elements. the brand new office options give integrated software sets that meet at that nexus; as an example, programs to give branch banking or retail keep administration features.
“They’ve taken classes out of IBM’s features group and . . . they have got designed these programs to make those individuals with the important thing enterprise roles more effective,” says Robert Mahowald, analysis manager at IDC. That should, the reasoning goes, make these groups that undertake those options greater successful.
since the options and IBM office products assist trade specifications, together with Java and XML, other products can also be built-in with different techniques as neatly. IBM workplace includes Lotus office, WebSphere Portal, Lotus Notes and Domino, and WebSphere Everyplace, in response to the business’s net web page.
“Our focus is on organizational productivity,” says Bowden, adding, “Having a competitive part isn't pretty much as good as having a sustainable competitive side.”
definitely, imposing total built-in systems in response to the capabilities that a business must perform as neatly as the roles of the people who function the essential initiatives, and proposing that to clients in an answer package it really is the next best thing – or so IBM officials hope – to a turnkey solution, offers that sustainable edge, business executives submit.
The options don’t do everything. Implementation details stay however IBM’s intent is to take part of the ache out of the procedure for small and medium-sized businesses that don’t have a division dedicated to offering IT. “Why don’t we get you 70 p.c of ways?” asks Bowden rhetorically.
in one of IBM’s demonstration eventualities, a bank branch teller receives a big assess and wishes to reap the approval of a client provider person, and additionally should clear the deposit for regulatory compliance and auditing. The department banking solution offers job roles for three distinct employee assignment sets to meet the necessary business services. indeed, the brand new office options encompass more than 30 job services or employee roles, business spokespeople talked about.
among the many areas the place IBM is offering new office options are: retail, electronics, manufacturing, finance, telecommunications, govt, existence sciences, healthcare and automotive organizations. moreover, the company has updated its department Banking solution in addition to its business Controls and Reporting answer (now at edition 2.5).
essentially, although, IBM is taking a a bit distinct tack on coopetition. To organizations like Oracle, SAP and PeopleSoft, “They’re announcing, ‘we’re going to supply the plumbing for you,’” says IDC’s Mahowald, leaving a part of the pie for different avid gamers.
IBM will additionally start providing on demand net conferencing subsequent month, officers mentioned. “in case you have a browser and a cellphone, which you can deploy a web convention,” Bowden says. “instead of purchasing the utility from us, you could just purchase the carrier.” This comes as an immediate attempt to take enterprise away from Microsoft’s are living assembly, says Mahowald.
moreover, IBM also introduced a brand new product in the workplace family. IBM office services specific v2.0 is a fresh product designed for small and mid-sized companies and departments in massive companies. It contains group collaboration, document administration, web varieties, task lists, and portal services as well person customization facets. IBM workplace features specific additionally integrates with the consumer's current purposes and facts, in addition to electronic mail, calendar and handle e-book, and provides quite a number collaboration equipment including integrated rapid messaging. it's going to ship in December, officers mentioned.
finally, IBM debuted the latest release of WebSphere Portal – edition 5.1 – which adds virtual portals, enterprise method workflow points, and better content administration capabilities. edition 5.1 could be obtainable by using the conclusion of November.
The enterprise will announce pricing for all of the items and capabilities when the items can be found, business officers talked about.
Stuart J. Johnston has lined technology, chiefly Microsoft, considering February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, assistance Week, and laptop World, in addition to for business Developer, XML & internet functions, and .internet magazines.
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A top-tier New England University has adopted a strategic multi-year infrastructure modernization project to replace out-of-date systems, and increase IT capabilities while maximizing the return on all IT investments. The project involves upgrading hardware, purchasing new software and training the development and operational groups. Central to the modernization strategy is the implementation of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).
