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920-345 - BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation and(R) Initial Configuration - Dump Information

 Vendor : Nortel Exam Code : 920-345 Exam Name : BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation and(R) Initial Configuration Questions and Answers : 110 Q & A Updated On : February 14, 2019 PDF Download Mirror : Pass4sure 920-345 Dump Get Full Version : Pass4sure 920-345 Full Version

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920-345 BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation and(R) Initial Configuration

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920-345 exam Dumps Source : BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation and(R) Initial Configuration

Test Code : 920-345
Test Name : BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation and(R) Initial Configuration
Vendor Name : Nortel
Q&A : 110 Real Questions

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Nortel BCM50/450 Rls. 5.0 Installation

latest Nortel software unencumber presents SMBs New ranges of Simplicity and Unified Communications | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

common software stream gives finished, low-budget, and Scalable solution across platforms and into department places of work

TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Nov. 3, 2009) - Small and medium-sized companies (SMBs) can acquire productiveness, charge-rate reductions and the funding protection essential to success in trendy company ambiance with new unified communications-based mostly (UC) software from Nortel* (OTCBB:NRTLQ). The latest application release 5.0 for Nortel's award-successful enterprise Communications supervisor (BCM) provides new UC capabilities, together with unified presence, and enhanced simplicity with the introduction of a typical application stream for BCM50 and BCM450.

The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-primarily based IP/TDM PBXs delivering application-wealthy, all-in-one options for converged voice and data communications. The BCM50 serves businesses with as much as 50 users while the better skill BCM450 is correct for becoming medium to enormous agencies and department offices with as much as 300 users. each and every helps a mixture of IP and digital consumers and can enable firms to keep as much as 70 % of their normal funding by reusing current gadget.

As a part of the new BCM Rls 5.0 utility, BCM450 and BCM50 provide SMBs with dynamic UC aspects like InTouch, which grants true federated presence, and familiar built-in communications functions and capabilities. InTouch lets users speak readily with any one in their own directory – across Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click-to-call, click-to-IM, and click-to-e-mail. by means of connecting americans quicker, improving collaboration and speeding up the time to choice, Nortel estimates that unified communications can support organizations understand charge-savings and a rise in productivity of up to 18 percent.

ultimate year, the Nashville conference and company Bureau** (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 solution to booklet more than 650,000 inn rooms while advertising and marketing tourism on behalf of a number of partners. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application within the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of tips technology, is longing for seeing true-time presence for every person on the network and having a view into overlooked calls even when a caller doesn't go away a voicemail. For now, NCVB is having fun with the primary BCM Rls 5.0 feature it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which allows simultaneous ringing of up to 5 additional exterior gadgets. "every name is competencies business," pointed out Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe ability, our earnings team on no account has to omit an additional salary-producing name once again."

Minitel**, a premier Nortel associate presenting provider throughout Canada, additionally selected to trial BCM Rls 5.0 in its personal workplace creation equipment. Its Toronto vp of Operations, Dan Silverman, was so completely happy with the progress of the in-apartment trial he satisfied a big accounting enterprise customer to deploy it as smartly. "The installing changed into as smooth as could be and the customer is now rolling out each InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to distinct users of their company comfortably. We were able to get our customer up to pace on the interface and rolling the application out via themselves in below an hour," pointed out Silverman.

Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana** (ULA) in a similar way confirmed the latest BCM software with wonderful consequences. "we are within the enterprise of training modern day adolescence and making ready them for the longer term and the challenges forward," said Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of techniques, ULA. "To do so, we count number on having the newest in communications expertise that helps us offer a wealthy UC adventure for body of workers and college students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, we found that the product's new characteristic set enhances our UC journey, while maximizing gadget already in place."

BCM50 client, Philkeram-Johnson**, the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, additionally welcomed the new application free up. "Our Nortel BCM50 gives us room to grow, when it comes to capacity and performance, and it grants the features we deserve to evolve to a unified communications ambiance," pointed out Christos Syropoulos, commercial manager, Philkeram-Johnson. "we're constantly seeking methods to enhance our products and our productiveness in order to respond greater immediately to valued clientele. i am eager to find out extra concerning the new elements obtainable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the way we can use them to raise our communications."

in addition to the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a consumer ahead a voice message the usage of a file so that it can be performed or examine by any cellular machine on this planet. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now gives as much as one hundred twenty five ports with assist for as many as 300 users. skilled call Recording, a capacity customarily presented through a third party is also available as part of the newest BCM release.

As a further capacity of streamlining charges and operations making it much more standard for SMBs and Nortel channel companions to install, provision, and migrate pre-latest information, the brand new BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio includes common application and purposes, O/S, practicing, accreditation, consumer interfaces, and documentation.

Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on this planet in number of hybrid-IP strains shipped and #2 in SMB market revenue for the second quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM solutions are localized and bought in over a hundred and twenty nations through more than 1000 channels.

Hear from more BCM clients and partners:

• "FindMe/FollowMe and Message Forwarding enable constitution Telecom's** income and technical workforce to be more obtainable to our valued clientele, whether in the workplace or on the street. With the capability for individual users to personalize these elements to their liking through an internet-based GUI tool Mailbox supervisor. Our device administrator now not has to make each day adjustments. FMFM and the means to seamlessly switch calls between our desk phones and cellular phones has additionally allowed us to reduce our charges, give our body of workers with extra flexibility, and boost our availability to clients." – David Harper, voice systems engineer, constitution Telecom - Canada
• "Our office communications have been based mostly solely on Nortel's BCM methods for years. We lately upgraded to the newest BCM technology, preserving most of our preliminary investment in hardware and all the funding in application licenses. the new UC performance increases our productiveness and saves time. It also allows for us to connect to other techniques like Communications Server one thousand and Microsoft OCS. With InTouch we are in a position to manipulate our online contacts at MSN and Skype from a single utility interface in MS Outlook, together with our workplace colleagues, consumers, and companions." – Nikos Koulioumbis, SMB options director, UniNortel SA** - Greece
• "creative new points such as InTouch with federated presence, FindMe/FollowMe, professional name Recording and enhanced CTI purposes are all notable productiveness enhancers if you want to shop agencies time and cash and this truly resonated with the customers we talked to at a contemporary seminar held in Nortel's Maidenhead office. We had enthusiastic remarks from attendees together with a London-based voice and information solutions issuer who talked about he most enjoyed the portion of the seminar that focused on BCM Rls 5.0." – Thomas Jacques, managing director, 1st Communications** - UK
• "The BCM product has at all times been one that we've been proud to offer to our purchasers as a result of its converged voice and records answer for small and medium corporations. As a longtime channel accomplice of Nortel's in Mexico, we seem ahead to being in a position to present those equal facets, besides newly more advantageous ones with the new software release of BCM Rls 5.0 with new points reminiscent of FindMeFollowMe, professional name Recording, and stronger CTI applications on the way to increase our consumer's productiveness." – Jorge Alberto Jimenez Hernandez, director of engineering, Innovaciones Telemáticas, S.A. de C.V.** (INTELEMATICA) - Mexico

