I am very happy with A2040-407 study guide.

A2040-407 dump | A2040-407 dumps questions | A2040-407 english test questions | A2040-407 questions and answers | A2040-407 practice test - partillerocken.com



A2040-407 - Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : A2040-407
Exam Name : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B
Questions and Answers : 118 Q & A
Updated On : December 18, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : Pass4sure A2040-407 Dump
Get Full Version : Pass4sure A2040-407 Full Version


Is there a manner to pass A2040-407 examination at the start strive?

I will endorse you to come back back right right here to put off all fears associated with A2040-407 certification due to the fact this is a greatplatform to offer you with assured goods to your arrangements. I used to be concerned for A2040-407 examination but all thanks to partillerocken who provided me with exceptional products for my practise. I was absolutely involved aboutmy fulfillment however it become handiest A2040-407 examination engine that multiplied my fulfillment self notion and now i am feeling pride on this unconditional help. Hats off to you and your improbable offerings for all students and professionals!

Right place to find A2040-407 actual test questions paper.

I exceeded the A2040-407 examination. It changed into the primary time I used partillerocken for my training, so I didnt recognise what to anticipate. So, I got a nice wonder as partillerocken has shocked me and absolutely exceeded my expectancies. The checking out engine/exercise exams work top notch, and the questions are valid. by valid I mean that theyre real exam questions, and that i got many of them on my real examination. Very dependable, and i was left with extremely good impressions. i might now not hesitate to advocate partillerocken to my colleagues.

up to date and reliable brain dumps of A2040-407 are to be had here.

I am penning this due to the fact I want yo say thanks to you. I even have effectively cleared A2040-407 examination with 96%. The take a look at bank series made by means of your team is extraordinary. It now not best offers a actual experience of an online examination but every offers each question with detailed explananation in a easy language which is easy to understand. I am extra than satisfied that I made the right preference by using shopping for your test series.

Take these A2040-407 questions and solutions earlier than you visit vacations for check prep.

There were many approaches for me to reach to my target vacation spot of high score inside the A2040-407 but i was no longerhaving the first-class in that. So, I did the quality aspect to me by means of taking place on-line A2040-407 study assist of the partillerocken mistakenly and determined that this mistake turned into a sweet one to be remembered for an extendedtime. I had scored well in my A2040-407 observe software program and thats all due to the partillerocken exercise test which became to be had on line.

Surprised to see A2040-407 real exam questions!

I desired to drop you a line to thank you for your look at materials. That is the primary time ive used your cram. I simply took the A2040-407 in recent times and surpassed with an 80 percent rating. I need to admit that i used to be skeptical before everything butme passing my certification examination sincerely proves it. Thanks a lot! Thomas from Calgary, Canada

Take benefit of A2040-407 dumps, Use these questions to ensure your achievement.

Commenced out getting prepared for the hard A2040-407 exam using the heavy and voluminous observe books. However failed tocrack the hard topics and got panicked. I was about to drop the examination whilst any individual said me the dumpwith the resource of partillerocken. It was honestly clean to take a look at and the truth that I may additionally want to memorize all in a brief time, eliminated all my apprehensions. Need to crack sixty seven questions in simplest 76 mins and got a huge 80 five marks. Felt indebted to partillerocken for making my day.

Found an accurate source for real A2040-407 latest dumps of question bank.

My pals informed me I could assume partillerocken for A2040-407 exam coaching, and this time I did. The brain dumps are very convenient to use, i really like how theyre installation. The question order helps you memorize things higher. I passedwith 89% marks.

found maximum A2040-407 Questions in dumps that I prepared.

I need to admit, deciding on partillerocken was the subsequent wise selection I took after choosing the A2040-407 exam. The patterns and questions are so nicely spread which permits person raise their bar by the time they reach the ultimate simulation examination. admire the efforts and honest thank you for supporting skip the examination. keep up the best paintings. thank you partillerocken.

got no issue! 24 hours prep of A2040-407 actual take a look at questions is sufficient.

Every time I want to pass my certification take a look at to keep my project, I right away go to partillerocken and are seeking the desired certification take a look at, purchase and prepare the test. It surely is really worth admiring due to the fact, I constantly pass the take a look at with precise rankings.

surprised to peer A2040-407 ultra-modern dumps!

I used this bundle for my A2040-407 exam, too and passed it with top score. I relied on partillerocken, and it was the right decision to make. They give you real A2040-407 exam questions and answers just the way you will see them on the exam. Accurate A2040-407 dumps are not available anywhere. Dont rely on free dumps. The dumps they provided are updated all the time, so I had the latest information and was able to pass easily. Very good exam preparation

See more IBM dumps

M2010-727 | C4040-221 | 000-137 | A2050-724 | 000-852 | 00M-650 | C2010-501 | C2020-701 | 000-M39 | 00M-640 | C2010-023 | 000-M11 | 000-723 | P2090-011 | A2010-023 | 000-002 | 00M-502 | 000-324 | 000-332 | 000-536 | M2110-670 | M2090-615 | 000-419 | 000-701 | 000-741 | M2150-753 | P2090-046 | C9060-511 | C2090-305 | C2020-622 | C2140-820 | 000-961 | 000-M45 | 000-M46 | M2060-730 | 000-M246 | 000-M227 | 000-385 | 00M-155 | 000-601 | C9560-574 | C2010-576 | 000-M44 | C2050-725 | 000-349 | 000-605 | 000-M223 | 000-N16 | A2090-610 | 000-546 |

Latest Exams added on partillerocken

1Z0-628 | 1Z0-934 | 1Z0-974 | 1Z0-986 | 202-450 | 500-325 | 70-537 | 70-703 | 98-383 | 9A0-411 | AZ-100 | C2010-530 | C2210-422 | C5050-380 | C9550-413 | C9560-517 | CV0-002 | DES-1721 | MB2-719 | PT0-001 | CPA-REG | CPA-AUD | AACN-CMC | AAMA-CMA | ABEM-EMC | ACF-CCP | ACNP | ACSM-GEI | AEMT | AHIMA-CCS | ANCC-CVNC | ANCC-MSN | ANP-BC | APMLE | AXELOS-MSP | BCNS-CNS | BMAT | CCI | CCN | CCP | CDCA-ADEX | CDM | CFSW | CGRN | CNSC | COMLEX-USA | CPCE | CPM | CRNE | CVPM | DAT | DHORT | CBCP | DSST-HRM | DTR | ESPA-EST | FNS | FSMC | GPTS | IBCLC | IFSEA-CFM | LCAC | LCDC | MHAP | MSNCB | NAPLEX | NBCC-NCC | NBDE-I | NBDE-II | NCCT-ICS | NCCT-TSC | NCEES-FE | NCEES-PE | NCIDQ-CID | NCMA-CMA | NCPT | NE-BC | NNAAP-NA | NRA-FPM | NREMT-NRP | NREMT-PTE | NSCA-CPT | OCS | PACE | PANRE | PCCE | PCCN | PET | RDN | TEAS-N | VACC | WHNP | WPT-R | 156-215-80 | 1D0-621 | 1Y0-402 | 1Z0-545 | 1Z0-581 | 1Z0-853 | 250-430 | 2V0-761 | 700-551 | 700-901 | 7765X | A2040-910 | A2040-921 | C2010-825 | C2070-582 | C5050-384 | CDCS-001 | CFR-210 | NBSTSA-CST | E20-575 | HCE-5420 | HP2-H62 | HPE6-A42 | HQT-4210 | IAHCSMM-CRCST | LEED-GA | MB2-877 | MBLEX | NCIDQ | VCS-316 | 156-915-80 | 1Z0-414 | 1Z0-439 | 1Z0-447 | 1Z0-968 | 300-100 | 3V0-624 | 500-301 | 500-551 | 70-745 | 70-779 | 700-020 | 700-265 | 810-440 | 98-381 | 98-382 | 9A0-410 | CAS-003 | E20-585 | HCE-5710 | HPE2-K42 | HPE2-K43 | HPE2-K44 | HPE2-T34 | MB6-896 | VCS-256 | 1V0-701 | 1Z0-932 | 201-450 | 2VB-602 | 500-651 | 500-701 | 70-705 | 7391X | 7491X | BCB-Analyst | C2090-320 | C2150-609 | IIAP-CAP | CAT-340 | CCC | CPAT | CPFA | APA-CPP | CPT | CSWIP | Firefighter | FTCE | HPE0-J78 | HPE0-S52 | HPE2-E55 | HPE2-E69 | ITEC-Massage | JN0-210 | MB6-897 | N10-007 | PCNSE | VCS-274 | VCS-275 | VCS-413 |

See more dumps on partillerocken

352-001 | 9A0-392 | NSE5 | HP0-S19 | C2180-374 | 922-101 | 646-365 | C2020-625 | 9A0-055 | 190-836 | 000-614 | 000-442 | M8060-730 | HP0-381 | ACCP | A00-260 | CQIA | 000-910 | HP0-Y20 | AP0-001 | C9520-911 | 70-412 | 1D0-532 | LOT-924 | BI0-210 | HP2-T29 | 920-344 | COG-615 | 9L0-003 | 250-316 | N10-007 | C2040-917 | C9060-518 | 050-710 | C4040-129 | 000-636 | 000-205 | 000-863 | ST0-91X | C9560-652 | 000-060 | 000-886 | 000-220 | 000-M198 | HP0-773 | HP0-780 | 650-322 | 156-915-1 | 9A0-901 | C2010-568 |

A2040-407 Questions and Answers

Pass4sure A2040-407 dumps | Killexams.com A2040-407 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

A2040-407 Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com A2040-407 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



A2040-407 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B

Test Code : A2040-407
Test Name : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 118 Real Questions

just attempted as quickly as and i'm happy.
After attempting several books, i was pretty dissatisfied not getting the proper substances. i was searching out a guideline for exam A2040-407 with easy language and nicely-organized content. killexams.com Q&A fulfilled my need, because itdefined the complicated subjects within the simplest way. in the real examination I got 89%, which become past my expectation. thanks killexams.com, on your top notch manual-line!


exceptional to pay attention that actual test questions modern A2040-407 exam are furnished right here.
thanks to killexams.com team who presents very treasured practice query bank with reasons. i have cleared A2040-407 examination with 73.5% rating. Thank U very tons on your offerings. i have subcribed to diverse question banks of killexams.com like A2040-407. The question banks have been very helpful for me to clear these exams. Your mock tests helped a lot in clearing my A2040-407 examination with seventy three.5%. To the point, specific and properly explained answers. keepup the best work.


Great source of great A2040-407 brain dumps, accurate answers.
I retained the equal quantity of as I may also want to. A score of 89% changed right into a respectable come approximately for my 7-day planning. My making plans of the exam A2040-407 changed into sad, as the problems were excessively excessive for me to get it. For immediate reference I emulated the killexams.Com dumps aide and it gave exceptional backing. The fast-length solutions have been decently clarified in simple dialect. An awful lot preferred.


preparing A2040-407 exam is rely of some hours now.
hi, I had join for A2040-407. even though I had read all chapters intensive, however your question bank supplied sufficientpractise. I cleared this examination with 99 % the day past, thanks a lot for to the point query bank. Even my doubts have been clarified in minimum time. I want to apply your carrier in future as well. You men are doing a extremely goodactivity. thank you and Regards.


precisely equal questions in actual test, WTF!
This is the nice A2040-407 useful resource on net. Killexams.Com is one I consider. What they gave to me is greater treasured than money, they gave me training. I changed into analyzing for my A2040-407 test once I made an account on here and what I got in return labored merely like magic for me and I was very amazed at how tremendous it felt. My A2040-407 check appeared like a unmarried exceeded thing to me and I achieved success.


It is great to have A2040-407 Latest dumps.
The short answers made my preparation more convenient. I completed 75 questions out off 80 well under the stipulated time and managed 80%. My aspiration to be a Certified take the exam A2040-407. I got the killexams.com Q&A guide just 2 weeks before the exam. Thanks.


simply use these actual question bank and fulfillment is yours.
I used this dump to skip the A2040-407 examination in Romania and were given 98%, so this is a very good way to put togetherfor the exam. All questions I were given on the examination were exactly what killexams.com had furnished on this mindsell off, which is extraordinary I notably recommend this to anyone in case you are going to take A2040-407 examination.


actual Q & A brand new A2040-407 examination are awesome!
I passed. proper, the exam was hard, so I simply were given beyond it on account of killexams.com Q&A and examination Simulator. i am upbeat to report that I passed the A2040-407 exam and have as of late acquired my declaration. The framework inquiries had been the component i used to be most pressured over, so I invested hours honing on the killexams.com examination simulator. It past any doubt helped, as consolidated with one-of-a-kind segments.


surprised to peer A2040-407 ultra-cutting-edge dumps!
A rating of 86% have become past my preference noting all the inquiries inner due time I have been given round ninety% inquiries almost equivalent to the killexams.Com dumps. My readiness modified into most pretty terrible with the complicatedthemes i used to be hunting down a few stable clean substances for the examination A2040-407. I began perusing the Dumps and killexams.Com repaired my problems.


Is there any manner to clean A2040-407 examination earlier than the whole lot strive?
I got a good result with this bundle. Very good quality, questions are accurate and I got most of them on the exam. After I have passed it, I recommended killexams.com to my colleagues, and everyone passed their exams, too (some of them took Cisco exams, others did Microsoft, VMware, etc). I have not heard a bad review of killexams.com, so this must be the best IT training you can currently find online.


IBM Assessment: IBM Notes and

Cloudy weather ahead for IBM and red Hat? | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

the world is buzzing in regards to the application trade’s biggest acquisition ever. This “video game changing” IBM acquisition of pink Hat for $34 billion eclipses Microsoft’s $26.2 billion of LinkedIn, which set the outdated list. And it’s the third biggest tech acquisition in history in the back of Dell purchasing EMC for $sixty four billion in 2015 and Avago’s buyout of Broadcom for $37 billion the identical yr.

Wall street certainly receives apprehensive when it sees these lofty rate tags. IBM’s inventory became down 4.2 % following the announcement, and there are doubtless greater concerns over a broader IBM selloff round how a great deal IBM is purchasing purple Hat.

This units the stage for large expectations on IBM to leverage this asset as a vital turning factor in its history. for the reason that IBM’s Watson AI poster child has did not create sustainable increase, might this be their foremost probability to appropriate the ship as soon as and for all? Or is this mega merger an advanced clash of cultures and products with a purpose to make it complicated to recognise the total expertise?

big Blue’s been in big concern

When the chips are down, it’s time to go all in. huge Blue actually greatly surprised the know-how world when it introduced it might do its greatest deal ever and buy purple Hat for an immense 11x top class. The reality is that pink Hat changed into no longer always looking to be received, so overpaying was the handiest conceivable choice. And if IBM didn’t pay, Google, Amazon, VMWare and even Alibaba would have.

desperate times call for desperate measures. IBM has been struggling to demonstrate boom in new markets for rather a while. before 2018, it had 22 straight quarters of earnings decline. And it has lost over $28 billion in revenue over the past six years. Its revenue at the conclusion if 2017 become $seventy nine.14 billion, the lowest in twenty years and the more severe annual number seeing that 1997, when IBM revenues were $78.fifty one billion, aside from inflation.

In early 2018, IBM became capable of produce three consecutive quarters of earnings growth, however that was particularly as a result of the introduction of a new line of IBM Z mainframe computer systems.

IBM has been a company in decline for many years. It’s difficult to preserve a enterprise with shrinking sales.

Too historical to grow?

IBM is more than 100 years ancient and definitely suffers from comparisons to more youthful and nimbler groups reminiscent of Amazon, Google, facebook, and Apple which have posted listing increase in fresh instances. Amazon’s recent earnings have surpassed $2 billion, for example.

in case you distinction IBM to Microsoft, one more historic world application business, it’s startling to peer the difference in how Microsoft has been capable of reposition itself as boom business based on the cloud.

In 1990, when Microsoft liberate home windows 3.0, IBM had revenues of $sixty nine billion (only $10 billion shy of what it has today), while Microsoft had around $800 million. Microsoft surpassed IBM in income in 2015 and crossed the $one hundred billion annual income mark in 2018.

over the past several years, as IBM’s salary shrank, Microsoft invested in its “business cloud” enterprise that encompasses Azure, workplace 365, and Dynamics 365, bringing in over $23 billion in new revenues. Microsoft has currently been firing on all cylinders while IBM experienced boom stalls.

slow to get to the cloud

IBM’s success in the hardware company, specifically it’s Z-sequence mainframes, pressured it to protect its turf and distracted it from seeing the longer term influence of cloud. AWS begun offering public cloud capabilities again in 2006. As late as 2011, IBM became barely mentioning the observe “cloud” in its annual experiences or earnings calls. The business at last realized in 2013 that cloud computing changed into the future and made a hail-Mary buy of SoftLayer to bridge the gap, paying $2 billion and then investing an additional $1 billion to integrate the platform.

It’s hard to establish gigantic market share if you’re late to the party. Softlayer’s international market share continues to be a distant fifth in the back of AWS, Microsoft, Google, and even brisker newcomer Alibaba, which handed IBM’s cloud revenues in June of 2018.

IBM made a few other cloud-connected acquisitions, together with Gravitant (a cloud brokerage and management utility), Bluebox (a personal cloud as a service platform in keeping with OpenStack), Sanovi (a hybrid cloud healing and migration utility), Lighthouse and CrossIdeas (both cloud protection structures), and CSL overseas (a cloud virtualization platform).

regardless of these acquisitions within the cloud market, IBM has did not in fact monetize these items and gain market share in the cloud.

The company has failed to capitalize on improvements earlier than: Watson AI become at the excellent of its online game when it debuted on Jeopardy in 2011 to beat human contestants however instantly fell at the back of Amazon, Google, and Microsoft.

Will crimson Hat be the savior?

pink Hat is the world’s greatest provider of open-source business application options. red Hat’s bread and butter Linux enterprise continues to deliver growth specially because it powers many up to date AI and analytics workloads. Its model has advanced from only on-premise to a match subscription business used on public cloud platforms equivalent to Amazon net features (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

crimson Hat has also multiplied into open middleware options reminiscent of OpenStack, a cloud infrastructure platform, and OpenShift, a platform for managing utility containers. OpenShift has long been a well-kept secret as Cloud Native Computing foundation (CNCF) has grabbed lots of the headlines with its Kubernetes container orchestration platform. IBM has a chance to leverage its marketing and world reach to encourage mainframe and legacy valued clientele to undertake OpenShift. These platforms have been incredibly leveraged in inner most and hybrid cloud deployments, specially in industries like telecommunications.

There isn't any doubt that pink Hat offers IBM a lots extra credible cloud story. however the question basically is, is it too late?

The acquisition is actually respectable news for organisations seeking to shift basic container-based purposes and digital machines to the cloud. however, Amazon has already captured a big a part of that market.

whereas the acquisition of pink Hat gives IBM a strong position within the hybrid-cloud market, which should be generic for organizations that don't seem to be taking the time to decommission or re-architect legacy functions, the speedy-growing public cloud market may be the battleground of the future.

Will the mixing get messy?

IBM has had a spotty record when it comes to integrating and capitalizing on big acquisitions.

while the majority of IBM’s M&A has been within the area of software, income within the phase has been disappointing. possibly what's concerning is that adjusting for acquisitions, IBM’s application business continues to say no — commonly because of the indisputable fact that these colossal acquisitions have turn into a part of the IBM fabric and company as average.

