|Exam Name||:||The Foundation ITIL (2012 Onwards)|
|Questions and Answers||:||99 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 17, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure BH0-012 Dump|
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The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) offers most excellent practices for supplying IT features the use of a systematic method to IT service administration (ITSM). The ITIL 4, launched prior this 12 months by using Axelos, turned into up to date to encompass a much better emphasis on keeping agility, flexibility and innovation in ITSM, whereas nevertheless assisting legacy networks and systems.
ITIL certification is near the right of nearly each checklist of should-have IT certifications, and for respectable rationale. As an IT administration framework, ITIL can assist organizations control risk, reinforce customer relations, set up low-priced practices, and build a sturdy IT environment that allows for for boom, scale and change.
With the transition to ITIL four, alterations are being made to ITIL’s certification schema. ITIL three certifications stay valid, and ITIL four certification tiers might be rolled out over the direction of 2019. experts just beginning out, or working with ITIL three basis level credentials, are inspired to pursue ITIL 4 certification. Intermediate candidates are inspired to continue their ITIL 3 journeys except greater-degree ITIL 4 certifications are made available later this 12 months.
here you'll discover the fees, requirements, degrees and paths for ITIL certification, in addition to tips about certification compatibility between v3 and v4 and rollout tips for larger-stage ITIL four certifications.ITIL three certification degrees
while Axelos has introduced and launched some new ITIL four certifications, the ITIL v3 certifications are nonetheless principal and available to IT professionals over the next 12 months. The final section of the ITIL four certification scheme isn’t set to launch unless 2020, so in case you’re on the path to ITIL v3 certification, it’s price continuing through these classes as they’ll translate to the ITIL 4 certification model.
The ITIL v3 qualification scheme uses a modular credit device called the ITIL credit score gadget. All ITIL and ITIL-linked skills within the ITIL credit device are assigned a particular credit price. As these credits are utilized, the applicant qualifies to examine for a more robust stage of certification. in the end, a complete of twenty-two credit is required to obtain ITIL professional certification. There’s a separate set of necessities for ITIL master qualification; candidates need to already be ITIL skilled certified before they can obtain ITIL master popularity.
There are six tiers of skills inside the ITIL v3 certification scheme that consist of right here:
When a candidate completes a given level of the ITIL examination, she or he is given the certification and the attributed credits. each stage of certification has its own requirements, all of which include incomes a specific variety of credits.ITIL 4 certification paths
The ITIL four certification scheme is akin to the ITIL three certification scheme, nonetheless it’s been streamlined to offer two main designation paths with seven modules complete between both certifications. you will development from the groundwork degree to both the Managing professional (MP) or Strategic chief (SL) paths. that you can stop at both course, or if you choose to complete both paths, you’ll be eligible to earn the ITIL grasp designation.ITIL basis
No count number which certification direction you decide to, you will first deserve to move the ITIL foundation module. This introductory examination covers the core ideas and concepts of ITIL four. As an entry-level certification, it’s designed to teach learners the fundamentals of ITIL 4 and to certify that even seasoned professionals have the foundational expertise to circulate onto greater improve certifications.
The ITIL foundation path takes region in a lecture room over two and a half days. at the conclusion of the route you’ll take an exam including forty distinct-option questions. The examination lasts 60 minutes and you may want 26 proper solutions to flow. lessons are offered via authorised working towards organizations – that you may look for one near you on the Axelos website. on the other hand, you could additionally choose to self-look at the use of follow assessments and different analyze fabric from Axelos or third-party providers.
The ITIL four foundation exam changed into the first to unencumber on February 28, while the relaxation of the checks are anticipated to launch in the 2d half of 2019. Axelos recommends continuing your ITIL v3 certification direction, as credit will switch to the transition module for the ITIL 4 certification scheme.ITIL Managing expert (MP)
The ITIL MP certification is for IT practitioners who work with expertise and digital teams across the corporation. It covers the talents critical for operating IT initiatives, groups and workflows using purposeful and technical capabilities. To comprehensive the ITIL MP certification, you’ll deserve to move a collection of examination modules:
The ITIL SL certification is for all digitally enabled services within the company, now not just IT operations. This certification makes a speciality of how it influences and informs enterprise approach. To earn your ITIL SL certification, you’ll need to flow two exam modules:
in case you complete all modules required for each the MP and SL certification paths, you’ll qualify for the ITIL grasp designation. To develop into an ITIL master you are going to nonetheless should move an evaluation, which requires you to “explain and justify the way you have in my view chosen and utilized a range of potential, principles, methods and ideas from the ITIL Framework and helping administration ideas, to obtain desired business outcomes in one or greater purposeful assignments,” according to Axelos.
The ITIL master designation requires a strong heritage in ITSM and huge arms-on journey working with ITIL, but there isn't any practicing course or fastened syllabus for this designation. You’ll be established on a situation of your deciding on, so the fabric will be personal to your journey. These are the best details at present obtainable concerning the ITIL master designation, but more advice should be released in late 2019, based on the enterprise.ITIL three certification compatibility
whereas the ITIL 4 foundations certification has already launched, the superior modules and designations aren’t set to launch except late 2019; ITIL master is determined to launch as late as 2020. ITIL four is backwards appropriate with ITIL 3 — and in case you’re currently working towards any v3 certifications, Axelos recommends carrying on with the song to ITIL professional.
