|Exam Name||:||Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4|
|Questions and Answers||:||67 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 14, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure 9L0-614 Dump|
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9L0-614 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Test Code : 9L0-614
Test Name : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Vendor Name : Apple
Q&A : 67 Real Questions
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Apple has posted a help word titled “put together for alterations to macOS Server,” and boy are they not kidding about large changes coming. In an replace to macOS Server due in “spring 2018,” Apple will deprecate ten functions via hiding them on new installations. in case you’ve already configured one of the most deprecated features, you’ll be in a position to hold using it in that replace.
In a future unencumber of macOS Server, Apple will go extra and take away the deprecated capabilities completely. The writing is on the wall — it’s time to start discovering alternate options.
The deprecated features are:
For each, Apple’s assist be aware links to alternatives, youngsters I’m certain the Mac admin community could have extra assistance and ideas. if you’re no longer already in a single of these corporations, i like to recommend the MacEnterprise mailing listing and the MacAdmins Slack team.
If I’m diffing appropriately, the features as a way to remain in macOS Server include these three (Apple didn’t call out application replace for elimination, however’s already hidden, so it looks destined for the slicing block as well):
That record is in accordance with Apple’s statement that “macOS Server is altering to focus more on management of computers, instruments, and storage in your network.”
Over at Krypted, Charles side has been retaining a web page that tracks the ebb and flow of services in Server over time. The number peaked somewhat a number of revisions ago and has been losing ever when you consider that. in part, that’s as a result of Apple has moved a number of capabilities into macOS for all to make use of, notably content material Caching and Time computing device Server.
as a result of Apple’s evident lack of activity in macOS Server in fresh years, few americans are shocked via Apple’s announcement. youngsters, many are distressed by way of it since it sends a troubling message to small businesses that have lengthy relied on OS X Server and macOS Server. Consultants and IT admins who counseled, installed, and maintained these macOS Server setups are concerned about having to research, set up, and sustain with the wide diversity of apps vital to change all of the capabilities that macOS Server supplied in a single coherent kit. and naturally, besides the fact that the options are improved technically, moving to them would require non-trivial investments of time and money.
Are you the use of OS X Server or macOS Server now? What’s your plan for dealing with losing these features? tell us in the feedback.
Are you dealing with challenge in sending and receiving Cox electronic mail from your Mac OS X EI Capitan? If yes, then comply with the steps mentioned in this post to replace your server settings as a result of your problem could be happening as a result of server replace issue.
Updating a server will most probably repair your issue and you will be in a position to ship and receive the messages to your Cox com login.
follow the beneath-outlined steps to edit the incoming and outgoing e mail server settings of your Mac 10.eleven OS.Server settings to acquire mail on account:
The steps to edit the settings are explained beneath. You have to pay variety consideration to each and each step.
· Open the software folder in your Mac machine and faucet on mail. click on the dock purchasable at the bottom of the screen to open the mail.
· Go to ‘preferences’ from the cox aid drop down menu.
· Now, click on on ‘debts’ and go to Cox e-mail login to choose the specific account for modifying.
· Now complete the under-outlined projects:
Ø Go to ‘superior tab’.
Ø Uncheck the box, which says ‘immediately realize the account and change settings’.
Ø you are going to find the red circle on the properly left of window display. click on on it.
Ø eventually, click on ‘keep’ to save the ameliorations.
· again click on ‘preferences’ from the drop down menu of your Cox account. in case you discover any issue in locating the issues to your machine, then that you can take Cox email support from the provider officials as well.
· Go to the ‘account’ area.
· Enter the username, identify of the server, and password within the crucial field. you can take further aid from the Cox guide hyperlink.
· once more click on on the red circle to save the adjustments, you made recently together with your account server.
· Now exit the window and check out sending the mail to your cox account out of your Gmail or from other mail service provider.Server settings to ship emails out of your account:
The settings to send e mail from your account are being discussed here as below:
· Go to app folder again from your home monitor and click on on ‘mail’ icon from the backside of the reveal.
· click ‘preferences’ to alternate the settings. If the updating technique is not executing effectively, then that you can determine your cyber web connection or call at cox web guide number.
· Now comply with the same procedure as followed for the old settings i: e, open the money owed section and click on on the certain account you are looking to edit.
· under SMTP box, investigate the name being displayed with the aid of clicking on the arrows obtainable subsequent to the Outgoing mail server field.
· finished here task now:
Ø choose the right SMTP server from the server listing.
Ø Go to the ‘superior’ tab.
Ø Uncheck the container with option ‘automatically detect and alter the account settings’
word: if you locate that the settings are once again modified to instantly become aware of mode after re-opening the mail app out of your apple gadget, then all you need to do is alternate the authentication category for your mail outgoing server. change it to password authentication class from the MD5 response authentication.
· determine the server settings before finally submitting it. you could go to Cox tv support link for more details.
· click ‘adequate’ adopted by ‘store’ to save the modified settings of your outgoing server.
· determine the field which says ‘Use this server only’. And the outgoing server may still be appropriately selected.
· once more click on the pink circular button on the top of the account settings monitor.
· signal out from all accounts of the mailbox box.
· Now open the mailbox again and signal onto all accounts.
· Exit and re-open the mail app on Mac.
In both Mac OS X Server and customer variations, Samba allows Macs to share files with windows valued clientele on the community and entry home windows file servers. It has also later allowed Mac OS X Server to work as an NT domain Controller to control network debts and make roaming profiles and home directories accessible to home windows notebook clients.
besides the fact that children, the Samba crew has moved energetic construction of the assignment to the extra strict GPLv3 license, which prevents Apple from realistically the usage of the utility commercially.
builders file that Apple has internally formally introduced that it is going to pull Samba from Mac OS X Lion and Lion Server, and change it with home windows networking application developed by means of Apple. the brand new alternative for Samba is declared to be named SMBX, and supports Microsoft's more moderen SMB2 edition of its proprietary but overtly posted protocol, which was at the beginning released in home windows Vista.
while Mac OS X's previous Samba simplest supported the usual SMB1, Microsoft's new SBM2 is each sooner and greater productive, reducing the number of instructions and subcommands from over 100 to just 19, while adding pipelining of instructions (to greater correctly transact over slow hyperlinks), help for symbolic links, caching of file houses, and bigger storage fields helping superior performance of tremendous file transfers over quick networks.