Nortel promises communications capabilities that make the promise of enterprise Made simple a truth for our consumers. Our subsequent-generation applied sciences, for each service issuer and enterprise networks, support multimedia and company-essential purposes. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to support get rid of modern limitations to efficiency, velocity and performance by way of simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the tips they want, once they need it. For more guidance, visit Nortel on the net at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel information, consult with www.nortel.com/news.

certain statements in this press liberate can also contain phrases such as "could", "expects", "can also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "objectives", "envisions", "seeks" and different identical language and are regarded ahead-looking statements or counsel beneath applicable securities law. These statements are in accordance with Nortel's existing expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the operating atmosphere, economies and markets during which Nortel operates. These statements are discipline to important assumptions, dangers and uncertainties, that are complex to foretell and the precise effect can be materially diverse from those pondered in forward-looking statements. For additional information with recognize to certain of these and different elements, see Nortel's Annual file on Form10-ok, Quarterly studies on kind 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. until in any other case required by using applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any intention or duty to update or revise any ahead-looking statements, even if as a result of new tips, future routine or in any other case.

*Nortel, the Nortel brand and the Globemark are trademarks of Nortel Networks.

**here is a third birthday celebration hyperlink as described in our internet linking practices.

Use of the terms "companion" and "partnership" doesn't suggest a felony partnership between Nortel and another birthday party.

latest Nortel utility unencumber presents SMBs New degrees of Simplicity and Unified Communications | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

TORONTO, ONTARIO -- (Marketwire) -- 11/03/09 -- Small and medium-sized corporations (SMBs) can obtain productiveness, can charge-mark downs and the investment coverage vital to success in trendy company atmosphere with new unified communications-based (UC) software from Nortel(1) (OTCBB: NRTLQ). The newest software free up 5.0 for Nortel's award-profitable enterprise Communications supervisor (BCM) provides new UC capabilities, together with unified presence, and enhanced simplicity with the introduction of a common software circulate for BCM50 and BCM450.

The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-primarily based IP/TDM PBXs delivering utility-wealthy, all-in-one options for converged voice and records communications. The BCM50 serves companies with up to 50 users while the larger ability BCM450 is suitable for growing to be medium to giant companies and department workplaces with as much as 300 clients. each and every helps a mix of IP and digital consumers and may allow establishments to keep up to 70 p.c of their usual investment by means of reusing latest device.

As a part of the new BCM Rls 5.0 utility, BCM450 and BCM50 supply SMBs with dynamic UC facets like InTouch, which promises actual federated presence, and everyday built-in communications applications and capabilities. InTouch lets users communicate comfortably with any one in their very own listing - throughout Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click on-to-name, click-to-IM, and click on-to-email. by using connecting people faster, improving collaboration and dashing up the time to decision, Nortel estimates that unified communications can support corporations recognize charge-rate reductions and a rise in productiveness of as much as 18 p.c.

closing 12 months, the Nashville convention and friends Bureau(2) (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 answer to book more than 650,000 hotel rooms while marketing tourism on behalf of quite a lot of partners. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application within the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of tips technology, is longing for seeing precise-time presence for everybody on the community and having a view into missed calls even when a caller doesn't depart a voicemail. For now, NCVB is enjoying the first BCM Rls 5.0 function it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which enables simultaneous ringing of up to 5 extra exterior devices. "every call is talents company," noted Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe skill, our revenue crew certainly not has to miss an additional income-generating name again."

Minitel(2), a premier Nortel accomplice featuring carrier throughout Canada, additionally selected to trial BCM Rls 5.0 in its own office creation equipment. Its Toronto vice chairman of Operations, Dan Silverman, was so happy with the development of the in-house trial he satisfied a large accounting company client to install it as smartly. "The installing changed into as clean as may be and the client is now rolling out each InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to distinctive clients in their organization with ease. We had been in a position to get our client up to velocity on the interface and rolling the software out by using themselves in below an hour," observed Silverman.

Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana(2) (ULA) in a similar way proven the latest BCM application with fine consequences. "we're within the business of educating cutting-edge youth and getting ready them for the long run and the challenges forward," observed Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of techniques, ULA. "To accomplish that, we count number on having the latest in communications technology that helps us present a wealthy UC journey for body of workers and college students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, we found that the product's new characteristic set enhances our UC adventure, whereas maximizing equipment already in region."

BCM50 customer, Philkeram-Johnson(2), the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, also welcomed the brand new application release. "Our Nortel BCM50 gives us room to grow, when it comes to means and performance, and it delivers the features we should evolve to a unified communications ambiance," observed Christos Syropoulos, industrial supervisor, Philkeram-Johnson. "we're consistently searching for easy methods to boost our products and our productivity so they can reply more quickly to purchasers. i am desirous to discover more concerning the new facets purchasable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the way we can use them to increase our communications."

besides the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a user forward a voice message using a file in order that it can also be played or read through any cellular equipment on earth. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now offers up to one hundred twenty five ports with assist for as many as 300 clients. expert name Recording, a ability usually provided by way of a 3rd birthday party is also purchasable as part of the latest BCM unencumber.

As an additional ability of streamlining prices and operations making it much more essential for SMBs and Nortel channel companions to set up, provision, and migrate pre-latest information, the brand new BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio contains commonplace software and functions, O/S, working towards, accreditation, person interfaces, and documentation.

Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on the earth in variety of hybrid-IP lines shipped and #2 in SMB market salary for the second quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM solutions are localized and sold in over a hundred and twenty international locations through greater than one thousand channels.