Can IBM combine whatever thing as big as pink Hat with out interfering with its core value proposition? Many concern that massive Blue will attempt to “blue wash” their platform of choice.

And there’s the question of whether these two diverse corporate cultures can come collectively – IBM, a slow growth enterprise not making a great deal development in the cloud house, and pink Hat, an ingenious, open supply company that's building foundational components for operating in the cloud.

We’ve viewed lifestyle clashes derail many different excessive profile mergers corresponding to HP/Compaq, HP/Autonomy, Microsoft/Nokia, AOL/Time Warner, dash/Nextel and Alcatel/Lucent. IBM will should embody the open supply group and strategy.

The joint enterprise will face crucial platform choices on the cloud entrance. IBM has a public cloud that competes with AWS and Microsoft. however builders use pink Hat’s Linux on many public clouds. while that multi-cloud strategy will help IBM usher in income across the general public clouds, it is going to create battle with its own Softlayer cloud providing. IBM has struggled to manipulate this category of channel and product conflict effectively in the past.

after which there is the future of IBM’s personal AIX working device vs. Linux — now not to mention the SCO-IBM Unix lawsuit nonetheless lingering in the courts.

additionally to note are the lesser common crimson Hat storage items like crimson Hat Ceph (an object file storage) and crimson Hat Gluster (a NAS product). As red Hat integrates into IBM’s hybrid cloud neighborhood, these storage items will be separated from IBM, which might create confusion and conflict.

So whereas IBM certainly faces a lot of chance with the acquisition, there isn't any guarantee this large guess will pay off. IBM obligatory a daring move. however in the short term, we are not likely to see any surprising move of IBM’s place in the public cloud area. All eyes could be on its capability to catapult into the hybrid cloud market. For that, the business will should make sure it doesn’t get in its personal means.

Frank Palermo is the government vp at Virtusa’s world Digital enterprise, where he is accountable for expertise practices in UX, mobility, social, cloud, analytics, massive facts, and IoT.


evaluating bfloat16 latitude and Precision to different sixteen-bit Numbers | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Deep learning has spurred interest in novel floating element formats. Algorithms regularly do not want as a good deal precision as ordinary IEEE-754 doubles or even single precision floats. reduce precision makes it feasible to dangle greater numbers in reminiscence, reducing the time spent swapping numbers in and out of memory. due to the fact that this the place a lot of time goes, low precision codecs can speed issues up quite a little.

right here I need to study bfloat16, or BF16 for short, and evaluate it to 16-bit number codecs I've written about up to now, IEEE and posit.

Bit design

The BF16 format is kind of a cross between FP16 and FP32, the 16- and 32-bit codecs defined within the IEEE 754-2008 normal, also referred to as half precision and single precision.

The bfloat16 format has 16 bits like FP16, but has the identical variety of exponent bits as FP32. every quantity has 1 sign bit. The leisure of the bits in every of the formats are allocated in the desk beneath.

|--------+------+----------+----------| | structure | Bits | Exponent | Fraction | |--------+------+----------+----------| | FP32 | 32 | eight | 23 | | FP16 | sixteen | 5 | 10 | | BF16 | sixteen | eight | 7 | |--------+------+----------+----------|

BF16 has as many bits as a FP16, however as many exponent bits as a FP32. The latter makes conversion between BF16 and FP32 convenient. Chop off the last 16 bits off a FP32 and you have got a BF16, or pad a BF16 with zeros to make a FP32.

Precision

The epsilon value, the smallest quantity ε such that 1 + ε > 1 in computer representation, is 2 where e is the number of exponent bits. BF16 has a great deal much less precision close 1 than the other formats.

|--------+------------| | layout | Epsilon | |--------+------------| | FP32 | 0.00000012 | | FP16 | 0.00390625 | | BF16 | 0.03125000 | |--------+------------| Dynamic range

The dynamic latitude of bfloat16 is corresponding to that of a IEEE single precision quantity. Relative to FP32, BF16 sacrifices precision to maintain latitude. range is typically decided via the number of exponent bits, even though no longer fully.

Dynamic latitude in decades is the log base 10 of the ratio of the largest to smallest representable tremendous numbers. The dynamic stages of the numeric codecs are given beneath. (Python code to calculate dynamic range is given here.)

|--------+-------| | structure | DR | |--------+-------| | FP32 | 83.38 | | BF16 | 78.57 | | FP16 | 12.04 | |--------+-------| comparison to Posits

The precision and dynamic range of posit numbers depends upon what number of bits you allocate to the highest exponent, denoted es via conference. (notice "maximum." The number of exponent bits varies for distinctive numbers.) This publish explains the anatomy of a posit quantity.

Posit numbers can achieve greater precision and greater dynamic range than IEEE-like floating point numbers with the equal number of bits. Of course, there is no free lunch. Posits symbolize massive numbers with low precision and small numbers with high precision, however this alternate-off is regularly what you'd need.

For an n-bit posit, the number of fraction bits close 1 is n - 2 - es and so epsilon is 2 to the exponent es - n - 2. The dynamic latitude is...

...which is derived right here. The dynamic latitude and epsilon values for 16-bit posits with es ranging from 1 to four are given in the desk under.

|----+--------+-----------| | es | DR | epsilon | |----+--------+-----------| | 1 | 16.86 | 0.0000076 | | 2 | 33.82 | 0.0000153 | | 3 | 37.43 | 0.0000305 | | 4 | 143.86 | 0.0000610 | |----+--------+-----------|

For all of the values of es above, a sixteen-bit posit quantity has a smaller epsilon than either FP16 or BF16. The dynamic range of a sixteen-bit posit is higher than that of a FP16 for all values of es, and greater than BF16 and FP32 when es = four.

connected Posts

consuming AI in byte sized purposes is the most useful solution to seriously change digitally. #BuiltOnAI, EdgeVerve’s company application, offers you with everything you need to plug & play AI into your commercial enterprise.  learn greater.

subject matters:

math ,floating aspect ,numbers ,ai ,deep getting to know ,precision ,range


could red Hat deal be a 'distraction' for IBM? Unisys CEO hopes so | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No influence found, are trying new keyword!“but this turned into already possible by advantage of IBM features’ current partnerships with crimson Hat,” she notes. “IBM will nevertheless should compete with IT capabilities peers equivalent to Accenture, Atos and Wipro for r...

A2040-407 Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com A2040-407 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



A2040-407 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B

Test Code : A2040-407
Test Name : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 118 Real Questions

just attempted as quickly as and i'm happy.
After attempting several books, i was pretty dissatisfied not getting the proper substances. i was searching out a guideline for exam A2040-407 with easy language and nicely-organized content. killexams.com Q&A fulfilled my need, because itdefined the complicated subjects within the simplest way. in the real examination I got 89%, which become past my expectation. thanks killexams.com, on your top notch manual-line!


exceptional to pay attention that actual test questions modern A2040-407 exam are furnished right here.
thanks to killexams.com team who presents very treasured practice query bank with reasons. i have cleared A2040-407 examination with 73.5% rating. Thank U very tons on your offerings. i have subcribed to diverse question banks of killexams.com like A2040-407. The question banks have been very helpful for me to clear these exams. Your mock tests helped a lot in clearing my A2040-407 examination with seventy three.5%. To the point, specific and properly explained answers. keepup the best work.


Great source of great A2040-407 brain dumps, accurate answers.
I retained the equal quantity of as I may also want to. A score of 89% changed right into a respectable come approximately for my 7-day planning. My making plans of the exam A2040-407 changed into sad, as the problems were excessively excessive for me to get it. For immediate reference I emulated the killexams.Com dumps aide and it gave exceptional backing. The fast-length solutions have been decently clarified in simple dialect. An awful lot preferred.


preparing A2040-407 exam is rely of some hours now.
hi, I had join for A2040-407. even though I had read all chapters intensive, however your question bank supplied sufficientpractise. I cleared this examination with 99 % the day past, thanks a lot for to the point query bank. Even my doubts have been clarified in minimum time. I want to apply your carrier in future as well. You men are doing a extremely goodactivity. thank you and Regards.


precisely equal questions in actual test, WTF!
This is the nice A2040-407 useful resource on net. Killexams.Com is one I consider. What they gave to me is greater treasured than money, they gave me training. I changed into analyzing for my A2040-407 test once I made an account on here and what I got in return labored merely like magic for me and I was very amazed at how tremendous it felt. My A2040-407 check appeared like a unmarried exceeded thing to me and I achieved success.


It is great to have A2040-407 Latest dumps.
The short answers made my preparation more convenient. I completed 75 questions out off 80 well under the stipulated time and managed 80%. My aspiration to be a Certified take the exam A2040-407. I got the killexams.com Q&A guide just 2 weeks before the exam. Thanks.


simply use these actual question bank and fulfillment is yours.
I used this dump to skip the A2040-407 examination in Romania and were given 98%, so this is a very good way to put togetherfor the exam. All questions I were given on the examination were exactly what killexams.com had furnished on this mindsell off, which is extraordinary I notably recommend this to anyone in case you are going to take A2040-407 examination.


actual Q & A brand new A2040-407 examination are awesome!
I passed. proper, the exam was hard, so I simply were given beyond it on account of killexams.com Q&A and examination Simulator. i am upbeat to report that I passed the A2040-407 exam and have as of late acquired my declaration. The framework inquiries had been the component i used to be most pressured over, so I invested hours honing on the killexams.com examination simulator. It past any doubt helped, as consolidated with one-of-a-kind segments.


surprised to peer A2040-407 ultra-cutting-edge dumps!
A rating of 86% have become past my preference noting all the inquiries inner due time I have been given round ninety% inquiries almost equivalent to the killexams.Com dumps. My readiness modified into most pretty terrible with the complicatedthemes i used to be hunting down a few stable clean substances for the examination A2040-407. I began perusing the Dumps and killexams.Com repaired my problems.


Is there any manner to clean A2040-407 examination earlier than the whole lot strive?
I got a good result with this bundle. Very good quality, questions are accurate and I got most of them on the exam. After I have passed it, I recommended killexams.com to my colleagues, and everyone passed their exams, too (some of them took Cisco exams, others did Microsoft, VMware, etc). I have not heard a bad review of killexams.com, so this must be the best IT training you can currently find online.


Obviously it is hard assignment to pick solid certification questions/answers assets concerning review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report objection customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effectively. We never trade off on our review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is vital to us. Uniquely we deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. In the event that you see any false report posted by our rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com dissension or something like this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, our specimen questions and test brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.


Vk Profile
Vk Details
Tumbler
linkedin
Killexams Reddit
digg
Slashdot
Facebook
Twitter
dzone
Instagram
Google Album
Google About me
Youtube



C2020-011 exam prep | HP2-Z13 VCE | MB5-229 braindumps | HP2-H35 dump | HP0-517 brain dumps | 9A0-044 exam prep | JN0-522 cram | CBCP study guide | CCRN test prep | ASVAB test prep | A2010-538 questions answers | HP2-B67 practice test | 000-746 questions and answers | HP0-M24 real questions | 771-101 test prep | HP3-C29 bootcamp | C9560-654 study guide | ISEB-BA1 examcollection | C4060-156 dumps | C2090-612 free pdf |


[OPTIONAL-CONTENTS-3]

When you retain these A2040-407 Q&A, you will get 100% marks.
At killexams.com, we convey totally tested IBM A2040-407 actually same real exam Questions and Answers that are of late required for Passing A2040-407 exam. We no ifs ands or buts empower people to prepare to prep our brain dump questions and guarantee. It is an astounding choice to accelerate your situation as a specialist inside the Industry.

Are you searching out IBM A2040-407 Dumps containing actual test questions and answers for the Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B Exam prep? killexams.com is here to provide you one most updated and fine source of A2040-407 Dumps this is http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/A2040-407. We have compiled a database of A2040-407 Dumps questions from actual test that allows you to put together and pass A2040-407 exam on the first attempt. killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as underneath;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders more than $ninety nine
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders

If you are scanning for A2040-407 Practice Test containing Real Test Questions, you are at adjust put. We have amassed database of inquiries from Actual Exams with a particular ultimate objective to empower you to plan and pass your exam on the primary endeavor. All readiness materials on the site are Up To Date and certified by our authorities.

killexams.com give latest and updated Practice Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of IBM A2040-407 Exam. Practice our Real Questions and Answers to Improve your insight and pass your exam with High Marks. We ensure your accomplishment in the Test Center, covering each one of the purposes of exam and develop your Knowledge of the A2040-407 exam. Go with our genuine inquiries.

Our A2040-407 Exam PDF contains Complete Pool of Questions and Answers and Brain dumps verified and certified including references and clarifications (where applicable). Our target to accumulate the Questions and Answers isn't just to pass the exam at first endeavor anyway Really Improve Your Knowledge about the A2040-407 exam focuses.

A2040-407 exam Questions and Answers are Printable in High Quality Study Guide that you can download in your Computer or some other device and start setting up your A2040-407 exam. Print Complete A2040-407 Study Guide, pass on with you when you are at Vacations or Traveling and Enjoy your Exam Prep. You can get to updated A2040-407 Exam Q&A from your online record at whatever point.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders


Download your Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B Study Guide in a flash ensuing to buying and Start Preparing Your Exam Prep Right Now!

[OPTIONAL-CONTENTS-4]


Killexams 000-513 braindumps | Killexams P6040-017 pdf download | Killexams EX0-104 examcollection | Killexams HP2-E26 real questions | Killexams 000-M16 exam prep | Killexams 250-401 dumps questions | Killexams 00M-638 practice test | Killexams A2180-376 Practice test | Killexams 9A0-096 study guide | Killexams HP0-J51 Practice Test | Killexams 351-080 test prep | Killexams FM1-306 practice questions | Killexams 000-M601 practice exam | Killexams C5050-300 questions and answers | Killexams S10-210 questions and answers | Killexams 9L0-010 cheat sheets | Killexams 3000-3 exam questions | Killexams 156-215 study guide | Killexams 250-316 dump | Killexams 920-235 bootcamp |


[OPTIONAL-CONTENTS-5]

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams HP2-N35 questions answers | Killexams LOT-953 real questions | Killexams 000-093 free pdf download | Killexams HP3-L04 study guide | Killexams AngularJS practice questions | Killexams CFEX exam questions | Killexams 050-634 VCE | Killexams HP0-Y23 free pdf | Killexams 1Z0-337 study guide | Killexams BAS-004 dumps | Killexams P2020-079 examcollection | Killexams HP3-025 practice questions | Killexams 310-036 free pdf | Killexams 650-393 mock exam | Killexams 6002 braindumps | Killexams 000-427 dump | Killexams 000-N02 test questions | Killexams ACNP real questions | Killexams 1Z0-868 cheat sheets | Killexams C4040-252 practice exam |


Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B

Pass 4 sure A2040-407 dumps | Killexams.com A2040-407 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

Intel Vets Tell Trump Iran Is Not Top Terror Sponsor | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

A group of U.S. intelligence veterans urges President Trump to stop his administration’s false claims about Iran being the leading state sponsor of terrorism when U.S. allies, such as Saudi Arabia, are clearly much guiltier.

MEMORANDUM FOR: The President

FROM: Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity

SUBJECT: Is Iran the “World’s Leading Sponsor of Terrorism?”

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY/BACKGROUND 

We are concerned by recent strident and stark public statements from key members of your Administration that paint Iran in very alarmist terms. The average American, without the benefit of history, could easily be persuaded that Iran poses an imminent threat and that there is no alternative for us but military conflict.

President Donald Trump addresses the nation about his Iran policy on Oct. 13, 2017. (Screenshot from Whitehouse.gov)

We find this uncomfortably familiar territory. Ten years ago former President George W. Bush was contemplating a war with Iran when, in November of 2007, intelligence analysts issued a formal National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) debunking the prevailing conventional wisdom; namely, that Iran was on the verge of getting a nuclear weapon.  The NIE concluded that Iran had stopped working on a nuclear weapon in 2003.

Recalling this moment in his memoir, Decision Points, President Bush noted that the NIE’s “eye-popping” intelligence findings stayed his hand.  He added this rhetorical question: “How could I possibly explain using the military to destroy the nuclear facilities of a country the intelligence community said had no active nuclear weapons program?”

We believe that you are facing a similar situation today. But instead of an inaccurate claim that Iran has nuclear weapons, the new canard to justify war with Iran is the claim that Iran remains the “world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism.” This is incorrect, as we explain below.

 * * *

One of the recurring big bipartisan lies being pushed on the public with the enthusiastic help of a largely pliant media is that Iran is the prime sponsor of terrorism in the world today.

In the recent presentation of your administration’s National Security Strategy for 2018, the point is made that:

“Iran, the world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism, has taken advantage of instability to expand its influence through partners and proxies, weapon proliferation, and funding. . . . Iran continues to perpetuate the cycle of violence in the region, causing grievous harm to civilian populations.”

Those sentiments are echoed by several other countries of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Minister, Adel al-Jubeir, for example, declared in October 2015 that: Iran “is the biggest sponsor of terrorism in the world, and it is working on destabilizing the region.”

The Saudi foreign minister conveniently declined to mention that 15 of the 19 terrorists who hijacked planes and attacked America on 11 September 2001 were Saudis, not Iranians.  And, while Iran was an active promoter of terrorism two decades ago, it is no longer in the forefront of global terrorism. Ironically, that dubious distinction now goes to Iran’s accusers — first and foremost, Saudi Arabia.

The depiction of Iran as “the world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism” is not supported by the facts. While Iran is guilty of having used terrorism as a national policy tool, the Iran of 2017 is not the Iran of 1981. In the early days of the Islamic Republic, Iranian operatives routinely carried out car bombings, kidnappings and assassinations of dissidents and of American citizens. That has not been the case for many years. Despite frequent claims by U.S. officials that Iran is engaged in terrorism, we simply note that the incidents recorded annually in the U.S. Department of State’s Patterns of Global Terrorism rarely identifies a terrorist incident as an act by or on behalf of Iran.

Iran’s relationship with Hezbollah also has evolved radically. In the early years of the Islamic Republic, Hezbollah was often a proxy and sub-contractor for Iran. But during the last 20 years Hezbollah has become an entity and political force in its own right. It fought Israel to a standstill in 2006 in southern Lebanon, which was a watershed moment in establishing Hezbollah’s transformation into a conventional army. In the intervening years, Hezbollah, which is now part of the Lebanese government, also has turned away from the radical, religious driven violence that is the hallmark of the Sunni extremists, like ISIS.

Iran’s Asymmetrical Response

After Iran fell under the rule of the Ayatollah in 1979 terrorism, its role in high profile terrorist attacks, such as the taking of U.S. hostages and the bombings of the U.S. Embassy and the Marine barracks in Lebanon, fed understandable U.S. animosity towards Iran.  But Iran’s actions were not driven primarily by blind hatred or radical religious views.  For Iran terrorism was a way to punch back against more powerful foes, principally the United States, which was providing military and intelligence support to Iran’s neighbor and enemy, Iraq.

Portrait of the late Ruhollah Khomeini by Mohammad Sayyid

The Iranians were also pragmatic and had direct dealings with Israel. During the early days of the Iranian revolution the Mullahs, despite publicly denouncing Israel, happily accepted secret military support from the Israelis. Israel was equally pragmatic. The Israeli leaders ignored the Mullahs and gave the support as a means of helping counter the threat posed by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. A classic case of the enemy of my enemy is my friend.

