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A2030-280 - Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1 - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : A2030-280
Exam Name : Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1
Questions and Answers : 98 Q & A
Updated On : April 18, 2019
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A2030-280 Questions and Answers

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A2030-280 Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1

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A2030-280 exam Dumps Source : Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1

Test Code : A2030-280
Test Name : Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 98 Real Questions

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IBM Accessment: IBM Cloud Computing

RemoteMyApp adopts IBM Cloud to scale multi-platform gaming provider | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Cloud offers Vortex platform with scalability and robust performance for on-line game enthusiasts world wide on basically any device

ARMONK, long island, March 22, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced that Polish startup RemoteMyApp will adopt IBM Cloud for increasing global attain and scaling of its Vortex gaming platform.

IBM organization brand.


Vortex enables users to play games anyplace on the earth on just about any machine - smartphone, pill, or smart tv –by the use of the utility, devoid of downloading the online game. as the platform has grown in usage and elevated to new markets akin to Latin america and South East Asia, Vortex crucial to scale its capabilities, updates, and performance to fulfill transforming into demand from avid gamers. Vortex turned to IBM Cloud to give the world scale vital to give a low latency gaming event no matter where avid gamers are or what equipment they are using.

IBM Cloud positions the Vortex platform to provide excessive performance computing provider with GPU portraits cards. using effective servers hosted in a number of of the just about 60 IBM statistics facilities around the world, Vortex can deal with an unlimited number of gamers from all continents with none loss in efficiency or great of services and with the bottom feasible latency. With a online game library purchasable in the cloud, gamers may even play video games on older instruments as a result of all of the processing, including snap shots, has been transferred to the cloud.

The boom of online gaming structures turning to cloud is the outcomes of two components –a continuing increase within the variety of gamers and the increasing recognition of cellular devices. The Vortex deployment is just one of a handful of gaming business customers like EA's Firemonkeys, Exit video games, and LiquidSky that currently adopted the IBM Cloud to convey a gaming adventure that is globally scalable and makes it possible for for quick product updates in a aggressive market.

"The gaming market is at present the fastest transforming into leisure sector, and the sale of video games on my own generates very nearly three times extra profits than the international movie industry," observed Andreas Hestbeck, CEO at RemoteMyApp. "Our users are living virtually in every single place on the earth and the subscriptions are starting to be day by day - which is why we want IBM Cloud for reliable, world scalability."

"RemoteMyApp selected IBM Cloud as a collaborator of their digital transformation as a result of we're committed to assembly shoppers the place they are on their cloud event whether they may be a startup or have many years of legacy methods and need a hybrid cloud solution," said Przemyslaw Galinski, IBM Cloud Platform revenue chief Poland and Baltics. "We seem forward to offering RemoteMyApp with the size they want as they mature during this aggressive, transforming into market."

because its launch in 2017, Vortex has won in recognition among cloud gaming structures with more than 6 million clients. With a monthly subscription model, players are granted one hundred hours of gameplay and access to greater than one hundred video games, together with new releases. in contrast to many other streaming systems, Vortex doesn't require installing the rest other than the software to entry the library and decide a video game.

About RemoteMyApp

Vortex platform is a flagship service within the RemoteMyApp portfolio. one other carrier, Remotr, permits clients to move video games put in on home PCs to any other device with Android and iOS, equivalent to a smartphone, tablet or wise tv. For greater assistance, talk over with and

Story continues

signals emerge IBM-crimson Hat merger may also face delay; IBM says it’s still on | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

research TRIANGLE PARK – Is IBM’s $34 billion merger with pink Hat in obstacle? Is it dealing with delays?

That’s the picture emerging from lots of media reviews in fresh days, including feedback from a senior IBM government at a gathering in Europe where he said IBM would “probably” received the Raleigh-primarily based open source features and software gigantic is primarily based.

however, a spokesperson for IBM pointed out the deal remains progressing,

“Your story is inaccurate,” said Douglas Shelton. “As IBM has announced prior to now, we predict the deal to close in the 2nd half of 2019.”

The deal turned into introduced final October, and each corporations have said they expect it to close someday later this yr, pending regulatory approval.

purple Hat shareholders currently authorized the deal. Its shares traded Tuesday just short of its 52-week high of $183.fifty four. IBM offered $a hundred ninety a share for purple Hat.

Red Hat image

however, two publications have talked about regulatory authorities are searching for more suggestions.

DealReporter in the US has spoke of that the Justice branch these days despatched to IBM a second request for regulatory counsel.

economic news website SeekingAlpha, citing the DealReporter news. talked about as of March 5 that the deal “still faces regulatory scrutiny on antitrust issues.”

Regulators are apparently worried about how a pink Hat-IBM merger could affect cloud computing.

IBM Chair and CEO Ginny Rometty has stated from the day the deal was introduced that cloud computing is a key driver to the deal.

IBM issued a statement final week at the moment announcing the deal became still on.

“As IBM has announced up to now, we are expecting the deal to close within the 2d half of 2019.”

red Hat shareholders can are expecting windfall once IBM merger comprehensive

an extra merger and acquisition e-book, CTFN, has mentioned IBM has not sought formal acclaim for the deal in Europe.

“IBM isn't likely to formally file for antitrust clearance from the european fee for its acquisition of crimson Hat this month, an individual near the condition pointed out,” CTFN pronounced on Friday.

concerns in regards to the deal don't seem to be new.

In an analysis of the deal on Feb. 25, Manalo LLP forged doubt.

“From an antitrust viewpoint, the purple Hat-IBM transaction has introduced a degree of complexity because of the events’ long-standing vertical relationships,” the enterprise which focuses on mergers and acquisitions, cited.

“pink Hat and IBM are partners as opposed to opponents and work collectively on the open source Linux software platform. Regulators might probe no matter if IBM has an incentive to shift or reshape these vertical relationships in a way which can be considered anti-aggressive, for instance, through halting the provide to opponents or degrading interoperability with rivals’ items. This talents for vertical consequences is more prone to carry eyebrows with the european competitors commission (EC) than the us department of Justice (DoJ).”

meanwhile, on Tuesday in Europe, David Simpson, vp, Cloud features, cast greater shadows over the deal.