The courses protected in the ITIL three certification scheme have been assigned a credit value according to its degree of ITIL content, so they will stay effective to your ITIL expert schooling. if you’re within the center of a v3 certification or nevertheless have courses to circulate for the ITIL knowledgeable certification, be sure you reside not off course rather than waiting for the ITIL 4 certifications to launch.
these with 17 or extra credit, or candidates who earned the ITIL knowledgeable certification below ITIL 3, could be eligible for the ITIL four transition module. This module is designed to get candidates straight away as much as pace on the adjustments to the brand new unencumber and units you on the course to earn the updated ITIL managing skilled (MP) designation.
if you wish to find out more about how your ITIL three certifications will switch to the updated ITIL 4 certification scheme, Axelos presents informed routes for candidates during this position.ITIL certification practicing
which you can prepare for your ITIL four certification a couple of different ways counting on how neatly you understand the fabric. when you are time-honored with ITIL 4 and feel comfy self-researching for the exam, that you could download analyze materials and practice tests through Axelos’ website. groups can additionally decide to have ITIL trainers come educate people at the firm and get certified in-apartment.
in case you’re new to ITIL or need a refresher earlier than taking the examination, that you could choose an authorised practising provider, which that you would be able to locate through the Axelos site. several businesses present practicing and courses each on-line and in-person. groups that present self-paced researching, on-line course, hybrid classes and flexible studying paths consist of:
The ITIL 4 certification can aid boost your income, expanding the quantity which you can earn in a couple of positions. On commonplace, IT worker's — or those in relevant positions using ITIL four — earn an ordinary annual earnings of $93,000 per year, in line with information from PayScale.
PayScale additionally presents records on how an ITIL 4 certification can increase income across a few particular IT positions:place usual income CIO $169,256 IT director $130,076 IT manager $101,244 service birth supervisor $one hundred,252 IT venture supervisor $91,871 IT company analyst $seventy one,420 ITIL certification can charge
Registration prices for each the ITIL 3 and ITIL four certification exams differ by way of location, ranging from around $one hundred fifty to $500. while you could self-analyze for ITIL assessments, coursework is strongly recommended, and costs for classes, whether achieved online or in a classroom environment, vary by using place and institute. training can run up from $500 for an internet course to well over $1,000 for school room-based mostly intensive instruction, and training may additionally or may also not encompass exam registration fees.ITIL resources
together with ITIL 4, Axelos has launched My ITIL — a web networking resource that connects candidates with publications, tools, templates and insights from industry leaders. 12 months’s subscription to My ITIL is covered together with your ITIL groundwork examination and should offer you access to resources and content material central to your ITIL training.
Copyright © 2019 IDG Communications, Inc.
The suggestions expertise Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a collection of ideas and options for managing suggestions know-how (IT) infrastructure, construction, and operations. ITIL® is the most widely accredited method to IT carrier administration on earth.
ITIL certifications are among the many most well known in the IT industry.
The EXIN and ISEB administers the tests and award skills at foundation, Practitioner and supervisor/Masters stage in ‘ITIL carrier management’, ‘ITIL application administration,’ and ‘ICT Infrastructure management’ respectively.
each edition of ITIL (version 1 & four) has three corresponding certification classes.
The foundation certificates: Covers realizing of ITIL terminology, TIL philosophy & background, imparting groundwork competencies about carrier assist and repair birth.
The Practitioner certificates: knowing and software of the selected processes.
The supervisor’s certificates: Is aimed for skilled experts, involved in managing service administration services.
here is a list of properly 5 ITIL practicing institutes in India
#1 KPMG’s ITIL® practicing and Certification path
The ITIL® path from KPMG consist of the following courses with tests:
· ITIL® basis figuring out of the ITIL® framework and the methods
· ITIL® intermediate Modules overlaying carrier administration ideas in detail
· ITIL® MALC Managing across the Lifecycle (MALC) is the closing step for IT specialists earlier than entering skilled level the place they can guide conclusion to end service start by using bridging distinct service lifestyles cycle degrees.
· ITIL® knowledgeable A candidate can reach the ® skilled stage through gathering at the least 22 credit score points, beginning with the groundwork route, relocating on to intermediate lessons, and eventually the MALC.
length and fee: For targeted counsel please download assistance from KPMG site.
cost Of The Institute: KPMG’s has more than two many years of event in the IT advisory, consulting, evaluation and training in India and Internationally for main practices like ITIL®, ISO/IEC 20000TM, COBIT® and CMMI®SVC.
price Of The certificates: lifestyles-long validity of the certificate. distinctive selections examination in which candidate should rating 26/40 (sixty five%) to pass the groundwork examination.
# 2 QAI international Institute ITIL® groundwork training and certification: It’s a 2 day school room training software followed through the examination.