Hear from greater BCM users and companions:

- "FindMe/FollowMe and Message Forwarding allow constitution Telecom's(2) income and technical body of workers to be greater obtainable to our valued clientele, no matter if within the office or on the road. With the capacity for particular person users to customise these features to their liking through a web-primarily based GUI tool Mailbox manager. Our equipment administrator no longer has to make each day changes. FMFM and the capability to seamlessly transfer calls between our desk phones and cellular telephones has also allowed us to lessen our costs, deliver our workforce with extra flexibility, and increase our availability to consumers." - David Harper, voice systems engineer, constitution Telecom - Canada

- "Our office communications were based mostly exclusively on Nortel's BCM methods for years. We currently upgraded to the newest BCM expertise, retaining most of our preliminary funding in hardware and all of the funding in application licenses. the brand new UC functionality raises our productivity and saves time. It also allows us to hook up with different systems like Communications Server one thousand and Microsoft OCS. With InTouch we are in a position to manage our on-line contacts at MSN and Skype from a single application interface in MS Outlook, along with our office colleagues, consumers, and partners." - Nikos Koulioumbis, SMB solutions director, UniNortel SA(2) - Greece

- "imaginative new facets such as InTouch with federated presence, FindMe/FollowMe, professional name Recording and greater CTI applications are all notable productivity enhancers that will save agencies time and money and this definitely resonated with the customers we talked to at a fresh seminar held in Nortel's Maidenhead office. We had enthusiastic remarks from attendees including a London-based mostly voice and information solutions provider who spoke of he most enjoyed the component of the seminar that focused on BCM Rls 5.0." - Thomas Jacques, managing director, 1st Communications(2) - UK

- "The BCM product has all the time been one that we've been proud to present to our customers due to its converged voice and statistics answer for small and medium groups. As a longtime channel partner of Nortel's in Mexico, we look ahead to being able to present these identical facets, moreover newly more advantageous ones with the new software unlock of BCM Rls 5.0 with new facets equivalent to FindMeFollowMe, knowledgeable call Recording, and improved CTI purposes if you want to boost our customer's productiveness." - Jorge Alberto Jimenez Hernandez, director of engineering, Innovaciones Telematicas, S.A. de C.V.(2) (INTELEMATICA) - Mexico

Nortel promises communications capabilities that make the promise of company Made essential a reality for our shoppers. Our next-generation technologies, for each service company and commercial enterprise networks, assist multimedia and enterprise-critical functions. Nortel's technologies are designed to help get rid of ultra-modern barriers to efficiency, pace and efficiency by using simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the tips they want, once they want it. For greater information, talk over with Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel news, visit www.nortel.com/news.

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Atomic-level insight into super-efficient electrocatalytic oxygen evolution on iron and vanadium co-doped nickel (oxy)hydroxide | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Fabrication and characterization of Ni3Fe1−xVx

A series of Ni3Fe1−xVx (oxy)hydroxide catalysts (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), namely Ni3Fe, Ni3V, Ni3Fe0.67V0.33, Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, Ni3Fe0.33V0.67, and pure Ni (oxy)hydroxides were directly grown on hydrophilic CFPs by hydrothermal synthesis (Fig. 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1). The atomic ratios of different metals in the as-prepared catalysts were determined by analyses of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, Supplementary Table 1).

Fig. 1

Fabrication of Ni3Fe1‒xVx/CFP O2-evolving electrodes. Schematic illustration of the fabrication procedure by directly growing Ni3Fe1‒xVx NSs on a pretreated CFP substrate

The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns (Supplementary Fig. 2) indicate that Ni3Fe1−xVx are isostructural to α-Ni(OH)2 (JCPDS Card No. 38-0715). The reflections at 2θ = 11.4° and 22.7°, corresponding to the (003) and (006) lattice planes of Ni3Fe1−xVx, slightly shift to larger 2θ values by 0.2° and 0.6°, respectively, relative to those of α-Ni(OH)2. The d-spacing values obtained from the (003) and (006) reflections are about 7.65 and 3.81 Å, respectively, with a small contraction compared to those for pure α-Ni(OH)2 (d(003) = 7.79 Å and d(006) = 3.91 Å), which is most possibly caused by the substitution of Fe and V atoms for Ni in the lattice sites of the Ni(OH)2 matrix32,39,40. Because no extra diffraction peaks are observed in the PXRD pattern, it could be deduced that no separated crystalline phases, such as unary Ni-, Fe-, or V-based oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, are formed during the doping process12,28,41.

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5/CFP (Fig. 2a) clearly show that the entire surface of each carbon fiber is uniformly coated with the densely interlaced NSs, forming a sharp contrast to the smooth surface of pristine carbon fibers (Supplementary Fig. 3). A close inspection (Fig. 2b) reveals that the interlaced NSs form a porous network structure. Such an open nanoarchitecture built by Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 ultrathin NSs would afford a mass of electrochemically active sites, an easy penetration of electrolyte, and a good mechanical strength, so as to improve the OER activity and stability of the electrodes4. The quantitative SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (SEM-EDX) of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5/CFP discloses the presence of Ni, Fe, V, and O elements with a Ni/Fe/V atomic ratio of 74.12:12.83:13.05, which is close to the stoichiometric metal ratio of Ni/Fe/V = 3:0.5:0.5. Moreover, the corresponding elemental mappings (Supplementary Fig. 4) illustrate that the Ni, Fe, V, and O elements distribute homogenously on the surface of carbon fibers.