The public image of Iran as a hotbed of fanatical terrorists has been usurped since the August 1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in east Africa by Al Qaeda and other radical Sunni entities. The U.S. Government’s own list of terrorist attacks since 2001 shows a dramatic drop in the violence carried out by Iran and an accompanying surge in horrific acts by radical Sunni Muslims who are not aligned with Iran.  The latest edition of the Global Terrorism Index, a project of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, shows that four groups accounted for 74 percent of all fatalities from terrorism in 2015 — Boko Haram, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and ISIS.

Thirteen of the 14 Muslim Groups identified by the U.S. intelligence community as actively hostile to the US are Sunni, not Shia, and are not supported by Iran:

– ISIS (Sunni)

– The Al-Nusra Front (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida Central (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida in Magheb (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida in Arabian Peninsula (Sunni)

– Boku Haram (Sunni)

– Al-Shabbab (Sunni)

– Khorassan Group (Sunni)

– Society of the Muslim Brothers (Sunni)

– Sayyaf Group in the Philippines (Sunni)

– Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Sunni)

– Lashgar i Taiba (Sunni)

– Jemaa Islamiya (Sunni)

– Houthis (Shia)

The last major terrorist attack causing casualties that is linked to Iran was the July 2012 bombing of a bus with Israeli tourists in Bulgaria. That departure from Iran’s more recent policy on terrorism was retaliation for what Iran perceived to be Israel’s role in assassinating five Iranian scientists involved with Iran’s Nuclear program, between January 2010 and January 2012 (the dates and names of those attacked are appended).

One can easily imagine the outrage and lust for revenge that would sweep the U.S., if Americans believed a foreign country sent operatives into the United States who in turn murdered engineers and scientists working on sensitive U.S. defense projects.

Special Operations

There have been other terrorist attacks inside Iran bearing the handprint of support from the United States. Author Sean Naylor, Relentless Strike, which details the history of operations carried out by U.S. Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) over the past 30 years, sheds light on this uncomfortable truth:

The late Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

“JSOC personnel also worked with the Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian exile group that had based itself in Iraq after falling afoul of the ayatollahs’ regime in Tehran. The State Department had placed the MEK on its list of designated terrorist organizations, but that didn’t stop JSOC from taking an attitude of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” toward the group. “They were a group of folks that could transit the border, and they were willing to help us out on what we wanted to do with Iran,” said a special operations officer.”

The MEK were classified as a terrorist group, until the United States decided that as long as the MEK would help kill Iranians rather than Americans, that they were no longer terrorists. The MEK’s history of terrorism is quite clear. Among more than a dozen examples over the last four decades these four are illustrative:

  • During the 1970s, the MEK killed U.S. military personnel and U.S. civilians working on defense projects in Tehran and supported the takeover in 1979 of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
  • In 1981, the MEK detonated bombs in the head office of the Islamic Republic Party and the Premier’s office, killing some 70 high-ranking Iranian officials, including Iran’s President, Premier, and Chief Justice.
  • In April 1992, the MEK conducted near-simultaneous attacks on Iranian embassies and installations in 13 countries, demonstrating the group’s ability to mount large-scale operations overseas.
  • In April 1999, the MEK targeted key military officers and assassinated the deputy chief of the Iranian Armed Forces General Staff.
  • Despite this history, a bipartisan parade of prominent U.S. political and military leaders has lobbied on behalf of MEK and has been well compensated in return.

    Benighted Policy So Far

    In the ultimate ironic turn, the U.S.-led 2003 war in Iraq played a critical role in Iran’s resurgence as a regional power. Saddam Hussein was replaced by Shia muslims who had received sanctuary in Iran for many years and Baathist institutions, including the Army, were taken over by Iraqis sympathetic to Tehran.

    Iran has come out ahead in Iraq and, with the 2015 nuclear agreement in place, Iran’s commercial and other ties have improved with key NATO allies and the other major world players—Russia and China in particular.

    Official pronouncements on critical national security matters need to be based on facts. Hyperbole in describing Iran’s terrorist activities can be counterproductive. For this reason, we call attention to Ambassador Nikki Haley’s recent statement that it is hard to find a “terrorist group in the Middle East that does not have Iran’s fingerprints all over it.” The truth is quite different. The majority of terrorist groups in the region are neither creatures nor puppets of Iran. ISIS, Al-Qaeda and Al-Nusra are three of the more prominent that come to mind.

    You have presented yourself as someone willing to speak hard truths in the face of establishment pressure and not to accept the status quo. You spoke out during the campaign against the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq as a historic mistake of epic proportions. You also correctly captured the mood of many Americans fatigued from constant war in far away lands. Yet the torrent of warnings from Washington about the dangers supposedly posed by Iran and the need to confront them are being widely perceived as steps toward reversing your pledge not to get embroiled in new wars.

    We encourage you to reflect on the warning we raised with President George W. Bush almost 15 years ago, at a similar historic juncture:

    “after watching Secretary Powell today, we are convinced that you would be well served if you widened the discussion … beyond the circle of those advisers clearly bent on a war for which we see no compelling reason and from which we believe the unintended consequences are likely to be catastrophic.”

    Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani celebrates the completion of an interim deal on Iran’s nuclear program on Nov. 24, 2013, by kissing the head of the daughter of an assassinated Iranian nuclear engineer. (Iranian government photo)

    APPENDIX

    LIST OF IRANIAN SCIENTISTS ASSASSINATED IN IRAN

    January 12, 2010: Masoud Alimohammadi, Iranian Physicist:

    Killed by a car bomb.  The perpetrator reportedly confessed to having been recruited by Israeli intelligence to carry out the assassination.

    November 29, 2010: Majid Shahriari, Iranian nuclear scientist:

    Killed by a car bomb.  According to German media, Israel was the sponsor.

    November 29, 2010: Assassination attempt on Fereydoon Abbasi Iranian nuclear scientist:

    Wounded by a car bomb.

    July 23, 2011: Darioush Rezaeinejad, Iranian electrical engineer, unclear scientist

    Killed by unknown gunmen on motorcycle.  Specialist on high-voltage switches — a key component of nuclear warheads.  Assassinated by Israeli intelligence, according to the German press.

    January 11, 2012: Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan, Iranian nuclear scientist

    Killed at Natanz uranium enrichment facility by a magnetic bomb of the same kind used in earlier assassinations of Iranian scientists.

    ________________________

    Signed:

    Richard Beske, CIA, Operations Officer (ret.)

    William Binney, former NSA Technical Director for World Geopolitical & Military Analysis; Co-founder of NSA’s Signals Intelligence Automation Research Center

    Marshall Carter-Tripp, Foreign Service Officer (ret.) and Division Director, State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research

    Bogdan Dzakovic, Former Team Leader of Federal Air Marshals and Red Team, FAA Security, (ret.) (associate VIPS)

    Philip Giraldi, CIA, Operations Officer (ret.)

    Larry C. Johnson, former CIA and State Department Counter Terrorism officer

    Michael S. Kearns, Captain, USAF (Ret.); ex-Master SERE Instructor for Strategic Reconnaissance Operations (NSA/DIA) and Special Mission Units (JSOC)

    John Kiriakou, Former CIA Counterterrorism Officer and former senior investigator, Senate Foreign Relations Committee

    Karen Kwiatkowski, former Lt. Col., US Air Force (ret.), at Office of Secretary of Defense watching the manufacture of lies on Iraq, 2001-2003

    Edward Loomis, NSA, Cryptologic Computer Scientist (ret.)

    David MacMichael, National Intelligence Council (ret.)

    Ray McGovern, former US Army infantry/intelligence officer & CIA analyst (ret.)

    Elizabeth Murray, Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Near East, CIA and National Intelligence Council (ret.)

    Torin Nelson, former Intelligence Officer/Interrogator (GG-12) HQ, Department of the Army

    Todd E. Pierce, MAJ, US Army Judge Advocate (ret.)

    Coleen Rowley, FBI Special Agent and former Minneapolis Division Legal Counsel (ret.)

    Greg Thielmann — Former director of the Strategic, Proliferation, and Military Affairs Office of the State Department’s intelligence bureau (INR) and former senior staffer on the Senate Intelligence Committee

    Kirk Wiebe — former Senior Analyst, SIGINT Automation Research Center, NSA

    Lawrence Wilkerson, Colonel (USA, ret.), Distinguished Visiting Professor, College of William and Mary (associate VIPS)

    Sarah G. Wilton, CDR, USNR, (Retired)/DIA, (Retired)

    Robert Wing — former Foreign Service Officer (associate VIPS)

    Ann Wright, Col., US Army (ret.); Foreign Service Officer (who resigned in opposition to the war on Iraq)

    image_pdf

    image_pdf

    image_print

    image_print


    HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    First Name: Last Name: E-mail Address: Password: Confirm Password: Username:

    Title: C-Level/President Manager VP Staff (Associate/Analyst/etc.) Director

    Function:

    Role in IT decision-making process: Align Business & IT Goals Create IT Strategy Determine IT Needs Manage Vendor Relationships Evaluate/Specify Brands or Vendors Other Role Authorize Purchases Not Involved

    Work Phone: Company: Company Size: Industry: Street Address City: Zip/postal code State/Province: Country:

    Occasionally, we send subscribers special offers from select partners. Would you like to receive these special partner offers via e-mail? Yes No

    Your registration with Eweek will include the following free email newsletter(s): News & Views

    By submitting your wireless number, you agree that eWEEK, its related properties, and vendor partners providing content you view may contact you using contact center technology. Your consent is not required to view content or use site features.

    By clicking on the "Register" button below, I agree that I have carefully read the Terms of Service and the Privacy Policy and I agree to be legally bound by all such terms.

    Register

    Continue without consent      

    Category: Technology | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    October 31st, 2018 in Business Practices, Fall 2018, Millennial, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Tyler Titherington

    I am a restaurateur.  I’m behind schedule.  Again.  Not because I am disorganized or have too much to do, more so because I have a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority.  Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a close second and everything else last.  There is a tertiary hierarchy in the last basket as well.  Some tasks with a lower priority fall through the cracks.  Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time.  The truth is that I am obsessively organized.  I love “To Do” lists, calendars, flow charts and the accomplishment of tasks.  I eat projects for breakfast, while living on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe.  Short staffed?  Yawn.  Drains flooding?  Been there, done that.  POS system crash during service on a weekend?  Bring it.  I am the duck – calm above water and feet moving nonstop below.  However, how do I manage all the curveballs and still manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities?  It is very simple – adapt and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to be in many places at one time.  These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture.  Maybe even get a day off…

    Over the last 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based hard drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries.  However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very slow to adapt.  Tight margins, resistance to change, and fear of unknown outcomes have long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process.  However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past.  Restaurant operators are beginning to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.

    Our foray into cloud computing began with an unfortunate set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing.  The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us.  At best, our network infrastructure was dated and we needed to act quickly to get it into compliance.  Like most operators, our hand was forced and we had no choice.  What is PCI Compliance?  The answer depends on who you ask.

    Your guests have never heard of it and have no idea what it is.  Most restaurant operators will tell you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already charge them way too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees.  The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org

    “The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that ALL companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment.  The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent body that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover and JCB.).”[i]

    PCI DSS is mandatory for any and all businesses that accept credit cards.  It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting.  Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card breach and fix them.  In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.

    It is extremely important for the security of our guest’s payment information, both for ensuring trust with our customers and limiting legal liabilities.  In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is also plagued with security breaches, including large chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may be compromised totals into the millions.[ii]

    At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with our IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance.  The first order of business was to get our network infrastructure in order.  Some of the major network upgrades that we undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and new firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud.  The new access points give our guests their own network and prevent them from accessing ours.  The security firewalls prevent intrusions and also allow our IT vendor remote access so they can make changes without actually being in the restaurant.  What used to be a scheduled visit from our IT vendor that may have taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often be addressed online in minutes.  In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade our network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud.  This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in disguise and it pushed us into new territory – the cloud!  Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise be unavailable to us.

    IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii]  For our purposes, these on demand computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service.  Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline our operation.

    Point of Sale

    POS systems are the most interesting area of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators.  Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement.  There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast.  Toast has done a great job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back end users.  Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales.  It is extremely intuitive, like using a smartphone, thus needing very little training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually be phased out.  It is only a matter of time.

    Tableside Payment

    EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global standard for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv]  Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and all transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One example of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that we at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and plan on implementing is Pay My Tab.  Pay My Tab will fully integrate with our POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in use at quick service operations, where guests and staff have easily adapted to them.  In addition to tougher security, the implementation should decrease payment time, eliminate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.

    Reservations and Floor Management

    There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems.  Our firm has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, we were early adopters.  This has been one of the single best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration.  It is iPad-based and eliminates all the wiring and host stand real estate.  It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flow of service, identify unique reservations, and make sure that waitlists are being managed appropriately.  Soon to come is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, our millennial hosts use the system seamlessly.

    Private Event Management

    Private events are the foundation of most full service restaurant operations.  They are the difference between a good week and a great week.  However, it can be a very confusing process with all of the moving parts.  In order to stay organized, we use TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track our events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows our Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the opportunity to earn fees for each event.  Since our coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they enjoy responding when available off-site; good communication is key for making sure work-life balance is maintained.

    Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Inventory

    An area which the cloud has really saved our restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories.  No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet.  Inventories can be uploaded in real time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both our food and beverage inventories.  We have also given access to our accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads.  All information can be entered into the cloud and accessed by all of our approved users.  It also allows for multiple people to take inventory simultaneously.  One person can be on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, all at the same time.  In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across all properties.

    Scheduling

    Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. We have found HotSchedules to fit our needs as it interfaces with our POS system and allows our firm to do some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.

    Email and File Sharing

    Grafton Group has come a long way from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts.  We were able to eliminate our main server entirely and now we use Office 365 for our email and file sharing needs.  Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so our information is always backed up.  We access both our email and files from anywhere in the world.  This has greatly improved productivity and allowed our management teams to communicate in real time.

    Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Computer Hardware

    Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which do not require expanded memory for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives.  We can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and our managers no longer have to share computer access in the office.

    Menu Design

    For our menu design need, we have found InDesign to be the most efficient program, which is part of the Adobe Creative Cloud.  This program can now be selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20.  This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.

    These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted our operations and ultimately saved time for our management team and staff.  Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can be better spent elsewhere.  We have only scratched the surface as an industry – we will see more and more options for cloud-based solutions to real world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and save time, they do not serve guests and they don’t understand the art of hospitality.  It is imperative that as restaurateurs we continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train our employees in the art and skill of hospitality.

    There are some things you will never have time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements.  “Lunch”, for example, I have heard is a meal that takes place in the middle of the day.  For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I eat in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen.  There is no technology for that…

    PDF Version Available Here

    References [i] “PCI Compliance Guide FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the last year, your data might have been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4 [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston area since attending Boston University.  After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston.  He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007. 

    October 31st, 2018 in Business Practices, Fall 2018, Hotels, Marketing, Sharing Economy, Technology, Trends

    By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez

    For a long time, the hotel industry did not consider Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying business models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.

    A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a level playing field between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are also looking to tap into the platform-based business model that underlies Airbnb’s success.

    The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?

    Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) found that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across all segments. While these numbers may not appear substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year period means that the “real” decrease in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but also the luxury hotel segment that was hard hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% real decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the last ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% decrease in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and luxury segments, with a decrease in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are also fueling Airbnb taking an increasing share of the accommodation market pie. For example, in New York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated demand made up nearly 3% of all traditional hotel demand in Q12016.

    Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company also has significant room to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has run into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the good news is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to increase supply. It is now targeting property developers to turn entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to have as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated.  Airbnb has also clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, business travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes have been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They also have easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and go above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the great outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours.  In addition to these products, Airbnb has also “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and experience seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation like yurts, treehouses, and boats, all things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.

    The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb

    There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers seek travel, and we think this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:

  • A shift to a “new luxury”—seeking out unique, authentic experiences that serve as a launchpad for self-actualization—fueled by an increased wealth gap in the United States.
  • An increased mobility, particularly among previously under-represented groups in the United States (the black travel movement, for example) and the global traveler (more Indian and Chinese international travelers than ever before).
  • The changing nature of brand loyalty: from long-term relationships to consumers’ needs for instant gratification and personalization.
  • Changing nature of “ownership”: In a post-consumerist society, the emphasis on “access-based consumption” has put a spotlight on wellness and well-being, beyond materialism.
  • A co-everything world where work, play, and life blend into one seamless mosaic: Technology has changed the way we live our lives, and how we are connected to work, to each other and to the things that drive us. An upcoming 5G world and the IOT is only likely to accelerate the pace of change. Take LiveZoku (https://livezoku.com/), for example: is it a residence? A hotel? A WeWork? A space for the local community? A thriving food and beverage destination? It’s all of these things.
  • What do these trends mean? They require marketers and experience designers to re-think what the travel experience means to the customer. The notion of the experience economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in turn results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the experience economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six new dimensions have been incorporated into the experience economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.

    Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers found that Airbnb outperformed hotels on all the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique experience every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute little store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as strong for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the need for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.

    One such dimension where hotels perform just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, all communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge,  the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really think about the high-tech, high touch experience they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that we live in.

    From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits close inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying effort for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that level the playing field. Over the last couple of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups have translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) found that governments have been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with little to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations have been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to level the playing field between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In New York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to be rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is still possible to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in New York City, even though, in principle, these typically include homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) have found that regulations tend to be very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There also remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is still very little knowledge about effective ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb also creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an important economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the average resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might suggest (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The need for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.

    The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience

    While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer experience are not. We contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts need to be focused. Hotels need to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s hard to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a strong foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly important because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key reason to use the brand, most travelers tend to stay with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and price (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)

    There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a feeling that consumers have about what you stand for. An authentic brand has at its core the brand promise, an authentic value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an authentic brand does require is effective storytelling. A brand is perceived to be authentic, if it has an authentic story that feeds it. Brand stories can come from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is important is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent example of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold standard for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, we think that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ return to “where it all began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand experience of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent example of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand promise (Ting, 2017b).

    Another idea that lies at the heat of the brand promise is what we call the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers have relied on the guest room as the primary source of value for the guest. But think about the last time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel room that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to do – the experience outside the guestroom? From experiencing art and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers use as cues for making  their decision to choose an accommodation. We call this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an experience of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. We present the EVP in Figure 1.  The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must be reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.

     Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework

    How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The Standard Hotels serves as an excellent example (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more like a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s rich images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to go the Standard way, since the brand has its own distinct voice and personality, there is a case to be made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which tend to blend into one indistinguishable whole after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the last time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to stay there? Yet, when you look at the imagery put out by most hotels, this is what marketers still focus on.

    Placing an emphasis on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can also enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to look for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can spend their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people seek out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails still get sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not use that as an opportunity to truly welcome the guest; a simple touch such as a welcome letter from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your stay can go a long way in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.

    The design of the hotel’s public spaces can be used to enhance the guest’s experience of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would agree (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide little or no host contact, what better an opportunity for hotel brands to show that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been wise in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can be offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other experience value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family room connecting rooms package.

    Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot be emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must move beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, social media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest experience of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to be gamified to unlock value-adds and offer creative bundling.

