|Exam Name||:||Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks|
|Questions and Answers||:||73 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 19, 2019|
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920-804 exam Dumps Source : Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
Test Code : 920-804
Test Name : Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
Vendor Name : Nortel
Q&A : 73 Real Questions
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March 31, 2005 14:00 ET
information release TRANSMITTED by means of CCNMatthews
NYSE, TSX symbol: NT
MARCH 31, 2005 - 14:00 ET
Nortel Names Gary Kunis as Chief technology Officer;Brian McFadden to guide advanced technology, Researchand requisites company
TORONTO--(CCNMatthews - Mar 31, 2005) -
Nortel Networks business enterprise (NYSE:NT) (TSX:NT) nowadays introduced theappointment of Gary Kunis as Chief know-how Officer (CTO). As CTO,Kunis will lead the strategic vision for the enterprise's product andtechnology portfolio.
except 2002, Kunis became the executive Science Officer at Cisco systems. One ofthe pioneers of the web within the Nineteen Eighties, Kunis has led numerousdevelopment and engineering breakthroughs involving web Protocol(IP) standards and routing expertise used to connect the international webof networks that make up the information superhighway.
Kunis will report to Gary Daichendt, president and chief operatingofficer (COO), positive April four, 2005.
"We're overjoyed to have Gary join our crew. he's an acknowledgedInternet pioneer with a great checklist of accomplishment and that i understand hewill provide a superb contribution to Nortel's technologyleadership," referred to Gary Daichendt, president and chief operating officer,Nortel. "His track listing in main the building, servicing and sellingof network technologies globally can be a robust addition. he is anexcellent senior leader who all through his profession has consistentlydemonstrated his means to hyperlink expertise innovation with businesssuccess both internally and externally."
in addition to the Kunis appointment, Nortel announced that BrianMcFadden, a 26-12 months Nortel veteran and the latest CTO, has beenappointed to the role of Chief analysis Officer (CRO), positive April4, 2005. In his new role, McFadden will oversee the superior expertise,analysis and specifications firm and will proceed to file to thepresident and COO. He may be chargeable for setting Nortel's researchpriorities to be sure they aid the company's company innovations,which include preserving an industry management place in end-to-endbroadband, Voice over IP, multimedia features and functions, andwireless broadband solutions. McFadden will additionally make sure that Nortelcontinues to play a lead position in industry specifications and regulatoryorganizations.
"we're absolutely dedicated to starting to be our business and a key componentof that is our endured technology management," said invoice Owens, vicechairman and chief govt officer, Nortel. "trendy announcementreaffirms the profound importance of analysis and building toNortel's future and our commitment to making certain our technology decisionsare particularly built-in with our average company strategy and thedynamics of an incredibly aggressive world market. developing twodistinct technology and research and development groups withspecific mandates and led via two very achieved senior executivescertainly displays our 'playing to win' commitment to enhancingshareholder cost."
past in his career, Kunis turned into concerned in the design, implementationand operation of gigantic scale records and telecommunications networks forseveral U.S. government agency classes, including the branch ofDefense, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air drive, countrywide Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA), in addition to for civilian companies whereas workingfor the Boeing company. Kunis additionally held a couple of senior engineeringpositions with Boeing's industrial and defense-connected companies.
A graduate of the State school of new york (SUNY) at Binghamton witha Bachelor of Arts diploma in Economics, Kunis also holds a grasp'sDegree in Economics from Tufts institution.
Kunis and McFadden have also been appointed CTO and CRO, respectively,of Nortel Networks restrained, the enterprise's primary operating subsidiary.