Apple's home windows file sharing utility in Lion will continue to allow Macs to both supply and entry home windows-fashion file shares, but reportedly will no longer aid the NT area Controller features of Samba, which relate to Microsoft's 1990's, NT-era directory carrier supported in advance of lively listing, which became launched alongside windows 2000.
despite its age, some networks still use NT area Controller configurations because of its relative simplicity compared to Microsoft's greater up to date energetic directory. Apple is now talked about to be recommending energetic directory to clients who are still elegant upon the older NT domain Controller community directory services.
however, the edition of Samba Apple had been the use of averted Macs from seamlessly working with contemporary PCs operating windows 7, which include safety changes in how encryptions protocols work. Apple's personal application may not be confined via the design issue of Samba.
end users may conceivably obtain Samba on their own and integrate it into their Mac OS X ambiance themselves, however Samba doesn't presently deliver able to use binaries for Mac OS X, and a pure port of Samba would lack Apple's effortless to make use of person interface and tight integration with other Apple software, together with Open listing, the business's own listing capabilities answer.
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OpenVPN is famously difficult to get up and running, but the truth is that it needn’t be. In this second and concluding OpenVPN article I am going to go through what it takes to get an OpenVPN Ethernet tunnel set up between a laptop computer and an office or home machine acting as an OpenVPN server.Downloading and Installing OpenVPN
Before you can get OpenVPN running on any computer you need to download and install it:Creating a Public Key Infrastructure
Once you’ve got OpenVPN successfully installed, it’s time to build the public key infrastructure needed for certificate-based authentication. If you don’t know what this means, don’t worry: just follow the instructions. A fuller explanation can be found at http://openvpn.net/index.php/documentation/howto.html#pki
To get started, you’ll need to use the Easy-RSA PKI suite.
On Windows machines you’ll find it at: C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa
On Linux machines this will probably be installed in an easy-rsa directory machines at /usr/share/doc/packages/opevpn or /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.0, but it’s a good idea to move this to /etc/openvpn to prevent it getting overwritten by future updates.Generating the Master Certificate Authority (CA) Certificate & Key
Windows: From the Start button select cmd, and in the command window type:
cd "C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa
Linux/BSD/UNIX: Open a terminal window and type
(assuming you have moved the easy-rsa directory to this location)
Then type the following commands, followed by return:
Windows:init-config vars clean-all build-ca
Linux/BSD/UNIX:./init-config ./vars ./clean-all ./build-ca
The last command will invoke a window which will ask for a series of values. You can press the return key to enter the default values for all of these except the value for Common Name. For this, type: TestVPNGenerating the Server and Client Certificates and Keys
Then next step is to generate a server certificate and key, again using the Easy-RSA suite. The command for this is:
In the interactive session that follows, simply press Enter to provide the default value each time, until you are asked for a Common Name. For Common Name enter “server” , then continue entering the default values until prompted to sign the certificate. Answer “y” to this question and to the following one to finish.
Then generate the certificate and key for your client machine. The process is similar to the one for building the server certificate and key, but this time enter client1 as the common name.
If you think you may want to access the OpenVPN server from more than one laptop, repeat the process, replacing client2 or client3 for client1 each time.
The final step is to generate Diffie-Hellman parameters for key exchange:
You’ll find the results of all this work in a subfolder called keys in the easy-rsa folder, and the final task is to move the client key and certificate to your client device. The files in question are client1.key and client1.crt. (If you have created more than one client certificate key and certificate, move the client2.key and client2.crt files to the second machine, and so on.)
Your public key infrastructure is now set up.Creating the OpenVPN Configuration Files
When OpenVPN runs it reads a configuration file at c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or in /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix). This text file contains all the information OpenVPN needs to know to make or receive a connection, so it’s crucial that these files are correct.
The easiest way to get OpenVPN working in the way we want is to edit the highlighted lines in the following config files to match your network setup, save them as a text file and copy them to the appropriate location.
Server configuration file:#server config file start
local 192.168.1.15 # Change this address to the IP address of the network card attached to your router. To ensure this does not change you need either to have a static local IP address, or to configure your router to always assign this local IP address to your server.
port 1194 # This is the port OpenVPN will run on. Change it to a different port if you prefer
push "dhcp-option DNS XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX" # Replace the Xs with the IP address of the DNS server for your network
push "dhcp-option DNS YYY.YYY.YYY.YYY" # Replace the Xs with the IP address of the secondary DNS server for your network
ca "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\ca.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn (without quotation marks) for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
cert "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
key "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.key" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
dh "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\dh1024.pem" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
server 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.128 # This will be the virtual IP address and subnet of the server’s OpenVPN connection. Change it to something similar like 192.168.11.0 if this subnet is already in useifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt push "redirect-gateway def1" keepalive 10 120
cipher BF-CBC # Blowfish (default)If you prefer, you can use one of the two ciphers listed below (which must be the same as the client)#cipher AES-128-CBC # AES #cipher DES-EDE3-CBC # Triple-DES comp-lzo max-clients 3 # Change the 3 to the number of client keys you have created persist-key persist-tun status openvpn-status.log # user nobody # remove the # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems # group nobody # remove the first # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems verb 1 #config file ends
Save this file as server.ovpn, and move it to c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix)What to Do If You Don’t Have a Static Public IP Address
OpenVPN clients connect to the OpenVPN server using a public IP address or host name that needs to be entered into the client config file. If your ISP provides your business or home network with a dynamic IP address that changes each time an Internet connection is reset then your client config will no longer work after a reconnection. To get round this you can get a free hostname from DynDNS which automatically points to your dynamic IP address, even when it changes. To get a dynamic host name (such as myhost.dyndns.org) visit http://www.dyndns.com.
