|Exam Name||:||Technology Standards and Protocol for IP Telephony Solutions|
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|Updated On||:||February 20, 2019|
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920-803 exam Dumps Source : Technology Standards and Protocol for IP Telephony Solutions
Test Code : 920-803
Test Name : Technology Standards and Protocol for IP Telephony Solutions
Vendor Name : Nortel
Q&A : 55 Real Questions
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March 31, 2005 14:00 ET
news unlock TRANSMITTED by using CCNMatthews
NYSE, TSX symbol: NT
MARCH 31, 2005 - 14:00 ET
Nortel Names Gary Kunis as Chief technology Officer;Brian McFadden to steer advanced expertise, Researchand necessities organization
TORONTO--(CCNMatthews - Mar 31, 2005) -
Nortel Networks organisation (NYSE:NT) (TSX:NT) these days announced theappointment of Gary Kunis as Chief technology Officer (CTO). As CTO,Kunis will lead the strategic vision for the business's product andtechnology portfolio.
except 2002, Kunis become the manager Science Officer at Cisco systems. One ofthe pioneers of the web in the Eighties, Kunis has led numerousdevelopment and engineering breakthroughs related to cyber web Protocol(IP) requirements and routing technology used to join the global webof networks that make up the internet.
Kunis will document to Gary Daichendt, president and chief operatingofficer (COO), helpful April four, 2005.
"We're delighted to have Gary be part of our crew. he's an acknowledgedInternet pioneer with an excellent listing of feat and that i understand hewill provide an excellent contribution to Nortel's technologyleadership," mentioned Gary Daichendt, president and chief working officer,Nortel. "His track record in leading the building, servicing and sellingof network applied sciences globally may be a strong addition. he's anexcellent senior leader who during his profession has consistentlydemonstrated his skill to link know-how innovation with businesssuccess each internally and externally."
besides the Kunis appointment, Nortel announced that BrianMcFadden, a 26-12 months Nortel veteran and the existing CTO, has beenappointed to the function of Chief analysis Officer (CRO), useful April4, 2005. In his new role, McFadden will oversee the advanced know-how,analysis and requisites organization and may proceed to file to thepresident and COO. He may be accountable for surroundings Nortel's researchpriorities to make certain they guide the enterprise's company techniques,which include keeping an business leadership position in end-to-endbroadband, Voice over IP, multimedia functions and functions, andwireless broadband solutions. McFadden will also be sure that Nortelcontinues to play a lead role in industry requirements and regulatoryorganizations.
"we're completely dedicated to starting to be our business and a key componentof that is our endured know-how management," stated invoice Owens, vicechairman and chief executive officer, Nortel. "state-of-the-art announcementreaffirms the profound importance of analysis and development toNortel's future and our commitment to ensuring our expertise decisionsare extremely built-in with our overall enterprise method and thedynamics of an extremely competitive world market. growing twodistinct know-how and analysis and construction businesses withspecific mandates and led by using two very accomplished senior executivescertainly displays our 'playing to win' dedication to enhancingshareholder cost."
past in his profession, Kunis become worried within the design, implementationand operation of massive scale information and telecommunications networks forseveral U.S. govt company courses, including the department ofDefense, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air force, countrywide Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA), in addition to for civilian groups while workingfor the Boeing enterprise. Kunis additionally held a number of senior engineeringpositions with Boeing's business and protection-related corporations.
A graduate of the State college of big apple (SUNY) at Binghamton witha Bachelor of Arts diploma in Economics, Kunis additionally holds a grasp'sDegree in Economics from Tufts school.
Kunis and McFadden have additionally been appointed CTO and CRO, respectively,of Nortel Networks restricted, the company's predominant operating subsidiary.
Nortel is a diagnosed chief in providing communications capabilitiesthat boost the human event, ignite and vigour international commerce, andsecure and offer protection to the realm's most critical suggestions. Serving bothservice provider and enterprise valued clientele, Nortel provides innovativetechnology solutions encompassing conclusion-to-conclusion broadband, Voice over IP,multimedia capabilities and functions, and wireless broadband designed tohelp people clear up the world's premiere challenges. Nortel does businessin greater than a hundred and fifty international locations. For more information, talk over with Nortel on theWeb at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, visitwww.nortel.com/news.
certain suggestions blanketed during this press free up is forward-lookingand is field to important hazards and uncertainties. The outcomes orevents predicted in these statements can also differ materially from actualresults or activities.