Nortel is a identified leader in offering communications capabilitiesthat raise the human adventure, ignite and power international commerce, andsecure and protect the realm's most critical suggestions. Serving bothservice issuer and commercial enterprise consumers, Nortel supplies innovativetechnology solutions encompassing end-to-conclusion broadband, Voice over IP,multimedia services and functions, and wireless broadband designed tohelp people remedy the world's finest challenges. Nortel does businessin greater than one hundred fifty nations. For extra assistance, discuss with Nortel on theWeb at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel news, visitwww.nortel.com/news.
certain counsel covered in this press free up is ahead-lookingand is subject to crucial risks and uncertainties. The results orevents expected in these statements may differ materially from actualresults or activities.
elements which might trigger results or routine to differ from currentexpectations consist of, amongst different issues: the result of regulatory andcriminal investigations and civil litigation actions concerning Nortel'srestatements and the have an impact on any ensuing criminal judgments, settlements,penalties and costs may have on Nortel's consequences of operations,monetary condition and liquidity; the findings of Nortel's independentreview and implementation of recommended remedial measures; the outcomeof the independent evaluation with admire to revenues for specificidentified transactions, which review may have a specific emphasis onthe underlying habits that led to the initial consciousness of theserevenues; the restatement or revisions of Nortel's prior to now announcedor filed economic effects and ensuing terrible publicity; theexistence of fabric weaknesses in Nortel's internal controls overfinancial reporting; the have an effect on of Nortel's and NNL's failure to timelyfile their economic statements and related periodic reviews, includingbreach of its help facility and public debt duties and Nortel'sinability to entry its shelf registration remark filed with theUnited States Securities and change commission ("SEC"); ongoing SECreviews, which may end up in alterations to our public filings; thepotential delisting or suspension of Nortel's and NNL's publicly tradedsecurities; the influence of management changes, including the terminationfor cause of Nortel's former CEO, CFO and Controller in April 2004; thesufficiency of Nortel's restructuring actions, including the workplan introduced on August 19, 2004 as up-to-date on September 30, 2004,including the knowledge for bigger specific prices to be incurred inconnection with restructuring movements in comparison to the estimated charges ofsuch moves;
cautious or reduced spending by way of Nortel's purchasers; fluctuations inNortel's operating consequences and everyday industry, economic and marketconditions and increase quotes; fluctuations in Nortel's cash flow, levelof striking debt and existing debt scores; Nortel's capability torecruit and retain qualified personnel; using cash collateral tosupport Nortel's usual course enterprise actions; the dependence onNortel's subsidiaries for funding; the affect of Nortel's definedbenefit plans and deferred tax property on consequences of operations andNortel's money circulation; the adverse decision of type actions, litigationin the general course of business, intellectual property disputes andsimilar concerns; Nortel's dependence on new product development and itsability to predict market demand for selected products; Nortel'sability to combine the operations and applied sciences of acquiredbusinesses in a pretty good method; the have an effect on of speedy technological andmarket exchange; the have an impact on of fee and product competitors; boundaries tointernational growth and global economic circumstances, notably inemerging markets and together with pastime rate and forex change ratefluctuations; the influence of clarification and consolidation in thetelecommunications industry; changes in legislation of the information superhighway; theimpact of the credit dangers of Nortel's valued clientele and the affect ofcustomer financing and commitments; stock market volatility generallyand on account of acceleration of the settlement date or earlysettlement, which is presently no longer purchasable, of Nortel's forwardpurchase contracts; the impact of Nortel's give and outsourcingcontracts that contain birth and setting up provisions, which, ifnot met, may outcome in the payment of immense penalties orliquidated damages; and the future success of Nortel's strategicalliances.
For additional info with respect to definite of these and otherfactors, see the most contemporary Annual file on kind 10-ok and QuarterlyReport on kind 10-Q filed by using Nortel with the SEC. except otherwiserequired by relevant securities laws, Nortel disclaims any intentionor duty to replace or revise any ahead-looking statements,no matter if as a result of new tips, future movements or otherwise.
Nortel, the Nortel emblem and the Globemark are trademarks of NortelNetworks.
desktop network expertise (CNT) and Nortel Networks have added plans to simplify storage area network (SAN) integration into enterprise IP and optical networks. This cooperative effort is according to latest, demonstrated technologies, together with Nortel Networks' metropolitan and lengthy-haul optical products, and CNT's protocol adaptation applied sciences and centered requirements work companies.
both agencies will collaborate on the design and construction of technologies and solutions that combine SAN purposes and infrastructure with the Optical internet, each metro and long haul. The collaboration will take area in two stages.
in the near term, the collaboration will include the deployment of carrier provider-based SAN options if you want to kit products and functions from each businesses, including Nortel Networks' OPTera Metro multi-service platforms (CNT's UltraNet Director, CNT SAN Integration capabilities, and so forth.) right into a single consumer providing.