Pity the small office when it comes to technology. With anywhere from several to several dozen employees, there's often no budget for an IT director to manage all the network services required for a modern company of any size. Offices may need to handle email, file-sharing, calendar and contacts hosting, collaboration tools, and other matters. Especially in this economy, how can an office of that size—perhaps your office?—afford the technician needed to install and keep a Microsoft Server 2008 installation on the rails, plus the initial cost in per-seat licenses. Unix and Linux distributions may be free or have relatively inexpensive purchase and service contracts, but you pay for that in requiring more expertise in house or on demand.
That may lead firms to Google's door, turning to Web hosted services via Google Apps. But the $50 per-user, per-year fee can add up, and Google Apps doesn't offer everything a small business needs. Some companies may not want to go this route, or may be subject to regulatory issues that prevent proprietary or confidential data from being located offsite with Google—or anyone. That seems to leave a large niche in which companies want an affordable product that runs on commodity hardware and doesn't need the constant ministrations of an IT expert, even if one's required to set it up.
Apple has such a product, Mac OS X Server, but has been weak at exploiting this niche despite the server's long history. Apple has focused instead on support for large corporations' enterprise networks, data center and cluster use, and academic deployments. Releases before version 10.6 (Snow Leopard) had numerous difficulties for those who couldn't quickly fire up a command line and start entering commands from memory. Further, OS X Server was often too focused on providing services for networks mostly comprised of Macs; a lot of lip service was paid to Windows support, but it's only seemingly fully matured in 10.6.
But what makes OS X Server 10.6 a perfectly reasonable choice for small-to-medium-sized businesses is new pricing coupled with a custom Mac mini configuration. For $999, you can buy a perfectly speedy office server with a full, unlimited-seat license.
In this review, I look at a few specific aspects of the Mac mini server model and OS X Server as they relate to sub-enterprise-scale networks, especially where IT staff help isn't assumed. I also offer you two key tips for fixing problems in OS X Server that tripped me up during testing.
(This is not a full review of OS X Server, which would take many tens of thousands of words and months of testing, much like John Siracusa's in-depth OS X client reviews.)Hardware, OS, and Pricing
The Mac mini server—its full name is the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server—brings together two separate developments: a substantial price cut for OS X Server and increasingly powerful Mac mini models that have the gumption to work as servers.
Before 10.6, Apple charged $999 for its unlimited user license, and $499 for a 10-user version. The 10-user limit, however, applied only to simultaneous logins for certain kinds of services, including AFP (Apple Filing Protocol), Apple's native file-sharing service. The 10.6 release threw that pricing out the window. There's one version of OS X Server 10.6: $499 for an unlimited user version. OS X Server can be installed on nearly any system capable of running the regular version of Snow Leopard (which itself costs $29 for a 10.5 Leopard upgrade version that could be used for a full installation). OS X Server since 10.5 can also be virtualized with one paid license per virtualization; the $499 price makes virtualization cheaper, too.
By comparison, Windows Small Business Server 2008 comes in two editions (naturally) for either $1,089 (standard) or $1,899 (premium) with five client licenses, and charges $77 or $189 respectively for each additional client license. The premium version includes Microsoft SQL Server 2008 for small businesses, and, because MySQL is included with OS X Server, one could argue the premium version is most comparable.
The Mac mini Server ($999) is the other development. Before this particular model, Apple shipped only one standard server system in multiple configurations with a full software license included: its rack-mounted Xserve (starting at $2,999), designed for server rooms and data centers. Until an update in March 2009, the Mac mini was too underpowered to handle multiple server tasks, although the mini was often found in data centers.
If you're weren't racking your server, then an iMac or Mac Pro could serve, but both models can be overkill. The Mac Pro can be purchased in a build-to-order configuration starting at $2,999 with OS X Server installed, but the Mac Pro has a strong graphics orientation, designed to be best used by 2D, 3D, and video professionals. An iMac can handle OS X Server, too, but you're paying for a built-in monitor you likely don't need.
The March 2009 Mac mini update gave the tiny desktop real performance, bringing it reasonably close to iMac system specs. The October 2009 Mac mini update bumped specs and made the server pricing work with Mac mini server.
For $999, you get a 2.53 GHz Intel Core Duo, 4GB of 1066 MHz DDR3 RAM, two 500GB drives, one FireWire 800 port and five USB 2.0 ports, gigabit Ethernet, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR, and Wi-Fi (802.11n).
The server flavor omits an internal CD/DVD drive, which Apple sells as a USB attachment for $99; the second 500GB hard drive fills the optical drive's space. Instead of the external optical drive, you can use the networked CD/DVD feature—Remote Disc—that was added for the MacBook Air. Mount a disc on computer elsewhere on the network with CD/DVD sharing enabled—separate software for Windows or via the Sharing system preference pane in Mac OS X—and the mini can mount it and even install a new operating system from it.Two mistakes
Apple made only two missteps on system specs. First, a server nearly always does better with more memory, and while 4GB isn't unreasonable, an 8GB top limit would have been better if it were possible. Several Mac tech sites have tested putting in 8GB without any trouble, but Apple doesn't support such a configuration, which means future versions of Snow Leopard could unintentionally cause trouble. (The worst trouble I have had in 9 years of running OS X has been with system updates and incompatible third-party RAM.)
The second stumble is by limiting the Mac mini to 5400 rpm drives, the same as are used on the low end in laptops, instead of widely available 7200 rpm drives. Servers benefit from faster drives because disk i/o runs continuously with many different sizes and types of file operations.