SOA is an architectural approach to development that emphasizes an overall platform for the design of distributed applications rather than specific technologies. The mainstay of SOA is the definition and implementation of software services, regardless of location or ownership, that map directly to a system or business processes-services include interfaces and the policies that govern them at run-time. SOA benefits include loose coupling between interacting systems and platforms, a ubiquitous integration mechanism based on industry standards, support for on-demand creation of composite services and the ability to leverage existing assets while improving operational efficiency.
Figure 1 Service Oriented Architecture
The transition from traditional application development and deployment to a service-based approach is significant and cannot be put into practice overnight. Working with their partner, Collaborative Consulting, the University's IT department outlined a roadmap for incremental adoption of SOA. One advantage of the incremental approach is an immediate return on investment and the ability to select the ordering of conversions to best meet the short and long terms goals of the University. The remainder of this article describes a six-month project that launched the SOA adoption process by implementing a Resource Oriented Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) using 1060 Research's NetKernel.Problem Domain
Higher educational institutions are under constant pressure from students, staff and alumni to provide the type of on-line services they have grown accustomed to in their lives including real-time 24/7 access to information via intuitive interfaces and streamlined automated processes. At the same time there is increasing pressure from management, steering committees, and boards to control costs. Consequently, higher educational institutions IT departments such as the University's must be ingenious and pragmatic when investing in new capabilities.
The University IT department supports a wide variety of applications including Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) products such as PeopleSoft, mainframe legacy applications built on top of a Customer Information Control System (CICS) and modern J2EE web applications built using Oracle Application Server Portal. In addition, many of the applications interact with third party Application Service Providers (ASP) and provide historical information to a Data Warehouse (DW). All of these must be integrated and coordinated with the new SOA approach.
The University historically has integrated business systems using IBM MQ and FTP. This traditional approach resulted in a number of point-to-point (P2P) integrations. These P2P integrations are costly to maintain and have resulted in tight coupling between the consumer and provider. However, the existing environment was already using a light-weight message exchange state transfer (MEST) approach that is leveraged to allow for further innovation. An enterprise service bus (ESB)-a sub-type of a message bus architecture-provides for a more decoupled environment and, while it has a higher up-front cost of deployment, it was determined that the value of an ESB increases exponentially over time while the costs of extending the system remain linear and predictable 1.
The University's IT department has a small group of dedicated architects and software engineers, many of whom have developed expertise in the higher education domain through their tenure. Because the group is small, each member often takes on multiple roles including support and administration. Due to this, the IT department required a solution that would accomplish the following:
Service Oriented Architectures can be implemented using a number of different patterns and technologies. The conventional approach uses patterns outlined in the WS-* specifications and one can select from a broad spectrum of technology products ranging from open source solutions such as Apache ServiceMix to commercial suites such as Cape Clear and Sonic Software. Unfortunately, the WS-* specifications are in a constant state of flux and can overwhelm developers attempting to digest over 1300 pages of detail. For example, if adhering to the all specifications, it would take the following steps/tasks to implement a SOAP service:
The commercial ESB suites in the market were evaluated and since the IT group is relatively small, the decision was made to look for a solution that would result in a low-friction system that could foster the type of innovation a small group of IT resources could undertake and wouldn't force the group into a centralized service ownership model that relied on a single vendor. The University's domain is extremely fluid, with process changes, application changes and integration changes; therefore what was needed was an overall architecture and strategy that was a reflection of the true nature of the university.
Since message requests already were established as the central transfer mechanism across the university, a RESTful or Resource-Oriented approach was employed to implement an SOA. REST is based on a small set of widely-accepted standards, such as HTTP and XML and requires far fewer development steps, toolkits and execution engines. The three key benefits of a RESTful approach to SOA include a lower cost of entry, quicker time to market, and flexible architecture. A Resource-Oriented approach goes beyond a RESTful approach and provides a deeper more extensible and transport independent foundation. While REST design patterns advocate the use of HTTP a Resource-Oriented architecture supports services connected to HTTP as well as transports such as JMS or SMTP.