“while discussing IBM’s future concepts, Simpson used the qualifier that IBM would ‘doubtlessly’ acquire crimson Hat, adding ‘acquiring red Hat will, once we expectantly shut it, add to our strategy,'” computing device enterprise review, which additionally cited the Manalo assessment, pronounced.

Simpson turned into talking at the Cloud Expo Europe in London.

asked for greater particulars, Simpson mentioned: “I actually have given up making an attempt to foretell race horses, soccer video games or football games and governments … we now have cited that our intent is to are attempting and close that acquisition in the course of the regulators in this fiscal 12 months.”

Wall road company: Google might make a bid for purple Hat despite $34B contend with IBM

large Blue opens its hands, wallet, to crimson Hat, but did deal cost too lots at $34B?

IBM Unveils New choices for sooner and extra Secured path to Hybrid Cloud | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 12, 2019 (Canada NewsWire via COMTEX) -- equipment and features designed to help companies installation new applications across hybrid cloud environments with safety and efficiency

IBM suppose -- IBM IBM, -0.70% today introduced new hybrid cloud offerings to assist companies migrate, combine and manage functions and workloads seamlessly and with security throughout any public or deepest cloud and on-premises IT environment.

The IBM Institute for company price estimates that by way of 2021, ninety eight % of agencies surveyed plan to undertake hybrid architectures, however simply 38 % will have the tactics and tools they need to operate that environment(1). The system today is challenging since it is essentially guide with important safety implications and an absence of constant administration and integration tools.

As part of today's news, IBM is launching new hybrid cloud equipment and services designed to help corporations navigate the complexities of this new landscape:

-- New IBM Cloud Integration Platform designed to in the reduction of time and complexity to launch new capabilities and purposes throughout cloud environments in a consistent and at ease method. -- New IBM capabilities designed to suggest on holistic cloud strategies. -- New IBM features designed to simplify the administration of materials throughout cloud environments. -- New capabilities designed to give trade-leading security for facts and applications in the public cloud.

"At Aetna, a CVS health company, we see hybrid cloud as an essential component of our transformation journey," talked about Claus Torp Jensen, Chief technology Officer, Aetna. "We want to use the most fulfilling capabilities from quite a lot of cloud providers to create a seamless buyer journey and digitalize underlying company tactics. For that, we are taking an API-centric method to integration and making sure that each one of our APIs are comfortably attainable throughout our hybrid cloud ecosystem."

New Cloud Integration Platform Designed to Dramatically in the reduction of Coding Time, Complexity

The IBM Cloud Integration Platform is designed to securely connect functions, application and capabilities from any dealer even with no matter if those methods are on-premises, in a public cloud or a personal cloud. The platform brings collectively a comprehensive set of integration tools in a single development environment. it could assist improve productivity as a result of integration experts can write, verify and at ease code as soon as, keep it in the platform and reuse it - an laborious assignment that as soon as monopolized their time. this can assist businesses reduce the time and price of integration by way of 1/three, whereas staying inside their entertaining necessities for protection and compliance(2).

Integration is vital as organizations optimize company approaches and create more personalised customer experiences. however, integration is becoming more and more advanced as a result of many companies surveyed are already the use of between two to fifteen distinct clouds and wish to install new cloud services corresponding to AI, analytics and blockchain to stay forward of the competition(three).

With the IBM Cloud Integration Platform, companies can right now convey to market new capabilities while freeing up integration consultants to focus on the more advanced, equipment-stage integrations.

"Most large groups have records and workloads spread across distinct public and private clouds, SaaS and on-premises environments - once in a while as a result of their enterprise technique infrastructure, but also for compliance, regulatory and records privateness factors," observed Denis Kennelly, universal manager, cloud integration, IBM. "The challenge in this ambiance is to overcome information and technology siloes to promptly installation new business functions and applications with safety. today, we are launching new capabilities designed to help unleash the full energy of the hybrid cloud."

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New end-To-end IBM Hybrid Cloud capabilities

IBM is launching new IBM capabilities for Cloud method and Design, a complete set of capabilities designed to suggest shoppers on the way to architect the right holistic cloud strategy from design, migration, integration, highway mapping and architectural services to navigating their event to cloud. IBM services is organising dedicated teams of consultants who're certified experts in the latest services and technologies throughout assorted cloud systems. groups will use open and secure multicloud options, drawing upon IBM's adventure in IT transformation and collaboration with an ecosystem of cloud partners. the new capabilities leverage IBM's trade-main Cloud Innovate formula, automated resolution accelerators and IBM Cloud storage method to guide purchasers with co-creation and scaled innovation in application development, migration, modernization and management.

constructing off of a recent partnership growth announcement with ServiceNow, IBM is additionally introducing new IBM functions for Multicloud administration to give a single gadget to assist enterprises simplify the administration of their IT supplies across distinctive cloud providers, on-premises environments and private clouds.

The birth of IBM features for Multicloud management contains three layers designed to give a single administration and operations gadget:

-- business management - applications that supply digital service ordering, modern carrier administration, and price governance to help manipulate spend; -- Orchestration - an automation layer that helps permit capabilities of differing kinds, from distinctive vendors to be integrated without problems and made attainable to patrons; -- Operations - a layer that helps permit infrastructure and operations directors to display screen and keep methods, including legacy infrastructure, inner most cloud, public cloud and container environments.

additionally, it includes a unified, self-provider experience to users to facilitate quicker and more straightforward entry to cloud features by way of an atmosphere built-in with the ServiceNow Portal to configure and buy cloud services and options from dissimilar cloud suppliers. It additionally provides efficiency management features and offers the skill to display screen and manage the fitness of the cloud.

"As we grow our digital business, moving our functions to the cloud is essential to help modernize our strategies and bring even more advantageous experiences for our valued clientele. Adopting the correct strategy and migration method to cloud needs to be seamless and requires an realizing of our IT panorama," spoke of Sarp Uzkan, vice chairman, IT, Tribune Publishing. "IBM cloud advisory features and tools supplied an in depth assessment that decided now not most effective which purposes can be choicest to stream to the cloud however a powerful business case that would meet our wants and enabling us to explore the choicest approach for moving to the cloud."