    At the level of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing business and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform business models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand development standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could include offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not offer housekeeping and other hotel services and thus be offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a push for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to reap the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.

    In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.

    At a strategic level, hotel brands need to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the experience and value beyond the guestroom that must be factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. We present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels

    PDF Version Available Here

    References Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606 Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What do guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501 Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of authentic consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004 Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive advantage over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017 Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899 Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/ Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth Story Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/ Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and Choice Take Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020 Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a Quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand also serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In fall 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and also holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.

    February 13th, 2018 in Technology, Winter 2018

    By Tarik Dogru, Makarand Mody, & Christie Leonardi

    “A world with little or no intermediaries where there is no need to build trust between people and transactions are completed in seconds. This is the promise of the Blockchain Technology.” -Tarik Dogru

    Blockchain technology and its economic, social, and technological implications, mainly in the form of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, have become hot topics of conversation. Indeed, blockchain technology is primarily associated with Bitcoin because it is built on a blockchain platform. However, blockchain technology goes far beyond the cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, etc. So the question becomes: what exactly is blockchain technology? In this article, we attempt to answer this question, explain how blockchain works, and discuss the general and hospitality industry-specific implications of the technology.

    What is Blockchain?

    Blockchain technology is an online platform that chronologically records transactions and tracks assets through distributed ledgers (i.e., shared ledger) in a network (Anderson, 2016; Peters & Panayi, 2016). Transactions in a network may include but are not limited to sending and receiving money, payments for products and services, booking a hotel room or a flight, making a reservation, entering into a contractual agreement, and much more. Furthermore, blockchain technology enables tracking the ownership of assets along with right-to-use in the events of assets being leased to a third party. Simply put, anything of value can be recorded, tracked, leased, and exchanged on a blockchain platform and duplicate records of these transactions are simultaneously shared with participating agents in a network. The records are further protected with mathematically configured or cryptographic keys to ensure their security.

    One concern eliminated by the technology is the need to have trusting individuals on each side of a transaction. A central authority is not required to administer or validate transactions in blockchain platforms (Yli-Huumo et al. 2016). Instead, the technology is decentralized and transactions are executed and authorized by the members in a blockchain platform via cryptographic signatures and duplicate copies of the transactions are distributed to network members (Crosby et al. 2016). Let’s take a more detailed look at how the technology works.

    Blockchain technology: How it works

    Blockchains are digital databases and require a network of computers to function (Gupta, 2017; Wright & De Filippi, 2015). In a blockchain, transactions are coded into blocks, which are connected to each other in the form of chains, hence the name block-chain (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017; Huckle et al. 2016); Blocks store records of transactions chronologically with timestamps and a unique reference number (i.e., hash) to previous blocks (Gupta, 2017). While the governing rules of different blockchain networks may vary, all of its members must agree that the transactions are indeed legitimate (Davidson, De Filippi, & Potts, 2016; Pilkington, 2015). Once the blocks are created and chained, the records of transactions cannot be altered or removed from the blockchain, and the sequence of blocks cannot be changed. This provides immutable, tamper-proof data storage and management systems (Gupta, 2017).

    While most of the known blockchains, which are associated with cryptocurrencies, are open source and accessible by anyone with a computer and internet connection, blockchains do not have to be public. For example, the Bitcoin blockchain is public, and transactional records are open to public while keeping the participants making the transactions anonymous (Crosby et al. 2016). However, a business blockchain can be private and not require any cryptocurrency, as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin do, and may require permission to participate in the network and access the distributed ledger (Gupta, 2017). The degree of permission can also vary among participants depending on their role in the network. While the technicality of blockchain technology is complicated, it is important to outline its essential features.

    Feature 1: Shared Ledger

    Records of transactions or ownership status of assets are concurrently available to all the members in a blockchain platform, providing a single source of truth in a blockchain platform. A private blockchain will require permission (i.e., personal key) to access and obtain the records and details of the transaction. Additionally, the degree to which the participants could access these records can be limited (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017). Some participants may only be authorized to see whether a transaction occurred between two parties, while certain participants can be given permission to view transactions in full detail.

    Feature 2: Security

    Transactions in a blockchain platform are verified through a consensus that are predetermined by the participating members in the blockchain (Pilkington, 2015). Internally, the records of transactions cannot be changed or manipulated by network members in a blockchain. Externally, a blockcahin platform is extremely difficult if not impossible to hack because blockchains are stored in many computers and the transactions are encrypted by unique cryptographic signatures (Crosby et al. 2016). The blockchain platform could only be hacked if all the computers within the network are accessed at the same time.

    Feature 3: Efficiency

    In a blockchain platform, individuals do not need intermediaries to establish trust because transactions are processed and verified within the blockchain network (Anderson, 2016; Gupta, 2017; Wright & De Filippi, 2015). In fact, the Economist defines blockchain as the “trust machine” suggesting that it eliminates the need for trust between people (Economist, 2015). In other words, the involvement of third-party arbitrators, such as banks and governments, to verify or authorize transactions is not needed in a blockchain platform. The elimination of intermediaries from the process streamlines the process and significantly reduces transaction time and costs.

    Feature 4: Smart Contracts

    A “smart” contract is a contract that can self-execute and self-enforce a set of rules or provisions in a contract (Davidson, De Filippi, & Potts, 2016). All the provisions that require action can be executed autonomously, either immediately or at a specific time. Smart contracts may include a few or many contractual clauses and may or may not require human involvement, meaning they can be partially or fully self-executing (Gupta, 2017). The transactions will be broadcasted to all parties involved and these records are immutable. Lease contracts, for example, can be prepared on a blockchain platform as smart lease contracts that include all the provisions that ordinary lease contracts include, such as a leasing period, lease amount, payment date, lessor’s and lessee’s information, and other governing rules. Enforcing the governing rules and payments for the leased property (i.e., house, car, bike, etc.) can be an excruciating process in an ordinary contract, since the lessor has limited information and ability to enforce the contract and thus requires third party involvement. In a blockchain platform, the lessee’s bank account can be linked to the lease agreement and payments can be completed automatically on the payment date. Similarly, an agreement between a travel booking site and hotels or airlines can be executed autonomously and immediately once the event occurs. In summary, smart contracts eliminate the costs and delays associated with ordinary contracts (Crosby et al. 2016; Peters & Panayi, 2016).

    What are the implications of blockchain technology?

    Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of technology, business, and governance. The trust-free, tamper-evident, and cryptographic security structure of blockchain technology enables digitizing fiat currencies, creating smart contracts, developing decentralized autonomous organizations, and many more applications. Governments, corporations, and other organizations have already started to develop blockchain platforms to test and potentially integrate the technology into mainstream use.

    One of the prominent implications of blockchain technology is observed in banking and finance, as it has the potential to make financial transactions much more secure, cost-effective, and time-efficient (Peters & Panayi, 2016). Governments could pursue the possibility of digitalizing fiat currencies to facilitate faster and secure transactions with little or no need for intermediaries, which potentially eliminates or reduces transaction costs. In fact, the French government has launched a working group to research the implications, benefits, and applications of blockchain for the public sector (Sundararajan, 2017). Furthermore, the French government announced that it will allow banks and fintech companies to establish blockchain platforms for unlisted securities trading, citing that it will “develop new ways of trading securities that are faster, cheaper, more transparent and safer” (Sundararajan, 2017).

    Photo3

    Another important implication of the blockchain technology will be observed in accounting. The current accounting system depends on the double-entry bookkeeping to provide internal control and heavily relies on both internal and external audits to build trust between stakeholders (i.e., suppliers, financial institutions, and governments). Blockchain technology has the potential to advance the accounting system to the next level. In a blockchain platform, transactions are automatically executed, verified, and recorded in real time on a cryptographically-secure distributed ledger, which is accessible to all members in the blockchain network. That is, the digitalization of the accounting system via blockchain technology will eliminate the need to keep separate records of transactions across transacting businesses and cross-checking that often requires the use of external auditors (Anderson, 2016). In addition to cost-savings and increased efficiency, blockchain technology prevents frauds and manipulations in recordkeeping due to its tamper-evident infrastructure. While blockchain technology could modernize the current accounting system, it could not completely replace the function of accounting departments and eliminate the need for auditing. Professional accountants are still necessary for auditing, internal control mechanisms, and accounting system improvements.

    The implications of blockchain technology goes beyond accounting and finance services. One-third of 3,000 executives surveyed by IBM reported that they are either considering integrating or have already incorporated the blockchain technology into their businesses (Wesley, 2017). The potential to significantly improve supply chain management is also present (Gupta, 2017; Tian, 2016). The current supply chain management systems are fragmented, and tracking products’ origins and shipments is burdensome. On a blockchain platform, every movement of the product from the initial departure point to the final destination can be tracked concurrently by everyone involved in the supply chain. This could eliminate fraud and errors, increase efficiency and security, reduce costs associated with paperwork, and build sustainable inventory management and control systems. In other industries, especially those in which multiple companies are involved in the production cycle, and where the final product consists of many parts, such as the automobile and aircraft industries, tracking and monitoring components of the products and even the asset ownership and the right-to-use of the products could provide better functioning, responsible, and sustainable systems. Airbus, for instance, is in the process of integrating blockchain technology to track and monitor the parts of aircrafts used in the production process (Hackett, 2017).

    Current and Future Uses in the Hospitality Industry

    While the technology is still in its infancy, hotels, restaurants, airlines, travel agencies, and other hospitality businesses could improve their service quality, guest satisfaction, and profitability by integrating blockchain technology. As more hospitality businesses adopt blockchain technology, stakeholders in the hospitality industry will collectively benefit from its use. In the following section, we present some of the possible ways in which blockchain technology can be used in the hospitality industry.

    Tracking guests

    Hotels can be instantly updated right from the time that a guest leaves her home for the airport to when she checks in for her flight and even upon arrival at the hotel. This tracking can increase efficiency by reducing wait time during the check in process and thus increase guest satisfaction. While tracking guests’ movements might be considered an invasion of privacy, accessing the information will require the guest’s authorization and individuals will be able to determine the degree of information that is shared with hotels or other members in the network. Therefore, blockchain technology has the potential to provide seamlessly integrated guest services without intruding guests’ privacy.

    Tracking food

    Tracking and monitoring foods is applicable to the restaurant industry. Indeed, food consumed in restaurants is part of the supply chain beginning at the farm. Thus, extending blockchain based supply chain management systems to restaurants could provide better quality control and food safety in restaurants. That is, restaurants could collaborate with their food suppliers to be involved in the blockchain platform that tracks and monitors the food. Furthermore, restaurants can allow their guests to check the origins of and routes taken by the food used to prepare their meals, via blockchain technology. Simply put, blockchain technology can facilitate trust in restaurants in regards to the quality of the ingredients used to prepare meals.

    Airline and hotel points

    Loyalty programs often create more problems than they solve. Hotels and airlines can build loyalty programs on a blockchain platform and issue loyalty tokens as rewards to their guests (Kowalewski, McLaughlin, & Hill, 2017; Kowalewski & Simon, 2016). The loyalty tokens are similar to loyalty points; however, blockchain technology enables customers to freely buy, sell, or exchange their loyalty tokens with others. Allowing customers to exchange loyalty points in an open exchange can also increase the competitiveness of loyalty programs and increase overall service quality. For example, the market value of company B’s tokens might be higher than company A’s tokens due to the quality of products and/or services those tokens can buy. So a company that is worth more than the other is likely to be the preferred in the market, incentivizing other firms and thus the system as a whole to increase the quality of their offerings to attract more customers. Furthermore, loyalty tokens could also be used across industries; consumers would be able to use their hotel loyalty tokens in restaurants, airlines, coffee shops and other businesses through blockchain platform. In collaboration with IBM, startup technology company Loyyall is developing a blockchain platform where consumers can redeem, buy, sell, or exchange their loyalty points (Hill, 2017).

    Digital ID

    Blockchain technology could provide a solution to identity theft. In airports, hotels, and restaurants, costumers must often present their IDs as proof in order to pass security and check in to their flights, hotel rooms, or consume alcoholic beverages. This makes consumers vulnerable to identity theft; not only by the person who is checking IDs but also other people around who might obtain important personal information. As a solution to this exposure, IDs, including birth certificates, driver’s licenses, social security numbers, and passports, among others, can be stored in a blockchain platform and people can be given permissions to check and validate IDs (Davidson , De Filippi, & Potts, 2016). Similar to QR codes, IDs can be in a form of cryptographically-secured codes that allow verification of one’s identity without seeing essential personal information. In addition to eliminating the likelihood of loss or theft of physical IDs or personal information, digital IDs that are stored on a blockchain could also eliminate forgery (Gupta, 2017).

    Smart Contracts

    Smart contracts can be adopted to facilitate both minor and major transactions in the hospitality industry. Hotels and travel agencies, for example, could streamline their business relationships with smart contracts on blockchain platforms. Similar to a legal contract, a smart contract between hotels and travel agencies would have the contractual provisions that are predetermined by the transacting parties (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017; Peters & Panayi, 2016). Anytime a transaction occurs, it is recorded and shared on the blockchain. Once transactions are recorded, the payments can be processed immediately based on contractual terms. Not only would this facilitate payment, but would also further optimize room sales through better collaboration between hotels and travel agencies.

    In a similar vein, the execution of franchise agreements and management contracts could be carried out with smart contracts between franchisor, franchisee, management companies, and asset management firm according predetermined governance rules to eliminate conflict of interest and increase efficiency.

    The applications of smart contracts can be extended to the guests, completely eliminating the check-in process. Through blockchain technology where digital IDs are stored along with an authorized account for payments, hotel rooms can be assigned to guests and a digital key can be recorded into the blockchain technology once the payment is received. The most important advancement in this smart contract is the fact that both IDs and payment information are encrypted via secure codes and are thus not exposed to theft (Gupta, 2017). The application of this smart contract can be extended to other industries, such as car rentals, office rentals, leased apartments, and so on. Airbnb properties can also apply such a smart contract to resolve some existing security concerns. Slock.it, a German startup is working on what is essentially a blockchain-based lock that self-executes based on the lock owners’ predetermined rental terms. These blockchain based locks are installed in properties—cars, houses, offices, etc. and the available dates, along with rental amounts are posted on the smart contract where renters can book these rental properties; once the payment is received, the smart contract authorizes access to renters for the rental period.

    Furthermore, smart contracts can facilitate travel insurance in the event that a flight is delayed or canceled. The contractual terms can be part of the blockchain network via a smart contract and can be executed if a delay or cancellation occurs.

    Many companies in the hospitality and travel space are betting big on blockchain’s bandwagon effect to facilitate cheaper, better, and faster experiences. TUI Group is already using blockchain technology to manage the distribution of its inventories and assets and handle internal processes (Watkins, 2017). Only time will tell whether the prophecy fulfills itself. However, one thing remains true: during a time when the economy is strong, and the hospitality and travel industry is optimistic about its future, the benefits of blockchain technology are likely to attract the interest and investment dollars of companies across the spectrum (Bujarski, 2018).

    PDF Version Available Here

    Dogru Headshot

    Tarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in Business Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research assistant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in business and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide range of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, real estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change. Mody Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a Quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand also serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In fall 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and also holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. ChristieChristie Leonardi is a senior at Boston University School of Hospitality Administration. She was a Management Trainee in Mandarin Orchard Singapore and a Pubic Relations Intern in AccorHotels’ corporate office in New York. She currently holds a position in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston as a Corporate Relations Intern. Her interests include traveling, food, contemporary art and real estate.

    References

  • Anderson, N. (2016). Blockchain Technology: A game-changer in accounting?. Deloitte, March, 2016. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/de/Documents/Innovation/Blockchain_A%20game-changer%20in%20accounting.pdf
  • Bujarski, L. (2018). Travel Megatrends 2018: Blockchain Will Spark a New Type of Tech Race in Travel. Retrieved February 3, 2018, from https://skift.com/2018/01/25/travel-megatrends-2018-blockchain-will-spark-a-new-type-of-tech-race-in-travel/
  • Crosby, M., et al. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin. Applied Innovation, 2, 6-10.
  • Davidson, S., De Filippi, P. and Potts, J. (2016). Disrupting Governance: The New Institutional Economics of Distributed Ledger Technology. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2811995
  • Gupta, M. (2017). Blockchain for dummies. IBM Limited Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
  • Hackett, R. (2017). Why Big Business Is Racing to Build Blockchains. Fortune Magazine, Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2017/08/22/bitcoin-ethereum-blockchain-cryptocurrency/
  • Hill, D. K. (2017, July 27). Blockchain Will Transform Customer Loyalty Programs. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from https://hbr.org/2017/03/blockchain-will-transform-customer-loyalty-programs
  • Huckle, S., Bhattacharya, R., White, M., & Beloff, N. (2016). Internet of things, blockchain and shared economy applications. Procedia Computer Science, 98, 461-466.
  • Kowalewski, D. & Simon, G. (2016). Will blockchain technology rewrite loyalty?, Hotel News Now. Retrieved from http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/Articles/49347/Will-blockchain-technology-rewrite-loyalty
  • Kowalewski, D., McLaughlin, J., & Hill, A. (2017). Blockchain will transform loyalty programs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/03/blockchain-will-transform-customer-loyalty-programs
  • Peters, G. W., & Panayi, E. (2016). Understanding modern banking ledgers through blockchain technologies: Future of transaction processing and smart contracts on the internet of money. In Banking Beyond Banks and Money (pp. 239-278). Springer, Cham.
  • Pilkington, M. (2015). Blockchain Technology: Principles and Applications. Research Handbook on Digital Transformations, edited by F. Xavier Olleros and Majlinda Zhegu. Edward Elgar, 2016. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2662660
  • Sundararajan, S. (2017, December 11). France Approves Blockchain Trading of Unlisted Securities. Retrieved December 11, 2017, from https://www.coindesk.com/france-gives-go-ahead-for-blockchain-trading-of-unlisted-securities/
  • The Economist. (2015) The promise of the blockchain, The trust machine. Retrived from https://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21677198-technology-behind-bitcoin-could-transform-how-economy-works-trust-machine
  • Tian, F. (2016, June). An agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on RFID & blockchain technology. In Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM), 2016 13th International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  • Watkins, E. (2017, October 10). The Definitive Guide to Hotel Blockchain Technology . Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://duettocloud.com/definitive-guide-hotel-blockchain-technology/
  • Wright, A. & De Filippi, P. (2015). Decentralized Blockchain Technology and the Rise of Lex Cryptographia. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2580664
  • Wesley, D. (2017, December 11). Is Blockchain The Invisible Answer To Your Business Needs? Retrieved December 11, 2017, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2017/12/11/is-blockchain-the-invisible-answer-to-your-business-needs/#7c52168813d0
  • Yli-Huumo, J., et al. (2016). Where is current research on blockchain technology?—a systematic review. PloS one, 11(10), e0163477.
  • June 12th, 2017 in Spring 2017, Technology, Trends

    reptile-316735_1280

     

    By Mike Oshins

    Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and development of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives have altered the hospitality landscape, bringing new complexity to the industry. Two decades ago, a Marriott hotel was commonly owned and managed by Marriott; now, many are owned by one company, franchised with the Marriott name, and managed by a third company.  While customers used to be able to pick up the phone and call a hotel’s reservations center or use their local travel agency to book a room, today online distribution systems like Expedia, Travelocity, and Kayak are powerful intermediaries that have all but replaced traditional consumer travel agencies.  Travelers may choose among many alternatives to hotels for lodging, including AirBnB, HomeAway, Flipkey, and VBRO.  Mergers and acquisitions continue to multiply, exemplified most notably by Marriott’s purchase of Starwood to create the world’s largest hotel company with 30 brands. Millennials’ preferences have pushed the development of new brands with new thinking about hotel design, as demonstrated with Hilton’s Tru, Best Western’s Vib and Glo chains, and Intercontinental’s EVEN.

    hotels

    Hotel companies are expanding their portfolios to include Millennial-focused brands like InterContinental’s EVEN Hotels and Tru by Hilton. Image sources: Creative Commons InterContinental and Tru

    Travel patterns have also changed.  China has become the largest exporter of tourists in the world, totaling almost 100 million outbound travelers and representing almost one in ten tourists in the world. Chinese travelers also spent the most money, roughly $250 billion in 2015. For reference, the second highest spenders were Americans at $110 billion.  In the U.S., national discussion about travel bans, new barriers to hiring non-domestic seasonal workers (a key element in New England’s summer tourist season), possible elimination of the national Brand USA marketing effort, and tenuous Cuba travel policies are all creating uncertainty in the tourism market.  These changes and ambiguities present new challenges, both large and small, for the hospitality industry, requiring those at the forefront of the field to anticipate and respond to the subsequent fallout.