In education for the long run, work will begin instantly on the specification of latest, vertically integrated solutions combining IP, Optics, FC, SCSI, Escon and different applied sciences, with a focus on optimization of those technologies for networked storage purposes over provider provider networks. CNT and Nortel Networks will work intently with the service provider neighborhood on the building of this specification.
furthermore, the organizations will jointly market and guide SAN/IP and SAN/optical solutions to carrier providers and key partners, and work with network providers to strengthen a collection of storage purposes and capabilities. software labs will also be created to qualify storage solutions to operate beneath the new environments. both agencies will additionally participate in joint consumer trials to establish the price of the expertise in true networks.
before, IP networks have been inadequate to handle the high-quality of carrier, the facts security needs or the bandwidth-on-demand wants of storage applications. CNT has developed a transport protocol that offers more advantageous storage application reliability on a typical IP backbone, together with records compression, alternate routing, load balancing and greater flow handle. This storage transport protocol is presently getting used to facilitate SAN extensions over lengthy distances, enabling key purposes akin to distance mirroring, tape backup and storage distribution.
CNT and Nortel Networks will work towards the standardization of those improvements by submissions to the acceptable requisites committees, together with the web Engineering task drive (IETF), and the American national requisites Institute (ANSI) T11 working group for consideration as an extension to the FCBB (Fibre Channel lower back-Bone) normal.
The items and know-how to help the collaboration between CNT and Nortel Networks exist these days, including the Fibre Channel products from Brocade, which have been proven in each and every enterprise's lab. CNT and Nortel Networks are expecting to begin client trials in 3rd quarter 2000.
For extra counsel, discuss with www.nortelnetworks.com, or www.cnt.com.
PISCATAWAY, N.J.--(enterprise WIRE)--IEEE, the area's largest technical expert corporation dedicated to advancing expertise for humanity, and the IEEE standards association (IEEE-SA), nowadays announced the publishing and availability of IEEE 11073-20701-2018 - IEEE approved Draft average for service-Oriented medical device exchange structure & Protocol Binding.
“IEEE 11073-20701 culminates our efforts to increase a requirements family that assures official statistics change between clinical gadgets within an open IP-based system focused on safe and secure interoperability to be certain affected person security,” talked about
Stefan Schlichting, subgroup chair, IEEE 11073 provider-oriented equipment Connectivity (SDC) average family. “In gratifying the want for this unifying family normal, we now can stronger aid the trade of true-time guidance between scientific gadgets and external programs to boost performance and interoperability in changing advert-hoc networks.”
the brand new commonplace completes the overseas corporation for Standardization (ISO)/IEEE 11073 family of requisites for aspect-of-Care (PoC) clinical device conversation and defines an architecture for service-oriented allotted PoC clinical gadgets and scientific IT programs. The regular defines a binding of the participant and verbal exchange mannequin defined in IEEE 11073-10207TM to the profile for transport over net services described in IEEE 11073-20702TM. IEEE 11073-20701 additionally defines a binding to community Time Protocol (NTP) and 5 Differentiated functions for time synchronization and to meet transport first-rate-of-service necessities.
IEEE 11073-20701-2018 is obtainable for buy at the IEEE specifications keep.
To gain knowledge of more about IEEE-SA or about any of its multitude of market initiatives discuss with us on fb, follow us on Twitter, connect with us on LinkedIn or on the past standards weblog.
in regards to the IEEE requisites association
The IEEE standards association, a globally recognized specifications-surroundings body inside IEEE, develops consensus requirements through an open process that engages business and brings collectively a vast stakeholder community. IEEE specifications set necessities and premier practices in accordance with current scientific and technological advantage. The IEEE-SA has a portfolio of over 1,200 energetic requirements and more than 650 standards under construction. For more advice visit http://necessities.ieee.org.