The direction is geared toward elevating contributors understanding and competence in IT provider administration in accordance with ITIL® provider approach, service Design, carrier Transition, ITIL® carrier Operation, continual carrier growth.
length and charge: 2 days — working towards charge is included within the Examination fee of Rs 16,500
faculty: skilled & licensed trainers.
price Of The certificates: lifestyles-long validity of certificate. diverse alternative examination A candidate needs to score 26/40 (sixty five%) to pass the basis exam.
value Of The Institute: QAI international Institute, gives excellent assurance services and practising throughout 15 countries. QAI is accepted through APMG as an ATO for ITIL® training.
#three AXELOS® ATO The AXELOS® ATO offers premier value lecture room courses in line with modular constitution software that progresses from basis to Practitioner, and on to Intermediate, skilled and Masters stage.
period and charge: need to contact particular person channel companions to find more in regards to the length and charge.
faculty: AXELOS has delivered a Strategic accomplice Scheme for training and examination.
cost Of The certificates: assorted alternative exam wherein a candidate needs to ranking 28/forty (70%) to move the groundwork examination
value Of The Institute: AXELOS’ premiere observe suggestions and certifications, developed over 30 years in partnership with executive, trade and academia clients who use the AXELOS portfolio include a large number of the area’s most identified manufacturers
# 4 APTRON Delhi, recognized among the correct ten ITIL practicing institutes in Delhi, has practising module for learners, intermediates, and specialists. From online classroom to quick-music & one-to-one classroom, ITIL practicing is provided during weekdays and weekends and quickly music.
route period and charge:
· average music is a 45–60 days software with 2 hours are living lecture room session
· Weekend track is for 8 Weekends with 2 hours are living lecture room session
· speedy- tune is a 5days software with 6+ hours live lecture room session
* should contact the institute for payment constitution of distinct programs
college: Trainers are business-consultants possessing more than a decade journey in training.
price Of The Institute: APTRON Delhi has a latest lab outfitted with latest instruments that enables members in having a thorough palms-on journey through are living projects. They additionally deliver participants with real-time tasks together with placement assistance.
# 5 Seedworkshops SEED workshops is an authorized practising organization and authorized examination corporation by using PEOPLECERT® for ITIL® foundation and Intermediate level.
course period and charge:
1 Day / 8 hours of instructor Led classroom training and a fee of Rs 15,000
college: Trainers have rich adventure in Manufacturing & IT/PM.
cost Of The certificates: PEOPLECERT approved Courseware. dissimilar alternative examination in which a candidate should score 26/40 (sixty five%) to flow the foundation exam.
value Of The Institute: SEED is the area’s good IT and knowledgeable skill construction practicing provider, with over 500,000+ experts informed globally.
· relied on by way of the Fortune 500 organizations as their researching issuer
· Over 250+ licensed and experienced trainers behavior training’s for various classes across the globe.
· one hundred% pride and 85percentSsuccess fee for all global Certification.
Tony Gannon, Steve Mann, Nigel Mear
posted by usingBISL ISBN
£24.ninety fiveReviewed by using
Peter Wheatcroft FBCS, CITP, CEng, FIET, FCMIranking
9 out of 10
This ebook is a new departure for BCS because it explains - in extremely good aspect - how questions for the ITIL v3 foundation certificate in provider management are constructed. Written by three ISEB examiners, it covers both the anatomy of the questions that candidates face in the hour long numerous choice exam as well as a finished set of pattern questions. each forms of content material are exciting and informative.
it is a associate ebook to one other BCS title IT provider administration - A e-book for foundation examination Candidates and these collectively cover everything a prospective candidate might wish to learn about examination taxonomy and the way to be successful in the ITIL v3 groundwork examination.
each books work collectively to supply a complete view of service management and how the examination looks to look at various individual figuring out of each the subject matter and the questions being asked. It changed into exciting to see how various forms of questions the examiners use!
the first part is a description of the examination itself and the other ways of presenting questions, whereas the 2nd area lists a huge number of apply questions protecting the topics of all 5 publications in the ITIL v3 set as smartly because the features, techniques and know-how involved in carrier administration. mannequin solutions are given to all the practice questions, with explanations for both proper and flawed answers. here is priceless as such feedback isn't attainable within the actual examination.
The book is correct for revision or for self examine (might be even as an alternative to a training path within the event that one cannot be sourced almost about the candidate) however it does emphasis that it's neither a brief direction nor a mini-book to provider management. this is a moderate injustice because it is awfully authoritative.
a substantial physique of potential about ITIL is contained in one slim volume and it is an ITIL licensed product. This latter factor can be a disadvantage when the exam fabric adjustments, but it is absolutely current and for this reason represents the latest v3 syllabus and is a brilliant revision e-book that complements any accredited ITIL v3 groundwork working towards direction.
at the side of the ebook it rates 10/10, however even on my own, it with no trouble warrants full marks as a result of its scope.
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Home is the most dangerous place for a woman, according to a United Nations study that found the number killed by a partner or relative is rising globally.