    Prolific business author John Kotter states that the main role of leadership is dealing with change.  Depending on how it’s viewed, with the appropriate perspective and pliancy, change can present an organization with new opportunities—the possibility of taking advantage of changing demographics, new technologies, or the emergence of new markets.  Change can also raise dilemmas, such as the need to address new competitors, contend with a crisis or cope with a lack of available employees.  Even before developing and implementing successful change management processes, organizational leaders must have the ability to recognize the opportunities and dilemmas presented by change and know how to think about them.  To see the need for change, to identify new realities, either current or future, one must be able to view the big picture and the current climate in new ways.  This ability to see the present and near future from a new vantage point is one of the main reasons General Electric (GE) CEO, Jeff Immelt, moved GE world headquarters to Boston’s expanding Seaport District.  GE’s new home will “place his leadership team in a vibrant city with a world-renowned innovation scene, instead of in a wooded Connecticut suburb” (Boston Globe), thus giving his senior team a new perspective, and the opportunity to make closer connections with institutions able to stimulate new ideas and create a new pipeline for employees.   Other than moving a $240 billion company’s world headquarters—something that’s not always feasible to achieve—how else can one enhance a leadership kit with tools for responding effectively to change?  The ability to think more creatively, form new habits, change paradigms, reframe one’s perspective, and think differently by learning new ideas are all tools that can aid in addressing the first element of leading change, that is identifying that change is needed.  The following examples highlight some of the ways one can learn to be more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.

    Creative Thinking 21st May 1974: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a quiet pipe on the set of 'Monty Python and the Holy Grail'. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    Popular British comedy group Monty Python expressed creative thinking in all of their productions, further captured by their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”.  Pictured above: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a quiet pipe on the set of ‘Monty Python and the Holy Grail’. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    IBM interviewed 1500 CEOs around the world in 2010 and found Creativity is now the single most important leadership competency and is needed in all aspects of leadership.  If one thinks in the same way as everyone else, the opportunity for new ideas (and new solutions) is limited.  The irreverent and offbeat humor of Monty Python is captured in their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”  Think Different! is the mantra for Steve Jobs and Apple, as eloquently explained in Simon Sinek’s Start with Why. Sir Ken Robinson, author and the holder of the top TED Talk Do Schools Kill Creativity, defines creativity as, “the process of having original ideas that have value.” There are many ways to increase creativity, including:

  • Establishing a culture in which failure is a part of learning.  “A growing number companies are explicitly rewarding failure – giving cash prizes or trophies to people who foul up (WSJ). Earlier in his career, Johnson & Johnson CEO James Burke once went to see Mr. Johnson after his product launch failed miserably.  Instead of being fired as expected, Mr. Burke found instead that Mr. Johnson shook his hand and congratulated Burke on the failure.  Along with the handshake, Burke was given the following advice that became his philosophy: “Business is about making decisions.  You can’t make decisions without failures.  Don’t ever make that same mistake again, but please, keep making new mistakes!”  Burke made this philosophy “always making new mistakes” an important value within his leadership vision. Similarly, Michael Jordan credits his success with ability to overcome the fear of failure: “I’ve missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I’ve also lost more than 300 games. 26 times I’ve been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”
  • Collaboration.  Ken Robinson touts that creativity loves collaboration as even individual creativity is almost always stimulated by the work, ideas and achievements of other people. Author Daniel Goleman agrees:  “A close-knit team, drawing on the particular strengths and skills of each member of the group, may be smarter and more effective than any individual member of that group. Yale psychologist Robert Sternberg calls it “group IQ”—the sum total of all the talents of each person in the group. When a team is harmonious, the group IQ is highest…The value of collaboration is a hard lesson to learn in [some] cultures, where the trailblazing lone hero has long been idolized, and where the role of the individual are so often placed over those of the group. But even those working alone can learn the advantages of teamwork.”
  • Positive thinking.  It has been proven that merely thinking you are more creative increases creativity. Change your attitude with the mantra: I am creative. IDEO founder David Kelley found positive reinforcement increased creativity for employees and helped discover new solutions to design challenges.  As people become more comfortable with the realization that they can be more creative, the upward spiral of success is reinforced.  Goleman concurs: “The more you can experience your own originality, the more confidence you get, the greater the probability that you’ll be creative in the future.”
  • Challenge the Rules. Pablo Picasso believed in challenging tradition, “Every act of creation is first of all an act of destruction.”  A questioning attitude of asking “why” multiple times for the same question (e.g. why do we use time clocks for front line employees?) may result in discovering established rules may be hurting more than helping and organization. For example, typewriters were designed with QWERTY keyboards to avoid keys from sticking together if the operator went too fast (i.e. slowed down how fast one could type).  Why do computer keyboards still use this configuration as a default?  World War II American five-star General Douglas MacArthur  believed “you are remembered by the rules you break.”
  • Humor. “More than four decades of study by various researchers confirms some common-sense wisdom: Humor, used skillfully, greases the management wheels” (Sala). When people are working together on a problem, those groups that laugh most readily and most often are more creative and productive than their serious counterparts. Joking around makes good sense because playfulness is itself a creative state (Goleman). The use of humor or “being silly” can reduce stress and create a learning environment conducive to new ideas.  Author Jonah Lehrer agrees: “When people are exposed to a short video of stand-up comedy, they solve about 20% more insight puzzles.”
  • Brainstorming.  Building upon the traditional brainstorming technique where ideas are developed in an atmosphere of non-judgmental environment, additional creative methods have emerged, including Edward Debono’s Six Thinking Hats, where “wearing” different colored hats requires addressing the situation with a special focus, Synectics’ inclusion of springboard and excursion techniques to expand idea generation and mind mapping to visually develop ideas. At IDEO, brainstorming sessions include the “odd person in” technique, involving people from very different backgrounds that can spark new ideas.
  • New Habits

    Creating a new habit or set of habits is another way to change how we see things.  In his iconic 1989 book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen Covey illustrates how powerful an influence habits can be in our lives. Covey describes a habit as the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire: “Knowledge is the what we do and why we do it [principles], desire is the motivation, the want to do, and skill is the how to do.” His seven habits—Be Proactive, Begin with the end in mind, Put first things first, Think win/win, Seek first to understand…then be understood, Synergize, and Sharpen the saw—provide a way of thinking and acting in business and life.  By embracing these habits, one can maintain a better balance and create the opportunity to find new ways of looking at situations.

    Barista Kim Jung Mi, a mother who had left the workforce seven years ago and is now employed by Starbucks Coffee Korea Co. under its "returning-mom" program, right, serves a customer at one of the company's stores in Gimpo, South Korea, on Friday, March 7, 2014. Starbucks Korea's "returning-mom" program is part of a drive to raise female participation in Asia's fourth-largest economy as the nation's first female leader, President Park Geun Hye, tries to counter the effects of an aging population. Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    Through role playing, discussion, and feedback, Starbucks employees are trained to develop habits of willpower. (Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

    Charles Duhigg’s more recent bestseller, The Power of Habit, addresses the idea of habits as “why we do what we do in business and life.”  Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the habit loop.  For example, Starbucks develops habits of willpower to help their staff deal with stressful times. Through role-playing, discussion, and feedback, they train employees how to react to a cue (e.g., an angry customer or a busy period) by choosing a certain routine ahead of time (e.g., remaining calm, looking for solutions, etc.). When an inflection point arrives (cue), employees are able to handle the situation smoothly, resulting in the reward of a satisfied customer and successful chaos management. In this scenario, Starbucks helps their staff create habits by helping them change how they approach and address dilemmas.  One employee now thinks of his green Starbucks apron as a shield – when he puts it on, angry customers can no longer affect him!

    Cue

    Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the habit loop.

    Reframing

    “The power of reframing things can unlock a vast array of solutions to problems big and small,” states author Tina Seelig.  She illustrates reframing using a classic scene from the Pink Panther movie (a hospitality example, no less).

    Inspector Clouseau: Does your dog bite?

    Hotel Clerk: No.

    Clouseau [bowing down to pet the dog] Nice doggie.

    [The dog bites Clouseau’s hand.]

    Clouseau: I thought you said your dog did not bite!

    Hotel clerk: That is not my dog.

    We might be tempted to blame the clerk when the dog bites Clouseau, but the clerk’s final statement surprises us and causes us to consider the situation differently.

    One of the key elements of reframing is to view a circumstance with a fresh perspective. In Tom Stoppard’s play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, we see Shakespeare’s classic story of Hamlet through the lens of two minor characters, and in the Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz story is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complex and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the Good Witch.  Reframing a situation allows the possibility of new lessons and solutions which otherwise may go unnoticed.

    NEW YORK - JUNE 6: (HOLLYWOOD REPORTER OUT) American singer and actress Idina Menzel of "Wicked" performs on stage during the "58th Annual Tony Awards" at Radio City Music Hall on June 6, 2004 in New York City. The Tony Awards are presented by the League of American Theatres and Producers and the American Theatre Wing. (Photo by Frank Micelotta/Getty Images)

    The Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz story is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complex and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the Good Witch. (Photo by Frank Micelotta/Getty Images)

    In their approach to reframing, authors Bolman and Deal use frames as a useful tool to make sense of organizations.  The four frames, structural (emphasizing roles & policies), human resource (highlighting human needs, skills and relationships), political (focuses on power, conflict and competition) and symbolic (emphasizing culture, meaning, ceremonies and stories) offer different perspective on how to think about organizations.  Each frame provides a different language and model in managing, evaluating, diagnosing and understanding and leading an organization.  Altering the way in which we typically frame an organization can help us better communicate with those who interpret the organization differently.  Viewing an organization from different frames may also unleash a variety of new ideas to address current or emerging dilemmas or raise up new opportunities to respond to change in our world.

    Another example of reframing is illustrated, quite literally, in how we view the world. This spring, 600 classrooms in the Boston Public School system switched from teaching the traditional European-centric Mercator map, developed in the 1500s, to the Peters Projection map (1974), in which land masses are more accurately represented in relation (size and proximity) to one another.  For example, using the Mercator map, Greenland and Africa appear the same size; in the Peters map, however, Africa, which is 14 times larger than Greenland, is more proportionally displayed.  This idea was brought to mainstream US in a 2001 West Wing clip by the ‘cartographers for social equality’. At one point, when confronted with these new perspectives, a West wing official asked, “You mean Germany is not where we think it is?”— to which a cartographer responded, “Nothing is where you think it is.” The issue of perspective and change about our world, met with incredulity in a fictional drama, became reality this spring in Boston Public Schools.

    Paradigms Shifts

    The Oxford Dictionary defines a paradigm as “a typical example or pattern of something; a pattern or model.” Scientist Thomas Kuhn introduced the concept of the paradigm shift in his influential 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.  Groundbreaking paradigm shifts include examples in areas as diverse as physics, health, and astronomy—think of what Galileo had to go though to convince royalty that the earth rotated around the sun (Copernicus theory) when most astronomers believed the reverse to be true.  A paradigm shift changes how we look at things. Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling books focus on rethinking preconceived ideas, starting with his breakthrough 2006 book The Tipping Point and continuing with his more recent book David and Goliath, which offers several real life examples of when a perceived strength can be a weakness and a weakness… a strength.  For example, an extraordinary high number of successful entrepreneurs are dyslexic, including Jet Blue founder David Neeleman.  The challenge of dyslexia as a child may provide coping skills later in life – billionaire Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Air considers his dyslexia his greatest business advantage.

    AUSTIN, TX - MARCH 15: Journalist Malcolm Gladwell attends 'Bill Gurley And Malcolm Gladwell In Conversation' during the 2015 SXSW Music, Film + Interactive Festival at Austin Convention Center on March 15, 2015 in Austin, Texas. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    “As the playwright George Bernard Shaw once put it: “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man,” from Malcolm Gladwell’s David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    In business, paradigm shift examples include disruptive innovations (e.g., the Internet, mobile technology, and big data analytics), shifting global economies, climate change, employee and societal demands, and changing consumer preferences.  Futurist Joel Barker explains that when a paradigm shift occurs, everything resets to zero, past successes guarantee nothing, and shifting business models shift to create new realities.  For example, once-successful big box stores and corporations that could not adapt to the digital age, such as Borders Books, Blockbuster, and Kodak, went bankrupt. Compare these examples to Netflix, which was able to successfully navigate from their business model of renting DVDs through the mail to streaming movies and television shows over the internet to increase their market share.  Flexibility to adapt to paradigm shifts is a powerful tool. As Charles Darwin explains in describing his iconic research: “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”           

    UNSPECIFIED - AUGUST 01: Biology - Evolutionary theory: theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and of Charles Darwin. Illustration. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

    An illustration of Darwin’s well-known idea of “Survival of the Fittest” (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)       

    Self-Reflection and Understanding

    Shifting paradigms and changing one’s perspective starts with self-reflection: the better we understand ourselves, the better we can approach change.  Daniel Goleman provides the multi-faceted framework of emotional intelligence, including two personal competencies (self awareness and self management) and two social competencies (relationship management and social awareness) that should be examined to help better understand moods and how they affect those around them. Peter Drucker asserts in order to be productive over a 50-year work-life it is important to cultivate a deep understanding of one’s self.  He offers several penetrating questions in his Harvard Business Review article Managing Oneself, including “How do I work?” “Where do I belong?” and  “What can I contribute?”

    There are also many tools available to help provide insight into the ways in which we each view and navigate the world around us. With over two million Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessments being administered every year in more than 70 countries, this personality profile tool, based on the work of noted psychologist Carl Jung, continues to be wildly popular in helping people better understand themselves. Key MBTI elements include how we focus our energy (introversion vs. extroversion), the way we take in information (sensing vs. intuitive), make decisions (thinking vs. feeling) and our attitudes toward the external world and how we orient ourselves to it (view the world to be organized and orderly vs. flexible and be experienced).  The Big Five personality traits, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO), Thomas-Kilmann conflict mode instrument (TKI), and the Strong Interest inventory are all additional tools that can help analyze one’s preferences.

    Identifying one’s personal values is also a strong trend in business today, with a plethora of instruments available for self-discovery.  For example, after a two-day, internal values-clarification exercise, each member of the senior leadership team of the Vail Centre posts his/her top five values on the company’s website for everyone to see.  Determining and focusing on one’s strengths rather than one’s weaknesses is the cornerstone approach to Gallop Poll and Don Clifton’s Strengthfinder 2.0.  This self-assessment tool enables one to identify their  top 5 of 34 different talent themes, from Achiever to WOO (winning others over).  By better understanding one’s natural instincts, strengths, weaknesses and personal preferences, one can increase the likelihood to learn how other colleagues or customers from different backgrounds, cultures, generations or perspectives see things differently, enabling new approaches or frames to address change.

    In his book, The Spirit to Serve, Marriott International founder J.W. Marriott, Jr.  adopted 19th century philosophy Alfred North Whitehead’s  perspective when developing the Marriott Way, “The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order.”  The ability to think differently as the hospitality industry moves into uncharted territories—both nationally and internationally, within organizations and in local markets, online and in person—is becoming more important as change continues to evolve at a faster pace than ever before.  Being nimble and open-minded enough to adapt, addressing challenges and/or seizing opportunities, will determine which companies wither away and which ones thrive.  At the heart of these circumstances is the ability to recognize trends, realize the need for change and act on these situations in ways that navigate the needs of an organization, and its staff and customers.  Mental flexibility, adaptability, creativity and personal awareness are key tools in this process that can help hospitality leaders see things from different perspectives, gain new insights, develop and pilot new ideas and better respond to an ever-changing world.

    PDF Version Available Here

    Oshins

    Michael Oshins is Associate Professor of the Practice of Leadership in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. He is former Vice President of Integer Dynamics, a hospitality consulting firm focused on operational productivity and technology. He holds a doctorate in human resource education from Boston University and a master’s degree in hotel administration from Cornell University. Email: moshins@bu.edu References
  • Arielly, Dan (2008). Predictably Irrational. HarperCollins. New York.
  • Barker, Joel. (1985). Discovering the Future: The Business of Paradigms. HarperCollins.
  • Boitnott, John. (2014, September 24) .J. 10 longtime brainstorming techniques that still work. Inc.
  • Bolman, Lee G. and Terrence E. Deal (2013). Reframing Organizations. Jossey Bass. San Francisco.
  • Buckingham, Marcus (2005). The One Thing You Need to Know. Simon and Shuster. New York.
  • Chesto, Jon. (2016, March 24). GE CEO explains why he’s moving headquarters to Boston. Boston Globe Retrieved from: https://www.bostonglobe.com/business /2016/03/24/ceo-tells-boston-business-leaders-why-moving-boston/1j6TiNUnzrnb3QWkEa5ZuM/story.html
  • Covey, Stephen (1989). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.
  • Cpp The Myers Briggs Company. MBTI, FIRO, TKI, Strong instruments (2017). Retrieved from https://www.cpp.com/en/index.aspx
  • De Bono, Edward (1970). Lateral Thinking. Harper & Row. New York.
  • Duhigg, Charles (2014). The Power of Habit.  Random House. New York.
  • Drucker, Peter (2005). Managing Oneself. (Best of HBR 1999 reprint) Harvard Business Review
  • Dyer, Wayne. Retrieved from https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes /w/waynedyer384143.html
  • Felino, Richard. (2015, April 9). Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/richard-branson-dyslexia-as-advantage-2015-4
  • Gladwell, Malcolm (2000). The Tipping Point. Little, Brown and company. New York.
  • Gladwell, Malcolm (2013).  David and Goliath. Little, Brown and company. New York.
  • Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review (Best of HBR, 2004 reprint). R0401H
  • Goleman, D. and Kaufman, D.(1992, March 1). The Art of Creativity.  Psychology Toda.  Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/199203/the-art-creativity
  • Frederick Herzberg (2003, Jan 1). One More time: How do you motivate employees? (HBR Bestseller, 1968 reprint). Harvard Business Review.
  • Kotter, John. (2001, December 1). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review R0111F-PDF-ENG
  • Lehrer, Jonah (2012, March 10). How to be creative. Wall Street Journal. (p. C1).
  • Levitt, Steven and Dubner Stephen (2005). Freakonomics. HarperCollins. New York.
  • Marriott, J.W. Jr, and Brown, Kathi Ann (1997).  The Spirit to Serve.  Harper Collins, New York.
  • Pink, Daniel. (2005). A Whole New Mind. Penguin Group. New York.
  • Rath, Tom (2007). StrengthsFinder 2.0. Gallop Press. New York.
  • Robinson, Ken (2011).  Out of Our Minds.  Capstone Publishing, Chichester, United Kingdom
  • Seelig, Tina. (2013, Jan 1). Shift your Lens: The Power of Reframing Problems. Rotman Management Magazine. Source: Harvard Business Publishing ROT190-PDF-ENG
  • Shellenbarger, Sue. (2011, September 27).  Better ideas through failure. Wall Street Journal
  • Vail Centre (2017). Retrieved from: https://vailcentre.org/the-team/
  • Tedlow, R. and Smith, W.   (2005, October 20). James Burke: A career in American business. (A). Harvard Business School Publishing (case study) 9-389-177.
  • Von Oech, Roger. (1983). A Whack on the Side of the Head. Warner Books. New York.
  • Whip, Douglas (2014).  People: Teaching Willpower Spurs Starbucks’ Business Growth. Retrieved from http://strategicdiscipline.positioningsystems.com/bid/105067/People-Teaching-Willpower-Spurs-Starbucks-Business-Growth
  • June 12th, 2017 in Hotels, Spring 2017, Technology, Uncategorized

    Rack room cover

    By Peter Szende and Pooja Reddy

    Front-of-House & Front Desk

    Have you ever really noticed the front desks of the hotels that you visit? Chances are, you don’t think twice about it—because more and more, the front-of-house area is designed to be subtle and unobtrusive. If you are aware of the front desk area, it’s more likely to be due to its high-tech accoutrements and services. Some hotels now come equipped with features like automated check-in kiosks and even computerized luggage carriers. While this may not be the standard, it’s rapidly becoming more common and indicates the direction that hotels are taking for their front-of-house environments. Since the front desk is usually the first point of contact that guests have with a hotel and is where they check in and out, request information, settle their accounts, and offer different types of feedback (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988), the accessibility and style of this area can make a huge impact.