components which might trigger outcomes or movements to differ from currentexpectations include, among other things: the result of regulatory andcriminal investigations and civil litigation moves regarding Nortel'srestatements and the have an effect on any resulting prison judgments, settlements,penalties and expenses might have on Nortel's outcomes of operations,monetary condition and liquidity; the findings of Nortel's independentreview and implementation of advised remedial measures; the outcomeof the impartial review with recognize to revenues for specificidentified transactions, which assessment can have a particular emphasis onthe underlying conduct that resulted in the preliminary focus of theserevenues; the restatement or revisions of Nortel's up to now announcedor filed financial effects and ensuing bad publicity; theexistence of fabric weaknesses in Nortel's inside controls overfinancial reporting; the have an effect on of Nortel's and NNL's failure to timelyfile their fiscal statements and connected periodic stories, includingbreach of its guide facility and public debt tasks and Nortel'sinability to entry its shelf registration remark filed with theUnited States Securities and alternate commission ("SEC"); ongoing SECreviews, which may end up in adjustments to our public filings; thepotential delisting or suspension of Nortel's and NNL's publicly tradedsecurities; the affect of management adjustments, including the terminationfor explanation for Nortel's former CEO, CFO and Controller in April 2004; thesufficiency of Nortel's restructuring activities, including the workplan introduced on August 19, 2004 as updated on September 30, 2004,together with the knowledge for better specific expenses to be incurred inconnection with restructuring moves in comparison to the estimated fees ofsuch movements;
cautious or decreased spending by means of Nortel's purchasers; fluctuations inNortel's working results and widespread industry, financial and marketconditions and increase charges; fluctuations in Nortel's cash flow, levelof brilliant debt and current debt scores; Nortel's ability torecruit and preserve certified employees; the use of money collateral tosupport Nortel's general direction business actions; the dependence onNortel's subsidiaries for funding; the influence of Nortel's definedbenefit plans and deferred tax property on consequences of operations andNortel's cash flow; the hostile decision of class movements, litigationin the commonplace course of company, intellectual property disputes andsimilar concerns; Nortel's dependence on new product building and itsability to predict market demand for selected items; Nortel'sability to integrate the operations and applied sciences of acquiredbusinesses in a very good method; the influence of rapid technological andmarket change; the affect of price and product competitors; limitations tointernational increase and international financial circumstances, certainly inemerging markets and together with hobby cost and currency alternate ratefluctuations; the have an effect on of clarification and consolidation in thetelecommunications business; changes in legislation of the web; theimpact of the credit score dangers of Nortel's purchasers and the influence ofcustomer financing and commitments; inventory market volatility generallyand because of acceleration of the settlement date or earlysettlement, which is at the moment now not purchasable, of Nortel's forwardpurchase contracts; the affect of Nortel's supply and outsourcingcontracts that contain birth and setting up provisions, which, ifnot met, might influence within the charge of colossal penalties orliquidated damages; and the long run success of Nortel's strategicalliances.
For additional info with appreciate to definite of these and otherfactors, see essentially the most fresh Annual document on kind 10-okay and QuarterlyReport on form 10-Q filed via Nortel with the SEC. until otherwiserequired by means of relevant securities legal guidelines, Nortel disclaims any intentionor responsibility to update or revise any ahead-looking statements,no matter if on account of new information, future pursuits or otherwise.
Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are emblems of NortelNetworks.
computing device community expertise (CNT) and Nortel Networks have added plans to simplify storage enviornment network (SAN) integration into business IP and optical networks. This cooperative effort is in accordance with latest, established technologies, together with Nortel Networks' metropolitan and long-haul optical items, and CNT's protocol adaptation applied sciences and centered necessities work agencies.
both agencies will collaborate on the design and building of applied sciences and solutions that integrate SAN applications and infrastructure with the Optical information superhighway, each metro and lengthy haul. The collaboration will take location in two stages.
within the near time period, the collaboration will consist of the deployment of service provider-primarily based SAN solutions in an effort to equipment items and functions from each companies, together with Nortel Networks' OPTera Metro multi-provider systems (CNT's UltraNet Director, CNT SAN Integration functions, etc.) into a single client offering.