About 50,000 women were killed worldwide last year by a current or former partner or a family member — equating to 137 per day or six per hour — found the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
“While the vast majority of homicide victims are men, women continue to pay the highest price as a result of gender inequality, discrimination and negative stereotypes,” said UNODC executive director Yury Fedotov in a statement.
Despite recent high-profile campaigns such as #MeToo, in which women publicly called out sexual harassment, they are still far more likely than men to be murdered by their partner or family.
The total number of such murders rose slightly between 2012 and 2017 — and the proportion of female homicide victims killed by partners or family rose from less than half in 2012 to nearly six in ten last year, said the report.
Many were murdered by abusive partners, while others were victims in so-called honour killings or disputes over dowries, it added.
Murders by partners or family are often not one-off attacks, but the culmination of previous domestic abuse, said the report.
“These shocking findings demonstrate the devastating consequences of gender inequality that perpetuates violence against women,” Sarah Masters, a director at the rights group Womankind Worldwide, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
The UNODC report called for more action to combat gender-based violence including greater coordination between police, doctors and social services along with work to ensure specialised support services were available for women at risk.
Men should also be involved in programmes to combat damaging gender norms from early childhood education onwards, it added.
Pretoria — As from next year, learners in Grades 1 to 3 will be required to take four subjects to help them cope better with the work load expected of them in the higher grades.
"The curriculum review process in 2009 alerted us to the fact that there is far too big a leap between the Foundation Phase (Grades 1-3) and the Intermediate Phase (Grades 4-6). Learners jump from three subjects to eight. This may account for the drop in results that we see as children move up the grades," said Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga.
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If you joined Facebook at any time over the past decade, Alex Schultz probably had something to do with it. The 36-year-old from south London, a Cambridge physics graduate and self-taught specialist in online marketing, moved to Silicon Valley in 2004. After three years at eBay, he was appointed to Facebook’s newly formed “growth team” in 2007.
Schultz’s mission — along with seven others — was to pioneer innovative techniques to lure in new users and keep them coming back for more. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s founder and chief executive, would later describe the growth team as the platform’s “most important product feature”. Their quasi-religious verve for using data to grow at virtually any cost was so successful that companies across the industry — and around the world — have copied their tactics.
When Schultz celebrated his 10th anniversary at the company, Zuckerberg posted a message on his Facebook page. “Alex is one of a small handful of people that I can say without his work, our community would not have connected more than 2 billion people around the world.” Now Zuckerberg has trusted Schultz with something even more important: helping to fix Facebook.
The company calls this work “integrity”. Others might call it the world’s biggest clean-up. When I meet Schultz in a conference room at Facebook’s campus in Menlo Park, California, his manner is cheerful and confident, even when I ask about the sustained and growing public criticism of the company.
“We absolutely missed things and have said that we missed things and we are changing,” he admits. But he denies that the company used data and behavioural science to addict its users. “Creating a valuable and useful experience has always been the main focus — we have never focused on or designed anything for ‘addiction’.”Cambridge physics graduate Alex Schultz and Naomi Gleit — who wrote a thesis on Facebook while at Stanford — were both members of the Facebook 'growth team', set up in 2007 to pioneer innovative techniques to lure in new users
As politicians and regulators discuss imposing new rules on social networks, Schultz — perhaps predictably — says Facebook has the tools to fix its own problems. In fact, he sees the platform’s vast size and expertise in data as key to the solution. “Having an international company that has the resources that we have, being able to apply the machine-learning tactics that we get in all of the data around the world — and then apply it to a new language, when it comes up, or a new problem area, when it comes up, is really, really powerful,” he says.
But critics worry that Schultz and his growth team are the last people who should be in charge of solving the social network’s problems. As one former Facebook executive told the FT: “It is perfectly reasonable to ask the question: isn’t that putting the foxes in the hen house?”
To understand the role of the growth team and its new mandate, the Financial Times interviewed over a dozen current and former Facebook employees. Many would only speak anonymously, for fear of the impact on their careers. They describe the growth team as a dominant force within the company that was aggressively focused on engagement, speed and seeing off rivals from the start, and say this culture helped shape Facebook into a platform that was ripe for manipulation.
In Facebook’s early days, Zuckerberg is widely reported to have ended meetings by shouting: ‘domination!’
“The priority at Facebook for the last decade has been growth. Period. End of story,” says David Kirkpatrick, who was granted rare levels of access to the company for his 2010 book The Facebook Effect. “The pursuit of growth has blinded Mark and his team to some of the risks of too rapid expansion, which are so obvious to many of us on the outside now.”
Even people who praise the team’s work worry that its intense focus on metrics may have caused it to miss looming problems. Not long after Schultz joined, the group worked with Danny Ferrante, one of Facebook’s first data scientists, to develop a practice called “growth accounting”.
Instead of just trying to lure new users to join the platform, they became obsessed with “monthly active users” — how often people returned to the site and how long they spent there. This so-called “North Star” metric of engagement guided the company for more than a decade.