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business-main protection for data and functions within the Public Cloud

safety remains a excellent challenge across all industries and markets when deploying apps and statistics in hybrid cloud environments. in an effort to minimize threats, companies should the means to protect information at every stage of its adventure, comfortably manage entry and id and profit visibility into the safety posture for all of their applications.

IBM is launching the IBM Cloud Hyper give protection to Crypto service, which is designed to give industry-leading security on the general public cloud and is made possible by means of bringing IBM LinuxONE into IBM's world cloud statistics facilities. This carrier will deliver encryption key administration with a committed cloud hardware security module (HSM) developed on the most effective FIPS a hundred and forty-2 degree four-based mostly technology provided by a public cloud issuer(4).

this is part of the IBM Cloud Hyper protect family of functions, which is already providing businesses like DACS and Solitaire Interglobal with industry-main security and resiliency for his or her applications. To provide high stages of protection throughout both public and personal clouds, IBM is additionally asserting significant enhancements to IBM Cloud inner most on Z.

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-- Video: How IBM Hybrid Clouds force Innovation whereas Managing Complexity -- blog: New IBM functions support groups manage the brand new multicloud world -- blog: The State of IBM Cloud security: IBM believe 2019 -- weblog: The better of IBM Z and LinuxONE in the Public and private Cloud -- blog: A "Kubernetes all over the place" strategy: build & deploy enterprise-Scale up to date functions for Hybrid Cloud

About IBM consider:At think 2019, IBM will outline new choices, client engagements, partnerships, technology breakthroughs and developer tools that underscore how IBM and companions are changing the way the realm works. For more counsel, consult with the IBM feel 2019 Newsroom: comply with the conference on Twitter at #think2019 and @ibmlive, and go to for the whole agenda and live streaming agenda.

IBM's statements regarding its plans, directions, and intent are subject to trade or withdrawal with out notice at IBM's sole discretion. counsel regarding talents future items is intended to outline our prevalent product direction and it is going to no longer be relied on in making a procuring determination. The tips outlined concerning expertise future products is not a commitment, promise, or legal responsibility to bring any material, code or functionality. advice about competencies future products may also not be included into any contract. The building, liberate, and timing of any future elements or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion.

Footnotes1. IBM Institute for enterprise value: Assembling Your Cloud Orchestra, October 20182. according to consumer journey and total financial have an effect on methodology developed through Forrester analysis, Inc. (the whole economic have an impact on of an API management answer, February 2017) three. IBM Institute for company value: Assembling Your Cloud Orchestra, October 20184. currently obtainable in beta, deliberate for generic availability March 2019

Media Contact:Sarah MurphyIBM Media family members

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Top 10 cloud computing certifications | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

What it's all about: This is the mother of all cloud computing security certifications. The Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge certification is vendor-neutral, and certifies competency in key cloud security areas. The test is based on the Cloud Security Alliance Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing V3, English language version, and the ENISA report "Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information Security."

How to prepare: The best way to prepare is to study the CSA Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing v3, and the ENISA report "Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks, and Recommendations for Information Security."

More on CSA GuidanceMore on ENISA

13 emerging IT certifications for today’s hottest skills | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

IT is evolving rapidly, and the skills required to succeed in IT are changing quickly as well. Cloud computing, cybersecurity and data analytics are just a few of the skills employers will look for in the next few years, and several certifications are emerging to help you demonstrate your expertise.

Global Knowledge’s 2017 IT Skills and Salary Report identified a number of new and emerging certifications aimed at skills that are “leading the charge,” according to Global Knowledge.

Here are 13 IT certifications on the rise to help you get an edge on the competition in landing a lucrative role for the years ahead.

13 emerging IT certifications for 2018
  • Cisco CCNA Cyber Ops
  • CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+)
  • EC-Council Certified Network Defender (CND)
  • Google Certified Professional – Cloud Architect
  • Google Certified Professional – Data Engineer
  • IBM Certified Solutions Architect – SoftLayer v1
  • IBM Solutions Advisor – SoftLayer v1
  • IBM Certified Designer – IBM Cognos Analytics Author Reports V11
  • MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure
  • MCSE: Data Management and Analytics
  • MCSE: Mobility
  • MCSE: Productivity Solutions Expert
  • MCSD: App Builder
  • Related video: 7 IT hiring and salary trends for 2018

    Cisco CCNA Cyber Ops

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification from Cisco demonstrates proficiency in rapid threat detection, having a vigilant and proactive eye for security and the ability to protect organizations in a Security Operation Center (SOC) setting. At the end, Cisco promises you will be prepared for “a career working with associate-level cybersecurity analysts within security operation centers.”


  • There are no prerequisites to take the CCNA Cyber Ops exam.
  • CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+)

    The CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+) certification is designed for validating an intermediate-level of cybersecurity skills. These include risk analysis, threat detection, system configuration and data analysis and interpretation, “with the end goal of securing and protecting applications and systems within an organization,” according to CompTIA.


  • CompTIA Network+ or CompTIA Security+ skills (or equivalent knowledge).
  • Three to four years of hands-on security experience.
  • It’s recommended you complete the CompTIA Security+ exam first, but not required.
  • EC-Council Certified Network Defender (CND)

    The CND certification is a rigorous program that involves a lab-intensive, instructor-led training course that takes place over five eight-hour days. The certification course covers a wide array of security topics, validating your proficiency in areas like designing and implementing security policy, troubleshooting security software, performing risk assessment, learning to detect and respond to threats and much more.


  • There are no prerequisites to complete the CND certification.
  • Google Certified Professional – Cloud Architect

    The Google Cloud Architect certification asses your cloud architecture abilities using the Google Cloud Platform to design, manage, implement, secure and scale business solutions. The certification covers designing and planning a cloud solution architecture, designing for security and compliance, managing the cloud infrastructure and architecture and optimizing process to reach business goals.


  • There are no prerequisites to complete the GCP: Cloud Architect certification.
  • Google Certified Professional – Data Engineer

    The Google Data Engineer certification also falls under the Google Cloud Certified family and is designed to demonstrate your skills using the GCP, but it focuses on security, reliability, scalability and efficiency of the systems you build. It also ensures you know how to align cloud infrastructure to reach established business goals.