It may have been a heat issue, because the retail difference in price can be as little as $20 to $30 per drive, and Apple would pay some fraction of that. However, it likely would have boosted the mini's street price by $50 to $100, and that may have been seen as unacceptable.
The issue of RAM and drive speed are interrelated. More RAM would increase caching and reduce disk accesses; a faster drive would make a system with less RAM work more efficiently.
Apple should consider offering a higher-end mini for what would likely be $1,299 to $1,399 with two 7200 rpm drives and 8GB.
When I spoke to Apple about drive performance, product managers noted that the unit includes a FireWire 800 port. Several of my colleagues who have tested similar configurations say that external FireWire 800 drives could outperform an internal drive. Apple is offering the Promise SmartStor DS4600 RAID system alongside the mini for $799 with four 7200-rpm 1 TB drives, and two FireWire 800 ports. The device can be hardware-configured for mirroring, performance, or redundancy.
For networked Time Machine backups across an office network, this add-on might solve two problems reasonably affordably. Four 1TB drives purchased separately can cost as much as $350 to $450 with no cases and without hardware RAID support.Booting up for the first time
I have the advantage in this review of testing two separate Mac mini servers. One I purchased days after the release of the model when it appeared as if a Mac mini I use for handling backups of Linux servers via Retrospect—don't ask—had given up the ghost. I had wanted to consolidate mail service, DNS, and a handful of other services onto a newer system, moving the functions from a Linux server, so I took the plunge. (My older Mac mini wasn't dead, only resting.)
How Apple Tries to Make It Easy
The other system was a short-term loan from Apple, which let me compare and contrast a machine I'd configured to run with a pristine installation. In both cases, I didn't migrate any files from other systems, just test functions.
The Mac mini server is precisely like its non-server brethren. It's a squat square. You unpack it, plug in a power supply and an included mini-DVI to DVI adapter, hook up a monitor, keyboard, and mouse, and you're ready to go.
Set-up for a preinstalled copy of OS X Server is very much like the first boot for a client OS X system. You walk through a very small number of settings, enter registration information, and create an account that can be used to administer the system. OS X Server, like all of Apple's business and professional products, has a serial number that must be entered; it's then confirmed with Apple over the Internet. As part of setup, you answer a very few questions about what services you want to use, but you can change those choices later.
It's most likely that a server won't have a permanent "head" or monitor, so after the initial start up, I activate my MobileMe account in system preferences and turn on Back to My Mac, as well as Screen Sharing in the Sharing preference pane. (Back to My Mac only works with a single MobileMe account, so it's not ideal for situations in which you have multiple people who need remote access. Screen Sharing otherwise requires a publicly reachable IP address or port mapping that connects a public IP on a router to your server's screen-sharing port.)Server Preferences
Mac OS X Server has always been a bit of a bear to manage. Apple uses largely open-source and free software packages which the firm overlays with what can sometimes be a thin layer of graphical interface. OS X Server splits management between Server Admin, which handles software services, log files, and the like, and Workgroup Manager, which controls users and groups, and the policies that relate to them.
In the 10.5 server release, Apple tried to make simple server setup even more straightforward by offering a control panel interface for all the basics, called Server Preferences. You could start with Server Preferences, and graduate to Server Admin if simple wasn't enough. But there was a catch: once you started using the more sophisticated management interface, you could never use Server Preferences again.This cousin of System Preferences provides simple options for configuring powerful services. But it may not be enough.
In 10.6, Apple remedied this. You can use either configuration tool interchangeably. The bigger difference between the two is that Server Preferences works only locally on the computer on which it's running; Server Admin and Workgroup Manager connect via an IP address or hostname regardless of the machine on which they operate.
To use Server Preferences, just click the icon in the dock. Server Admin is in the Server folder also located on the dock to the right. You can download server tools separately for any computer from Apple, or install from a disk included with the server. Launch Server Admin, enter the server's IP or domain name, and an administrative username and password to connect, while optionally storing the data for later use.
Server Preferences requires that you trust Apple on its default settings, especially regarding security, although that may not be a bad bet to make. For local network iChat, Address Book, iCal, and other settings, that's not a terrible idea. For Mail, it can be a problem, and firewall settings of any real scope can't be set within Server Preferences.
I do, however, recommend setting up accounts and groups via the Users and Groups preferences in Server Preferences. The alternative is to use Workgroup Manager, which I still find difficult to use and which generates unpredictable results years after I've been wrestling with it. Workgroup Manager provides access to more varied and deep settings that most humans never need see, but it also works erratically.
OS X Server requires you to use Open Directory, a way of confederating accounts across systems and offering LDAP-based directory information to Address Book and other applications. You can also set up the system to work on a standalone basis, where account information is stored in a local directory. After my experiences, I'd suggest going with the Apple flow, even though it may appear overkill.
Here's my first tip that will save you heartache should it happen to you. I had switched to use standalone local Open Directory authentication on my co-lo Mac mini server. After a restart when installing updates to Java and Safari, accounts other than the one set up at startup no longer accepted password authentication.
Fast forward four hours after consulting as many experts and sources as I could, and using Workgroup Manager to change passwords and check authentication settings. I had my hair pulled out when I decided to try the lowly System Preferences, because local account information is shown there as well. Sure enough, changing the password there reset authentication systemwide.Setting up clients
When first setting up client Macs, OS X Server 10.6 has a neat trick. You can match identical account names that you add on the server to those of clients on the network. With the server active, a Mac OS X 10.6 client on startup or login with the same name as any server account will be prompted to accept an invitation.OS X 10.6 automatically recognizes a server invite for same-named accounts, and can offer to set up several services.
If the client does accept, 10.6 configures itself with information from the server for all local services, like Address Book, iCal, Mail, iChat, and others. This can also be done manually by sending an invitation to a user from the Users pane in Server Preferences. Older Macs and Windows systems will need to enter values manually in many cases; Apple's Mail software can often configure itself, however.