Although several ESB implementations such as Codehaus Mule support REST, only 1060 NetKernel is built upon a Resource-Oriented Computing Platform 2 (hence, “ROC”). The core of resource-oriented computing is the separation of logical requests for information (resources) from the physical mechanism (code) which delivers the requests. Services built using ROC have proven to be small, simple, flexible and require less code compared conventional approaches. This made it the ideal technology to build a technology platform.2. Technology Platform
NetKernel is resource-oriented middleware that provides core Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) capabilities, addressing, routing and data transformations and can act as a service registry orchestration engine. NetKernel is a rich offering and also provides advanced capabilities for XML transformations, cache management and multi-threaded processing along with multiple transport protocols, including HTTP and JMS and a SOAP engine enabling it to provision conventional web services. NetKernel is a solid foundation for heterogeneous enterprise integration.
Conceptually, NetKernel provides access to resources identified by a Universal Resource Identifier (URI) address. All URI addresses are managed within a logical address space. A REST-based micro-kernel handles all requests for resources, resolving the URI from the address space and returning a representation of that resource. Requests to the micro-kernel can also be made to create new resources or update or delete existing resources.
Physically, a NetKernel system is composed of modules which expose public service interfaces and resources via URI addresses. Similar to a Java EAR, a module contains source code and resource configurations. Modules may logically import another module's publicly exposed services and resources incorporating them into the address space. Since imports refer to a module's logical name and can specify a version number, multiple versions simultaneously can be run and updated in a live system. Service requests are injected into NetKernel by transports, which are event detectors residing at the edge of a system. Service consumers can send requests via any supported transport such as HTTP or JMS.
Figure 2 Technology Platform
HTTP is a stateless request-response application protocol. The request message structure is comprised of a command, headers, and a body. The response message is comprised of a status, header and a body. Clients and servers exchange these messages using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sockets. The client-server interactions can be secured at the transport layer using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol while the message itself can be secured using encryption and a digital signature. Finally, a client can be authenticated using HTTP-Basic or HTTP-Digest authentication schemas 3.
The Java Message Service (JMS) API provides the platform for implementing asynchronous services. However, the API requires a provider, in this case IBM WebSphere MQ. IBM MQ is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) and provides queue-based communication channels among applications. Channels are implemented using Point-to-Point or Hub & Spoke topology. In addition to transporting messages, MQ can also handle workflow, process automation, data transformation, monitoring and management.3. Resource-Oriented Services
A resource-oriented service provides transport-independent stateless access to a resource. A resource is an abstraction of information. For example, a student's registration is an abstraction which can have representational forms such as a web page, an XML document, or a PDF file. A service exposes each resource representation using a resource identifier or address. The resource identifier is actually a relative Universal Resource Indicator (URI). A URI is composed of two parts, the scheme (e.g. HTTP and FTP) and the address. The second part of the URI is relative. The address, /domain/account/45322, is relative until it is associated to a scheme such as http, http://domain/account45322.
Figure 3 Resource Oriented Service Conceptual Model
The service defines a set of actions, Create, Read, Update, and Delete, that can be invoked on a resource. In addition, certain actions may trigger rules or business logic. When a resource is requested, a physical immutable representation of that abstract resource is returned. Different types of representations can be returned based on business logic, such as the type of consumer. For instance, most back-end processes require an XML document while a front-end process may require a JSON object. The service also can receive a representation creating a new resource, or updating an existing resource. Finally, the service can receive a request to delete a resource.
Figure 4 Resource Oriented Service Interaction Model
A transport resides at the edge of a system and when it detects an event it issues a corresponding internal root request. For example, the HTTP transport listens for a consumer's request for a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), specifying an access method (e.g. GET, PUT, POST, & DELETE). The URL is transformed into an internal relative URI and the access method is translated into an action. In the case of a request over JMS, the URI and action are passed as message header parameters. In addition, if a resource representation should be returned, a return queue parameter is specified in the header.