In coaching for the long term, work will begin automatically on the specification of recent, vertically built-in options combining IP, Optics, FC, SCSI, Escon and other technologies, with a spotlight on optimization of these technologies for networked storage purposes over carrier provider networks. CNT and Nortel Networks will work intently with the service company group on the construction of this specification.
in addition, the companies will jointly market and support SAN/IP and SAN/optical solutions to carrier suppliers and key companions, and work with network providers to develop a set of storage purposes and services. utility labs will also be created to qualify storage solutions to function beneath the brand new environments. the two groups will also take part in joint customer trials to set up the cost of the expertise in precise networks.
formerly, IP networks were insufficient to address the satisfactory of service, the data protection needs or the bandwidth-on-demand wants of storage applications. CNT has developed a transport protocol that offers stronger storage utility reliability on a standard IP backbone, along with records compression, alternate routing, load balancing and greater flow manage. This storage transport protocol is currently getting used to facilitate SAN extensions over long distances, enabling key functions reminiscent of distance mirroring, tape backup and storage distribution.
CNT and Nortel Networks will work towards the standardization of those innovations by submissions to the acceptable requirements committees, including the information superhighway Engineering project drive (IETF), and the American country wide standards Institute (ANSI) T11 working neighborhood for consideration as an extension to the FCBB (Fibre Channel returned-Bone) ordinary.
The items and technology to guide the collaboration between CNT and Nortel Networks exist nowadays, together with the Fibre Channel items from Brocade, which were demonstrated in each and every company's lab. CNT and Nortel Networks expect to start consumer trials in 3rd quarter 2000.
For greater tips, consult with www.nortelnetworks.com, or www.cnt.com.
PISCATAWAY, N.J.--(business WIRE)--IEEE, the realm's largest technical professional firm committed to advancing technology for humanity, and the IEEE necessities association (IEEE-SA), today announced the publishing and availability of IEEE 11073-20701-2018 - IEEE authorized Draft usual for service-Oriented scientific equipment exchange structure & Protocol Binding.
“IEEE 11073-20701 culminates our efforts to improve a requirements family that assures respectable statistics exchange between medical gadgets within an open IP-based gadget focused on secure and cozy interoperability to ensure affected person security,” talked about
Stefan Schlichting, subgroup chair, IEEE 11073 service-oriented equipment Connectivity (SDC) regular family unit. “In pleasing the need for this unifying household ordinary, we now can stronger support the alternate of precise-time suggestions between medical devices and external methods to increase performance and interoperability in changing ad-hoc networks.”
the new normal completes the overseas firm for Standardization (ISO)/IEEE 11073 family of standards for point-of-Care (PoC) clinical gadget communique and defines an architecture for provider-oriented distributed PoC medical contraptions and scientific IT techniques. The general defines a binding of the participant and communique mannequin described in IEEE 11073-10207TM to the profile for transport over web functions defined in IEEE 11073-20702TM. IEEE 11073-20701 additionally defines a binding to community Time Protocol (NTP) and 5 Differentiated functions for time synchronization and to satisfy transport best-of-carrier necessities.
IEEE 11073-20701-2018 is obtainable for purchase at the IEEE necessities keep.
To be taught more about IEEE-SA or about any of its multitude of market initiatives consult with us on facebook, follow us on Twitter, connect with us on LinkedIn or on the beyond standards weblog.
about the IEEE standards affiliation
The IEEE requirements affiliation, a globally diagnosed requirements-surroundings physique within IEEE, develops consensus necessities via an open procedure that engages business and brings together a wide stakeholder community. IEEE necessities set specifications and finest practices according to existing scientific and technological expertise. The IEEE-SA has a portfolio of over 1,200 energetic necessities and more than 650 necessities below development. For more suggestions discuss with http://requirements.ieee.org.
IEEE is the world’s greatest technical skilled company dedicated to advancing know-how for the advantage of humanity. through its extremely cited publications, conferences, technology necessities, and knowledgeable and academic activities, IEEE is the trusted voice in a wide variety of areas ranging from aerospace methods, computers, and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric vigour, and consumer electronics. be taught more at http://www.ieee.org.
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The feature story that follows was originally published in 1997. When I wrote this article as the electronics editor of Popular Mechanics, the Web was just six years old. Dial-up connections ruled. There was no Google, no Facebook, no Wikipedia, no YouTube, no Twitter. There was no Hulu, no Spotify, no Instagram. There was no Cloud computing. There were no smartphones. Netflix was founded that year, but as a rent-by-mail DVD company, not the internet behemoth it is now, slinging trillions of bits over the Net every day—hundreds of thousands times the total internet traffic of 1997.