  • There are no prerequisites to complete the GCP: Data Engineer certification.
  • IBM Certified Solutions Architect – SoftLayer v1

    The IBM Certified Solutions Architect – SoftLayer v1 certification establishes your ability to understand, build and manage IBM’s SoftLayer infrastructure as a service. Certified professionals will know how to analyze a client’s needs or business requirements in order to appropriately plan for and design a cloud solution using a logical diagram.


  • Pass the entry-level C5050-101 – IBM SoftLayer Solution Architect V1 exam.
  • Basic knowledge of IBM consulting principles.
  • General knowledge of concepts found in the iBM Solutions Advisor – SoftLayer v1 exam.
  • IBM Solutions Advisor – SoftLayer v1

    The IBM Solutions Advisor – SoftLayer v1 certification is designed for Cloud and SoftLayer Sellers, Cloud Advisors and Cloud Architects. It covers the data, networking and security capabilities of SoftLayer — certifying your general skills using the technology.


  • Pass the entry-level C5050-100 exam.
  • Understanding of IBM SoftLayer’s offerings and capabilities.
  • Knowledge of SoftLayer in an e-commerce environment.
  • IBM Certified Designer – IBM Cognos Analytics Author Reports V11

    The IBM Certified Designer – IBM Cognos Analytics Author Reports v11 certification is for professional report authors. It covers report-building techniques, creating query models, SQL, using relational data models, queries, enhancing reports with HTML, tips for creating customized reports and managing professional reports.


    MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure

    The Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE): Cloud Platform and Infrastructure focuses on Windows Server and Microsoft Azure; it demonstrates proficiency in running a modern data center. The certification covers cloud technology, identity management, systems management, virtualization, storage and networking.


  • An MCSA Certification in Windows Server 2016, Cloud Platform Linux on Azure or Windows Server 2012.
  • MCSE: Data Management and Analytics

    The MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification focuses on Microsoft data products and services both on-site and cloud-based. It demonstrates your skills in “SQL administration, building enterprise-scale data solutions and leveraging business intelligence data.”


  • An MCSA certification in SQL Server 2012/2014 or SQL 2016 Database Administration, Database Development, BI Development, Machine Learning, BI Reporting or Data Engineering with Azure.
  • MCSE: Mobility

    The MCSE: Mobility certification is tailored for demonstrating your skills in a BYOD enterprise environment. It’s focused on those working in desktop support or in any related field that deals with enterprise-level management of non-enterprise mobile hardware and software.


  • An MCSA: Windows 10 certification.
  • MCSE: Productivity Solutions Expert

    The MCSE: Productivity Solutions Expert certification is designed for network and computer systems administration. It validates skills necessary for moving to the cloud, increasing efficiency and agility, improving data retention and minimizing security risks in the enterprise in a Microsoft environment.


  • An MCSA certification in Office 365, Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server Side 2016.
  • MCSD: App Builder

    The MCSD: App Builder certification is for application developers. It focuses on modern and cutting-edge skills for developing the most innovative mobile and web applications and services using Microsoft software and hardware.


  • An MCSA certification in Web Applications or Universal Windows Platform.
  • Related IT certifications articles:

    Copyright © 2018 IDG Communications, Inc.

    Understanding Cloud Computing Vulnerabilities | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article first appeared in Security & Privacy IEEE magazine and is brought to you by InfoQ & IEEE Computer Society.

    Discussions about cloud computing security often fail to distinguish general issues from cloud-specific issues. To clarify the discussions regarding vulnerabilities, the authors define indicators based on sound definitions of risk factors and cloud computing.

    Each day, a fresh news item, blog entry, or other publication warns us about cloud computing’s security risks and threats; in most cases, secu­rity is cited as the most substantial roadblock for cloud computing uptake. But this discourse about cloud computing security issues makes it difficult to formulate a well-founded assessment of the actual se­curity impact for two key reasons. First, in many of these discussions about risk, basic vocabulary terms - including risk, threat, and vulnerability - are often used interchangeably, without regard to their respective definitions. Second, not every issue raised is specific to cloud computing.

    To achieve a well-founded understanding of the “delta” that cloud computing adds with respect to se­curity issues, we must analyze how cloud computing influences established security issues. A key factor here is security vulnerabilities: cloud computing makes cer­tain well-understood vulnerabilities more significant as well as adds new ones to the mix. Before we take a closer look at cloud-specific vulnerabilities, however, we must first establish what a “vulnerability” really is.

    Vulnerability: An Overview

    Vulnerability is a prominent factor of risk. ISO 27005 defines risk as “the potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets and thereby cause harm to the organization,” measuring it in terms of both the likelihood of an event and its con­sequence[1]. The Open Group’s risk taxonomy of­fers a useful overview of risk factors (see Figure 1).

    (Click on the image to enlarge it.)

    Figure 1. Factors contributing to risk according to the Open Group’s risk taxonomy. Risk corresponds to the product of loss event frequency (left) and probable loss magnitude (right). Vulnerabilities influence the loss event frequency.

     The Open Group’s taxono­my uses the same two top-level risk factors as ISO 27005: the likelihood of a harm­ful event (here, loss event frequency) and its consequence (here, probable loss magnitude).1 The probable loss mag­nitude’s subfactors (on the right in Figure 1) influence a harmful event’s ultimate cost. The loss event frequen­cy subfactors (on the left) are a bit more complicated. A loss event occurs when a threat agent (such as a hacker) successfully exploits a vulnerability. The frequency with which this happens depends on two factors:

  • The frequency with which threat agents try to ex­ploit a vulnerability. This frequency is determined by both the agents’ motivation (What can they gain with an attack? How much effort does it take? What is the risk for the attackers?) and how much access (“contact”) the agents have to the attack targets.
  • The difference between the threat agents’ attack ca­pabilities and the system’s strength to resist the attack.
  • This second factor brings us toward a useful defini­tion of vulnerability.

    Defining Vulnerability

    According to the Open Group’s risk taxonomy,

    “Vulnerability is the probability that an asset will be unable to resist the actions of a threat agent. Vulner­ability exists when there is a difference between the force being applied by the threat agent, and an ob­ject’s ability to resist that force.”

    So, vulnerability must always be described in terms of resistance to a certain type of attack. To provide a real-world example, a car’s inability to protect its driver against injury when hit frontally by a truck driving 60 mph is a vulnerability; the resistance of the car’s crumple zone is simply too weak compared to the truck’s force. Against the “attack” of a biker, or even a small car driving at a more moderate speed, the car’s resistance strength is perfectly adequate.