IEEE is the world’s greatest technical skilled organization dedicated to advancing know-how for the benefit of humanity. via its highly noted publications, conferences, expertise standards, and skilled and tutorial activities, IEEE is the depended on voice in a wide variety of areas ranging from aerospace programs, computers, and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric vigour, and customer electronics. learn more at http://www.ieee.org.
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Broadband Forum-orchestrated feedback from major global operators and vendors will open doors for the leveraging of fixed and mobile networks to unlock new service capabilities
FREMONT, Calif., Feb. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- A milestone moment in developing a converged 5G core network, addressing both fixed and mobile networks, has been reached after Broadband Forum delivered detailed recommendations to 3GPP.
The proposals made by Broadband Forum were created at the request of carriers that participate in both Broadband Forum and 3GPP and were developed after a comprehensive cycle of iterative feedback between the two organizations. The suggestions address the common interfaces for access networks and 5G core networks to support the convergence of wireline and wireless networks. Detailed recommendations on a number of interfaces in the context of fixed 5G have been passed on to 3GPP, which will allow its members to evaluate the interfaces that run between the 5G core and the fixed network. In addition to this, recommendations on signaling changes and enhancements were also provided, addressing how wireless access can be fully integrated into the 5G core.
David Aders, (Acting) Executive Converged Control Plane Engineering at Telstra Corporation, one of the operators which contributed significantly to the recommendations, said: "The Fixed Mobile Convergence vision is an important enabler for Telstra in line with our Network Technology vision to provide our customers with services that can span all access technologies in a consistent and unified manner. The alignment and collaboration between Broadband Forum and 3GPP are essential to delivering an ecosystem that is truly game changing and providing a globally supported framework for operators such as ourselves to develop many next generation services."
Alex Jinsung Choi, Senior Vice President Strategy and Technology Innovation at Deutsche Telekom Group, another operator that contributed significantly, said: "Our vision for 5G is to deliver a seamless experience for our customers across all their devices, whatever the access type. Implementing a converged and integrated core network is the key to unlock this converged services approach. We welcome this important contribution to ensure a globally standardized approach to achieve Fixed Mobile Convergence."
As part of its efforts to drive Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC), Broadband Forum is also developing a specification for a 5G Access Gateway Function (AGF) that adapts fixed access onto the 5G core, specifications for 5G-capable Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), and specifications which address the interworking of existing fixed access subscribers and deployed equipment into a 5G core that encompass a variety of deployment scenarios. This will enable the integration of wireless and wireline technologies, empowering operators to create powerful new converged service offerings.
"This is an exciting moment for the 5G market, as well as for Broadband Forum, 3GPP and their memberships," said Dave Allan, Broadband Forum's Wireless and Wireline Convergence Work Area Director. "As we reach this milestone in our work on Fixed Mobile Convergence, we are able to deliver the detailed feedback and recommendations which will drive the core convergence of fixed and mobile networks. In many ways this is just the beginning and, as Release 16 progresses and 5G further expands, our work with 3GPP will continue to ensure standardization of this new technology is successful. With 5G promising a variety of new and innovative applications such as autonomous driving and healthcare, this work is crucial to enabling converged operators to unlock these opportunities – empowering them to deliver a uniform experience to their customers irrespective of the access media type, technology, or appliance they are using."
The scope of the work in cooperation with 3GPP forms the backbone of a converged network, which will enable the efficient delivery of 5G services over various access networks, including fixed broadband access, WLAN, 3GPP-defined radios, Bluetooth and many more. This unlocks capabilities to access services provided by the 5G network using non-3GPP access – ensuring users can seamlessly switch between fixed and mobile networks without compromising their connectivity.
"Through our work on 5G, we are delivering a network for enhanced user experiences - enabled by ultra-fast data connections, an open and flexible architecture and mobility," said Georg Mayer, 3GPP Core Networks and Terminals Group Chair. "The recommendations from Broadband Forum allow us to develop a truly access agnostic and common 5G core network, which will allow seamless user and service mobility between 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses."