In a lecture Schultz gave to start-up founders in 2014, he explained: “What you really need to think about, is what is the North Star of your company: what is that one metric, where . . . everyone in your company is thinking about it and driving their product towards that metric and their actions towards moving that metric up? . . . Monthly active people . . . was the number [Zuckerberg] made the whole world hold Facebook to.”According to one former Facebook employee, it was hard to challenge the prestigious growth team: 'It was like "Game of Thrones". The growth team was certainly put on a pedestal… they were jockeying to show how close they were with Mark.' © Delcan and Company
Mike Hoefflinger, former head of global business marketing at Facebook, says: “A North Star metric also means by definition that there is something else you are paying less attention to. Sometimes it’s hard to realise how important those things are.”
How today’s growth team responds to Facebook’s challenges could shape lives, elections and conflicts around the world. Schultz is not an expert in preventing privacy violations such as the massive Cambridge Analytica data breach, stopping the spread of Russian disinformation aimed at warping US elections, or quelling the online hate speech that has incited real-world violence and even genocide in Myanmar. But he is an expert in measuring. “We do look at data hard, we can measure how many pieces of content we are taking down, we can measure false positives, how many times we make mistakes, we can measure the prevalence and measure things the right way and report on them publicly,” he says.
Ultimately, he still has faith in one key number: the Facebook userbase. I meet Schultz the day after Facebook announced its most recent user numbers: the platform continues to expand, with daily active users up 9 per cent year-on-year. After stagnation and a slight dip in some western markets last year, they are growing again. Schultz sees this as a sign that Facebook’s fixes are working. “I’m so proud of doing this for the last two years,” he tells me. “It’s been really hard but in the long term I really believe that if you trick users, give users bad experiences, they won’t stick around. And I believe the numbers show that they are sticking around and we are doing the right things.”
Others might argue that it’s exactly this logic — which rests on the belief that users always act in their own self-interest, and manage their social media use entirely rationally — that got Facebook into trouble in the first place.
In Facebook’s early days, Zuckerberg is widely reported to have ended meetings by shouting “domination!”. But by 2007, he was worried that at just three years old, the platform’s growth was already slowing. Schultz admits now that it seems “ridiculous” how scared the company was that Facebook would stall in 2007. “No social service had ever got to 100 million [users]. We were smaller than MySpace, Bebo, HighFive,” he laughs.
Zuckerberg, then just 23, responded with an innovation that spawned many others. He created the growth team to use data analysis to fuel engagement. At other companies, growth was the job of marketing and PR departments. Zuckerberg prioritised data and engineering above all else. He charged the standalone team with developing a deep understanding of user behaviour to re-engineer the site. They had a simple aim: more users and more of their time.
Zuckerberg put Chamath Palihapitiya, a brash executive who joined from AOL, in charge of the growth team. At company-wide meetings, Palihapitiya would stand on a table and yell at employees about the competition, according to former Facebookers. “They were four-letter-filled invectives about how we were soft and the whole company wasn’t committed to growth and everybody had to triple their efforts,” one former Facebooker told the FT. The fear was that competition from companies such as MySpace and Google would “crush little baby Facebook in its crib”, the former employee says. Palihapitiya, who left in 2011 to launch a venture capital fund called Social Capital, did not respond to the FT’s request for comment.
In 2009, Zuckerberg told Business Insider’s Henry Blodget that “move fast” was a “core value” at Facebook. “We used to write this down by saying, ‘Move fast and break things.’ And the idea was, unless you are breaking some stuff you are not moving fast enough,” he explained, adding that in practical terms this meant “everything from . . . nightly code pushes [to] hiring the best people who have a bias towards just pushing things very quickly.”
Schultz and two other key executives from the growth team — Javier Olivan and Naomi Gleit — are both still at Facebook and remain firmly in Zuckerberg’s inner circle. Gleit, Facebook’s second-longest tenured employee, was hired by Facebook in 2005 after she became so fascinated with the site that she made it the subject of her senior thesis at Stanford. She has said that when she joined as employee number 29, she had an “almost spiritual belief” that Zuckerberg was going to become an important person in the world, and in 2009 she told Newsweek: “My job isn’t done until literally everyone in the world is on the site.”Mark Zuckerberg (right) and Javier Olivan at a Telmex Foundation event in Mexico City in 2014. A senior member of the growth team, Olivan had attracted Zuckerberg’s attention when he created a Spanish version of the social network in his spare time
The most senior team member was Olivan — now a vice-president of central services who reports directly to Zuckerberg. A Spanish MBA graduate, Olivan attracted Zuckerberg’s attention when he created a Spanish version of the social network in his spare time. He joined in 2007 and turbocharged international growth by crowdsourcing translation of the site, saving Facebook the time and expense of employing professional translators across hundreds of countries. Users could suddenly access the social network in their native language, opening it up to people who did not speak English.
The growth team quickly saw success: within months, Facebook had overtaken MySpace. By carefully tracking users’ interaction with the platform and using that to inform the design of the product, they were able to drive the “monthly active users” metric ever higher. As Zuckerberg told an audience of entrepreneurs in 2016: “We learned a huge amount about our users and their patterns on the site and what helps them stay connected and engaged.”