Back then, the internet was used mainly for email, news groups, and to access the relative handful of websites that were around, like book-seller Amazon, eBay, and the Yahoo, Lycos, and Excite portals. Was the internet dying? No. That was hyperbole. But it was at a crossroads. Something had to be done to accommodate the incredible increase of data traffic we knew was coming and the looming shortage of address space. Soon after that article ran, the internet backbone was expanded and strengthened. Tens of thousands of miles of undersea fiber-optic cables were installed, truly making the Web worldwide.
Since then, data-intensive providers like Netflix, Google, and Facebook have changed the way data is routed over the internet by building private content-delivery networks (CDNs) that run in parallel to the internet backbone. These CDNs eliminate choke points and deliver data quickly, providing uninterrupted video to your smart TV or to smartphones in far-flung corners of the globe.
And the IPv6 addressing scheme, introduced in 1998, is being implemented with enough capacity for billions of unique addresses for every living person. Overkill? Perhaps. But consider how popular such devices as smart speakers and connected thermostats and lights are today. Then remember that the Internet of Things is still in its infancy, much like the internet itself was in 1997. Tomorrow’s applications haven’t even been dreamed up yet. Whatever they are, you can be sure that the internet will be ready to take on the challenge. It won’t die. We can’t let it.—Brian C. Fenton
The internet is at a crossroads. Rather than surfing the Net, many users find themselves wading through the mud, frustrated by delays. Is this a permanent issue? Or are remedies being found in “internet time,” where changes occur overnight?
Considering the demands that have been placed on the internet—the number of users is growing at an annual rate of about 200 percent—it’s remarkable that it has managed to keep up at all. In addition, the range of services that the internet is providing was never envisioned by the people who developed what has grown into today’s Net. The internet began in the late 1960s as a project by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, or ARPA. The main goal of the ARPAnet was to experiment with ways to link university research centers and high-tech defense contractors together. The original ARPAnet linked four computers—at the University of California at Santa Barbara, UCLA, the University of Utah, and the Stanford Research Institute. From there, the internet grew slowly but steadily through the 1970s and 1980s.
One reason ARPAnet was able to grow into today’s internet was its ability to interconnect networks even if they use different local networking protocols, such as Ethernet, Netware, or AppleTalk. The common language that allowed the networks to interconnect is TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
TCP/IP owes its structure to the internet’s heritage as a Defense Department project. The protocol was devised to ensure that messages of any length could be sent from one computer to another even if parts of the network were inoperative—if the country were under nuclear attack, for example.
Although much of the internet consists of dedicated phone lines owned by traditional telecommunications companies, the technology that allows data to be sent from one computer to another on the internet is far different from a standard phone call.
The telephone network is a connection-oriented, circuit-switched network, while the internet is a connectionless, packet-switched network. When you make a telephone call, the switches at the telephone company’s central office set up what becomes a dedicated line between you and the person you call, for the duration of the call. While you’re using the line, no one else can, and if there’s a problem on the network, you lose your connection.October 1995 Popular Mechanics. It... was a different time.
TCP is a packet-switched networking protocol. It breaks each message into variable-length packets and inserts a header to indicate which message each packet is part of, where the message came from, and where it is going. IP is the addressing part of the protocol suite. It routes the packets from the sender to the recipient, making an effort to find the shortest route available. At the receiving side, TCP software collects the packets, extracts the data, and puts them in the proper order. If some packets are missing, the sender is asked to retransmit them. This turns out to be a very efficient way to move files and messages, but it’s not the best way to send such data as real-time audio and video—you can never be sure that the packets will arrive at their destination in the right order because they might travel via different paths. Along the way, special computers called routers examine the packets and pass them from one node to another until they arrive at their destination. Another responsibility of routers is to decode domain-name addresses (such as popularmechanics.com) to 32-bit IP addresses (18.104.22.168).
The 32-bit addressing scheme is one of the most tangible examples of how the internet is bursting at the seams. At the current rate of growth, the internet will run out of addresses in a little more than ten years.
To be fair, no one could have envisioned the number of people who would be using the internet today, or the varied uses that it would be put to. Remote access, file transfer, and email were the reasons the internet was created. Email is still the No. 1 reason that people access the internet. But the World Wide Web—which didn’t even exist until early this decade—is catching up fast because it gives point-and-click access to virtually all internet resources.