In a RESTful system, access to resources is stateless which means each request must have a way to pass context as meta-information. In general, the transport defines a message structure comprising a header and a body. The header is used to pass the meta-information while the body is used to pass the resource representation. For instance, if a resource-oriented service is exposed over HTTP, authentication information can be passed in the header, and if the service is exposed over JMS that same information can be passed as an encrypted header parameter.
Resource-oriented services are built using Maven 4 and packaged as NetKernel Modules. Maven is a tool for building and managing software within the context of a “project.” Maven projects are defined by a Project Object Model (POM) XML. The POM defines the software's dependencies, build process and deployment structure (e.g. JAR, WAR, EAR). In addition, a Maven project can be used to generate a project web site and deploy software. In this case, Maven packages services within a NetKernel Module and publishes information about those services to a registry.
Figure 5 Resource Oriented Service Development4. Resource-Oriented Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
A Resource-Oriented Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) was implemented using NetKernel. At the heart of NetKernel is a RESTful or resource-oriented microkernel responsible for resolving logical URI requests to physical code endpoints and scheduling the request on an available CPU core. While the mapping of logical address to physical code is defined in the application structure, the actual binding of logical address to physical code occurs only for the duration of a request and is then discarded.
Because each request to the micro-kernel is bound anew, system administrators are free to change the association between logical address and physical code while the system is running enabling capabilities such as real-time live code updates. Performance in practice is paradoxically not degraded by this indirection and binding but rather enhanced as the URI address acts as a key to NetKernel internal cache. If any resource is re-requested and dependencies have not changed then the cached representation is returned instead of being recomputed.
The use of a resource-oriented microkernel has several key benefits. First, service interaction is at a logical rather than physical level. This results in loosely coupled interactions, thereby decreasing the impact to the consumer and provider when changes are made to the physical implementations. Second, the results of requests are cached, thus decreasing the overall cost of service composition and orchestration. For instance, if a set of orchestrated services relies on a common service, the underlying physical code of that common service seldom will be executed. Finally, all internal requests to the microkernel are asynchronous, allowing processing to scale linearly as more CPUs are added to the host server.
The ESB is primarily responsible for service provisioning and security. Service provisioning involves exposing resource-oriented services to consumers over transports such as HTTP and JMS. The transports map the external URI and access method to an internal resource-oriented service and action. Regardless of the transport, the body of the request, such as an XML Document or JSON object, is passed as a parameter named ‘param.' Consequently, the resource-oriented services are decoupled from details of transport specific logic and in fact, additional protocols can be added at any time without impacting existing code.
Figure 6 Resource Oriented Service Provisioning
The resource-oriented services, in turn, delegate to a set of custom infrastructure services and core services provided by NetKernel. NetKernel provides an extensive set of core services. For instance, core services exist for XML and SOAP processing, CRON Job scheduling, and SMTP interactions. The core services dramatically reduce the amount of code that needs to be written to implement a resource-oriented service. Custom infrastructure services are used to expose capabilities which can be leveraged in the higher education domain.
Each request to the ESB is first authenticated, then authorized and (in some cases) audited. Transports authenticate an incoming request based on a user-name password combination and then delegate authorization and auditing to a security service. Authorization involves verifying that the identified consumer has the appropriate privilege. A privilege is comprised of a relative URI and an action. As an example, a consumer could be authorized to read but not to update or delete the resource student profile, identified by the relative URI /domain/student/identifier/profile. Unauthorized requests automatically are audited and there exists the option to audit based on the identified consumer or privilege. The account, privilege and audit information is stored in an embedded Hypersonic database.