The growth team’s key decisions fuelled incredible growth — but they also made Facebook into a vast social experiment that neither the team, nor the world, was prepared for. In those early years, there was little discussion about the wider impact of social media, or whether it was a good idea to nudge millions of users across the world to spend more and more of their time on the platform.
Tristan Harris is a computer scientist and former Google employee who co-founded the Center for Humane Technology to push back against Silicon Valley’s addictive design theories. He says the industry’s relentless pursuit of user time and attention — as exemplified by Facebook’s “active user” metric — led to products that exploited people’s weaknesses. “Growth hacking is about doing something unnatural to human social and psychological instincts,” he says.
Techniques employed by the growth team — often experimentally at first — had long-term knock-on effects; tapping into people’s addictive tendencies, reducing privacy or incentivising the spread of fake news. One of the first challenges the team tackled, in 2008, provides an example. Facebook’s data on user retention showed that if new users could not find their friends fairly quickly once they’d registered, they would leave, and rarely return. So Facebook needed to rush them to what Schultz and others have called the “magic moment” where a user has at least 10 friends.
To do this, they created the feature People You May Know. New users were told “Facebook is better with friends” as they were pushed to allow the platform to access their contacts — then from email address books; now from smartphones. This simple tool transformed the company’s prospects, says one former Facebooker. “It was supremely important,” he says.
But the feature — now common across many apps — warped people’s social networks. Facebook acted like a “digital drug lord”, Harris says, prodding people to invite their entire address book — not because users necessarily wanted to spend time with these people, but because Facebook wanted new potential users.
The feature violated privacy, encouraging users to expose their friends’ contact details without their permission, even if they were not on Facebook. People often did not understand that if their phone number was in anyone’s contact book, that person could then allow Facebook to see they were connected and access their contact details. Even insiders realised this was dubious: in a controversial internal memo that leaked after the Cambridge Analytica revelations, Zuckerberg’s close lieutenant Andrew Bosworth described it as “questionable contact-importing practices”.
To some users, the feature proved extremely invasive. In 2017, Gizmodo journalist Kashmir Hill discovered that one man had his secret biological daughter recommended to him — because he still knew the couple he donated sperm to, but was not friends with them on Facebook. Psychologists’ patients were recommended to each other, because all their contact details were in the same address book.
People You May Know was an incredibly successful product, so the principles it used spread around the company. Photo-tagging encouraged people to keep returning to the site whenever they were tagged and created a deep well of data. Users were able to tag photos of users they weren’t yet Facebook friends with, or who weren’t even on the network — another recruitment tool, as these contacts would have to join the platform to see the photos.
When Facebook began allowing developers such as games companies to run apps on the social network, the company worked on the same premise. People could expose their friends’ data, usually without realising it. This stored up trouble that led to the massive data leak to Cambridge Analytica. The academic Aleksandr Kogan collected vast troves of information and gave it to the data analytics firm that worked for the Trump campaign. Only 250,000 people took his survey in 2014 but, by capturing the information on their friends, he managed to harvest the data of up to 87 million users.
“There was absolutely a conflict with privacy,” says a former Facebook executive.
Early in 2009, the company rolled out a masterstroke: the “like” button, which kept people coming back for the possible dopamine hit of finding out if their update or photograph had been “liked” by others. As Tristan Harris has written, this kind of design turns our smartphones into “slot machines” offering an addictive range of variable rewards; we endlessly check our notifications or press refresh in the hope of some kind of hit. A range of other design decisions encouraged users to stay on the site for longer: the “bottomless bowl” of infinite scrolling and, in 2013, videos that autoplay.
Internally, Facebook employees were not very concerned that their tactics could addict users. After all, people still spent far more time in front of the TV (and many still do). “We knew that addictive behaviour would happen on the margins. We didn’t observe it at the core of the product or as something unique to Facebook — at least in comparison to general internet addiction,” says one early Facebooker.
When Facebook saw competitors on the horizon, it would metamorphose to avoid losing users to new rivals. After Twitter gained ground in 2012 and 2013, Facebook quickly pushed the sharing of news on its own platform, encouraged more public conversations and adopted hashtags. Kirkpatrick says the company rapidly expanded its definition of what Facebook was meant to be — turning every user into a miniature broadcaster. “In retrospect, many of those changes led to things that went haywire later, political difficulty in particular,” he says.In September 2006, Facebook introduced News Feed. ‘It updates a personalized list of news stories throughout the day, so you’ll know when Mark adds Britney Spears to his Favorites,’ the company said. Some users were unimpressed: a 700,000- member group Students against Facebook News Feed was set up © Bloomberg In July 2011, Mark Zuckerberg announced new features for the platform, including video chat and a group chat © Getty In 2015, Facebook moved to Menlo Park, California, where inspirational signs created by the company’s own print shop adorn the walls © Getty
Facebook users rapidly became dependent on the site for news: two-thirds of US users today say they get news from social media. Twitter also has problems policing fake news and bots, but on Facebook, disinformation can be particularly hard to spot, as people tend to connect primarily with friends and family. Within these filter bubbles, clickbait, fake news and disinformation can spread rapidly and quietly with no one to fact-check them (this problem is even more extreme on WhatsApp, which Facebook acquired in 2014).