(Another tip: This auto-configure option will fail if you haven't given a real domain name—one that resolves via DNS from your local DNS servers or global DNS servers—to your Mac mini when you first set it up. Either set up a real name and enter it while configuring the Mac mini, or use the OS X Server as the DNS server for client computers to avoid this problem.)Security
I'm not a paranoid guy, but I have grown to believe that every service available for remote connection should be secured by SSL/TLS. That's nearly always possible these days, and—with the exception of FTP—OS X Server lets you quite simply use a single server certificate to protect everything it offers over a local network and the Internet.
This starts with OS X Server generating a self-signed certificate as part of the setup process after you give the server a local or fully qualified domain name. (A local name would be put into the local side of a DNS server for local resolution; a fully qualified name can be found in public DNS, and looked up from anywhere. As noted above, I recommend you figure this out before the initial OS X Server setup.)
A self-signed cert has a lot of limitations, of course, because it requires that every client connection from every program that uses SSL/TLS has to accept that the certificate is valid. Third-party certificate authority (CA) signed certificates are automatically validated because the CA authority certificate signatures are built into the operating system or client software.A self-signed certificate has to be trusted since there's no third party that's validating whether it's what it claims to be.
However, for local networks, that may not be that big of a bar. Apple has long offered system-wide trust of self-signed certificates. Once a cert is trusted, it can be used throughout Mac OS X. You can also get a free valid certificate from StartSSL, if you don't want to pay a recurring yearly fee for a LAN server's certificate.
You can add as many certificates as you want to OS X Server, installing and managing them in a limited fashion in Server Preferences, and with much greater ease in Server Admin. It's safe to say that if you want to use two or more certificates, you need to use Server Admin to configure the secure portions of services like Mail.
Apple made it vastly easier to import certificates in OS X Server 10.6 with improvements on the back-end and the graphical presentation in Server Admin and Server Preferences. In 10.5, you had to navigate file paths. I've never cursed as much as when trying to get OS X Server 10.5 to accept certificates. Here's an actual log entry I made in progress report for a publication site I help manage: "GAAAAAAAA! Server Admin!!! GAAAAH."
Apple tweaked this process to make it work as a drag-and-drop operation in 10.6, where it also conveniently doesn't fail. An SSL/TLS certificate comprises your private key (which must be unencrypted for import), the server certificate provided by the CA, and sometimes a chain certificate for CAs that have authority provided from another organization.
With those three files on hand, you simply drag the items in. In Server Preferences, click Information, click the Edit button to the right of SSL Certificate, and select the pop-up menu item Certificate Import > Import Certificate. In Server Admin, click the server's name, click the Certificates icon at top, click the + sign below the certificate list, and choose Import a Certificate Identity. Drag the appropriate items into the box. The elements light up as you add them. Click Import. Voila.OS X Server 10.6's simplified certificate import is a huge improvement over the previous version, and easy for those without certificate knowledge to use.
All your SSL/TLS certificates are available for selection from all the services which allow certificate-based tunneling for security. This includes Address Book, Web, and Mail, among others.FTP and firewalls
One omission is FTP. Apple supports plain FTP and Secure FTP (SFTP). Plain FTP servers accept a user name and password in the clear along with all data, but a server administrator can limit access to specific directories by user login, much as with AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) and Samba file sharing. SFTP is related to SSH (Secure Shell), and it allows secure file access, but to any file to which a user logging in over SSH would have access. This can be quite insecure on some systems. (I recommend limiting SSH access, too, only to those who need it. Per-service account restrictions are set by clicking the server's name in Server Admin, then selecting Access.)
Apple should support FTP over SSL/TLS, which wraps normal FTP within a secure tunnel, and is well supported by FTP client software on every platform. It's an odd omission, and I confirmed with Apple's server team that the company doesn't include it. FTP can seem like a fussy old great-aunt of a protocol, but it's still commonly used.
In addition to using certificate-based security, I believe that every server should have an active firewall to prevent accidental access to resources that weren't intentionally made widely available. One could call this the Google index problem, after all the documents that Google has snarfed for its index through carelessly exposed Web servers.
Unfortunately, Apple's firewall service is difficult to use except for advanced users who may need to resort to the command line for more information or configuration.
From Server Preferences, you can enable a quite simple version of the Firewall via the Security pane. Apple lets you take control of one of its models of Wi-Fi base station on the network if you're using that as your path to the Internet, setting up port-based restrictions there with little fuss. Or you can use its firewall security where the servers locally set firewall parameters.The simplified firewall probably isn't enough for robust protection, while Server Admin's controls are too confusing for those without deep expertise.
Switching to Server Admin is more satisfying, but also more complicated. If you've never had any low-level firewall experience, figuring out which services to allow open access to using ports and interface numbers, the interface doesn't provide enough cues to set things up correctly.
After turning on the firewall for my co-lo mini server, I found that Retrospect 8 backups from clients at the co-lo failed. An ancient entry in the simplified Services tab—which shows a long list of services with descriptions and checkboxes to turn on and off—was labeled Dantz Retrospect (the Dantz name is years out of date as owners have changed). It seemed to open the correct port—497—but clients still couldn't connect.
I enabled logging for denied packets, and saw that the server was rejecting inbound packets on the right port. That meant I had to go to the Advanced tab and use a special dialog to configure inbound access. This dialog has long been a problem because it features popup menus which, after you set all values and click OK, show different values or no values at all when edited, even though the entry is apparently correct and functioning. (This can be confirmed via the command line.)
Apple has quite a bit of room for improvement here to lock down a server well, allow better entry and editing, and make it clearer precisely what's happening—perhaps with a way to test a rule live or automatically troubleshoot failing operations without resorting to a log file.
With a bit of extra knowledge, you can use DHCP, NAT, and the Firewall service to set up the Mac mini as a real firewall, too. While the mini server only includes a single gigabit Ethernet port, Apple sells a $29 USB 10/100Mbps Ethernet adapter, which works nicely in one of the five USB ports on the back.