Fig. 2

Microscopy measurements of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs. a, b Top-view SEM images of the carbon fiber coated with Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs with low (a) and high (b) magnification. Scale bars, 1 μm in a and 100 nm in b. The inset in a shows the hierarchically structured 3D integrated electrode. Scale bar in the inset in a, 5 μm. c, d TEM images of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs scratched off from the as-prepared CFP electrode. Scale bars, 100 nm in c and 40 nm in d.e Atomic-resolution BF-TEM image of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs. Scale bar, 1 nm. f Aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM image of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs, the corresponding EDX elemental mappings of Ni, Fe, V, O and the mixed elemental mapping of Ni, Fe, V, and O. Scale bar, 2 nm

The bright-field TEM (BF-TEM) image (Fig. 2c) of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs illustrates a rippled sheet structure with a dimension around 500 nm, and the lateral TEM image (Fig. 2d) shows the ultrathin Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs with the thickness of 2.7–4.2 nm. Furthermore, the atomic-resolution BF-TEM image (Fig. 2e) displays clear lattice fringes with an interplanar spacing of 2.67 Å, indexed to the (101) plane of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs. The interplanar spacing of lattice fringes is slightly smaller than that of α-Ni(OH)2 (2.68 Å) due to the doping of Fe and V for Ni in Ni(OH)2 lattices. Single atoms, clusters, and small particles of Fe and V species are not observed in aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs (Supplementary Fig. 5). Meanwhile, both the EDX elemental mappings and linear scanning analysis of the HAADF-STEM image of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs with sub-nanometer resolution (Fig. 2f and Supplementary Fig. 6) provide direct-viewing evidence for the uniform distribution of Ni, Fe, V, and O elements in the as-prepared NSs.

In order to clarify the occupation sites of Fe and V dopants in Ni(OH)2 lattices, we display in Fig. 3 the FT curves of the Fe and V K-edge EXAFS k2χ(k) functions for Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5. As references, their Ni K-edge FT curves are also plotted (Fig. 3a). The FT curves of the Fe K-edge data of Ni3Fe and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 exhibit two prominent coordination peaks at 1.5 and 2.7 Å that are identical to those of their Ni K-edge data (Fig. 3b), suggesting the substitutional doping of Fe in the Ni(OH)2 host. Similarly, the FT curves of Ni3V and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 each display a prominent V–O peak at 1.4 Å and a V–M (M = Fe, Ni, or V) peak at about 2.8 Å (Fig. 3c), and the high-shell peak of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 is weaker than that of Ni3V. The significant decrease in the intensity of the V–M coordination peak in the FT curve of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 is most likely caused by the highly distorted local structure of V substituting for the site of Ni. To confirm the substitution of V for Ni in Ni(OH)2 lattices, the WT analysis of the V K-edge data was performed. A maximum at the cross point of R = 2.8 Å and k = 7.8 Å−1 appears in the EXAFS WT map at the V K-edge for Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (Supplementary Fig. 7), just like that for Ni3V. This implies the presence of V–Fe/Ni scatterings at a distance of around 2.8 Å surrounding V atoms and affords direct evidence for the substitution of V atoms for the Ni sites in Ni(OH)2 lattices. We also made the calculation of the EXAFS spectra by assuming V adsorption on the Ni–Fe LDH layer or occupying the interstitial position. It turns out that in both cases the calculated spectra are quite different from the experimental V K-edge EXAFS spectra of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (Supplementary Fig. 8). Furthermore, DFT calculations suggest that V atoms initially placed on the top site of surface Ni or O atoms are relaxed to the interstitial between two LDH layers after structure optimization. The LDH structure with interstitial doping is noticeably buckled, with formation energy of −3.73 eV per V atom, less stable with regard to LDH with substitutional doping (−5.07 eV per V atom) (Supplementary Figs. 9, 10), supporting that V atoms occupy Ni positions in Ni(OH)2 lattices rather than the interstitial or top positions of LDH layers. On the other side, from Supplementary Fig. 11, the nearest-neighbor FT peak position of V is shifted to the lower-R side and the second coordination peak to higher-R side with apparently reduced intensity as compared to that of Fe. This implies the remarkable different local environment of the substitutional V from that of Fe in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5. The quantitative parameters extracted from EXAFS curve-fitting (Supplementary Figs. 12‒14 and Supplementary Tables 2‒4) further show that the bond length of V–O (1.72 Å) is significantly contracted with regard to those of Fe–O (2.00 Å) and Ni–O (2.03 Å).

Fig. 3

XAS spectra of the as-prepared Ni-based (oxy)hydroxide catalysts. FT curves of a Ni K-edge, b Fe K-edge, and c V K-edge EXAFS k2χ(k) functions

Understanding the electronic interaction in Ni3Fe1−xVx

The electronic states of Fe and V in catalysts were investigated by ex-situ hard X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Generally, in XANES spectra the intensity of the pre-edge peak depends predominantly on central site symmetry, while the absorption edge position is correlated to the oxidation state of central sites42. The absorption edges of Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 in the XANES curves of Ni K-edge (Supplementary Fig. 15a) are all alike to that of the original Ni(OH)2, indicative of nearly identical average oxidation states of Ni in the catalysts. Similarly, the XANES curves of Fe K-edge in Supplementary Fig. 15b show that the adsorption edges of Fe for Ni3Fe, Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, and Fe2O3 reference are almost overlapped, manifesting that the average valence states of Fe are close to +3 in the as-prepared catalysts. Importantly, the V K-edge XANES spectra of Ni3V and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 exhibit intense pre-edge peaks (Supplementary Fig. 15c), indicating the distorted coordination environment around V atoms in these materials42. More interestingly, Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 shows a higher pre-edge peak than that of Ni3V in the V K-edge XANES, implying a higher degree of octahedral geometry distortion at the V sites in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 compared to those in Ni3V. Additionally, the K-edge absorption positions of Ni3V and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 are more close to those of VO2 and V2O5 than to that of V2O3 (inset of Supplementary Fig. 15c), suggesting that the majority of V ions are in the formal valences of +4 and +5 in both catalysts.

The as-prepared Ni3Fe1−xVx films were further studied by XPS and ex-situ soft XAS to gain an insight into the electronic interaction between Fe/V dopants and Ni atoms at the surface of catalysts. For Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 NSs, the Ni 2p spectrum (Fig. 4a) exhibits two fitting peaks at 872.3 and 854.4 eV along with two shakeup satellites at 878.4 and 860.1 eV, which are characteristic spin-orbit peaks of Ni2+ (refs. 13,28,43). In the Fe 2p region (Fig. 4b), Fe 2p1/2 and Fe 2p3/2 peaks arise at 724.8 and 711.5 eV, indicative of Fe in the +3 oxidation state (refs. 16,29). The V 2p3/2 peak (Fig. 4c) can be deconvoluted into three peaks located at 516.2 eV (V5+), 515.1 eV (V4+), and 514.4 eV (V3+) (refs. 26,28,29), demonstrating that the V atoms are predominantly in high oxidation states (+4 and +5) in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, together with a minority of V3+, which is consistent with the results obtained from V K-edge XANES spectra.