    Prior to the introduction of computerization and other technological updates, front office tasks were performed quite differently, although the front desk was just as integral and the system  was extremely orderly and efficient. The evolution of the hotel front-of-house, as overseen by the front office department, over the last several decades indicates larger changes and trends within the hospitality industry itself. This article takes a trip back in time and offers a glimpse of the past through an exploration of the old systems of hotel front office racks.

    Let’s first go back to the early 20th century: during this time, hotels were considered to be “manual,” and most functions were carried out by systems that leveraged heavily on human capital. Besides billing and accounting, the hotel staff were responsible for duties like room status checks and guest registration. As advancing technology began to address some of these functions, hotels gradually transitioned to the use of “electromechanical systems which were semi- automated, before moving to a wholly computerized, fully automated arrangement” (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988). The heart of the front desk became a metal file system that consisted of pockets to hold rooming and reservations slips, called the room rack. You may already be familiar with the room rack without knowing: it is from this system that we have derived the term “rack rate,” the undiscounted price a hotel will charge for a room. Formerly, when guests arrived at a hotel without a reservation, “traditionally, the standard rate was posted on or near the room rack.” (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988, p. 110).

    John Willy Room Rack [Advertisement] (1920, July). The Hotel Monthly, 28(328) p. 11.

    John Willy Room Rack [Advertisement] (1920, July). The Hotel Monthly, 28(328) p. 11.

    The pneumatic tube was also a system used in earlier hotels. Behind the clerk’s desk, where the mail and information racks were located, a battery of pneumatic tubes connected to every department of the hotel. These extensively utilitarian tubes carried a mass of information ranging from mails and orders to charges and meal checks. These tubes saved a lot of time and labor and accelerated several procedures by creating a network between service departments (Willy, 1919). Even as recently as the 1980s, you could send restaurants checks through this pressurized air network directly to the hotel’s front office cashier. In just a few seconds, the check traveled through the pneumatic tube to the bill clerk, who would quickly post the charges before the guest checked out.

    Key Front Office Positions in a Manual Hotel

    Today, it would be almost impossible to maintain a room rack or pneumatic tube system because the sheer size and breakdown of contemporary hotels render it completely impracticable. However, hotels in the past were smaller and contained fewer major departments. For example, the New Yorker Hotel’s front office consisted of three departments: the reservations department, the mail and information department, and the rooms department. Using the New Yorker Hotel as of 1931 as an example, we can trace the history and development of these departments and the positions within them.

    Reservations Department

    Reservation clerk: The reservation clerks answered reservation telephones and filed reservation slips or tabs in the room rack. The slips or tabs were usually color-coded to denote the type of reservations. Below is an example of a color code system (Dukas, 1960, pp. 24-25).

    Regular Reservation Late Arrival Special Attention Conventions Travel Agency Reservation

    In more advanced reservation systems, hotel reservationists completed carbonated, perforated rack slips on a typewriter, after which copies were distributed to various areas of the front office and hotel as needed.

    Mail and Information Department

    Mail and information clerk: Like the reservation clerks, the mail clerks answered telephones and inquiries specific to their department’s purview. They also made verifications of “unregistered” reports which are given out by switchboard operators. The mail clerk checked emergency arrival slips and accepted incoming telegrams and special delivery letters. He/she also handed out keys and mail to guests.

    Tube clerk: The tube clerks were in charge of receiving and dispatching mail to and from the different floors and departments through the pneumatic tube system.

    Rooms department:

    Room clerk: Room clerks were stationed at the registration desk to serve the guests. The room clerk had to be knowledgeable about the different types of rooms in the hotels, along with their respective amenities, furniture, and location. The room clerk instantly knew how to handle each arrival, as the color of the slips the guest carried or received indicated the type of booking (Ducas, 1960).

    Rack clerk: Rack clerks were in charge of checking the status and condition of the rack at any point of time, as well as at specific hours against vacancy reports, and made any necessary corrections.

    Stacks of Racks: the Different Types of Racks

    The room rack is only the tip of the iceberg: hotels adopted a rack system for just about every facet of their front desk operations. Not only did they each serve different purposes, but the various structures also reflected different styles and systems in vogue at the time. It may be hard to imagine what they might have looked like; so, since a picture is worth a thousand words, we have compiled a quick photo gallery to create a visual guide to the past.

    Reservation Rack

    The reservation racks contained the names of the expected guests and their arrival dates. Typically, there was one rack for every day of the upcoming months and fewer racks for future arrival dates. In larger hotels, racks often covered the whole wall of the reservation office.

    Dumont [Advertisement] (1917, April). Office Appliances, XXV(4) p. 26.

    Dumont [Advertisement] (1917, April). Office Appliances, XXV(4) p. 26.

     

    Room Rack

    According to Ismail (2002, p. 200), “The room rack would identify each room type and configuration at a glance,” as well as the occupancies and vacancies available in the hotel (Dukas, 1960, p. 37). Managers would mark each room on the rack according to a certain color code in order to note the room status. The unique code would provide information regarding the occupancy, cleanliness, and pricing of that particular room. The room rack not only indicated the type and location of the room, but also details like the room’s occupancy status, its rate for single and double occupancy, and its connections to abutting rooms (Dukas, 1960).

    Much like today’s front desk set-ups, room racks were designed to be nearly invisible upon check-in. Sophisticated systems were typically mounted and arranged in a 60-degree angle behind the front desk. A typical room rack is shown in the picture below.

    Handling Guests’ Accounts and Reservations (1953, January). Hotel Monthly, 61(718), p. 45.

    Handling Guests’ Accounts and Reservations (1953, January). Hotel Monthly, 61(718), p. 45.

    This is how the ‘The Hotel World Magazine’ described the job of room clerks upon visiting a hotel in New York City:

    Swan, W.R. (1921, November 12). The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(20), p. 10.

    Swan, W.R. (1921, November 12). The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(20), p. 10.

    As with any object feature, time and innovation gradually caused the room rack to evolve. Frederick A. Muschenheim, the brother of the owner of the Astor Hotel in New York, made several innovations in hotel technology (Miscellaneous Hotel Notes, 1913, p. 66)., one of which was a room rack frame with flexible card holders mounted on pivots.     

    Muschenheim, F. (1908, February 11). Hotel Room Rack. U.S. Patent No. 878, 554. Washington, DC: United States Patent Office.

    Muschenheim, F. (1908, February 11). Hotel Room Rack. U.S. Patent No. 878, 554. Washington, DC: United States Patent Office.

    Sales Rack

    To avoid selling the same room twice and to facilitate the sales of rooms, busy hotels used a control rack that consisted of the cards of every room in the hotel that was available for sale.

    Room Sales Rack with Price Zones and Markers

    The Hotel Monthly (1920, March), 28(324), p. 31.

    The Hotel Monthly (1920, March), 28(324), p. 31.

    Letter and Key Rack

    The letter and key racks contained pigeon holes for the aforementioned items. They maintained guest keys and were arranged by room number.

    Letter and Key Rack at the Hilton Istanbul

    Hospitality Archive, Hilton College, University of Houston

    Hospitality Archive, Hilton College, University of Houston

    Key racks were sometimes combined with the room rack in order to minimize the number of racks. Below is an example:

    Used by permission. Copyright ©2017 all rights reserved. American Hotel Register Company.

    Used by permission. Copyright ©2017 all rights reserved. American Hotel Register Company.

    Information Rack

    These racks contained the names and room numbers of all the registered guests of the hotel. The racks were alphabetically organized by the guests last name.

    A Rotary Type Information Rack

    Source: Kohler [Advertisement] (1921, July 2.) The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(1), p. 59.

    Source: Kohler [Advertisement] (1921, July 2.) The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(1), p. 59.

     

    Room Racks with Electric Signaling Devices – Early Efforts

    In order to facilitate instant communication between the room clerks and the housekeeping department, the Astor Hotel in New York introduced an electrical system with lights in the early 20th century. The system is said to have consisted of a set of sockets for small electric bulbs which were positioned at the front of the room rack. The system was directly linked to bulbs on the doors of every room. When the room clerks received notice from the cashiers that a guest had vacated the room, they would place a bulb into the corresponding room number on the rack. The bulb would light up, and the light on the room door would immediately flash up and down at regular intervals. This brought the attention of the housekeeping staff, who inserted a key below the bulb on the door when he or she went in to make up the room. This would then turn off both the light on the door and the light on the room rack as well. The automatic signal device saved a considerable amount of time and labor (Efficiency at Astor, p. 26).

    Room Racks with Electric Signaling Devices – Efforts at the Advent of Computerization

    In the 1970s, leading hotel chains of the time, such as Hilton and InterContinental, significantly enriched their hotel signaling systems. Following in the footsteps of Muschenheim, room racks evolved to be complemented by consoles that indicated room status and housekeeping requirements. Toward the end of the 1980’s, computerized systems based on a combination of lights enhanced front office operations by indicating the exact room status next to each room rack slip. Housekeeping employees could change the status of the room rack remotely by turning their keys in a socket located in the guest rooms.

    Room Status Light Combinations on the Room rack at the Forum Hotel Budapest in the 1980s. (Courtesy of Péter Várhegyi)

    ROOM-STATUS

    In automated systems, most of the racks discussed above were eliminated, as information is internally managed by the computer systems. Today, it is rare to find any hotel operating on a rack system; letter and key racks occasionally still exist to preserve a memento of the past.

    PDF Version Available Here

    image 11 Dr. Peter Szende has over 25 years of management experience in the hospitality industry in both Europe and North America. He joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration as an Assistant Professor in 2003. He was promoted to Associate Professor of the Practice in 2010. Currently, he serves as Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.Pooja Reddy is a senior at Boston University, pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Administration and a double minor in Business and Deaf Studies. She currently works as a student office assistant at the School of Hospitality Administration, and a marketing intern for Tasting Counter, Somerville. References
  • Willy, J. (1919). Hotel Pennsylvania of New York. The Hotel Monthly, 27(321), p. 28.
  • Efficiency at Astor. (1917, September 15). Hotel World, LXXXV(11), p. 26.
  • Ismail, A. (2002). Front Office: Operations and Management. Albany, NY: Delmar
  • Dukas, P. (1960). Hotel Front Office Management and Operation. Dubuque, IA: WM.C. Brown.
  • New Yorker Hotel (1931). Front Office Manual.
  • Steadmon, C., & Kasavana, M. (1988). Managing Front Office Operations. East Lansing, MI: AH&MA.
  • Miscellaneous Hotel Notes (1913, May). The Hotel Monthly, 21(242) p. 66.
  • June 7th, 2017 in Business Practices, Hotels, Marketing, Spring 2017, Technology, Uncategorized

    The TripAdvisor Inc. application is demonstrated on an Apple Inc. iPhone for a photograph in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Friday, May 5, 2017. TripAdvisor is scheduled to released earnings figures on May 9. Photographer: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    Photo Source: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    By Nick Cohen

    The year is 2001, and the world is still recovering from the tragedy of September 11th.  The travel industry is in a downward spiral as fears of flying and terrorism ripple across the United States and beyond, and hotels have lost significant occupancy due to a decrease in demand.

    Simultaneously, a fledgling technology is emerging which will eventually take advantage of the internet explosion, as well as hotel management’s desperation to fill rooms. It will reshape our industry forever, and this platform now commonly referred to as Online Travel Agencies, or OTAs, will allow hotels to easily sell their rooms on the internet through new consumer facing websites such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.

    Fast forward to 2017. The OTA’s have gained the majority of market share for online reservations, and digital platforms like Booking.com and Ctrip.com have loyal member volumes that far surpass brand websites.  In many cases, the OTA companies are valued well beyond traditional hotel brands (as of May 2017, Priceline Group has a market capitalization of nearly USD 92 Billion).  They have also helped to create a new concept as they grew in popularity and scale over the last number of years, and it was the precedent of transparency. Pricing that was once hidden to the everyday user, could now be exposed to the whole world, publicly, with a few clicks online. As OTA channels grew enormously with time, so did the access to real time rates and availability for virtually every hotel around the world.

    With this concept in mind, from the OTA’s we have seen the rapid expansion of ‘meta search’ channels. These are one-stop price comparison platforms where a customer can view a price for a single hotel room across multiple websites (without having to browse those websites one-by-one). Sites within this category include Kayak, Trivago, TripAdvisor, Qunar and Google, and they are all working to simplify the travel research process for consumers.

    OTA

    Featured above are some of the most popular meta search channels

    With the OTA channels continuing to grow through massive marketing efforts and superior technology, and with meta search sites following their lead, a relatively new challenge has emerged for hoteliers. It represents a very complex dynamic between one of the most traditional ways to sell a hotel room, and one of the most modern ways to sell a hotel room. This once again all comes back to the concept of price transparency. Wholesale has been a core business driver in hotels for many years, helping properties build base business through private negotiated rates and partnerships. Historically, these wholesalers would sell their inventory offline to their own private networks of contacts. Even though the pricing would typically be lower than publicly available RACK rates, it was a reliable foundation of occupancy for hotels to build off of.

    As technology has become more sophisticated with Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) readily available, we have seen the rapid growth of wholesale rates being sold publicly, online, through some of the powerful meta search channels mentioned above.  This means that wholesalers are selling discounted rates, which directly undercut brand websites and OTAs, to anyone who has access to the internet.  Beyond just meta search, some OTA websites are now even positioning themselves as ‘online marketplaces,’ where they too will sell wholesale inventory directly instead of the inventory provided by the hotels. To remain competitive and increase market share, online channels want to sell the lowest price possible, even if it means reducing their own margins by selling a cheaper room to the customer.

    OTA Meta search

    Meta Search Websites such as HotelsCombined (shown above) showcase wholesale aggregator sites like Amoma.com and HotelQuickly.com which have prices that undercut the brand’s direct website and other OTA channels

    You would think that hoteliers would want to fix this problem immediately. Online wholesale business undercuts channels which are much more profitable such as their direct brand website.  This issue however is multi-layered and is not easy to remedy for the following key reasons:

    Hotels still want wholesale business!

    Hotels still maintain strong relationships with a number of wholesale partners, big and small, and they rely on these partnerships to generate base business. Turning off these channels would potentially mean the loss of significant revenues, at least in the short term.  Although wholesale channels can undercut other websites when sold online, they also still generate incremental business when sold offline through the traditional method

    Finding the source of whole business online can be very difficult

    When wholesale rates appears online, it’s generally very difficult to know which wholesaler specifically is providing that inventory. The wholesale partners themselves don’t generally sell rooms through their own websites, but sell their rates through wholesale aggregation channels such as Amoma.com.  It’s channels like Amoma who then sell the rates online through their own interface, and promote their rates through larger meta search intermediaries such as Trivago and TripAdvisor.  Generally the only way to find the true source is to make a test booking online, and then track how that reservation comes into the hotel’s central reservation system (each reservation is typically flagged with an inventory source).  Many hotels are reluctant to do this since a booking requires use of a credit card and sometimes even pre-payment, and then cancellation of that test booking is not always easy to do. The test booking process is both cumbersome to manage at scale, and is also financially risky for a hotel if those booking cannot be cancelled.

    Room bookings can be made through Amoma.com and other wholesale aggregator websites by anyone online. However, the back end wholesale source for each booking from Amoma and other channels like it can be very challenging for a hotel to identify

    Room bookings can be made through Amoma.com and other wholesale aggregator websites by anyone online. However, the back end wholesale source for each booking from Amoma and other channels like it can be very challenging for a hotel to identify.

    Employee incentives are at stake

    Within hotel sales departments, team members are still incentivized to drive wholesale volume, regardless of where that volume is being sold (offline or online). Wholesale partners generally don’t provide specifics on how they are selling their inventory, and as long as room allotments are sold, the responsible sales team members are satisfied. This is creating an unavoidable rift between the direction of some sales leaders with the revenue management and digital strategy teams.

    So what’s next?

    Hotel companies are dealing with this situation in a variety of ways. Some are cutting off wholesale altogether since they simply can’t control where their inventory is ending up. Others are maintaining the partnerships, but are working to move away from static room allotments and over to dynamic pricing and availability where the hotels have more control over the inventory they send to the wholesalers. This is a major problem facing the industry that very much remains unsolved.

    If we take ourselves back to the 2001, price transparency was a challenge for hoteliers. Properties simply didn’t have direct access to a large enough segment of customers, therefore traditional partnerships like wholesale was an absolute necessity. With the growth of the OTAs though, and the emergence of new technologies such as meta search, that access is no longer an issue. The world is accessible for each hotel with a few quick key strokes on a computer. It is now only a matter of time until hoteliers make one of the following decisions:

  • Utilize wholesalers purely as another online distribution channel, selling rates that are parity with every other website (brand.com and OTAs)
  • Remove wholesale out of the channel mix altogether, realizing that room inventory can be be sold among the multitude of websites and digital platforms already available
  • PDF Version Available Here

    Nick Cohen HeadshotNick Cohen is based in Hong Kong and leads digital strategy for Hyatt Hotels in Asia Pacific.  He oversees online marketing efforts for all Hyatt brands and properties across the region, and manages a variety of e-Commerce and digital platform projects to help increase online revenues for the company. Prior to joining Hyatt, Nick held senior e-Commerce and digital marketing roles at Langham Hospitality Group, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Sabre Hospitality Solutions.  Earlier in his career, working on-property for various hotels he developed extensive knowledge in operations, along with Sales & Marketing and Revenue Management expertise. Nick also holds a graduate diploma in Hotel and Tourism Business Management from Boston University.   Sources:

    October 3rd, 2016 in Fall 2016, History, Hotels, Restaurants, Technology, Uncategorized

    By Peter Szende and Annie Holcombe

    The evolution of society and technology has created new trends and innovations. The hospitality industry tries to stay level with new technological advances in order to keep up and engage with their guests. This modernization has eliminated various practices and inventions that were once predominant in the industry.

    Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, tourism changed dramatically due to the industrial revolution. A middle class emerged in society. This new class had the money and opportunity to spend on food and travel. Travel was made easier with the invention of steam engines that powered locomotives and automobiles. Through modernization, steam engines have been eradicated and replaced by diesel-powered engines.

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. The Servidor enhanced a guest’s privacy during their hotel stay. In Chicago, the Berghoff restaurant successfully operated on an old German system of coins until 1980. These once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

    The Servidor – The Silent Servant

    During the early 1900’s, technological advances such as the electric fridge invented in 1910 and the creation of stainless steel in 1916 started to modernize the hospitality industry. In June 1918, the contraption known as the Servidor began emerging in hotels. The Hotel Fort Shelby of Detroit was the first hotel in the world that implemented Servidor service. (Ibbotson, p. 45).  The Servidor transformed the way hotels provided guest services by offering guests the privacy of a real home.

    hotel cleveland Hotel Cleveland advertising Servidor Service. Source: Hotel Cleveland [Advertisement]. (1922, January). The Hotel Monthly, 30(346), 103.

    Servidors consisted of a full-length cabinet, which has one door on the room side and another one on the corridor side. Its privacy feature was the fact that the doors could not be opened at the same time due to an interlocking device. For safety, the door to the room side could only be opened from inside the guest room, not from the outside. This protected guests from intruders. In order to notify the guests that there was a completed delivery in the door there was a silent signal device on the room side of the door. (Hastings, 1919).

    A Servidor was used to minimize interaction between guests and employees. Guests would telephone the front desk and request for items to be delivered to their rooms. Guests could also leave their clothes to be pressed or shoes to be shined in the Servidor. A hotel employee would grab it and then return it without disturbing or interrupting guests.  Servidors provided a modernized, efficient system for guests to receive and deliver their personal belongings. Guests were saved the trouble of bringing their parcels to and from the lobby.

    SErvidor Co Hotels highlighting minimized interaction with staff. Source: The Servidor Co. [Advertisement]. (1921, June). The Hotel World, 92(26) 4.

    This particular invention reduced inefficient practices such as delayed messengers and repeated service calls when guests were out of the room. All of these faulty practices resulted in an ineffective use of employees paid time.  Regardless of where the guests were and the time of day, Servidors allowed for a 24/7, delivery service, whether it was to the guest room or from the guest room. Employees would be able to leave guests’ belongings in the Servidor, thus making the hotel’s labor more efficient.

    The following magazine ad summarizes the anticipated advantages of Servidor. According to the Servidor company, installing their doors is a not only a service enrichment but also a profitable investment.

    Source: The Servidor Co. [Advertisement]. (1922, June). Hotel Management, I(5) 237.

    When the Hotel Pennsylvania, the largest hotel in the world at the time opened its door in 1919, the Statler management, known for breakthrough innovations, equipped the hotel with servidor. They enhanced this new feature with a morning newspapers amenity delivered discreetly through the servidor. (World’s biggest, 1919).

    Hotel Pennsylvania Source: Hastings, C. W. (1919, March) Hotel Pennsylvania, New York. Architecture and Building. LI, Number 3. 18-24.

    The Servidor changed the way hotels provided service to its guest, but also created new problems within its hotels. One issue was that guests would request items and have them charged to their hotel bills, but leave without having paid their bills. These guests were commonly known as skippers. In addition, because the Servidor minimized the interaction between hotel employees and guests, tipping occurred less frequently. When ensuring items were taken from and delivered to the Servidor employees did not come in contact with the guests in order to be tipped.

    Although the Servidor was widely seen in hotel advertisements in the middle of the twentieth century, the concept soon disappeared altogether from hotel advertisements. As hotels underwent upgrades and renovations the Servidor slowly disappeared. Today, the only place in the United States where Servidors still exist is the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City. However, the Servidors are no longer in use and have not been for decades. The doors have been sealed shut and are slowly being phased for modern wooden doors, eventually becoming a fragment of the hotel industry’s past.

    One of the few remaining Servidors in the Hotel Pennsylvannia. (Source: the author) One of the few remaining Servidors in the Hotel Pennsylvania. (Source: the author)

    Servers are Independent Contractors: The German System of Coins

    When the first author did his military service in the early 1980th in Hungary, he worked as a server for a night in an upscale military club where drinks could only be delivered to the guests if he paid for the drinks from his own pocket at the bar and then charged it to the customers. At that time he didn’t know too much about old time European restaurant cash control systems.      

    During the 1890’s Herman Berghoff, a German restaurateur began his career by selling beer from a stand outside the World’s Columbia Exposition in Chicago. He went on to open the Berghoff Café in 1898 where he sold his Berghoff Dortmunder Beer for five cents a glass and ten cents a stein. During the Prohibition era, which lasted from 1920 through 1933, Berghoff refocused his efforts from beer to making Bergo soda pops. To this day, the Berghoff Rootbeer is still popular. When the end of the prohibition came in 1933, Berghoff became the first person to receive his liquor license, Liquor License #1 was awarded to him for his bar and Liquor License #2 was awarded to him for his restaurant. Since then, Berghoff has received the first liquor license in Chicago every year.

    Berghoff Restaurant

    Throughout the years the bar itself has gone through various changes. Originally, Berghoff’s was a men-only bar. However, during the American Feminist Movement in the 1960s through 1970s, Gloria Steinem, a famous women’s rights activist walked into Berghoff’s and demanded to be served. Since, then Berghoff became a men and women’s bar. She modernized the traditional way Berghoff operated. In the 1950’s and 1960’s barstools became very popular and could soon be found in every restaurant and bar. Until 2001, Berghoff was a stand-up bar. Stools could not be found in the bar until 2001. Men and women would eat their sandwiches and drink their beer while standing up. To support themselves they would put their foot on a brass rail that can be found along the bottom of the mahogany bar.

    However, the biggest change the bar experienced occurred with modern technology in the 1980’s. Until 1980, the restaurant staff operated on the old German system of coins. The old German system of coins consisted of the waiters buying metal coins from the restaurant at the beginning of their shifts and using those coins to buy their customers’ food and beverages. In return, customers would pay for their bills using cash. At the end of their shifts, waiters’ checks were audited and to prevent theft, they had to “zero out.” (Berghoff, p. 41) Why coins? Servers were busy carrying plates in one hand, so they could easily reach the coins in the pocket of their aprons. (Ledermann, 2004). Their source of income came from their cash tips. With the 1980’s bringing about new technology, this system was soon eradicated with the modernization of computers, credit cards, and the new automated ordering and billing systems.

    True, this system seems to have largely disappeared but sporadic, old time examples indicate restaurants’ relentless efforts to secure their revenue. New Orleans’ Café Du Monde is one example of a modern restaurant that loosely follows the German System of Coins. (First Stop in New Orleans, 2010). Servers have trays that they will fill with Du Monde’s famous beignets and chicory root coffee. After they fill their trays, the food is purchased with their cash and the waiters serve their customers with the food. After, they have been served the customers pay the servers for their meal, therefore mimicking the German system of coins. Though the system has largely been eradicated it still influences how some businesses today are run.

    Coins (Photo Courtesy of The Berghoff) Szende Dr. Peter Szende has over 25 years of management experience in the hospitality industry in both Europe and North America. He joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration as an Assistant Professor in 2003. He was promoted to Associate Professor of the Practice in 2010. Currently, he serves as Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.     Annie Annie Holcombe is a senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration. Her studies and areas of interest include sales and digital marketing, revenue management, and finance.   

     

     

    References: Berghoff, C., Ryan, N. R. & Berghoff, J. (2007). The Berghoff Family Cookbook: From Our Table to Yours, Celebrating a Century of Entertaining. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC. Berghoff Restaurant History Facts [Information Sheet]. (n.d.) Chicago, IL: Berghoff Restaurant. First Stop in New Orleans, Café Du Monde. (2010, November 15). ChefsOnTheRoad. Retrieved from http://www.chefsontheroad.com/?p=3195 Hastings, C. W. (1919, March) Hotel Pennsylvania, New York. Architecture and Building. LI, Number 3. 18-24. Ibbotson, P. (2007). Detroit’s Historic Hotels and Restaurants. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. Mazur, A. (2016. May 23.) Personal Interview. Ledermann, R.P. (2004). Chicago’s State Street Christmas Parade. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. World’s biggest hotel opens today (1919, January 19). The New York Times, p. 9.   Acknowledgments: The authors of this article would like to acknowledge the staff of the Hotel Pennsylvania who made taking pictures of the Servidor possible. The authors would also like to thank Ashley Mazur, Marketing & Media Manager of Berghoff Catering & Restaurant Group as well as Paul Turner, server at the Berghoff for their assistance.

    PDF Version Available Here

    October 3rd, 2016 in Fall 2016, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Christopher Muller

    What is a restaurant?

    In today’s omni-channel foodservice system what exactly does it mean to say something is a restaurant meal?  Does it mean a full formal dining experience with a chef-prepared customized meal, presented by a waiter to a guest at a table with a white tablecloth or can it be a hand-made burrito delivered by a kid on a bicycle working for a third party service directly to your front door?

    Ultimately the question comes down to determining the two main components of a restaurant, food and service. For the food the questions are: how fresh is it; what form is it in; and how close to immediately edible is the preparation of each meal? For the service the main question is: how much supplier labor intensity is required versus how much consumer labor intensity is necessary?

    The Evolution of Form and Function

    Just a few decades ago the restaurant experience was divided into only two categories, Full Service (or “white table cloth”) and Limited Service (or “counter service’) restaurants.  Both were built on the requirement that food was personally served by someone to the consumer, typically in a very structured menu format, inside a simple square meter of physical space.  The diner was expected to have a working knowledge of this system: being informed of the hand crafted preparation in the kitchen by the trained chef or a skilled short-order cook; the nature of the logical flow of the courses as they were presented; and how to order and pay (including how to properly leave a tip).  For the vast majority of customers this was something done only on special occasions or when dining away from home, and could be too intimidating to master.

    Then in the mid-1950’s came a new upstart, the Fast-Food or Quick Service Restaurant, which by being systems based and not chef driven created a new approach to how consumers viewed the dining experience.  In a disruption of tradition, both the composition and order of the meal (“…if I want to eat my fries before my burger, who cares?”) and the concept of self service (“…no waiter, no tipping, I’ll gladly clear my own table”) were controlled by the consumer, not the supplier.  Much of the food was prepared in an off-site facility and assembled to order or batch cooked by semi-skilled kitchen workers. Once the drive-thru window came into play, the need to even get out of the car for a meal disappeared (“…is my front seat a restaurant?”).  Anyone could use this system at any time during the day. While the QSRs were not originally considered “real” restaurants, dining out became an easy and every day option.

    During the 1990’s the market saw the explosion of the Casual Theme restaurant which took all of the formality out of Fine Dining, including the white table cloth, and significantly sped up the dining process. Table service was still an integral part of the experience but with less personal connection to the waiter as food was often delivered by a runner directly from the kitchen. Standardized meal choices were assembled on-site by slightly more skilled journeymen led by a kitchen manager instead of a chef, who used a mass customization process to match the individual desires of the consumer.

    In the last decade the Fast Casual restaurant came to the attention of the consumer public. This new hybrid is a mix of the self-service from fast food with the consumer selection options presented by a traditional cafeteria system.  Table service is replaced by a modified multi-phase counter service with customers being given more customizable options, whether by a barista or a burrito-maker.  This customization is made possible with the return of an on-site short-order cook who assembles to order food which has the appearance of being hand-crafted, but is prepared in a batch style and often brought in from an off-site commissary.

    This brings us up to date where we are witnessing an explosion of segments and dining choice. Today we see a marketplace of narrow segments (Casual Elegance, Food Trucks, Grab & Go, Build Your Own, GastroPub, Convenience Store, Market Hall, Delivery) and other fine grained niches that defy simple categorization.  For example, Panera Bread is a leader in the fast casual segment while filling the role of the top retail bakery/café offer. But it also leads in the technology of smartphone based customized take-out.  The top of the food chain for fine dining is at one and the same time a celebrity chef-driven stratospheric offering such as Keller’s French Laundry or a standardized, national prime aged steakhouse chain like Del Frisco.  For the dining public, what exactly does Casual Elegance mean except that there are no tablecloths, there is a wine list and expensive cocktails, no chef and the wait staff wear logos on their shirts? What really is the difference if I buy a packaged turkey sandwich at a Pret a Manger, at a 7 Eleven, or at a Whole Foods?

    Where Are We Heading?

    So, the answer to the question “what is a restaurant?” can really only be answered with “it depends.”  What does it depend on- mainly how the dining public continues to redefine how, when, why, where and what a meal actually is?  Is a smart phone a modern day vending machine? Is a communal table in a market hall a dining room? Is a “sous vide” pouch heated by a chef in a two-star restaurant a freshly prepared dinner? Is Chef Chang’s Ando really a restaurant or just a conceptual kitchen? Are Just Eat, Grub Hub, Deliveroo, Uber Eats and Amazon Prime just waiters expanding the last square meter of personal restaurant service? The answers are probably all yes.

    When someone wants to eat, it might be better to ask “what isn’t a restaurant?”

    A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal? Photo Source: Olive Garden If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Olive Garden

    Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?

    Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse

    What Does It Mean If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone? Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot What Does It Mean If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone?

    Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot

    If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And Eat In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And Eat In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot

    How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door? Photo Source: Uber How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door?

    Photo Source: Uber

    Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? chris-muller-423x636Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the Practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email cmuller@bu.edu

    PDF Version Available Here.

    January 15th, 2016 in Hotels, Marketing, Restaurants, Technology, Winter 2016

    By Leora Halpern Lanz

    It’s challenging to be a hotel market today, let alone one who needs to understand and masterfully manage digital marketing for one or more properties. How do the hotel marketer and revenue manager ride the endless wave of online travel agency (OTA) distribution, commission structures, and rate parity? How much should a hotel budget for key word searches, Google Ad Sense, and Facebook ads? When do we determine to “turn on” or “shut off” the search engine marketing campaign? Who is the voice of our product and services on social media? How effectively is that voice engaging with guests, ultimately resulting in effective customer relationship management (CRM) and brand advocacy? Is the website sufficiently optimized to produce an actual cyber network of digital visibility, online presence, and distribution channels? How much does it cost to acquire a new guest and how do we encourage this new guest to book directly through a brand’s website?

    As Sean McCracken, Hotel News Now editor, wrote in his December 22, 2015 piece, Digital Marketers Deal With Shifting Landscape, digital marketers in the hotel industry are working to drive bookings among a changing climate for OTA’s, guest expectations, and advertising. Attempting to demystify the confusing arena that is digital marketing for hospitality is challenging. Is it productive to learn by trial and error?

    Here are a few pertinent strategies to consider when trying to find a place in the digital marketing landscape:

    A Hotel Website Connects to Cyber Network: Link and Hyperlink

    Websites are dynamic vehicles. In addition to being an attractive and interactive dashboard, a site should be continuously updated and optimized for searchability to be truly functional. Building a website with no intention of continuous enhancement is poor planning; building it properly and keeping the content fresh will support a strong online presence.

    1. Consider reducing text and adding more visuals, images, videos and opportunities for viewers to comment or ask questions.

    2. Consider how someone would search to potentially find you when writing site copy.

    3. Create strategic links from the website to a brand’s social channels and business partner’s.

    “It’s not enough to have a beautifully designed website anymore,” says Sara O’Brien, Associate Director of Marketing at HeBS Digital, “The technology behind it is what will allow you to generate more bookings and engagement from visitors. Responsive / Adaptive design for the mobile, tablet, laptop and desktop screens is a must, along with the ability to personalize content based on the visitor, entice visitors to return, complete the booking, and more. This type of technology is affordable and accessible, even for independent properties without large budgets.”

    Photo by Viktor Hanacek A good website is more than just aesthetics – it considers how users will find the information they need and how they will potentially search for the site.  (Photo by Viktor Hanacek)

    Responsive websites function properly on a variety of devices – tablet, mobile, desktop, laptop – and they are more critical than ever. Even four years ago, author Sam Laird shared that more than 65% of people who book a hotel room within 24 hours of checking in do so from a mobile device (Mashable.com). According to Expedia, more than 15% of travelers who book a flight 24 hours or less in advance also do so via mobile device. Hotels with ratings between two and three stars are most commonly reserved via mobile devices, indicating that they are likely the best (or most available) last-minute lodging option. Smart phones have given new power to the harried, last-minute traveler and the companies with the applications that are easy to access and instinctive to use are most likely to attract these customers.

    Search Engine Marketing and Search Engine Optimization Assessment: Understanding Key Words, Google, and Facebook Marketing

    Search engine marketing (SEM), the process of maximizing the number of visitors to a particular website by ensuring that the site appears high on the list of results returned by a search engine, is imperative to increase web traffic and social media news. Successful navigation of key word auctions can best be achieved with the aid of digital agencies that understand the nuances of purchasing search terms in return for higher search engine rankings. Another less expensive strategy that can be extremely effective is the use of Long Tail Keywords, specific phrases that touch upon a variety of customer needs. A phrase such as, “midtown Manhattan hotel perfect for social event and with ample parking” may show precisely the right search results to increase a specific customer’s likelihood of purchase. Branded terms that directly related to a particular product or service are also effective search engine marketing tools. Such terms, for example, “Inn at Fox Hollow, Long Island, NY” must be purchased requiring a larger marketing budget.

    Paid Advertising

    It is important to budget for paid ads because relying on organic posts is just not enough in today’s world of information overload and marketing clutter. Marketers need to understand the unique advertising sales method for each platform. For example, Twitter ad sales are often based on engagement rates as opposed to Facebook where one can pay per impression. It is extremely beneficial to work with experts who can optimize user data to target specific content to the right audience, and determine which content would perform best with paid support.

    Both Facebook and Twitter advertising allow for targeting users based on demographic and psychographic data. Both platforms also offer Promoted Posts as a way of boosting a post to new or existing fans. These posts may consist of imagery, stories, or testimonials. Facebook’s Carousel ads can appeal to multiple markets as a rotating gallery is embedded into each ad. Additionally, Facebook’s Remarketing Ad option uses “cookie” tracking to identify audiences that may have already visited the site, thus have shown interest in the brand.

    Facebook's Carousel ad option Facebook’s Carousel ad option gives the brand space for multiple photos as seen above. (Image via Facebook Advertising) Geo-Targeting an Ad

    Geo-targeting advertising is particularly useful for local or neighborhood food and beverage establishments as it allows a business to reach existing and prospective customers by radius, geographic zip code, or specific location. It is always important to communicate and engage with your “internal” audience and local community as they can be your brand affiliates, spreading the word to their networks. Geo-targeting can be added to most social and digital ads.