The 10/100Mbps port could be connected to the broadband connection, and have restrictive firewall policies on that interface, while routing data through to the gigabit built-in port connected to your office network.
This would require a firewall savant, however, with perhaps a few hours of consulting time to set up, and some detailed instructions on making changes without breaking your network later.Mail Handling Common Business Hosted Services in Mac OS X Server
Here's what I and every company want out of an email server. We want it to block spam and viruses, even when Macs are clients. We want secure connections without much fuss. We want it to work every time. Apple has achieved some of these goals, and I've worked out a solution for some others.
The heavy lifting on a server for any moderately sized business is going to be incoming and outgoing email. Snow Leopard Server definitely improves on its predecessors for GUI-based email configuration, although you must use Server Admin for the full benefits.
Apple packages together ClamAV for anti-virus, Spamassassin for spam filtering, Spamhaus for real-time blacklisting, Postfix as a mail delivery agent, Dovecot for IMAP and POP3, and, as a hidden option, Squirrelmail for Webmail.
For the most part, this combination is fine, and works well. Apple's client Mail application, along with most modern email software, has no trouble talking to the Mail service through any means. I recommend bypassing Server Preferences and going straight to Server Admin for configuration even if you never use Server Admin for any other purpose.
What's nice about the Mail service's setup is that you don't need to enter or change values for the most part; you can pick and choose a few critical changes. Your ISP or a consultant can provide specific settings for such things as the values for the Relay tab. (Apple automatically includes zen.spamhaus.org in the "junk mail rejection servers" list; that exquisite service lets your mail server not receive email from constantly changing lists of IPs that spew gunk.)
Where I would focus particularly is in the Filters tab and the Advanced tabs' Security pane. Filters control the spam-filtering and virus-checking behavior; Security sets encryption and authentication options for connections.
In Filters, you check Enable Junk Mail Filtering to turn on spamassassin, an open-source effort to score attributes of email for spamminess, which OS X Server then uses to block or accept email. You set a threshold score using a slider from Cautious (where little mail is bounced) to aggressive. Apple lets you delete, archive, or label messages over the threshold.
In my years of using spamassassin on a Linux box, I find that the gray area are scores from 5 to 7; mail with a score of 7 is extraordinarily unlikely to be "ham" instead of "spam."
You can focus spamassassin by specifying which languages and countries are most typical that you receive email from. This scores messages outside of those values as much more likely to be spam. I never receive email in, say, Russian or Mandarin, and thus it's nearly 100-percent likely for me that such messages are spam.
After setting up filtering, as well as enabling the simpler checkbox for virus filtering, I turned the firehose that is my personal mailstream at the mini server. I receive tens of thousands of messages daily, largely spam, because some of my addresses have been in use for more than 10 years. That means every spammer tries to send me email. Some of my domains receive dictionary spam, where endless combinations of potential accounts names are emailed.
I immediately discovered that I was receiving 20 times more spam through spamassassin in OS X Server than on my Linux box. This was unacceptable, of course. I found one problem and one bug with Apple's approach in making it all work.
Spamassassin does best when it's trained, which you do by feeding the program good email (ham) along with unsolicited mail. Apple offers two approaches, neither ideal. You can create accounts called junkmail and notjunkmail, and the server software will nightly scan the contents of each for training purposes. However, forwarding individual emails is an ugly approach, and I found that OS X Server wouldn't accept certain email because of bad formatting in the spam message. Further, you must manually delete messages each night, or they accumulate (although they aren't used again for scoring).
The other approach, clearly described by Apple in the manual, is to train the filter by hand, as it were, using the command line. Given that so much of OS X Server lets non-administrators avoid the command line, this is a shame. Apple clearly needs to add a GUI training method, possibly tying in the Junk Mail feature used in training its client Mail program to talk directly to the server. This is a critical part of modern mail serving, and Apple has shirked simplicity here.
I use Mailsmith as my mail client, and it lets me save sets of email in the standard Unix mbox format, which spamassassin can read. I used AFP to save these mailboxes to a directory on the server in order to train the spam filter. The command to use with mbox files is:
sa-learn —spam —mbox _filename_
Substitute -ham for -spam to train good messages. I trained thousands of spams and thousands of hams, and still had way too much spam coming through. SpamSieve, the Mac OS X program that works with many client email programs, was catching well over 99 percent of the spam slipping through, so it wasn't a problem with training. (I've been training SpamSieve for years, too, of course.)
The bug was in a misconfigured spamassassin setup file, true still in OS X Server 10.6.2, and to which I've alerted Apple through its bug-reporting system.
In /etc/mail/spamassassin/, where the system's configuration files live, the configuration file for version 3.2.0 of spamassassin had disabled the TextCat plug-in which activates scoring rules by language, particularly the UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY rule.
In the v320.pre file, I removed the # (hash sign) from in front of the line containing:
This fixed the problem. I also tweaked my own rules from years of using spamassassin on the local.cf file in the same directory, to score mail that was rejected by Spamcop and various spam-tracking indexes higher than the default values:
score RCVD_IN_BL_SPAMCOP_NET 3.000 score RCVD_IN_SORBS_WEB 3.000 score URIBL_SBL 1.500
I also boosted the scores on three rules affecting how well Russian spam was being filtered, which I was seeing in vast quantities:
score MIME_CHARSET_FARAWAY 1.500 score UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY 3.000 score BAYES_00 -1.000
After changing these rules and restarting the Mail service—in Server Admin, choose Server > Restart Service, and click OK—my spam dropped down to just a little bit higher than I was used to. This may seem involved, but it's the explanation that's complicated; the configuration files changes need be applied once, and are worth the effort.