Zuckerberg seems to have had an overly optimistic view of human behaviour that prevented him from foreseeing some of the negative consequences of “just pushing things very quickly”. In an interview with Time in 2010, when he was named Person of the Year, he said: “I really do think there is this concept where the best stuff spreads.” In fact, studies using Facebook data have shown since then that the “best stuff” is not what spreads quickest. In the run-up to the 2016 US presidential election, more people engaged with the top fake news stories than with real news stories. Stories that inspire outrage or fear are among the most likely to be clicked, commented on and reshared, and their high levels of engagement mean they will then be prioritised by Facebook’s algorithm-driven news feed.
Schultz argues that the team would have done things very differently if it was solely focused on “short-term tactical wins”. He praises the team for asking users’ permission to access more of their data, even when they were not required to by the operating system. “People will only return and continue using Facebook if it’s useful and valuable, and if they feel safe, are not harassed, their information is secure, and if we are fighting abuse,” he says. “That is what guides this team’s work.”
But another former Facebook employee told the FT that he doesn’t believe Facebook executives when they argue that the company will not stand for bad players and clickbait. “I say, ‘Yes, it is what you stand for because all your metrics are geared to more time on the platform’,” he says.
Facebook sells itself to advertisers as a fantastic medium for influencing people’s choices — and along with Google, it now dominates the digital advertising market.
Judy Estrin, an internet pioneer and serial entrepreneur, says disinformation comes more from an “intended use” than a “negative consequence” of the platform. “The platform taps into people’s emotional reactions to manipulate them: that is essentially what advertising is about — messaging and persuasion — and this is at a new level of scale. Disinformation is using the same tools with malicious intent,” she says.
When Facebook reached a billion users in the autumn of 2012, Schultz and Olivan celebrated by spraying each other with champagne. Every office was filled with balloons and the company released a video comparing the social network to a chair, a doorbell and an aeroplane. Facebook, in case it wasn’t clear, connected people — and had become part of the furniture.
“It was a party, a big f***ing deal,” says one former Facebook executive. “No one in the world had done that at that pace.” It had taken Microsoft almost 26 years to reach a billion Windows users and 12 years for Google Search to do the same.
Naomi Gleit, Facebook’s second-longest tenured employee, told an interviewer: ‘My job isn’t done until literally everyone in the world is on the site’
Facebook was now a public company, after a wobbly initial public offering in May 2012. Growth became even more important as investors panicked in those first months, worried that users were moving to mobile phones but advertisers would not follow. Monthly active users, then daily active users, became closely watched numbers on Wall Street — and the growth team became accountable to distant shareholders, as well as Zuckerberg.
The people who did spot problems were often ignored. Many of the former Facebook employees who spoke to the FT described a culture where it was hard to challenge the prestigious growth team. “It was like Game of Thrones,” says one. “The growth team was certainly put up on a pedestal . . . They were jockeying to show how close they are with Mark, who gave the most recent presentation or understands the way he thinks.”
Another former employee says they had voiced privacy concerns about products — but often lost the argument. The growth team’s attitude was “active animosity”. “It was ‘You all ought to be driven out of the company, you are a danger to the company, you are not team players’,” he told the FT. “Facebook empowered the wrong people and disempowered people. When push came to shove, oftentimes growth won.”
One such conflict became public when the UK parliament published internal Facebook emails obtained as part of a lawsuit, late last year. In a February 2015 email, Michael LeBeau, a Facebook product manager, wrote that the growth team was planning to ask Facebook users with Android phones for access to their call logs, to determine who were their closest friends. LeBeau comments: “This is a pretty high risk thing to do from a PR perspective, but it appears that the growth team will charge ahead and do it.” Facebook made the change.
Outside the company, the chorus of critics began to get louder from 2011 onwards. Privacy activists such as the Austrian Max Schrems pushed regulators to examine how the company handled data. In the US, the Anti-Defamation League called on Facebook to remove hate speech from the platform. Academics such as Sherry Turkle wrote about how social media addiction was warping relationships.
Facebook’s policy team often met critics such as privacy activists but many feared it wasn’t with open ears. Eli Pariser, who coined the term “filter bubble” and worried about its implications for society, told the FT that he felt Facebook had a “level of overconfidence” in how good it was for the world. The focus on a few metrics made it hard for Facebook to see all the “wildly different” media experiences it was creating for people, he says.
David Madden, a tech entrepreneur living in Myanmar, told PBS last year that he warned Facebook about hate speech on the site targeting the country’s Muslim minority in 2015. In a presentation at Facebook’s headquarters, Madden told employees that the platform risked playing a key role in a genocide, like radio broadcasts had in Rwanda. The company’s response was to say they needed to do something substantive — but he felt Facebook failed to take action. The company said it did address individual pieces of content and issues, but admits it was not proactive enough.