    We can also describe computer vulnerability - that is, security-related bugs that you close with vendor-provided patches - as a weakening or removal of a certain resistance strength. A buffer-overflow vulnerability, for example, weakens the system’s resistance to arbitrary code execution. Whether attackers can exploit this vulnerability depends on their capabilities.

    Vulnerabilities and Cloud Risk

    We’ll now examine how cloud computing influences the risk factors in Figure 1, starting with the right-hand side of the risk factor tree.

    From a cloud customer perspective, the right-hand side dealing with probable magnitude of future loss isn’t changed at all by cloud computing: the con­sequences and ultimate cost of, say, a confidentiality breach, is exactly the same regardless of whether the data breach occurred within a cloud or a conven­tional IT infrastructure. For a cloud service provider, things look somewhat different: because cloud com­puting systems were previously separated on the same infrastructure, a loss event could entail a consider­ably larger impact. But this fact is easily grasped and incorporated into a risk assessment: no conceptual work for adapting impact analysis to cloud comput­ing seems necessary.

    So, we must search for changes on Figure 1’s left-hand side - the loss event frequency. Cloud comput­ing could change the probability of a harmful event’s occurrence. As we show later, cloud computing causes significant changes in the vulnerability factor. Of course, moving to a cloud infrastructure might change the attackers’ access level and motivation, as well as the effort and risk - a fact that must be considered as future work. But, for supporting a cloud-specific risk assess­ment, it seems most profitable to start by examining the exact nature of cloud-specific vulnerabilities.

    Cloud Computing

    Is there such a thing as a “cloud-specific” vulnerabil­ity? If so, certain factors in cloud computing’s nature must make a vulnerability cloud-specific.

    Essentially, cloud computing combines known technologies (such as virtualization) in ingenious ways to provide IT services “from the conveyor belt” us­ing economies of scale. We’ll now look closer at what the core technologies are and which characteristics of their use in cloud computing are essential.

    Core Cloud Computing Technologies

    Cloud computing builds heavily on capabilities avail­able through several core technologies:

  • Web applications and services. Software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) are unthink­able without Web application and Web services technologies: SaaS offerings are typically imple­mented as Web applications, while PaaS offerings provide development and runtime environments for Web applications and services. For infrastructure as a service (IaaS) offerings, administrators typically implement associated services and APIs, such as the management access for customers, using Web application/service technologies.
  • Virtualization IaaS offerings. These technologies have virtualization techniques at their very heart; because PaaS and SaaS services are usually built on top of a supporting IaaS infrastructure, the importance of virtualization also extends to these service models. In the future, we expect virtualization to develop from virtualized servers toward computational resources that can be used more readily for executing SaaS services.
  • Cryptography. Many cloud computing security re­quirements are solvable only by using cryptographic techniques.
  • As cloud computing develops, the list of core tech­nologies is likely to expand.

    Essential Characteristics

    In its description of essential cloud characteristics[2], the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) captures well what it means to provide IT ser­vices from the conveyor belt using economies of scale:

  • On-demand self-service. Users can order and manage services without human interaction with the ser­vice provider, using, for example, a Web portal and management interface. Provisioning and de-provi­sioning of services and associated resources occur automatically at the provider.
  • Ubiquitous network access. Cloud services are accessed via the network (usually the Internet), using stan­dard mechanisms and protocols.
  • Resource pooling. Computing resources used to pro­vide the cloud service are realized using a homo­geneous infrastructure that’s shared between all service users.
  • Rapid elasticity. Resources can be scaled up and down rapidly and elastically.
  • Measured service. Resource/service usage is constantly metered, supporting optimization of resource usage, usage reporting to the customer, and pay-as-you-go business models.
  • NIST’s definition framework for cloud computing with its list of essential characteristics has by now evolved into the de facto standard for defining cloud computing.

    Cloud-Specific Vulnerabilities

    Based on the abstract view of cloud computing we presented earlier, we can now move toward a defini­tion of what constitutes a cloud-specific vulnerability. A vulnerability is cloud specific if it

  • is intrinsic to or prevalent in a core cloud computing technology,
  • has its root cause in one of NIST’s essential cloud characteristics,
  • is caused when cloud innovations make tried-and-tested security controls difficult or impossible to implement, or
  • is prevalent in established state-of-the-art cloud offerings.
  • We now examine each of these four indicators.

    Core-Technology Vulnerabilities

    Cloud computing’s core technologies - Web applica­tions and services, virtualization, and cryptography - have vulnerabilities that are either intrinsic to the technology or prevalent in the technology’s state-of-the-art implementations. Three examples of such vul­nerabilities are virtual machine escape, session riding and hijacking, and insecure or obsolete cryptography.

    First, the possibility that an attacker might success­fully escape from a virtualized environment lies in virtualization’s very nature. Hence, we must consider this vulnerability as intrinsic to virtualization and highly relevant to cloud computing.

    Second, Web application technologies must over­come the problem that, by design, the HTTP proto­col is a stateless protocol, whereas Web applications require some notion of session state. Many techniques implement session handling and - as any security pro­fessional knowledgeable in Web application security will testify - many session handling implementations are vulnerable to session riding and session hijack­ing. Whether session riding/hijacking vulnerabilities are intrinsic to Web application technologies or are “only” prevalent in many current implementations is arguable; in any case, such vulnerabilities are certainly relevant for cloud computing.

    Finally, cryptanalysis advances can render any cryptographic mechanism or algorithm insecure as novel methods of breaking them are discovered. It’s even more common to find crucial flaws in crypto­graphic algorithm implementations, which can turn strong encryption into weak encryption (or sometimes no encryption at all). Because broad uptake of cloud computing is unthinkable without the use of cryptog­raphy to protect data confidentiality and integrity in the cloud, insecure or obsolete cryptography vulner­abilities are highly relevant for cloud computing.

    Essential Cloud Characteristic Vulnerabilities

    As we noted earlier, NIST describes five essential cloud characteristics: on-demand self-service, ubiqui­tous network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service.