Fig. 4

High-resolution XPS and XANES spectra of the as-prepared Ni-based (oxy)hydroxide catalysts. XP spectra of a Ni 2p for Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and pure Ni (oxy)hydroxides, b Fe 2p for Ni3Fe and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, and c V 2p for Ni3V and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (the dashed lines shown in a–c indicate the shifts of BEs  of 3d metal ions caused by the hybridization of Fe or/and V dopants). d–f Ni, Fe, and V L-edge XANES spectra. g Schematic representations of the electronic coupling among Ni, Fe, and V in Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5

It is worthy of note that the Ni 2p BEs for the Fe or/and V doped binary and ternary materials are shifted apparently to higher BEs compared to those of pure Ni (oxy)hydroxide, with the shift extent in an increasing order of Ni3Fe < Ni3V < Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (Fig. 4a, Supplementary Fig. 16a, and Supplementary Table 5). In contrast, the V 2p peaks for Ni3V are shifted to lower BEs relative to the corresponding peaks for VO2 (ref. 44), and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 displays V 2p3/2 peaks at BEs ~0.2 eV lower than those of Ni3V (Fig. 4c and Supplementary Fig. 16c). Of particular interest is that the BEs of Fe 2p1/2 and 2p3/2 for Ni3Fe are lower than those for Fe2O3 (ref. 45), but when half amount of Fe in Ni3Fe is replaced by V, Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 exhibits Fe 2p peaks at BEs not only considerably higher than those of Ni3Fe but also higher than Fe2O3 (Fig. 4b and Supplementary Fig. 16b), implying that the Fe dopant acts as an electron accepting site in Ni3Fe but an electron donating site in an integrated effect when V is co-doped with Fe into Ni(OH)2 lattices. These observations suggest the partial electron transfer from Ni to Fe or V in the bimetal (oxy)hydroxides through oxygen bridges (O2−) between metal ions, and from Ni and Fe to V in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, which is in good agreement with the calculated Mulliken charges for V, Fe, and Ni ions in Ni3Fe1−xVx (Supplementary Table 6).

These speculations are further supported by the Ni, Fe, and V L-edge XANES spectra shown in Fig. 4d‒f. Figure 4d illustrates that doping Fe or V could intensify the Ni L3-edge peak (852.5 eV), indicative of partial electron transfer from Ni to the substitutional Fe or V. The intensity of the Fe L3-edge peak at 709.8 eV for Ni3Fe is also enhanced when V is doped into Ni3Fe (Fig. 4e). On the contrary, the V L3-edge peak (518.3 eV) of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 is considerably weakened and shows a red-shift, as compared with that of Ni3V (Fig. 4f). The comparative analyses of XPS and XANES spectra suggest that co-doping of Fe together with V into Ni(OH)2 lattices results in more electron transfer to the V in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 compared to that in Ni3V (Fig. 4c, f and Supplementary Fig. 16c). The strong interaction among these 3d metal ions results in synergistic modulation of the electronic structure of the metal centers of Fe/V co-doped Ni(OH)2 (refs. 12,22,36,43), and the concerted effect of Ni, Fe, and V metals with different energy levels of d-band centers could make crucial contribution to the evident enhancement of OER activity of hybridized materials. Moreover, we calculated the branching ratio, L3/(L2 + L3), at the Fe L-edges of Ni3Fe and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, which is approximately 0.74, implying the high-spin of Fe3+ (ref. 46). And we also calculated the Fe L2,3-edge XAS for the high-spin and low-spin models of Fe3+ (Supplementary Note 1 and Supplementary Methods). Obviously, the calculated high-spin L2,3-edge XAS could well produce the experimental data (Supplementary Fig. 17), affording more evidence for the high-spin configuration of Fe3+ substituting the Ni sites. Thus, the valence electronic configurations of Ni2+, Fe3+, V4+, and V5+ are 3d8 (t2g6eg2), 3d5 (t2g3eg2), 3d1 (t2g1eg0), and 3d0 (t2g0eg0), respectively, which are adopted in the following analysis of valence electron structures of metal ions in Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and Ni3Fe0.5V0.5.

The synergistically electronic interplay of Ni, Fe, and V cations in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 is well explained in light of the analysis of valence electron structures of metal ions. In term of the result obtained from DFT calculations that the (Ni3Fe0.5V0.5)-OOH models with some aggregated Fe and V atoms have lower formation energy and higher OER activity than the models with isolated Fe and V atoms (vide infra), a Ni–O–Fe–O–V–O–Ni unit (Fig. 4g) is used to analyze the electronic interaction of Ni, Fe, and V cations in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5. For Ni3Fe, the three unpaired electrons in the π-symmetry (t2g) d-orbitals of Fe3+ interplay with the bridging O2− via π-donation, while the dominant interaction between the fully occupied π-symmetry (t2g) d-orbitals of Ni2+ and the bridging O2− is electron–electron repulsion, leading to partial electron transfer from Ni2+ to Fe3+ (refs. 12,40). The partial electron transfer from π-symmetry lone pairs of the bridging O2− to V4+ and V5+ in Ni3V should be stronger than that from the bridging O2− to Fe3+ in Ni3Fe, as V4+ and V5+ have rather low t2g occupancy while Fe3+ has a half t2g occupancy. As for the Fe/V co-doped Ni(OH)2 with some of the V and Fe atoms aggregated in the host lattices, when Fe3+ accepts partial electrons from Ni2+ through the bridging O2− via π-donation as exampled by the NiFe (oxy)hydroxide reference, the electron-riched t2gd-orbitals of Fe3+ could relay electrons to the strongly electron-deficient t2gd-orbitals of V4+ and V5+ through the bridging O2− ions between them, which leads to better delocalization of the π-symmetry electrons among Ni, Fe, and V in the host matrix. This argument is in good agreement with the XPS and soft XANES results. In Ni3Fe1−xVx, the Fe3+ and Ni2+ with half-full eg orbitals would have very weak bonding with adsorbed oxygen species, whereas the V4+ and V5+ with eg0 orbitals would form too strong bonding with adsorbed oxygen species. To get high OER activity, the bonding strength between transition metal and adsorbed oxygen species should be optimized to fulfill the Sabatier principle47. With increase of the electron density on V by partial electron transfer from Fe and Ni to V through the bridging O2− ions, the high valence states of V could be stabilized under OER conditions, and more importantly, the strong bond strength between V and adsorbed oxygen species could be tuned to a moderate bond strength, which would benefit for releasing O2 from the V site in OER.