It's a relief, by contrast, to switch to the Advanced tab's Security pane. I prefer to disable all non-secure methods of login, and thus check the top two entries for SMTP and the top three for IMAP/POP. I make sure Login and PLAIN are unchecked. In the SSL section, I choose Use for SMTP and IMAP/POP certificates, and pick the certificate I created with StartSSL and installed earlier.Apple did a lovely job making security settings for email connections a breeze in Server Admin.
The selection of Use instead of Require for SSL/TLS certificates can save you some grief with certain mail clients. Some mail clients use a negotiation process in which it's asked whether a secure connection can be made. If you set the certificate option to Require, this negotiation is bypassed, and the client will fail. With Login and PLAIN unchecked, and only secure connection available, the Use option allows clients of varying kinds to connect without failure.
Apple also includes Webmail, but has hidden away the option, and didn't configure its default to work correctly. First, you have to turn on the Web service, of course. Without getting too bogged down in details here, I set up a secure website from the Web service's Sites view in Server Admin using the default setup which points the index to /Library/WebServer/Documents.
Using a secure site is critical for access because otherwise the password is entered in the clear over a Web connection—which you or a colleague might use at a public location, like a coffeeshop.
Next, back to the command line. The Webmail software, Squirrelmail, needs to be set up to use secure IMAP to reach your messages when you log in. Type:
sudo perl conf.pl
Enter your password when requested. You'll see an uncommon thing these days as a result: a terminal screen based user interface. Enter 2, hit return, enter A, hit return, then:
You can now log in via Squirrelmail by using the URL https://_your_servername_/webmail.
You're welcome!Other services
We've covered all the major points, but there are a pile of other services that might be of interest, and certainly enhance the utility and cost of OS X Server in an office.
Contacts and calendars. Clearly, one of the nicest things about a networked server is a central place to manage contacts and calendars. The Address Book and iCal programs in OS X talk directly to the server, although Apple uses LDAP (a well-established standard) and CalDAV (new and not well supported) to talk to other platforms. For serious enterprises, Apple's contact and calendar support may not meet needs; for the office size I've been talking about this article, there shouldn't be any trouble. (For a differing opinion on iCal service, however, read my colleague Rich Mogull's experience with OS X Server 10.6 for iPhone, Mac, and Web-based shared and local calendars over at TidBITS: Banging My Head against iCal Server's Limitations.)
File service. Using a central file server for storage and file interchange is also a key office task. Apple's support for AFP and SMB are just fine, with a variety of options for user-based sharepoint setup. SMB service includes the ability to set up a WINS Server for Windows systems, and, in conjunction with Open Directory, act as a Primary Domain Controller for logins.
Networked backups. Time Machine in Leopard and Snow Leopard can back up Macs to OS X Server drives, automatically handling all the details. I'd recommend using an external drive, both to swap backups offsite occasionally and prevent using an internal drive so heavily that it's constantly being written.
WPA/WPA2 Enterprise. Wi-Fi logins are one of my bugbears. While you can use a single password (WPA/WPA2 Personal) to allow access to an office's networked, this is a weak method. Each computer has to have the password stored on it, and you can't selectively let others join. With WPA/WPA2 Enterprise, you can let users log into a Wi-Fi network using their server credentials, and each user is assigned a unique encryption key. Accounts can be disabled, or not allowed to log in over Wi-Fi, too. It also increases network accountability along with security. Windows XP and later and OS X 10.3 and later have the necessary Wi-Fi login software or options; there are free Linux downloads, too. (Apple manages this via the RADIUS service, which can automatically reconfigure Apple base stations; or, you can configure non-Apple routers manually.)
Remote VPN access. If you, colleagues, or employees need remote secure access either to your office network, or simply to create security when using non-trusted networks, like Wi-Fi hotspots, the two forms of built-in VPN in OS X Server do the trick. A VPN server sets up encrypted tunnels that pass all data from a remote client to the server. Compatible VPN clients are found in Windows XP and later and Mac OS X 10.2 and later.A Mac mini Home in a Moderate Office
Unbelievably, this article just skims across the many aspects of OS X Server and avoids much more—like the MySQL database server, configuring NAT and DHCP, and using iChat over a local network, some of which may also be useful for smaller-scale business networks.
Is the Mac mini server and OS X Server the right match for your office? It certainly depends. In my weeks with the combo, I found much to praise, and many elements improved significantly over the 10.5 release. For a straightforward start-to-finish setup, this combination seems like a steal at the price, despite the problems I found—and especially if you take my advice for tweaking spam-filter settings.
As with many Apple products, I would prefer if the experience were less frustrating at points at which the company should have tested and anticipated problems. But overall, Apple has kept most of the rough edges and hidden much of the configuration madness from the potential smaller-office audience.
You can't go into using a Mac mini server and OS X Server expecting to do it all yourself unless everything in this article made sense at first read. First find and meet with OS X Server consultants, and budget some time for setup and for regular maintenance (and emergency help).
Because Apple has packaged this offering so inexpensively, combining so many typically separate features into one offering, you can afford a little outside help. The cost will still wind up being far less than using any of the alternatives for what you get in one hardware and software package.
In this tutorial you’ll see how to set up the local environment with KitchenCI using Vagrant as a driver, Chef-Solo as a provider andServerspec for integration tests under Mac OS X.
The idea behind this is that KitchenCI is flexible enough to add any types of tests (bash, rspec, etc) and Chef-Solo allows to try local changes without submitting to the source code repository or to the Chef Server.
KitchenCI also allows to pick other drivers like AWS. By testing the infrastructure under both Vagrant and AWS we can weed out configuration issues between the two types of instances instead of leaving the debugging for when CloudFormation is being developed.
Having a way to run new configurations and tests locally allows us to get feedback faster without having to push Chef changes to the CI environment (which might break the shared environments).
It also merges local configurations with all over environments making it visible to propagate changes and allowing the laptops to become just another test environment which results are reproducible.