    Twitter and Facebook provide detailed advertising analytics, but Google Analytics is a useful tool to track website activity in conjunction with an ad campaign. Social media ads paired with the purchase of Google’s Keywords, Ad Words, and Pay Per Click (PPC) ads provide an opportunity to boost a website to the top of relevant search rankings.

    No matter what type of paid advertising channel is used, marketers must set measurement goals for paid posts. Doing so gives them the ability to monitor performance at different stages of the campaign, and decide if the ad should be adjusted, taken down, or has “done it all”.

    Social Media Presence: Regram and Hashtag

    Hashtag (noun \ hash·tag \ˈhash-ˌtag): a word or phrase preceded by the symbol # that classifies or categorizes the accompanying text (such as a tweet)

    Effective branding and marketing in the 21st century demands social presence and two-way conversation. Specifically, social media marketing requires the combination of manpower, time, and expertise in proper social media etiquette while utilizing branding, engagement, and relationship management (CRM) tools. Successful social presence is achieved by using existing data to create specific, targeted content based on the intended audience and the purpose of a specific social channel.

    Marriott Hotels strategically uses both short video and inspirational text to capture its audience on Instagram. Additionally, they use a campaign hashtag, #TravelBrilliantly, to enhance the contents searchability and messaging.

    Social media marketing can be a cost-effective and efficient method to interact with existing and prospective customers. A hashtag symbol that precedes a word or phrase classifies the text to be easily searched on social media (such as with Twitter). Properly using hashtags helps a brand start a conversation with consumers and identifies who is already talking about them. Brands should regularly search for and use hashtags with a brand-name and category keywords. For example a local Boston restaurant could use its name, #TellersIslip and #LongIslandRestaurants, in Instagram posts. Instagram users often post photos of their meals followed by captions reviewing their experience at the restaurant,, and include a hashtag with the brand name , and relatable keywords (e.g.#BestMealEver!). These searchable posts come to serve as reviews for a brand.

    Regramming: It is good practice, upon finding an Instagram fan who has posted a great image with a rave review, to ask for permission to “regram” the photo on the hotel or restaurant account. Mobile apps like Regram.me or Repost are specifically designed for ease of “regramming” and properly crediting the original photographer. Ask the original photographer for permission to share the photo as a way of initiating engagement, trust, and loyalty. (Image via #Tremont647 Instagram results)

    Regramming: It is good practice, upon finding an Instagram fan who has posted a great image with a rave review, to ask for permission to “regram” the photo on the hotel or restaurant account. Mobile apps like Regram.me or Repost are specifically designed for ease of “regramming” and properly crediting the original photographer. Ask the original photographer for permission to share the photo as a way of initiating engagement, trust, and loyalty. (Image via #TellersIslip Instagram results)

    In addition to Instagram, visually-focused tools like Pinterest and YouTube can powerfully convey a message and brand through strong imagery. Pinterest uses virtual bulletin boards for brands and users to showcase and categorize images of everything from places to products. Hospitality brands can use these platforms to highlight amenities that are best shared visually. In determining which platforms to use and how to use them, it is vital to research the primary audience that uses each platform. For example, Facebook is most used by audiences ages 29-40; Twitter is used by those 18-29 years old. With the requisite demographics in mind, brands can be more effective in selecting proper photography, imagery, and copy to capture the attention of the targeted markets.

    Managing and Monitoring Social Media

    There are dozens of programs available to help manage and monitor social accounts such as Hootsuite and Buffer. These programs can organize each social account (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and stream information based on certain criteria. For example, in Hootsuite, a stream can be set-up just to show Tweets in which a particular brand is mentioned. Another could be established to show only Instagram posts that use a specific campaign hashtag, such as Marriott’s #TravelBrilliantly. Most notably, the platform allows for posts to be pre-scheduled, creating continuity of messaging on various social sites. After content is posted, analysis and data features enable marketers to assess which posts are most effective or need to be changed.

    LMA Communications founder Larry Mogelonsky contends that marketing will eventually be “limited to infographics, photos and videos.” (Hotelmags.com, 12/2015). Every action will be built around mobile devices. There will be scant text and descriptions on websites. Infographics will be used to explain and provide most technical information. This prediction into the future of content reminds marketers to keep content visual, meaningful, and tight.

    Online Review Sites

    Consumers rely heavily on the reviews from others in their online communities. Consequently, brand-presence on a user generated content (UGC) site like TripAdvisor and Yelp is extremely important. In as such asAs customers who post reviews have the potential to be brand advocates, there is an ever-growing need to learn how to properly engage with online reviews and comments. Replying to positive reviews and addressing complaints or critical comments transmits a tone of trust to a UGC community. According to industry expert and Rouse Media president Glenn Haussman, the impact of a customer rating three stars versus four stars on Yelp or TripAdvisor can be a significant impact to a restaurant’s bottom line.

    Some hotel companies hire firms to monitor online brand reputation and respond to customer inquiries, guest comments and create guest surveys. Providing detailed analytics, vendors such as ReviewPro can help hoteliers prioritize operations and service enhancements to deliver more memorable guest experiences. These companies can create full assessments of guest feedback, enabling organizations to improve rankings on TripAdvisor and OTA’s with the goal of boosting revenues and differentiating from their competitors.

    The Langham Hotel in Boston, Mass. regularly responds to both compliments and concerns from its guests on Trip Advisor. The Langham Hotel in Boston, Mass. regularly responds to both compliments and concerns from its guests on Trip Advisor. E-Mail Marketing

    E-mail continues to provide a successful tactic to reach new customers and reinforce relationships with current customers. Travel intelligence platforms, such as Adara, have access to loyalty program data, historical purchase patterns and other significant information that can aid in building strong customer profiles. With guest data, special offers through targeted emails can be personalized to reach explicit audiences – not due to specific purchases, but rather based on buying habits made over time. When customers receive emails that are designed especially for them, and in ways in which they interact with the hotel or restaurant, it can enhance the likelihood of repeat business. Effective email campaigns, with the help of firms like Revinate, can boost the rate at which customers open targeted emails, click-though to a company’s on-line offer and hopefully convert (book) the business.

    So Much More to Learn

    There are many lessons to learn from this tip of the iceberg look at digital marketing. The following are immediate take-aways:

    1. Technology changes so rapidly, it is important to continually learn.

    2. It’s important to work collaboratively. Hospitality marketers must surround themselves with vendors and partners who are equally pushing for mutual success

    3. Remain calm and confident, willing to experiment and modify when necessary. When decisions or tactics don’t seem effective or produce results, it is perfectly acceptable to change paths. Just give new channels some time to work.

    4. The choices and options for marketing are overwhelming – do not attempt to use every channel and spread yourself and the brand too thin. Select a few appropriate marketing or social media channels. Do not attempt to use every channel because that will spread human resources and financial resources, as well as the brand itself.

    5. Reach out for professional expertise along the way. Ask colleagues to share best practices for a robust exchange of ideas and solutions.

    6. Effective marketing alone is not enough. Product quality, service, experience and the investment of manpower, time, and/or capital will always be necessary to maintain quality, guest satisfaction, and long term success.

    [1] Sean McKutchen. (2015, December 22). Digital Marketers Deal With Shifting Landscape, Hotel News Network. Lanz New 2016Leora Halpern Lanz is the president of LHL Communications, a hospitality content marketing, branding and media relations advisory firm. LHL clients include hotels, hospitality investment conferences, leisure products, hotel management companies as well as other industry related services. Previously, for 15 years Leora served as global director of marketing and head of the marketing practice for hospitality consulting giant HVS. Prior to HVS, she  served for 10 years as director of public relations and advertising for ITT Sheraton Hotels of New York and for 5 years as director of public relations for the Greater Boston Convention &Visitors Bureau. She is currently also a full-time lecturer at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration.

    Tagged digital marketing, E-commerce, Hotel Marketing, social media

    January 8th, 2016 in Business Practices, Restaurants, Technology, Winter 2016

    Will technology disruption in the back-of-house enhance

    Is the next innovative disruption going to be found in the back-of-house?

    by Makaela Reinke

    Opening the door to the highly acclaimed fine-dining restaurant Eastern Standard is akin to drawing back the curtain of a Broadway musical: the lights are dimmed, the music starts, and your attention is captivated by the beautiful set before you. Your spirit is soothed by the muted ruby reds and royal purples that greet you, and deep shadows cast by glamorous chandeliers further erase the memories of a tiring day. The long, granite-topped bar harkens back to days of elegance, while the modern, stunning hosts, servers, and sommeliers are experts in their performance as cast and crew guiding you through a truly sensual experience. The meal is an indulgence to your taste buds, the wine an illumination to your tongue, and the entire experience restorative to the soul. You leave the restaurant reluctantly as the candles burn low, already planning your return.

    Like many of the finer things in life, such as a classic car, an Old-Master painting, or a moving jazz performance, the fine dining experience has changed little in the past century. A certain degree of expectation accompanies one’s conception of “fine dining,” and this expectation differentiates fine dining from merely “going out for dinner.” This expectation does not merely include food quality or preparation; it does not demand a specific setting or menu, wine list or top-shelf bottle of Scotch. Rather, the expectation is more an overall quality of experience, and interestingly enough, it is the apparent unchanging nature of both “fine dining” and “eating out” that is noteworthy and puzzling. Eating out looks much like it always has, even amidst today’s storms of disruptive and breakthrough models. How is it that while so much of our world changes, the business of eating has essentially stayed the same? Has the restaurant industry been affected by disruptive models at all?

    Disruption capitalizes on improving the efficiency of existing systems as seen with the success in other branches of the hospitality industry: transportation (Uber) and lodging (Airbnb). Uber and Airbnb have achieved remarkable success because their systems capitalize on independence and convenience for the traveler. In both models the customer does not need to rely on a system operated by another party (hotels, hostels, taxis, etc.) but instead can be the captains of their own fate by calling their Uber and booking their dream stay without third-party fees. Even more conveniently, these innovative models are utilized through the use of smart technology and online interactions. The restaurant, however, cannot exist online, and the successful restaurant is as much experiential as it is product-based. Any adaptation of the restaurant model (pre-ordering, tablets on tables, etc.) have not lasted very long as they tarnish the very essence of a dining experience. A true meal in any self-respecting restaurant is tech-free, engaging, authentic, and sensory.

    This leaves quite the challenge for any entrepreneur looking to introduce innovative, disruptive models into the restaurant world without tainting the sanctity of the experience. The reality, however, is that perhaps the front-of-house model does not need innovation. Instead, it may be the back-of-house that could benefit from some disruptive thinking. Eli Feldman, a 2001 SHA alum, recognized this early on. A former restaurateur himself, Eli is very familiar with the operations and service philosophy that restaurants hold so dear. This however, is what gave him the idea for his start-up platform, Clothbound.

    Clothbound is an online platform that connects potential employees with restaurants. Similar to monster.com, it provides a convenient, simple job board specifically for the restaurant industry. Finding reliable, talented staff takes up more time and effort than most employers would like to admit. With a current nation-wide turnover rate for 66% (according to the U.S. Labor Department) this time and effort amounts to an enormous monetary and time cost for restaurants that need to re-hire over half of their staff each year, essentially causing a bottle-neck in the employment process and productivity. Clothbound looks to lower this rate by helping employers find potential staff by searching ‘tags’ of skill sets, personality traits, and employment history allowing them to filter through candidates more easily. In short, Clothbound is innovating the current human resource model for restaurants. Throughout all of this process however, Eli and his team have continued to recognize the importance of the human component of the restaurant industry. Clothbound does not replace a human’s job. It connects the right person to the right job so that they can help the restaurant become more efficient in providing a personal experience to the customer.

    Clothbound

    The userprofile on Clothbound makes it easy for employers and job-seekers to find each other based on skills and interests. Image via Clothbound.

    Restaurants thrive because of their human component. They are living art, culinary museums that only exist when people provide a product through thoughtful service. This is why other ‘disruptive’ technologies have not seen success in the market: they try to remove the human element through the use of iPads at tables or ordering kiosks. But these sorts of models will only achieve initial success in fast-casual settings when the customer is looking to receive food quickly. For those looking for the authentic dining experience, technology will not interfere with that any time soon. Clothbound’s model though, which disrupts the system behind the scenes, is beginning to make its mark. Zagat most recently recognized Kelly Daigle, co-founder of Clothbound, in their 30 under 30 list of Boston’s finest, acknowledging her innovative thinking and impact on the market. Clothbound’s technological platform is bringing the restaurant network to a digital space, effectively bringing together the two networks of employers and their potential staff.

    Clothbound

    Using Clothbound’s tagging system, Eastern Standard can strategically post openings on the new platform. Image via Clothbound.

    This means that restaurants can now become more selective in regard to their hiring practices. With access to more qualified staff who will also be a better fit in the company, restaurants will see additional benefits emerge over time: devoted staff, higher levels of customer service, higher restaurant reviews, and lower turnover rates, which increase the bottom line. The employment process now becomes more sustainable as labor costs decrease and the staff become more efficient, eventually reaching a higher level of service. These employees, already a ‘best fit’ for the company, are more likely to receive promotions and positions within the company. Now we have the introduction of a skilled workforce in this hospitality sector, many of whom are already graduates with hospitality degrees.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of the Union Square Hospitality Group and New York City restaurant Entrepreneur recognizes this shift in the service industry. He has just recently put all of his servers onto salary, announcing that none of them will accept tips. To him, their expertise deserves not only a higher living wage but also secure full-time employment. “There’s not a more important stakeholder to get right than our staff” he said in an interview with New York Eater. By moving his staff to salary positions, Meyer is recognizing his staff as a skilled workforce with his own disruptive behind-the-scenes model. This has introduced hot debate over sustainable business production and increased minimum wage, neither of which will disappear any time soon. The issue of inadequate wages for these over-qualified employees is gaining attention, which in itself may give momentum to another disruptive movement as employees demand a living wage for their top-quality service. But with a revenue increase of 4.2% in the fine-dining industry in the past year, supporting skilled workers has become vitally important as restaurants compete to become the best of their markets.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group is causing a shift in the restaurant industry by doing away with tipping in return for higher salaries.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group is causing a shift in the restaurant industry by doing away with tipping in return for higher salaries. (Photo via Wiki/Financial Times)

    And as restaurants bring in more qualified staff to their businesses, there is the interesting domino-effect that now provides an opportunity to re-approach the culture of each restaurant. Restaurants are now taking a proactive approach to fostering new work culture for the staff they have brought to the company. Many restaurants are now implementing knowledge programs: bartending classes, wine service seminars, increased menu comprehension. In hiring the ‘right people’ for the job, the company is also taking liberties to nurture the ‘right culture’ for a restaurant to create an atmosphere that encourages server participation, teamwork, and internal promotions.

    The result of this back-door disruption is due mostly to consumers. Consumers want to experience memorable service. As restaurants move to meet these expectations they must in turn provide service that is reliable and organic. And here we see the opportunity for restaurants to innovate their former systems of recruiting, hiring, training, and retention of staff in the company. This is a vulnerable turning point for the industry as it takes advantage of this time to re-define what it means to work in food service. Chefs are beginning to receive more recognition, servers are put on salaries, and hospitality and business degrees are prerequisites for entry-level positions. The outcome is a highly efficient workplace with a skilled workforce that wants to be in the restaurant doing what they do best. Restaurants are taking better care of their employees all because of consumers who demand higher quality of service, which allows restaurants to become more selective of their team. This is already present in other branches of the hospitality industry: Disney is known for its positive, ‘can-do’ cast, and Ritz-Carlton for its elite professionalism among even the hourly employees. Quality restaurants are looking to join their ranks; introducing new, disruptive service models has simply taken its time. Innovation and disruption of the restaurant industry must happen slowly and cautiously. Any restaurateur worth his breadsticks will protect his space. However, he will also look for creative ways to cut costs and increase the service value. And while the tradition of food service may not change within the next decade or so, it is clear that new models of employment are beginning to have a presence in the industry.

    7465383134_1d080db260_z

    As consumers expect higher quality of service, restaurants can be more selective in their hiring and build innovative business models. (Photo by J. Annie Wang)

    In this we see the undeniable relation between disruption, innovation, and culture. Creative disruption has provided space for innovation which now leads to a new, exciting work culture that will appeal to both sides of the employment relationship. If all goes well this means the next time you go out to eat, look for the behind-the-scenes disruption models not in the food you eat, but in those who bring you the food. Work culture will bleed into the performance of the front-of-house service, drawing guests to eat out again and again. Restaurants, if they capitalize on these innovative models, will see success as they impress their audience with their artistic expression of the traditional dining experience that will surely earn a standing ovation.

    ReinkeMakaela Reinke is a student at the School of Hospitality Administration, class of 2016. Having worked at both small cafes and larger restaurants, she is excited about where the industry is going. As true Bostonian at heart, she enjoys exploring the city one restaurant at a time. 

    Tagged Clothbound, Danny Meyers, Eli Feldman, restaurants, Union Square Hospitality Group



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12851000
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12943274
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2018/01/pass4sure-a2040-407-dumps-and-practice.html
    Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2LH
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/e33m3wqz4mvrzgkgpi9unguuv7hvzrdc






    Back to Main Page

    IBM A2040-407 Exam (Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition System Administration B) Detailed Information



    References:


    Pass4sure Certification Exam Study Notes- Killexams.com
    Download Hottest Pass4sure Certification Exams - CSCPK
    Complete Pass4Sure Collection of Exams - BDlisting
    Latest Exam Questions and Answers - Ewerton.me
    Pass your exam at first attempt with Pass4Sure Questions and Answers - bolink.org
    Here you will find Real Exam Questions and Answers of every exam - dinhvihaiphong.net
    Hottest Pass4sure Exam at escueladenegociosbhdleon.com
    Download Hottest Pass4sure Exam at ada.esy
    Pass4sure Exam Download from aia.nu
    Pass4sure Exam Download from airesturismo
    Practice questions and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at linuselfberg
    Study Guides, Practice questions and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at brondby
    Study Guides, Study Tools and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at assilksel.com
    Study Guides, Study Tools and Cheat Sheets for Certification Exams at brainsandgames
    Study notes to cover complete exam syllabus - crazycatladies
    Study notes, boot camp and real exam Q&A to cover complete exam syllabus - brothelowner.com
    Study notes to cover complete exam syllabus - carspecwall
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - cederfeldt
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - chewtoysforpets
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - Cogo
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - cozashop
    Study Guides, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - cscentral
    Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - diamondlabeling
    Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - diamondfp
    Updated Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - freshfilter.cl
    New Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - ganeshdelvescovo.eu
    Syllabus, Study Notes, Practice Test, Questions and Answers - ganowebdesign.com
    Study Guides, Practice Exams, Questions and Answers - Gimlab
    Latest Study Guides, Practice Exams, Real Questions and Answers - GisPakistan
    Latest Study Guides, Practice Exams, Real Questions and Answers - Health.medicbob
    Killexams Certification Training, Q&A, Dumps - kamerainstallation.se
    Killexams Syllabus, Killexams Study Notes, Killexams Practice Test, Questions and Answers - komsilanbeagle.info
    Pass4sure Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - kyrax.com
    Pass4sure Brain Dump, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - levantoupoeira
    Pass4sure Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - mad-exploits.net
    Pass4sure Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - manderije.nl
    Pass4sure study guides, Braindumps, Study Notes, Pass4sure Practice Test, Killexams Questions and Answers - manderije.nl


    killcerts.com (c) 2017