The new specifications developed by 3GPP and Broadband Forum – which will either form a part of or complement 3GPP's Release 16 specifications, due for publication at the end of 2019 – marks the important role of the fixed network in supporting 5G. The joint work of the two organizations will continue in the run up to and following the publication of 3GPP's Release 16 specifications and will expand as 5G networks are built out and start to evolve.
Within Broadband Forum, further work has been carried out to address the design requirements of 5G and the technology enablers which will drive both mobile and fixed developments, as well as liaison with other industry alliances, including NGMN, which aims to address the functionality and performance of next generation mobile networks.
"Two years ago, ten of the world's biggest operators came to us with their concerns that the 5G infrastructure which was being developed would not let them take advantage of both their wireless and wireline networks," said Geoff Burke, CMO of Broadband Forum. "Today, we are able to deliver a set of recommendations which will not only address how the 5G core can be evolved to support the fixed networks of these operators but provide them with the capabilities to launch new innovative combined subscriber offerings."
For a summary of Broadband Forum activities in 5G fixed-mobile convergence, watch this video from Broadband Forum's Wireless and Wireline Convergence Work Area Director Dave Allan. To find out more about Broadband Forum, please visit: https://www.broadband-forum.org/.
About Broadband Forum Broadband Forum is the communications industry's leading organization focused on accelerating broadband innovation, standards, and ecosystem development. Our members' passion – delivering on the promise of broadband by enabling smarter and faster broadband networks and a thriving broadband ecosystem.
A non-profit industry organization composed of the industry's leading broadband operators, vendors, and thought leaders, our work to date has been the foundation for broadband's global proliferation and innovation. For example, the Forum's flagship TR-069 CPE WAN Management Protocol has nearly 1 billion installations worldwide.
Broadband Forum working groups collaborate to define best practices for global networks, enable new revenue-generating service and content delivery, establish technology migration strategies, and engineer critical device, service & development management tools in the home and business IP networking infrastructure. We develop multi-service broadband packet networking specifications addressing architecture, device and service management, software data models, interoperability and certification in the broadband market.
Our free technical reports and white papers can be found at https://www.broadband-forum.org/.
Follow us on Twitter @Broadband_Forum and LinkedIn.
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Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a concept that has emerged in recent years to decouple network control and forwarding functions. SDN promises to enable a manageable and cost-effective network that fits the needs of high-bandwidth applications. Most published SDN-related information talks about Ethernet networks and describes the effort to adjust Ethernet to the needs of today’s applications.
The one network type that does not require special effort to adjust it to the computational needs of high-performance computing, deep learning or any other data intensive application is InfiniBand. InfiniBand was specified (in 1999) as the ultimate software-defined network, long before the term SDN was coined.
InfiniBand networks can be fully controlled and managed by a software element called a subnet-manager. Unlike Ethernet, InfiniBand does not have different kinds of network switches, such as “top of rack” or “aggregation level” switches, because it uses the same building block to create any size of infrastructure—from a small cluster to an Exascale platform, and to form a sort of network topology. InfiniBand does not carry the complex network algorithm baggage that Ethernet does, which becomes more onerous from generation to generation, and creates performance and cost burdens on the Ethernet infrastructure. Moreover, InfiniBand switch latency is 3 times better than the best Ethernet switch on the market today (and probably in the future too), and InfiniBand networks can be 30 percent or more better cost effective than the bandwidth equivalent Ethernet network.
20 years ago, there were two leading proprietary networks in the world of HPC: Myrinet from Myricom and QsNet from Quadrics. Looking back, one of the mistakes both vendors made was to switch from a full proprietary network to using Ethernet as the underlying network and to run their proprietary transport over Ethernet, tying their roadmap to Ethernet. The reason for this move was clear: reducing the R&D efforts needed to develop a network. But the cost was high: Performance limitations, adding complexity and scaling issues due to Ethernet. As a result, Myrinet and QsNet fell behind InfiniBand—a network that was designed for data-intensive applications. As a side note, Quadrics became defunct in 2009. Their IP was later used by Gnodal to create Ethernet switches running the Quadrics protocol inside the switch. But Gnodal did not succeed and was defunct in 2013. Also, the same IP is now being used by one of the HPC system vendors for their new proprietary interconnect, which again is trying to run a proprietary network transport over Ethernet, in spite of the failure of previous attempts.