When the Web was developed, it was seen as a tool for serious research and educational exchanges. It is still used for that, but who could have predicted how commercial it would become? In fact, the internet, as originally conceived, forbade advertising. But now that the government is officially out of the internet business—the backbone is run entirely by commercial interests—almost anything goes.
Along with its ease of use, another attribute that has contributed to the Web’s popularity is its cross-platform compatibility. A correctly designed webpage can be accessed on a Unix workstation, a Macintosh, or an IBM-compatible PC with equal results.
With the Web so large, how do you get your page noticed? Some developers feel that one good way is to make it as splashy as possible. Bandwidth conservationists would disagree—as would many users, after waiting several minutes to download a large graphic file when all they’re looking for is some information. Even users with 33.6 kbps modems can get frustrated in a hurry.
To make matters worse, a graphics-intensive page doesn’t slow down information access just for the person downloading it. Remember that each internet data transfer is split into TCP packets and sent down the pipe along with everyone else’s. When that pipe gets full, everyone has to wait.
The GIF Is Dead. Long Live the GIF.
Consider what happened to Microsoft’s FTP servers after Internet Explorer 3.0 was released: Many of those who were lucky enough just to connect to one of the servers had such long waits that they gave up.
Also, it’s not just the site that you’re accessing that will slow down. Any bits that are being routed to their eventual destination through the site will slow down, too, as they wait to get routed to the next station on the Net.
Slow access isn’t always the fault of external sites. Your internet service provider (ISP) can have a dramatic effect on the speed of your access. Your ISP buys a dedicated line to a larger ISP, which might have yet another dedicated provider, until the line eventually gets to one of the major internet backbones operated by a company like MCI or Sprint. If any provider in the chain hasn’t upgraded sufficiently, you’re going to run into delays somewhere along the line—at least at peak periods when everyone else is trying to send or receive bits, too.
With the Web so large, how do you get your page noticed?
Just as the amount of commercial traffic has taxed the internet, so have some of the new bandwidth-intensive technologies. Want to make a phone call? Do it on the internet. Want to conduct a videoconference? The internet again. Want to control an avatar and roam about virtual words interacting with others? Where else but on the internet?
What’s happening on the internet is exemplified by what has happened on some corporate networks where users have installed the PointCast Channel Viewer to gain access to the PointCast Network, a news service that delivers customizable reports over the internet, with regular updates 24 hours a day. Although the PointCast Viewer isn’t particularly bandwidth-intensive itself, it is able to bring a network to a crawl if too many people install the software.
Demand for such applications as PointCast is being fueled by inexpensive rates for unlimited Net access. Users have no incentive to reduce their bandwidth.
Consumer demand will only increase as cheaper access terminals hit the market. With a WebTV box, you don’t need a computer—just a television. Even video-game players can get in on the action with devices that convert their video-game consoles into internet-access devices.
With so many potential bottlenecks, you’ll want to do everything you can to get the best performance. If you’re using a 14.4 kbps modem, upgrading to a 28.8 or 33.6 kbps modem will make download times seem significantly shorter—as long as your ISP supports the faster access. A new modem technology, x2, developed by U.S. Robotics, increases the top download speed of a standard modem 56 kbps. It takes advantage of service providers whose data servers are connected to the digital telephone network. Leading ISPs, including America Online, Prodigy, Compuserve, and Netcom, are supporting the technology, which is due to hit the market in early 1997.
An ISDN phone line—if you can get one—can speed up your access to 64 or 128 kbps. That’s up to four times the speed of a 28.8 modem—but it often seems faster because the all-digital nature of ISDN ensures that you’ll always connect at the rated speed. Your modem won’t fall back to a slower speed because of noise on the analog phone lines.
The disadvantage of ISDN is that it’s still not available everywhere, and in many places it’s outrageously overpriced—sometimes so high that even businesses can’t justify the expense. Many ISPs don’t support ISDN connections, and it’s still possible that ISDN just won’t ever catch on in a big way thanks to even faster technologies on the horizon.
Cable modems are vying to become de facto high-speed access devices for homeowners and businesses alike. With potential speeds as fast as 40 Mbps—more than 1,000 times that of today’s fastest analog modems—it’s easy to see why cable companies see internet access as a potentially huge moneymaker for them. Unfortunately, cable modems still have a number of obstacles to overcome before you’ll be able to call your local cable company and order up an ultrafast connection. First, cable-modem manufacturers have yet to agree on any standards for the devices. That keeps prices high both for consumers and the cable companies who are building their infrastructure.