Figure 7 Resource Oriented Service SecuritySummary
Other than a run-time service governance solution, such as Actional or ManagedMethods, middleware for implementing an ESB is essential to any successful SOA initiative. Without an ESB, an organization is simply increasing the number of costly point-to-point (P2P) interactions using web services. While there is wide disagreement as to the composition and purpose of an ESB, most can agree on a set of core capabilities including service addressing, message transformations and message routing. An ESB implemented using NetKernel middleware provides these capabilities and more advanced capabilities such as service registration and orchestration.
The NetKernel product allowed the University to implement a resource-oriented ESB. A resource-oriented ESB is essentially an open standards-based enterprise integration framework. This framework enables an enterprise to reduce or eliminate costly point-to-point interactions and decreases the time to market for introducing new capabilities. Furthermore, this framework has a lower initial cost of entry than a conventional enterprise integration framework based on the WS-* standards. Additionally, since NetKernel and ROC provide for integration on a per-service basis, the University can push the integration functionality to the edge of the network (as a URI), which translates into better service management and scalability. In short, this framework provides an organization unprecedented enterprise architectural agility.
In less than six months, a team of three software architects was able to implement a resource-oriented ESB and several initial resource-oriented services using NetKernel middleware. The successful implementation of the ESB launched the University's incremental adoption of SOA. A resource-oriented approach allowed the team to leveraged existing assets and technical skills. Going forward, the University's IT department now has the ability to meet the ever increasing consumer demand by taking advantage of reusable services and composite applications while reducing or eliminating the P2P integrations.About the author
Jeremy Deane is a Technical Architect at Collaborative Consulting. He has over 12 years of software engineering experience in leadership positions. His areas of expertise include Enterprise Architecture, Performance Engineering and Software Process Improvement. In addition, he has Masters in Information Systems from Drexel University and has recently published a white paper, Document Centric SOA.
The commercial software market in the human resource management space is rather fragmented, with Talent, HR, and Workforce Management startups all vying for a slice of the pie. It’s little wonder the open source world hasn’t found much direction either, with the most ambitious HRM solutions often locked inside larger ERP distributions. OrangeHRM is a standout.
OrangeHRM tackles employee administration from recruitment and applicant tracking to performance reviews, with good audit trails throughout. An employee portal provides self-serve access to personal employment information, time cards, leave requests, and personnel documents, helping reduce demands on HR staff.
OrangeHRM doesn’t yet address niche aspects like talent management (social media, collaboration, knowledge banks), but it’s remarkably full-featured. Professional and Enterprise options offer more advanced functionality (in areas such as recruitment, training, on/off-boarding, document management, and mobile device access), while community modules are available for the likes of Active Directory/LDAP integration, advanced reporting, and even insurance benefit management.
-- James R. Borck
In-DepthBuilding a Private Cloud
The idea of the private cloud provides a lot of promise, but the technology is not cheap. Here's what vendors can actually offer today -- and how much it will cost.
The buzz about cloud computing has been deafening for the past few months. Every new startup seems to be using these services, and now cloud computing is even the focus of television commercials during major sporting events. The power of the cloud is undeniable. It has the ability to provide on-demand computing with little up-front investment, but it can be extremely disruptive as well. How does an IT manager approach the cloud for infrastructure and applications?
Although some companies have been moving full-steam into the cloud, most mature IT organizations are just starting to look at the cloud for possible solutions. In a tight economy, IT needs to find new ways to save money and be innovative at the same time. With the entrance of big players like IBM Corp. and Microsoft, the market for cloud technologies now has several competitors vying for space in companies' networks.
Outside the realm of customer- and Internet-facing applications, cloud solutions either extend internal infrastructure into an environment where IT professionals don't have traditional management capabilities, or move the cloud to an internal infrastructure.
IT departments have spent years building rock-solid processes, procedures and expertise to make their data centers and the systems in them reliable and manageable. Now, promises of lower costs and better utilization are calling from the hyper-machine. Can IT departments take the core of cloud computing and provide nimble, real-time responses to the needs of their businesses using the technology they already have? IT pros should take a rational look at the options, cut through the hype and ultimately deploy the cloud effectively in their organizations' infrastructures.