    Following are examples of vulnerabilities with root causes in one or more of these characteristics:

  • Unauthorized access to management interface. The cloud characteristic on-demand self-service requires a management interface that’s accessible to cloud ser­vice users. Unauthorized access to the management interface is therefore an especially relevant vulnerability for cloud systems: the probability that unau­thorized access could occur is much higher than for traditional systems where the management func­tionality is accessible only to a few administrators.
  • Internet protocol vulnerabilities. The cloud characteristic ubiquitous network access means that cloud services are accessed via network using standard protocols. In most cases, this network is the Internet, which must be considered untrusted. Internet protocol vulnerabilities - such as vulnerabilities that allow man-in-the-middle attacks - are therefore relevant for cloud computing.
  • Data recovery vulnerability. The cloud characteristics of pooling and elasticity entail that resources allocated to one user will be reallocated to a different user at a later time. For memory or storage resources, it might therefore be possible to recover data written by a previous user.
  • Metering and billing evasion. The cloud characteristic of measured service means that any cloud service has a metering capability at an abstraction level ap­propriate to the service type (such as storage, pro­cessing, and active user accounts). Metering data is used to optimize service delivery as well as billing. Relevant vulnerabilities include metering and bill­ing data manipulation and billing evasion.
  • Thus, we can leverage NIST’s well-founded defi­nition of cloud computing in reasoning about cloud computing issues.

    Defects in Known Security Controls

    Vulnerabilities in standard security controls must be considered cloud specific if cloud innovations directly cause the difficulties in implementing the controls. Such vulnerabilities are also known as control challenges.

    Here, we treat three examples of such control chal­lenges. First, virtualized networks offer insufficient net­work-based controls. Given the nature of cloud services, the administrative access to IaaS network infrastructure and the ability to tailor network infrastructure are typically limited; hence, standard controls such as IP-based network zoning can’t be applied. Also, standard tech­niques such as network-based vulnerability scanning are usually forbidden by IaaS providers because, for example, friendly scans can’t be distinguished from at­tacker activity. Finally, technologies such as virtualiza­tion mean that network traffic occurs on both real and virtual networks, such as when two virtual machine en­vironments (VMEs) hosted on the same server commu­nicate. Such issues constitute a control challenge because tried and tested network-level security controls might not work in a given cloud environment.

    The second challenge is in poor key management procedures. As noted in a recent European Network and Information Security Agency study[3], cloud com­puting infrastructures require management and stor­age of many different kinds of keys. Because virtual machines don’t have a fixed hardware infrastructure and cloud-based content is often geographically dis­tributed, it’s more difficult to apply standard con­trols - such as hardware security module (HSM) storage - to keys on cloud infrastructures.

    Finally, security metrics aren’t adapted to cloud infrastructures. Currently, there are no standardized cloud-specific security metrics that cloud customers can use to monitor the security status of their cloud resources. Until such standard security metrics are de­veloped and implemented, controls for security assess­ment, audit, and accountability are more difficult and costly, and might even be impossible to employ.

    Prevalent Vulnerabilities in State-of-the-Art Cloud Offerings

    Although cloud computing is relatively young, there are already myriad cloud offerings on the market. Hence, we can complement the three cloud-specific vulnerabil­ity indicators presented earlier with a forth, empirical indicator: if a vulnerability is prevalent in state-of-the-art cloud offerings, it must be regarded as cloud-specific. Examples of such vulnerabilities include injection vul­nerabilities and weak authentication schemes.

    Injection vulnerabilities are exploited by manipu­lating service or application inputs to interpret and execute parts of them against the programmer’s in­tentions. Examples of injection vulnerabilities include

  • SQL injection, in which the input contains SQL code that’s erroneously executed in the database back end;
  • command injection, in which the input contains commands that are erroneously executed via the OS; and
  • cross-site scripting, in which the input contains JavaScript code that’s erroneously executed by a vic­tim’s browser.
  • In addition, many widely used authentication mechanisms are weak. For example, usernames and passwords for authentication are weak due to

  • insecure user behavior (choosing weak passwords, reusing passwords, and so on), and
  • inherent limitations of one-factor authentication mechanisms.
  • Also, the authentication mechanisms’ implementa­tion might have weaknesses and allow, for example, credential interception and replay. The majority of Web applications in current state-of-the-art cloud services employ usernames and passwords as authenti­cation mechanism.

    Architectural Components and Vulnerabilities

    Cloud service models are commonly divided into SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS, and each model influences the vulner­abilities exhibited by a given cloud infrastructure. It’s helpful to add more structure to the service model stacks: Figure 2 shows a cloud reference architecture that makes the most important security-relevant cloud components explicit and provides an abstract overview of cloud computing for security issue analysis.

    Figure 2. The cloud reference architecture. We map cloud-specific vulnerabilities to components of this reference architecture, which gives us an overview of which vulnerabilities might be relevant for a given cloud service.

    The reference architecture is based on work carried out at the University of California, Los Angeles, and IBM[4]. It inherits the layered approach in that layers can encompass one or more service components. Here, we use “service” in the broad sense of providing something that might be both material (such as shelter, power, and hardware) and immaterial (such as a runtime environ­ment). For two layers, the cloud software environment and the cloud software infrastructure, the model makes the layers’ three main service components - computa­tion, storage, and communication - explicit. Top lay­er services also can be implemented on layers further down the stack, in effect skipping intermediate layers. For example, a cloud Web application can be imple­mented and operated in the traditional way - that is, running on top of a standard OS without using dedi­cated cloud software infrastructure and environment components. Layering and compositionality imply that the transition from providing some service or function in-house to sourcing the service or function can take place between any of the model’s layers.

    In addition to the original model, we’ve identified supporting functions relevant to services in several layers and added them to the model as vertical spans over several horizontal layers.

    Our cloud reference architecture has three main parts:

  • Supporting (IT) infrastructure. These are facilities and services common to any IT service, cloud or other­wise. We include them in the architecture because we want to provide the complete picture; a full treatment of IT security must account for a cloud service’s non-cloud-specific components.
  • Cloud-specific infrastructure. These components con­stitute the heart of a cloud service; cloud-specific vulnerabilities and corresponding controls are typi­cally mapped to these components.
  • Cloud service consumer. Again, we include the cloud service customer in the reference architecture because it’s relevant to an all-encompassing security treatment.
  • Also, we make explicit the network that separates the cloud service consumer from the cloud infrastructure; the fact that access to cloud resources is carried out via a (usually untrusted) network is one of cloud comput­ing’s main characteristics.