Another reason that cable modems offer only a partial solution is that cable plants were never built for two-way communication—they are built to deliver programming from the head end to subscribers, not to accept incoming data from individuals. Without a two-way cable network, a standard analog modem must be used as a back channel. Although your cable-modem connection might be capable of blazingly fast speeds, you might have to share that bandwidth with up to 2,000 other users on your cable-television feeder line. If everybody else is trying to download large files or conduct videoconferences, you will have little bandwidth left over for yourself to use.
The phone companies aren’t placing all their bets on ISDN—especially with the growing threat of competition from cable companies. That is where Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) technology comes in.
ADSL can conceivably pass data at a rate of up to 9 Mbps, and can do it over normal telephone lines depending on a large variety of factors, including the length of your local telephone loop.
Unfortunately, when these high-speed technologies become widely available at the consumer level, the bandwidth crunch will just get worse unless the internet’s underlying infrastructure is improved. Any improvements, however, won’t come for free—service providers who are operating on razor-thin margins have little incentive to upgrade, especially because the performance they can offer is still limited by the other hosts that they’re connected to. One technology that could potentially have a dramatic impact, however, is known as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching.
ATM addresses the cause of the biggest backups on the internet, the routers that direct email messages, webpages, and files on their way from source to destination, one hop and one packet at a time. By contrast, ATM takes a connection-oriented approach. A message can speed through an ATM switch faster because, in effect, the entire transmission has been preaddressed with its own route.
An ISDN phone line—if you can get one—can speed up your access to 64 or 128 kbps.
While ATM is optimized for carrying such multimedia traffic as real-time audio and video, traditional routers are faster and more efficient at getting email and files through the Net. Presumably, finding the right mix of routers and ATM switches could ease delays substantially.
One conundrum is that adding bandwidth to the network is only a temporary solution. Just as new lanes on highways attract more cars, faster internet connections draw more users—and things slow down even worse than before.
One proposed remedy for the internet is to create a sort of toll road on the Information Superhighway—to have users who want to make sure their important messages get through pay an extra charge. Right now, the internet is democratic to a fault. The junk email message from a spammer gets the same treatment as an email message from the president. However, with RSVP, the reservation protocol, and RTP, the reservation transfer protocol, some messages can get priority service.
Currently under development is IPv6, or IP version 6. The new version changes how packets are identified and includes bits to indicate priority.
Just as many municipalities have switched to carpool lanes to boost transportation capacities, internet developers are looking for ways to boost the efficiency and, thus, the capacity of internet links.
IP multicasting is one technique that promises to conserve bandwidth by sending a single data stream to multi-data users, rather than establishing a separate point-to-point data stream for each of the users.
Although the internet’s growing pains are obvious, and the solutions aren’t all easy to implement, the internet is on its way to becoming as important as the telephone network—too important to be allowed to become a victim of its own success.Vint Cerf
The internet’s demise has been repeatedly forecast by any number of storm crows over the years. There is the 1997 prediction based on an increasingly loaded network spurred by the rapid growth of users, servers, websites, and content. There were earlier predictions of a “Gigalapse” by Ethernet inventor Robert Metcalfe. Others thought ATM or Frame Relay would replace TCP/IP. Then came Multi-protocol Label Switching.
Of course, there were many years during which it was expected by many, including governments, that the Open Systems Internetworking (OSI) standards would prevail over the internet’s TCP/IP. Interestingly, as the 2000s arrived, high speed, broadband cable, and fiber modems, along with digital subscriber loops, promised higher capacity in the core and access components of the internet. Other challenges have appeared. In 2011, the primary source of IP address space, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), ran out of freely available 32-bit IPv4 addresses. By that time, however, the 128-bit IPv6 address and packet format had long been standardized but not very widely implemented. That is still a challenge as only about 30 percent of the internet is estimated to be configured to support IPv6. Most edge devices and routers have the necessary software but many ISPs have not turned it on.
There are additional challenges surfacing but these are less about basic technology than they are about abusive behaviors found especially in online social media but more generally in all layers of the internet and the World Wide Web. The software- and network-driven Internet of Things offers a huge attack surface that is already being exploited by bad actors. Disinformation, misinformation, fraud, propaganda, and other content ills are infecting popular information channels, challenging users to think far more critically about the quality of information they receive or discover online.
This 1997 feature was reprinted in the March 2019 issue. Want more Popular Mechanics? Get Instant Access!
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