The Private Cloud TodayVendors are defining the private cloud, so every vendor has a different take on the meaning of this new approach to computing resources. The big reasons to move toward a private cloud include automation and utilization. Companies have been moving data centers toward virtualization to save money by increasing utilization of the computers they already own. The private cloud elevates this concept not only by virtualizing servers, but also by turning virtual machines (VMs) into a pool of resources that can be provisioned on demand with minimal manual intervention.
In addition, it allows for a type of on-demand response to needs by moving resources to where they're needed quickly. Some vendors take that model and extend it to public cloud resources and address the typical multi-tenant model to try to satisfy security, usability and performance concerns unique to enterprise IT. Whatever the definition, what an organization is trying to do is harness better utilization of computing power and ease administration requirements with better control over the environment.
Vendor Assessment: AmazonMajor vendors are making their way into private cloud computing. IBM, Microsoft, VMware Inc., Amazon.com Inc., smaller companies such as Rackspace US Inc. and open source providers such as Ubuntu are all offering (or will offer) private cloud solutions. Because "private cloud" can be defined in so many different ways, an IT organization will need to closely evaluate available solutions based upon the company's current situation and what the end goal for each company's product will be.
Amazon launched its Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) last year. It offers yet another version of the private cloud concept by not providing any internal IT framework on which to use existing systems. Instead, it brings its traditional -- and very successful -- cloud service to host parts of an IT infrastructure. VPC connects to the internal network via a VPN connection and host server instances on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2); utilizes the Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) for backup and SAN-style connectivity; and monitors it all with Amazon CloudWatch. This flexibility extends to building VMs in the cloud and adding them to the IT organization's existing directories. Meanwhile, existing network subnets and schemas are maintained. IT pros can have customized images (that are similar to images for internal VMs) ready to deploy using Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) -- stored in the Simple Storage Service (S3) -- which builds new EC2 instances on the fly. Amazon segments these EC2 instances using virtual firewalls as well as IPsec transport security.
The Amazon option requires no up-front investment, but it does nothing to integrate current technology investments into a private cloud. This means the infrastructure is largely out of IT's control in the traditional sense. IT pros will also have to consider the sensitive information storage requirements of their applications to determine whether a hosted solution meets standards set by laws such as HIPAA or Sarbanes-Oxley. Cloud vendors such as Amazon have taken steps to address these worries, but the problems haven't necessarily gone away.
Another concern with this model is the lag time of transactions. IT pros rely on a wide-area connection with the overhead of a VPN. Although it's possible to have a fat pipe to Amazon and a very fast routing or VPN solution, it'll still be slower to access than a local data center.
Pricing for Amazon's VPC breaks down to usage and how much data is transferred. All data is transferred in for $.10 per gigabyte -- though Amazon is waiving that price until June 30, 2010). Transfer prices for outbound data are on a sliding scale, with the first 10TB coming at $.17 per gigabyte, the next 40TB at $.13 per gigabyte, the next 100TB at $.11 per gigabyte and $.10 per gigabyte after 150TB. The VPN connection is $.05 per hour. All of this does not take into consideration EC2 needs, which start at $.12 per hour for a standard "small" instance of a Windows Server out of the North Virginia location. Prices can go up to $4.36 per hour for a bigger, high-memory instance of a SQL Server in the California center.
As an example, assume a company needs a dozen large, on-demand Windows servers for a development project in the cloud over Amazon's VPC, sending 200GB and receiving 2TB of data per month. Using gold support, these cloud instances would cost roughly $1,150 per month. This is one example of a project that might benefit from a quick spin-up of on-demand servers, but by using those numbers, it's simple enough for IT pros to draw their own conclusions on cost.