    Using the cloud reference architecture’s structure, we can now run through the architecture’s compo­nents and give examples of each component’s cloud-specific vulnerabilities. 

    Cloud Software Infrastructure and Environment

    The cloud software infrastructure layer provides an abstrac­tion level for basic IT resources that are offered as ser­vices to higher layers: computational resources (usually VMEs), storage, and (network) communication. These services can be used individually, as is typically the case with storage services, but they’re often bundled such that servers are delivered with certain network con­nectivity and (often) access to storage. This bundle, with or without storage, is usually referred to as IaaS.

    The cloud software environment layer provides servic­es at the application platform level:

  • a development and runtime environment for servic­es and applications written in one or more supported languages;
  • storage services (a database interface rather than file share); and
  • communication infrastructure, such as Microsoft’s Azure service bus.
  • Vulnerabilities in both the infrastructure and envi­ronment layers are usually specific to one of the three resource types provided by these two layers. However, cross-tenant access vulnerabilities are relevant for all three resource types. The virtual machine escape vul­nerability we described earlier is a prime example. We used it to demonstrate a vulnerability that’s intrinsic to the core virtualization technology, but it can also be seen as having its root cause in the essential char­acteristic of resource pooling: whenever resources are pooled, unauthorized access across resources becomes an issue. Hence, for PaaS, where the technology to separate different tenants (and tenant services) isn’t necessarily based on virtualization (although that will be increasingly true), cross-tenant access vulnerabili­ties play an important role as well. Similarly, cloud storage is prone to cross-tenant storage access, and cloud communication - in the form of virtual net­working - is prone to cross-tenant network access. 

    Computational Resources

    A highly relevant set of computational resource vulner­abilities concerns how virtual machine images are han­dled: the only feasible way of providing nearly identical server images - thus providing on-demand service for virtual servers - is by cloning template images.

    Vulnerable virtual machine template images cause OS or application vulnerabilities to spread over many systems. An attacker might be able to analyze config­uration, patch level, and code in detail using admin­istrative rights by renting a virtual server as a service customer and thereby gaining knowledge helpful in attacking other customers’ images. A related problem is that an image can be taken from an untrustworthy source, a new phenomenon brought on especially by the emerging marketplace of virtual images for IaaS services. In this case, an image might, for example, have been manipulated so as to provide back-door ac­cess for an attacker.

    Data leakage by virtual machine replication is a vulnerability that’s also rooted in the use of cloning for providing on-demand service. Cloning leads to data leakage problems regarding machine secrets: cer­tain elements of an OS - such as host keys and crypto­graphic salt values - are meant to be private to a single host. Cloning can violate this privacy assumption. Again, the emerging marketplace for virtual machine images, as in Amazon EC2, leads to a related problem: users can provide template images for other users by turning a running image into a template. Depending on how the image was used before creating a template from it, it could contain data that the user doesn’t wish to make public.

    There are also control challenges here, including those related to cryptography use. Cryptographic vul­nerabilities due to weak random number generation might exist if the abstraction layer between the hard­ware and OS kernel introduced by virtualization is problematic for generating random numbers within a VME. Such generation requires an entropy source on the hardware level. Virtualization might have flawed mechanisms for tapping that entropy source, or hav­ing several VMEs on the same host might exhaust the available entropy, leading to weak random number generation. As we noted earlier, this abstraction layer also complicates the use of advanced security controls, such as hardware security modules, possibly leading to poor key management procedures. 


    In addition to data recovery vulnerability due to re­source pooling and elasticity, there’s a related control challenge in media sanitization, which is often hard or impossible to implement in a cloud context. For exam­ple, data destruction policies applicable at the end of a life cycle that require physical disk destruction can’t be carried out if a disk is still being used by another tenant.

    Because cryptography is frequently used to overcome storage-related vulnerabilities, this core technology’s vulnerabilities - insecure or obsolete cryptography and poor key management - play a spe­cial role for cloud storage. 


    The most prominent example of a cloud communi­cations service is the networking provided for VMEs in an IaaS environment. Because of resource pool­ing, several customers are likely to share certain net­work infrastructure components: vulnerabilities of shared network infrastructure components, such as vulnerabilities in a DNS server, Dynamic Host Con­figuration Protocol, and IP protocol vulnerabilities, might enable network-based cross-tenant attacks in an IaaS infrastructure.

    Virtualized networking also presents a control challenge: again, in cloud services, the administrative access to IaaS network infrastructure and the possi­bility for tailoring network infrastructure are usually limited. Also, using technologies such as virtualiza­tion leads to a situation where network traffic occurs not only on “real” networks but also within virtual­ized networks (such as for communication between two VMEs hosted on the same server); most imple­mentations of virtual networking offer limited possi­bilities for integrating network-based security. All in all, this constitutes a control challenge of insufficient network-based controls because tried-and-tested network-level security controls might not work in a given cloud environment. 

    Cloud Web Applications

    A Web application uses browser technology as the front end for user interaction. With the increased up­take of browser-based computing technologies such as JavaScript, Java, Flash, and Silverlight, a Web cloud application falls into two parts:

  • an application component operated somewhere in the cloud, and
  • a browser component running within the user’s browser.
  • In the future, developers will increasingly use tech­nologies such as Google Gears to permit offline us­age of a Web application’s browser component for use cases that don’t require constant access to remote data. We’ve already described two typical vulnerabilities for Web application technologies: session riding and hijacking vulnerabilities and injection vulnerabilities.

    Other Web-application-specific vulnerabilities concern the browser’s front-end component. Among them are client-side data manipulation vulnerabilities, in which users attack Web applications by manipulat­ing data sent from their application component to the server’s application component. In other words, the input received by the server component isn’t the “ex­pected” input sent by the client-side component, but altered or completely user-generated input. Further­more, Web applications also rely on browser mecha­nisms for isolating third-party content embedded in the application (such as advertisements, mashup com­ponents, and so on). Browser isolation vulnerabilities might thus allow third-party content to manipulate the Web application. 