Evaluating the electrochemical OER performance of Ni3Fe1−xVx

The electrocatalytic OER performance of Ni3Fe1−xVx/CFP were studied in O2-saturated 1 M KOH. The linear sweep voltammograms (LSVs, Fig. 5a) of all as-prepared Ni-based (oxy)hydroxide catalysts show the Ni2+/Ni3+ oxidation in the potential range of 1.33–1.42 V (all potentials are versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE))5,7,43.

Fig. 5

Electrochemical tests for OER and Nyquist plots of the Ni-based (oxy)hydroxide catalysts. a LSV curves of Ni3Fe1−xVx and pure Ni (oxy)hydroxide catalysts on CFP, as well as bare CFP in O2-saturated 1 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. b Tafel plots derived from the polarization curves in a. c Chronopotentiometric curves obtained with Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 at constant current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm−2. d Nyquist plots of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, Ni3Fe, Ni3V, and Ni (oxy)hydroxides and the bare CFP at 300 mV overpotential in 1 M KOH

Figure 5a illustrates that the electrocatalytic activity of Ni3Fe1−xVx depends largely on the co-doping level of Fe and V atoms. Among the as-prepared Fe- or/and V-doped Ni-based binary and ternary catalysts, Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 exhibits the best OER performance, with low overpotentials of 264 and 291 mV to achieve 100 and 500 mA cm−2 current density, respectively (Supplementary Fig. 18). The LSV of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, scanning from positive to negative direction to exclude the influence of the Ni2+/Ni3+ oxidation event on the catalytic current, shows that only 200 mV overpotential is required to attain 10 mA cm−2 current density. The OER performance of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 is on a par with or even surpasses that of the first-class earth-abundant catalysts reported to date (Supplementary Table 7).

Moreover, the turnover frequency (TOF, based on total amount of metals) of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (0.574 s−1) at η = 300 mV in 1 M KOH is significantly larger than those of Ni3Fe (0.018 s−1), Ni3V (0.097 s−1), Ni3Fe0.67V0.33 (0.116 s−1), and Ni3Fe0.33V0.67 (0.195 s−1). Figure 5b manifests that the Tafel slope of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (39 mV dec−1) is considerably smaller than those of Ni3Fe0.67V0.33 (59 mV dec−1), Ni3Fe0.33V0.67 (54 mV dec−1), Ni3Fe (67 mV dec−1), and Ni3V (67 mV dec−1). The apparently larger TOF value and smaller Tafel slope of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 as compared to those of Ni3Fe and Ni3V indicate that the synergetic effect of co-doped Fe and V plays an important role in facilitating the kinetics of OER and enhancing the intrinsic activity.

The stability of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 was assessed by repeated cyclic voltammetry scanning, multi-current step test, and long-term chronopotentiometric experiments. After being subjected to 4000 CV cycles, the OER polarization curve of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 almost overlaps with the initial one (Supplementary Fig. 20a), indicating no noticeable loss in catalytic current, and thus, the good accelerated stability of the electrode. Supplementary Fig. 20b shows the E–t plot of two cycles of multi-current step curves for Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 with current density being enhanced from 50 to 500 mA cm−2 by five steps. In each step, once a certain current density is set, the potential promptly levels off and maintains constant for 500 s; the multi-current step curve is well repeated in the subsequent cycle. This observation signifies fast mass transportation and good electronic conductivity of the 3D Ni3Fe0.5V0.5/CFP matrix13. Additionally, the Ni3Fe0.5V0.5/CFP electrode displays good stability at fixed current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm−2, respectively, over 60 h of electrolysis (Fig. 5c), indicating excellent stability of the electrode under testing conditions. The Faradaic efficiency of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 evaluated from a chronopotentiometric experiment at a constant current density of 10 mA cm−2 for 2 h is close to 100% (Supplementary Fig. 21).

To have a general understanding on the superior activity of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, we estimated the roughness factors (RF) and measured the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of all as-prepared Ni-based electrodes. Based on the estimated RF values (Supplementary Fig. 22 and Supplementary Note 2), the OER polarization curves of Ni3Fe1−xVx were ploted with J normalized by RF values (Supplementary Fig. 23) to estimate the improvement of intrinsic OER activity for the Ni-based (oxy)hydroxides with different Fe and V doping levels3. The specific current density (Js = 61.6 mA cm−2) of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 at 300 mV overpotential is about 3, 16, and 71 times higher than those of Ni3V, Ni3Fe, and pure Ni (oxy)hydroxides, respectively, which reveals that the co-doping of Fe and V into Ni(OH)2 lattices is much more effective than separately doping Fe or V for improving the specific activity of Ni-based catalysts, and the improved specific activity contributed largely to the high OER activity of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5. The Nyquist plots (Fig. 5d) are fitted to a simplified Randles equivalent circuit model (Supplementary Note 3). The very small semicircles in the high frequency zone are attributed to the internal charge-transfer resistances (Rct(int)) of electrodes, and the second semicircles represent the charge-transfer resistances (Rct(s–l)) at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Both Rct(int) and Rct(s–l) values apparently decreased as Fe and V were co-doped into Ni(OH)2 lattices. The total charge-transfer resistances (Rct) measured at 300 mV overpotential are 4.2, 7.2, 10.0, and 17.2 Ω for the CFP-supported Ni3Fe0.5V0.5, Ni3V, Ni3Fe, and pure Ni (oxy)hydroxides, respectively (Supplementary Table 9). The excellent charge-transfer capability of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 makes a crucial contribution to the superior intrinsic OER activity of the electrode48.

In-situ EC-Raman/XAS studies and theoretical calculations

To have an in-depth insight into the origin of high activity of the Fe/V co-doped Ni(OH)2, the changes in electronic structures and local atomic environments of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 under OER conditions were studied by in-situ electrochemical Raman (EC-Raman) spectroscopy and in-situ XAS. The measurements of in-situ EC-Raman spectra were carried out at the potential range of 1.0–1.8 V in a spectroelectrochemical (PEC) cell filled with 1 M KOH electrolyte (Fig. 6a). When the applied potential was higher than 1.4 V, a pair of well-defined Raman peaks at around 470 and 550 cm−1 appeared, which were correlated respectively with the eg bending and the A1g stretching vibration of Ni–O in the NiOOH-type phase49,50. On the basis of EC-Raman spectra, the host phase of NiIII–OOH, formed during the OER process, could provide an electrically conductive, chemically stable, and electrolyte-permeable framework for the Fe and V dopants48,51, which would benefit the electrochemical OER.