Vendor Assessment: IBMThe IBM private-cloud product employs an on-premises private cloud as the primary option for most businesses. As is the case with most IBM products, companies really need to buy into the IBM approach. IBM often customizes an offering using the internal infrastructure already existing in the IT organization, even using mainframes to host cloud services. This approach involves the famous IBM consulting unit. IBM's consultants concentrate on security and governance, which keeps most of the company's cloud offerings inside the data center.
IBM isn't all consulting and big change, however. The IBM appliance entry into the private cloud is called CloudBurst. This is a solution based on the System x BladeCenter platform, and comes pre-installed with the cloud framework.
CloudBurst is an appliance approach to private clouds that does not utilize existing technology but rather creates a new infrastructure for deploying images and patterns. The IBM product includes an entire rack loaded up with everything necessary to get the cloud concept up and running. With its built-in ability to provision those applications on an as-needed basis, this offering integrates very well with WebSphere applications. CloudBurst also allows the creation of quick macro templates, enabling the "do it once, deploy it may times" provisioning called Web Replay. In addition, it features VMware's hypervisor and the ability to meter and account for resource use. This entry-level appliance costs about $200,000, depending on the configuration.
Vendor Assessment: MicrosoftMicrosoft is charging ahead in the cloud-computing space with the rollout of Windows Azure, which is a platform as well as a way to host Windows and SQL Servers in the public cloud. Microsoft made Windows Azure "available free to evaluate" through January, and on Feb. 1 Redmond launched the platform as a paid service.
The current Windows Azure offerings are all public cloud for now, but Microsoft recently announced private-cloud technology based on Windows Azure. For example, "Project Sydney" will enable enterprises to tie together data centers and the public Windows Azure services as part of a hybrid infrastructure, and AppFabric will allow developers to harness cloud services regardless of whether those services are on-premises or hosted in the public cloud.
As of yet, Microsoft hasn't integrated Windows Azure into this hybrid cloud model. AppFabric is already in developer preview, with Project Sydney expected to make its beta debut by the end of 2010.
The Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises (DDCT-E) is scheduled to be released during the first half of 2010. It aims to address servers, networks and storage as a single set of available resources in the same pool, thereby reducing idle time. Automation through batch creation and provisioning of VMs is the key to the automation of the Microsoft environment. The focus is on automation of provisioning and proper tracking of those deployed resources. Microsoft provides a self-service portal along with role-based access control. Tracking and chargeback reports are also available. DDCT-E will be free, but it integrates with Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V and Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008, which carry steep price tags. Microsoft finds itself on the cusp of big developments in the private cloud, as well as in hybrid cloud models, but it hasn't done much yet in the way of shipping products.
Vendor Assessment: VMwareVMware is providing the private cloud as an extension of its well-known virtualization platform. It relies on vSphere's ability to manage the infrastructure from thin-provisioning storage and virtual switching to vMotion on VMs, as well as storage. vSphere version 4 includes host profiles, which allow for automated configuration of all aspects of a VM, as well as confirming compliance to that configuration. vSphere also includes plenty of other advanced features, such as the ability to power down servers in a cluster when power isn't required, and then power them back up when CPUs reach maximum capacity. It can also dynamically control storage through vMotion for storage, or via Volume Grow, which extends storage as needed. The VM resource pools will assign additional capacity or balance capacity based on priority according to business rules. vSphere can provide a bridge to hosted cloud providers that use VMware, such as Rackspace, providing them with on-demand capacity outside of the private cloud.
vSphere pricing for Enterprise Server Plus, which includes private cloud features such as host profiles and resource-pool access control, is $3,495 per one processor with up to 12 cores.
Making the DecisionWhile a private cloud is a compelling next step for many IT departments trying to find something after virtualization, the reality is that it can be a significant expense that needs a solid ROI story in order to justify the investment. In fact, though many companies are pointing to hybrid public-private cloud models as the way to reap true benefits of the cloud for the enterprise, IT pros still have to consider their security needs before they can buy into that kind of solution.
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