As Russia began piloting its new disinformation tactics in Ukraine in 2015, creating a model it would later deploy in the US, the Ukrainian government also warned Facebook about the problem. Facebook denies discussing fake news with Ukrainian officials. But Dmytro Shymkiv, deputy head of Ukraine’s presidential administration, told the FT in 2017 that Facebook’s response was, “‘We are an open platform, we allow everybody the possibility to communicate.’ That’s all I got”.
Schultz pushes back against accusations that the growth team didn’t listen. He says it worked closely with others in the company, including employees in the privacy, policy and legal departments. He questions the motives of the former Facebookers who felt sidelined. “I think it is very interesting to look at the motivations of a lot of the people who have left Facebook and why they decide to say some of these things,” he says. He admits that there are “tonnes of things” you can’t understand with data alone, and says he doesn’t push as hard in those arguments. But he adds: “I think a lot of people I’ve met with have lost discussions because they are doing stuff based on gut feel that can be addressed with data.”
Zuckerberg initially dismissed accusations that fake news on Facebook could have influenced users’ votes in the 2016 US presidential election, calling them “pretty crazy”. But following the revelation that the Kremlin-backed Internet Research Agency had spread divisive disinformation on the platform, he apologised. Facebook admitted in October 2017 that as many as 10 million people in the US saw Russian ads, with 44 per cent of views before the election. Zuckerberg asked his loyal lieutenants on the growth team to re-engineer the site to discourage and detect fake accounts, fake news and hate speech.
Since then, Facebook has partnered with fact-checkers to downrank stories they identify as false and cut off financially motivated fake sites from its ad network. It has taken down millions of fake accounts and campaigns originating in Russia and Iran, and now requires authentication to prevent foreign actors placing ads. It has created a searchable database of political ads.
After the US presidential election, Zuckerberg’s first reaction was to dismiss accusations that fake news could have influenced users’ votes
The company now has 30,000 people working on safety and security, about half of whom are moderators to take down content. It has published community standards, created an appeals system to try to be more fair about what stays up and what doesn’t and is experimenting with the idea of an independent body to oversee decisions. In Myanmar, it belatedly hired almost 100 Burmese language experts to review content and has sent policy, research and engineering staff there.
In response to growing concerns about the addictive qualities of digital technology, the company has given users the option to “snooze” or “take a break” from some notifications, and provided a “time spent” dashboard to track their hours on site.
On privacy, it has dropped data-sharing partnerships with data brokers and cut off some developers. Earlier this month, Zuckerberg said the company would focus on creating more private platforms, such as WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger. But his plan to further integrate the messaging apps actually enables Facebook to learn more about who is connected to whom — and the push for privacy does not extend to stopping advertisers using data to target users.
Many former Facebook employees agree with Schultz that the growth team is the right home for integrity, although not all for the same reason. Some believe it may work because its leaders are among the few who might be able to say no to Zuckerberg.
Hoefflinger believes the team’s single-minded focus could be powerful when applied to integrity. “In an interesting way, [the growth team] may be the very best people in the world to really focus on integrity,” says Hoefflinger. “They are not going to use contact importers to improve integrity. What they will borrow is this dedication to a goal.”
The growth team, however, is unlikely to transform how Facebook fundamentally works. It won’t change the advertising business, which depends on garnering more of people’s attention than its rivals, and using data to target them. It is not dramatically changing the algorithms behind the newsfeed to prioritise in-depth thinking, abandoning the “like” button, or ceasing from sending notifications that pull people back. People You May Know still dredges users’ address books, Facebook still collects information about you as you travel around the web, and its methods to obtain European users’ consent under the new privacy rules are being challenged by privacy activists.
Meanwhile, the challenges confronting Facebook are morphing and expanding. The Christchurch terror attack was livestreamed on the platform by the attacker; in the 24 hours that followed, 1.5 million videos of the attack were uploaded to Facebook. More than 1.2 million of those were blocked at upload, yet that left 300,000 which could be seen before they were deleted. New technologies such as “deep fakes”, videos where people are manipulated to appear to say things they did not, could make this Whac-A-Mole function even harder.
A recent study by social media engagement tracking firm Newswhip showed that the algorithm change in 2018 aimed at driving “more meaningful social interactions” actually ended up increasing the prominence of articles on divisive topics such as abortion and gun laws in the US.
Facebook’s problems are deeply embedded in the platform and culture that was created by Zuckerberg and his colleagues in the first few years. Some critics such as early Facebook investor Roger McNamee and Tim Wu, a professor at Columbia law school, have argued that the only thing to do is to break the company up.
Siva Vaidhyanathan, author of Anti-Social Media, is one such critic. But he believes even a break-up would not solve all the problems that the platform amplifies. “Thinking about the problem of Facebook is much like thinking about the problem of climate change. In many ways, it is too big to wrap our minds around,” he says.
Facebook and governments are responding to the social network’s problems one by one, rather than addressing underlying causes. Tristan Harris believes the company has created a “digital Frankenstein”. “By definition, they cannot control it,” he says. “I think they don’t want to admit that.”
Hannah Kuchler covered Facebook for over five years as an FT technology correspondent based in San Francisco. She recently began a new role as FT US pharma and biotech correspondent, reporting on how technology is changing healthcare
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