    Services and APIs

    It might seem obvious that all layers of the cloud in­frastructure offer services, but for examining cloud infrastructure security, it’s worthwhile to explicitly think about all of the infrastructure’s service and ap­plication programming interfaces. Most services are likely Web services, which share many vulnerabilities with Web applications. Indeed, the Web application layer might be realized completely by one or more Web services such that the application URL would only give the user a browser component. Thus the supporting services and API functions share many vulnerabilities with the Web applications layer. 

    Management Access

    NIST’s definition of cloud computing states that one of cloud services’ central characteristics is that they can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal man­agement effort or service provider interaction. Con­sequently, a common element of each cloud service is a management interface - which leads directly to the vulnerability concerning unauthorized access to the management interface. Furthermore, because man­agement access is often realized using a Web applica­tion or service, it often shares the vulnerabilities of the Web application layer and services/API component. 

    Identity, Authentication, Authorization, and Auditing Mechanisms

    All cloud services (and each cloud service’s management interface) require mechanisms for identity management, authentication, authorization, and auditing (IAAA). To a certain extent, parts of these mechanisms might be factored out as a stand-alone IAAA service to be used by other services. Two IAAA elements that must be part of each service implementation are execution of adequate authorization checks (which, of course, use authentica­tion and/or authorization information received from an IAA service) and cloud infrastructure auditing.

    Most vulnerabilities associated with the IAAA component must be regarded as cloud-specific be­cause they’re prevalent in state-of-the-art cloud of­ferings. Earlier, we gave the example of weak user authentication mechanisms; other examples include

  • Denial of service by account lockout. One often-used security control - especially for authentication with username and password - is to lock out accounts that have received several unsuccessful authentica­tion attempts in quick succession. Attackers can use such attempts to launch DoS attacks against a user.
  • Weak credential-reset mechanisms. When cloud com­puting providers manage user credentials themselves rather than using federated authentication, they must provide a mechanism for resetting credentials in the case of forgotten or lost credentials. In the past, password-recovery mechanisms have proven particularly weak.
  • Insufficient or faulty authorization checks. State-of-the-art Web application and service cloud offerings are often vulnerable to insufficient or faulty authoriza­tion checks that can make unauthorized information or actions available to users. Missing authorization checks, for example, are the root cause of URL-guessing attacks. In such attacks, users modify URLs to display information of other user accounts.
  • Coarse authorization control. Cloud services’ manage­ment interfaces are particularly prone to offering authorization control models that are too coarse. Thus, standard security measures, such as duty sepa­ration, can’t be implemented because it’s impossible to provide users with only those privileges they strictly require to carry out their work.
  • Insufficient logging and monitoring possibilities. Current­ly, no standards or mechanisms exist to give cloud customers logging and monitoring facilities within cloud resources. This gives rise to an acute prob­lem: log files record all tenant events and can’t easily be pruned for a single tenant. Also, the provider’s security monitoring is often hampered by insuffi­cient monitoring capabilities. Until we develop and implement usable logging and monitoring standards and facilities, it’s difficult - if not impossible - to implement security controls that require logging and monitoring.
  • Of all these IAAA vulnerabilities, in the experi­ence of cloud service providers, currently, authentica­tion issues are the primary vulnerability that puts user data in cloud services at risk[5]. 


    Vulnerabilities that are relevant for all cloud comput­ing components typically concern the provider - or rather users’ inability to control cloud infrastructure as they do their own infrastructure. Among the control challenges are insufficient security audit possibilities, and the fact that certification schemes and security metrics aren’t adopted to cloud computing. Further, standard security controls regarding audit, certifica­tion, and continuous security monitoring can’t be implemented effectively.

    Cloud computing is in constant development; as the field matures, additional cloud-specific vulnerabilities certainly will emerge, while others will become less of an issue. Using a precise definition of what constitutes a vulnerability from the Open Group’s risk taxonomy and the four indicators of cloud-specific vulnerabilities we identify here offers a precision and clarity level often lacking in current discourse about cloud computing security.

    Control challenges typically highlight situations in which otherwise successful security controls are inef­fective in a cloud setting. Thus, these challenges are of special interest for further cloud computing secu­rity research. Indeed, many current efforts - such as the development of security metrics and certification schemes, and the move toward full-featured virtual­ized network components - directly address control challenges by enabling the use of such tried-and-tested controls for cloud computing.

    About the Authors

    Bernd Grobauer is a senior consultant in information security and leads the Siemens Computer Emergency Response Team’s (CERT’s) research activities in incident detection and han­dling, malware defense, and cloud computing security. Gro­bauer has a PhD in computer science from Aarhus University, Denmark. He’s on the membership advisory committee of the International Information Integrity Institute. Contact him at

    Tobias Walloschek is a senior management consultant at Sie­mens IT Solutions and Services GmbH. His research interests are cloud computing security and business adoption strate­gies. Walloschek has a bachelor’s degree in business admin­istration from the University of Applied Sciences in Ingolstadt, Germany. He is a Certified Information Systems Security Pro­fessional. Contact him at

    Elmar Stöcker is a manager at Siemens IT Solutions and Ser­vices GmbH, where he’s responsible for the portfolio strat­egy and governance of the professional services portfolio; he also leads the cloud computing security and PaaS activi­ties. Stöcker has a master’s degree in computer science from RWTH Aachen, Germany. Contact him at

    IEEE Security & Privacy's primary objective is to stimulate and track advances in security, privacy, and dependability and present these advances in a form that can be useful to a broad cross-section of the professional community -- ranging from academic researchers to industry practitioners.

    [1] ISO/IEC 27005:2007 Information Technology—Security Techniques—Information Security Risk Management, Int’l Org. Standardization, 2007.

    [2] P. Mell and T. Grance, “Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm (v0.25),” presentation, US Nat’l Inst. Standards and Technology, 2009; 

    [3] European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA), Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Recom­mendations for Information Security, Nov. 2009; 

    [4] L. Youseff, M. Butrico, and D. Da Silva, “Towards a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing,” Proc. Grid Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), IEEE Press, 2008; doi: 10.1109/GCE.2008.4738443.

    [5] E. Grosse, “Security at Scale,” invited talk, ACM Cloud Security Workshop (CCSW), 2010; 

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