Sometimes using this apparently more convoluted stack makes it more painful to develop locally if the configuration management is not healthy enough but this is only pushing forward all issues that would be apparent a few environments up. It is better to deal with broken instances locally than on other environments.Stacks
The previous stack was made up of a mix of local installations and local vagrant configurations depending on each laptop, this was followed by an initial CI environment that would have its own chef instances over AWS using CloudFormation.The new stack is made up of:
Local (laptop) that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to write tests, configure instances and be used to develop against.
CI agent that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to ensure a new local build will work and be tested and any commits are tested.
CI agent that runs KitchenCI with AWS- This is a copy of the previous one with EC2 instances. This allows us to find issues between Vagrant and AWS. Not used for application development.
AWS Development for CloudFormation — After ensuring the individual instances run we try the same environment with CloudFormation. This is for Cloudformation development, not used for application development.
AWS Development Integration — Now that we are certain that both AWS instances and Cloudformation are fully tested we can use a ‘releasable’ copy of it to bring up the Integration environment used for development.
AWS Development UAT, QA, Pre-Production, Production — Other environments are variations of the AWS Development Integration environment.Mac OS X as a development environment
To set up all packages we’re currently using Homebrew — This managements installation of the most common tools and manages updates for those similar to Linux package managers Yum, Apt.
It is advised to have XCode command line installed and up to date to run Homebrew and other applications — not doing this might give you compilation errors and other problems in the future.
Some older versions of Mac OS X might not be able to run the following command in that case you’ll need to get it through Apple’s Development Portal.% xcode-select —install
To install Homebrew just run.% ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL https://raw.github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/go/install) Adding the current configuration development repository
You’ll need to have git installed. If you don’t you can use Homebrew to install it.% brew install git Setting up a local Ruby environment
KitchenCI and Chef run with Ruby — The following are some best practices to ensure you have the same Ruby and Gem (Ruby’s libraries) versions as your Chef Clients. This is done by using RbEnv to manage Ruby versions and Bundler to install Gems locally so any other Ruby applications or updates do not corrupt this setup.
Thanks to Homebrew we can install RBenv easily. Ruby build is used to extend rbenv’s features around installing and removing Ruby versions.% brew install rbenv ruby-build
You can have a look on the local available ruby versions with.% rbenv versions * system
We can install more versions of Ruby with the install command. Bundler will have a header for the ruby version on its Gemfile, if the local version is not correct it will not run. In this case we’ll install Ruby 2.0.0.% rbenv install 2.0.0-p451 Installing ruby-2.0.0-p451…Installed ruby-2.0.0-p451 to […]2.0.0-p451 % rbenv versions * system 2.0.0-p451
Using the local command we enforce that the current directory always runs the picked ruby version. Rehash updates RbEnv.% rbenv local 2.0.0-p451 % rbenv rehash % rbenv versions system* 2.0.0-p451 (set by […]/.ruby-version)
After that step we’ll need to install Bundler. This will be done on the system level Gem library but after this step we’ll be able to use it to manage Gems locally.% gem install bundler
Any Ruby application will use the file Gemfile to let you know about dependencies. Gemfile.lock will tell you what versions to install or if it does not exist it will be created when Bundler has a valid run.% cat Gemfileruby ‘2.0.0' source ‘http://rubygems.org' gem ‘nokogiri’, ‘~>22.214.171.124'gem ‘json’gem ‘hashie’gem ‘chef’gem ‘test-kitchen’gem ‘kitchen-vagrant’gem ‘kitchen-ec2' gem ‘faraday’ gem ‘knife-ec2'gem ‘knife-solo’
You can run Bundler with the following command. Which will install the required Gems on the vendor directory% bundle install —path vendor
Due to some pains of setting this up on Mac OS X you can use this script instead.% cat bundle_install bundle config build.nokogiri —use-system-librariesARCHFLAGS=-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in-future bundle install —path vendor
Which should end with the following message.Your bundle is complete!It was installed into ./vendor
Please run RbEnv rehash again to ensure that the changes applied.% rbenv rehash
A common problem seems to be a failure around using libxml2. This can be fixed by installed it with Homebrew and re-linking the files.% brew install libxml2 libxslt % brew link libxml2 libxslt
Running the chosen Ruby version with the local gems is done by running the bundle exec command, for example.% bundle exec ruby -v ruby 2.0.0p451 (2014-02-24 revision 45167) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] % bundle exec gem environment RubyGems Environment: — RUBYGEMS VERSION: 2.0.14 — RUBY VERSION: 2.0.0 (2014-02-24 patchlevel 451) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] — INSTALLATION DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — RUBY EXECUTABLE: /System/Library/Frameworks/Ruby.framework/Versions/2.0/usr/bin/ruby — EXECUTABLE DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0/bin — RUBYGEMS PLATFORMS: — ruby — universal-darwin-13 — GEM PATHS: — […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — GEM CONFIGURATION: — :update_sources => true — :verbose => true — :backtrace => false — :bulk_threshold => 1000 — REMOTE SOURCES: — https://rubygems.org/ Vagrant and VirtualBox
You’ll need to use both websites to install these applications.
VirtualBox for Mac OS X over https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
Vagrant for Mac OS X over https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.htmlUsing Test Kitchen locally
With Bundler we can call Test Kitchen to do several things like list available instances.% bundle exec kitchen list
The drivers will be Vagrant, AWS or others. The Provisioner will be ChefSolo, Puppet or another. The Last action will be.
Not Created — Instance does not exist
Set Up — Creation or update running or not completed.
Converged — Last update ran.
Verified — Tests ran.
You can Create or update an instance with the Converge command followed by a regex which will apply to one or more instances.% bundle exec kitchen converge INSTANCE
Run the integration tests for the local environment with Verify.% bundle exec kitchen verify INSTANCE
You can login into an instance by using a regex that will only result in one instance.% bundle exec kitchen login INSTANCE
Delete them completely with Destroy.% bundle exec kitchen destroy INSTANCE
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