Fig. 6

In-situ EC-Raman and hard XAS spectra. a In-situ EC-Raman spectra of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 at the potentials of 1.0–1.8 V in 1 M KOH. b, d, f In-situ Ni, Fe, and V K-edge XANES spectra at the potentials of 1.15–1.75 V. c, e, g FT curves of Ni, Fe, and V K-edge EXAFS k2χ(k) functions obtained from the XANES spectra in b, d, f, respectively. The orange and pink circles represent the fitting values

Furthermore, the alteration in the local coordination environment of Ni–O/Fe–O/V–O units and the average oxidation states of Ni, Fe, and V centers in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 were investigated by in-situ hard XAS (Supplementary Fig. 24). The in-situ Ni K-edge XANES spectra (Fig. 6b) show that the Ni absorption-edge and the white-line are gradually shifted to the higher-energy side as the applied potential is increased from 1.15 to 1.75 V. Accordingly, the Ni–O distance is shortened from 2.04 Å at 1.15 V to 1.90 Å at 1.75 V (Fig. 6c and Supplementary Table 8). The former is close to the Ni–O bond length (2.05 Å) in Ni(OH)2, and the latter is almost identical with the Ni–O bond length (1.88 Å) in NiOOH, which contains a mixture of Ni3+ and Ni4+ sites10. This is in line with the results of in-situ EC-Raman spectroscopy. A similar shift of the Fe white-line peak toward the higher-energy side is also observed with increasing applied potential (Fig. 6d), and the Fe–O distance is shortened slightly from 2.00 Å at 1.15 V to 1.97 Å at 1.75 V (Fig. 6e and Supplementary Table 8), signifying that the oxidation state of Fe is increased from +3 to nearly +4 during the OER electrolysis process of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5. These FT-EXAFS fit results of Ni and Fe K-edges of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 in both rest and activated states are consistent with the previous reports10,14. More interestingly, with increasing the applied potential from 1.15 to 1.75 V, the pre-edge peak is slightly decreased in intensity in the in-situ V K-edge XANES spectrum (inset of Fig. 6f), however, it shows identical spectral features to those measured before OER. Similarly, except for the decrease in the intensity of the characteristic peaks, no other obvious change is visible at the ex-situ V L-edge spectra (Supplementary Fig. 25) after OER measurement at 1.75 V. This evidence suggests partial electron transfer to the V 3d orbitals, as their peak intensity is proportional to the unoccupied density of 3d states. Meanwhile, the V–O1 distance is also shrunk from 1.70 Å at 1.15 V to 1.65 Å at 1.75 V (Fig. 6g and Supplementary Table 8), which is close to that of the shortest V–O bond length reported for V5+ oxides (1.59 Å) while much shorter than that reported for V4+ oxides (1.76 Å)42. The V atoms with such a short V–O bond may have optimal binding capability with oxygen intermediates relative to Ni and Fe atoms, and exhibit enhanced OER activity, as will be illustrated by following theoretical calculations. These in-situ XAS analyses manifest for the first time the contraction of M–M′ and M(M′)–O bond lengths and the short V–O bond distance in the activated V-containing (oxy)hydroxide OER catalysts.

DFT plus Hubbard U (DFT + U) calculations were conducted to have a theoretical understanding on the evident enhancement of OER activity of the Fe/V co-doped Ni(OH)2 from atomic level. It is known that Ni(OH)2 experiences phase transformations during charging and discharging, and its oxyhydroxides are proposed to be the active phase for OER14,52,53. Thus, we consider β-NiOOH co-doped by V and Fe atoms with the experimentally optimized doping concentration of Ni:Fe:V = 6:1:1, as well as the systems doped by only V or Fe atom with Ni:V (Fe) = 3:1 (Fig. 7a and Supplementary Fig. 26). The model surfaces are covered by either water molecules or oxygen species that are possibly present in the reaction media. These models with different covered species give very similar results on the catalytic properties (Fig. 7c and Supplementary Table 6).

Fig. 7

DFT theoretical models. a Side views of the Fe/V co-doped Ni (oxy)hydroxide model for DFT calculations, whose (101) surface is exposed for OER catalysis. b Structures and BEs of an OH*, O*, and OOH* intermediates adsorbed on the V site of the model in a with the lowest OER overpotential of 0.25 V. The surface metal atoms are covered by O species. c Volcano plot of OER overpotential versus BE difference between OH* and O* species for various sites of Ni3Fe1−xVx (oxy)hydroxide models. For each type of reaction site, various structural models are considered, whose detailed information is given in Supplementary Fig. 28 and Supplementary Table 6. The dashed line is a guide for eyes. d Left panel: DOS of the model in a and the projected DOS on s, p, and d orbitals. Right panel: projected DOS on the 3d orbitals of Ni, Fe, and V atoms in the model. The dashed lines represent the d-band center for each element. The Fermi level is shifted to zero. e Calculated free-energy diagram of OER on the most active site of Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 (oxy)hydroxide in pH 14 solutions at different potentials (T = 298 K). The two-way arrow indicates the overpotential of the rate-limiting step

In the optimized models, the bond lengths between metals and oxygen intermediates are 1.60–1.84, 1.63–1.95, and 1.77–2.05 Å for V, Fe, and Ni, respectively, which are in good agreement with the trend of experimental XAS results. The distinct bond length between O atom and V, Fe, or Ni element is a reflection of their different bond order and bond strength, which is fundamentally governed by the electronic band structure of the material. As revealed by the density of states (DOS) in Fig. 7d, the V, Fe, and Ni atoms in the co-doped Ni(OH)2 have the d-band center of 0.09, −2.55, and −2.78 eV, respectively. On the basis of the d-band theory54, the V atoms with higher d-band center possess less occupancy of the antibonding states with adsorbed oxygen intermediates, and thus exhibit optimal binding with regard to Ni and Fe atoms (Fig. 7c).