Beyond high latency, which escalates with the size of the network infrastructure, Ethernet also suffers from congestion control (such as ECN and QCN) and routing schemes that do not fit dynamic HPC and AI workloads. A vendor trying to use Ethernet as the basis for proprietary network transports will need to invest in developing proprietary protocols to handle these issues, which is complicated and leads to overall lower performance.
The InfiniBand specification is handled by IBTA (InfiniBand Trade Association); as an industry standards-based interconnect technology, InfiniBand is proven to provide forward and backward compatibility across generations of technology. As the ultimate software-defined network, InfiniBand provides low latency, smart routing and congestion-avoidance mechanisms together with the ability to support vendor-defined In-Network Computing acceleration engines. In-Network Computing transforms the data center interconnect into a “distributed co-processor” able to handle and accelerate the performance of various data algorithms, such as reductions and more.
In-Networking Computing is the heart of today’s and tomorrow’s data-centric data centers. Firstly, it provides the ability to offload all network functions from the CPU to the network. And secondly, it allows offloading various data algorithms. Examples are Mellanox Scalable Hierarchical Aggregation and Reduction Protocol (SHARP)™ technology, interconnect-based MPI Tag Matching and Rendezvous protocol network engines, and more.
In looking at InfiniBand routing schemes, InfiniBand provides a very efficient and robust fine-grained adaptive routing. For known application patterns, InfiniBand enables supercomputer managers to use perfectly matched static routing schemes, and to easily optimize them for their needs. For supercomputing infrastructures supporting a wide variety of HPC and AI workloads, InfiniBand offers adaptive routing. InfiniBand also ensures reliable data delivery and does not drop packets.
Oakridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) Summit supercomputer and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Sierra supercomputer reflect the DoE Exascale architecture path and are ranked number 1 and number 2 on the November 2018 TOP500 supercomputers list. These systems leverage InfiniBand for its high throughput, low latency, routing protocols, and In-Network Computing engines to deliver an efficient and scalable computing infrastructure. In a paper titled “The Design, Deployment, and Evaluation of the CORAL Pre-Exascale Systems,” people from Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore labs explore the performance advantages of the InfiniBand network, including the performance of InfiniBand adaptive routing technology.
Figure 1 and Figure 2 showcase the testing results on the Summit supercomputer. These results are based on the Bisection bandwidth benchmark MpiGraph, which explores the performance of MPI process pairs in full permutations. Figure 1 presents the histogram results, in which adaptive routing showcases that all MPI pairs achieve nearly maximum bandwidth, while static routing suffers from congestion that limits data bandwidth. Figure 2 highlights the same results differently, where lighter colors represent less variation and data traffic congestion between pairs of nodes. Adaptive routing in InfiniBand sustains 96% network utilization at a large scale (this is the fastest supercomputer in the world today). This level of network utilization is higher than other existing networks, and future proprietary networks on paper.
Figure 1 – MpiGraph Performance Results of InfiniBand – Demonstrates the Performance Advantages of Adaptive Routing over Static Routing
Figure 2 – MpiGraph Performance Results of InfiniBand – Demonstrates the Performance Advantages of Adaptive Routing over Static Routing
Another aspect of InfiniBand is its ability to support any network topology one can design. For example, InfiniBand is being used to form Fat-Tree (CLOS) topologies, Hypercube and Enhanced Hypercube, Torus, Mesh, Dragonfly+ and more. The InfiniBand Dragonfly+ topology enables lower latency versus other Dragonfly topologies used in proprietary networks. The current HDR 200 gigabit InfiniBand solution can connect more than 160 thousand endpoints with the Dragonfly+ topology at 3 switch connection hops. And the upcoming NDR 400 gigabit InfiniBand technology can connect more than 1 million endpoints in the same manner.
By leveraging the economy of scale, and the scale of performance, InfiniBand is the leading interconnect solution for the Exascale era.
The need to host, process, and transmit more data, in less time and more securely, is putting huge strain on existing datacenter network, server, and storage architectures, with the demands of specific applications like artificial intelligence, machine learning, image recognition, and data analytics exacerbating the problem.
When they add new platforms, many organizations now prefer to buy software-defined object/block/file storage solutions from vendors such as Red Hat, or use open source distributions like OpenStack, sometimes underpinned by or side-by-side with hyperconverged infrastructure (HCI) storage stacks from the likes of Nutanix, Dell EMC, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Cisco Systems. Moreover, spinning disk is rapidly being replaced by more efficient all-flash solutions, with Gartner predicting that by 2021 50 percent of all datacenters will uses solid state drives (SSDs) for high performance workloads. All of which means that current storage area networks (SANs) just cannot cut it any more.Fibre Channel Falling Behind
That is particularly true of Fibre Channel SANs, the demise of which has been predicted for decades, though a huge install base, ease of management, and isolation of block storage traffic appears to ensure their short-term relevancy. The problem for Fibre Channel now is that another of its historical advantages – a regularly updated roadmap offering a well-defined path to upgrade – looks like it’s petering out and the technology has peaked in terms of future performance enhancements. Similarly, FC no longer holds the performance advantage as Ethernet speeds have recently surpassed Fibre Channel speeds.Ethernet Storage Fabric And RoCE
One of Fibre Channel’s key advantages over Ethernet looks to have been eroded further by the emergence of what Mellanox has dubbed the Ethernet Storage Fabric (ESF), ESF supports unique storage-aware features such as delivering intelligent networking and storage offloads including TCP, RDMA, NVMe over Fabrics (NVMe-oF), erasure coding, T10 DIF, and encryption to deliver the highest levels of performance and the lowest latency and a lossless fabric. Mellanox switches also feature zero packet loss (no avoidable packet loss, for example due to traffic microbursts), and deliver that performance fairly and consistently to answer customers growing desire for Ethernet-based storage due to its ability to support block, file, and object storage, as well as simultaneously handling compute and storage traffic.
ESF, which supports the same remote direct memory access (RDMA) protocol as InfiniBand, can use RDMA to bypasses the TCP/IP stack and enable direct server to server and server to storage data transfers between application memories without offloading the processing overhead onto the CPU. This allows ESF to deliver significant performance and efficiency gains. It is now being deployed in cloud, storage and enterprise Ethernet networks with RDMA over converged Ethernet (RoCE – pronounced Rocky, and currently found in Microsoft’s Azure Cloud and other hyperscaler clouds) to reduce latency and server CPU/IO bottlenecks for example. Best of all ESF supports RoCE on either lossy or lossless networks and can simultaneously support TCP/IP traffic on the same fabric.
And using RDMA alongside NVMe-oF network protocol for data transfers between the host and attached storage systems can bring latencies down even further from milliseconds to microseconds and even nanoseconds. Though the technology is just begging to be adopted by the Enterprise market, it has been deployed by hyper scale datacenters for years. It is envisaged that NVMe interfaces will replace existing technologies like SAS and SATA to support full line rates needed by machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) applications and further exploit the adoption of RDMA.
Intelligent or Smart NICs provide hardware offloads to reduce latency and free up CPU on the initiator and target, so both servers and storage have more CPU power for running applications or storage features. Other advanced functions, like support for Open vSwitch (OVS) virtual switches and overlay networks, that potentially save owners and operators money on additional network switch hardware elsewhere, as well as faster, more efficient security via embedded firewalls and the offloading of encryption off the server and onto the SmartNIC itself.InfiniBand Marches On
With Fibre Channel out of the running, it now looks like a straight fight between InfiniBand and Ethernet to provide the high-speed storage fabrics datacenters want to future proof their operations. And unlike Fibre Channel, both technologies have ambitious roadmaps.
The InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) published a roadmap outlining 1x, 2x, 4x and 12x port widths with bandwidth reaching 600 Gb/sec in 2018, depending on the capacity per lane (either 100 Gb/sec or 125 Gb/sec) and the number of lanes per server. InfiniBand is a good fit for server interconnects over short-distance passive and active copper cables in HPC datacenters but can also be deployed over optical cables over distances of up to 10 kilometers for inter-datacenter connections.
InfiniBand has a lot of support among the HPC community and across some hyperscalers and cloud builders, with its advantages not limited just to throughput and low latency. InfiniBand, with the HDR flavor, now has a lot of headroom for expansion required by even hyperscale datacenters, supporting maximum cluster sizes of up to 40,000 nodes, which can be extended further by clustering. It has traditionally offered lower latency than Ethernet due to the latter’s use of forward error correction, whilst users laud the higher wire speeds, larger packet sizes, dynamic routing capabilities and simple to use multi pathing it provides.
Manufacturers are slugging it out to get 100 Gb/sec and 200 Gb/sec interconnects to market. Mellanox is currently shipping enhanced data rate (EDR) InfiniBand components that combine four lanes of 25 Gb/sec into 100 Gb/sec of total bandwidth (PAM-4 signaling is what makes the 50 Gb/sec physical signaling look like 100 Gb/sec). The company started shipping started shipping 200 Gb/sec Higher Data Rate (HDR) InfiniBand last year and has a faster Next Data Rate (NDR) InfiniBand also on the horizon with native 100 Gb/sec signaling. At the extreme end of Mellanox’s roadmap is the Extended Data Rate (XDR) InfiniBand specification, running potentially to 1 Tbit/sec across the four lanes that are typically used to make a server port at some indeterminate point in the future; this implies 250 Gb/sec signaling per lane, and it is not clear yet what mix of native signaling, data encoding, and modulation will be used to reach this goal.Ethernet Eyes 1.6 Tbit/sec
But Ethernet too is backed by concrete plans for improved connectivity. The 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec specifications were ratified by the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group late last year, with the consortium of suppliers which make up the Ethernet Alliance confident they will see 400 Gb/sec links deployed in hyper scale datacenters by 2020. Further specifications ramping capacity up to 800 Gb/sec and 1.6 Tb/sec connectivity could appear as soon as 2023.
Both 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec support a range of different cabling specifications that should satisfy the short range and long range transmission requirements, backwards compatibility and power consumption limits in most datacenters where space and electricity is often at a premium, using either single-mode fiber (SMF) or multi-mode fiber (MMF) based on multiple lanes and fiber strands.
The latest Ethernet specifications also moved to address the latency issues caused by the need to perform forward error correction prior to data transmission to ensure reliability. Rather than making it optional, the 802.bs architecture embeds Reed Solomon forward error correction (FEC) in the physical coding sub-layer (PCS) for each rate, effectively forcing manufacturers to develop 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec extender sublayers to support the future development of other PCS sublayers that can utilize other types of FEC for greater efficiency at a later date.Ethernet Gathering Momentum
Any timescale for the deployment of the latest InfiniBand or Ethernet technology in either cloud or enterprise datacenters depends on when manufacturers can get suitable components onto market, and how keenly they are priced.
The momentum appears now very firmly behind Ethernet however. While sales of Mellanox’s InfiniBand ASICs and switches held firm from 2015 through 2018, with occasional spikes here and there, InfiniBand showed modest growth driven by some ML/AI projects. It was demand for the company’s ESF networking components and high-performance Ethernet – where Mellanox maintains leadership in 25 Gb/sec and above in Ethernet adapters – that drove most of its revenue growth in 2018, and where they will continue to benefit from a multi-year transition to higher speeds.
Things could change, but one thing is sure, no matter which technology wins networks will become more intelligent. Today, InfiniBand has the lead with technologies like SMART, which accelerate not just HPC but also AI workloads. But Ethernet is also developing rapidly with SmartNIC technology and virtual switch offloads. Ethernet is set to deliver almost everything the modern hyperconverged or software driven datacenter needs in terms of storage performance, capacity and management over the long term. It looks like Ethernet is one technology that would be difficult to bet against. In the end, one thing is certain – the networks of the future will be smarter and faster.
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