Mulliken charge analysis55 shows partial charges of ~1.6, 1.0, and 0.8e on the V, Fe, and Ni sites, respectively, signifying the stronger metallicity of V atoms and higher chemical activity. Although DFT calculations cannot identify the exact valence for each metal in multi-metal materials, the trend of the partial charges on the V, Fe, and Ni sites obtained from Mulliken charge analysis is consistent with that of the valences of V4+/5+, Fe3+, and Ni2+ estimated on the basis of XANES and XPS. Moreover, the Ni (oxy)hydroxide systems without V doping are half-metal (Supplementary Fig. 27), while the V doping induces finite DOS for the spin-down states near the Fermi level (Fig. 7d), which may help improve the electrical conductivity of the material.

In the previously reported mechanism for 3d metal-based (oxy)hydroxide catalysts in alkaline media, the OER undergoes through following four elementary steps56,57:

$$^\ast + {\mathrm{OH}}^ - \to {\mathrm{OH}} ^\ast {\mathrm{ + }}e^ -$$

(1)

$${\mathrm{OH}} ^\ast {\mathrm{ + OH}}^ - \to {\mathrm{O}} ^\ast + {\mathrm{H}}_2{\mathrm{O}}\left({\mathrm{l}} \right) + e^ -$$

(2)

$${\mathrm{O}} ^\ast + {\mathrm{OH}}^ - \to {\mathrm{OOH}} ^\ast + e^ -$$

(3)

$${\mathrm{OOH}} ^\ast + {\mathrm{OH}}^ - \to ^\ast + {\mathrm{O}}_2\left( {\mathrm{g}} \right) + {\mathrm{H}}_2{\mathrm{O}}\left({\mathrm{l}} \right) + e^ -$$

(4)

where * represents an active site on the catalyst surface; OH*, O*, and OOH* are the oxygen intermediates. To evaluate the OER activity of the Fe and/or V doped or pure Ni (oxy)hydroxide systems, we computed the BEs of oxygen intermediates on various metal sites. The Gibbs free energy for each reaction step and theoretical OER overpotentials were calculated with the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) method58.

As displayed by Fig. 7c, the OER overpotentials of doped Ni (oxy)hydroxides follow a volcano-shape relation with the BE difference between OH* and O* (or OOH*) species59. In particular, oxygen binding on the Fe and Ni sites is relatively weak, i.e. EOH* > 1.15 eV and EO*–EOH* > 2.24 eV. As a consequence, formation of OH* and O* species encounters large potential barriers (Supplementary Fig. 29a, b) and will limit the reaction rate of OER process. Large overpotentials of 0.72–0.79 and 0.84–1.08 V are obtained for the Fe and Ni sites, respectively, indicating their low activity for OER. By contrast, the V sites provide much stronger but moderate oxygen binding strength (EOH* = 0.47–0.79 eV and EO*–EOH* = 1.61–2.23 eV) and give near-optimal BEs of OER intermediates. Reactions to the formation of OH* and O* species are readily accessible, while formation of OOH* experiences the largest potential barrier and limits the OER rate, giving overpotentials of 0.25–0.63 V, which are much lower than those for Ni and Fe sites. Therefore, the highest activity is predicted on the V site of the co-doped Ni (oxy)hydroxide with some of the V and Fe atoms aggregated (Fig. 7b). Such V sites provide strong OOH* binding relative to O* species, and the overpotential is even lower than that of the benchmark catalyst RuO2, i.e., 0.40 V for the (110) surface according to our calculations. The origin of overpotentials is clearly revealed by the free-energy diagrams as shown in Fig. 7e and Supplementary Fig. 29. The largest potential step at the equilibrium potential (U = 0.402 V) indicates the rate-limiting step (RLS) and corresponding overpotential, by overcoming which all the OER steps become downhill and thus can occur spontaneously from the thermodynamic point of view (Supplementary Note 4). In general, the theoretical OER overpotentials follow the same trend as the experimental values: Fe/V co-doped < V-doped < Fe-doped < undoped Ni (oxy)hydroxide (Supplementary Fig. 28 and Supplementary Table 6). DFT calculations show that the OER activity of V sites doped in Ni3Fe0.5V0.5 was greatly enhanced by the surrounding Ni/Fe next-nearest neighbors, and more importantly, the (Ni3Fe0.5V0.5)-OOH models with some of Fe and V atoms aggregated in NiOOH lattices have lower formation energy and higher OER activity than the models with isolated Fe and V atoms. This inference is agree with the statement made by Bell and Calle-Vallejo et al. that for Fe-doped Ni (oxy)hydroxides the surrounding Ni neighbors increase the activity of Fe sites10,60,61.

Latest Nortel Software Release Offers SMBs New Levels of Simplicity and Unified Communications | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

TORONTO, ONTARIO -- (Marketwire) -- 11/03/09 -- Small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) can obtain productivity, cost-savings and the investment protection critical to success in today's business environment with new unified communications-based (UC) software from Nortel(1) (OTCBB: NRTLQ). The latest software release 5.0 for Nortel's award-winning Business Communications Manager (BCM) adds new UC capabilities, including unified presence, and greater simplicity with the introduction of a common software stream for BCM50 and BCM450.

The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-based IP/TDM PBXs delivering application-rich, all-in-one solutions for converged voice and data communications. The BCM50 serves businesses with up to 50 users while the larger capacity BCM450 is suitable for growing medium to large businesses and branch offices with up to 300 users. Each supports a mix of IP and digital clients and can enable firms to save up to 70 percent of their original investment by reusing existing equipment.

As part of the new BCM Rls 5.0 software, BCM450 and BCM50 provide SMBs with dynamic UC features like InTouch, which delivers true federated presence, and popular integrated communications applications and capabilities. InTouch lets users communicate easily with anyone in their personal directory - across Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click-to-call, click-to-IM, and click-to-email. By connecting people faster, improving collaboration and speeding up the time to decision, Nortel estimates that unified communications can help businesses realize cost-savings and an increase in productivity of up to 18 percent.

Last year, the Nashville Convention and Visitors Bureau(2) (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 solution to book more than 650,000 hotel rooms while marketing tourism on behalf of various partners. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application in the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of Information Technology, is looking forward to seeing real-time presence for everyone on the network and having a view into missed calls even when a caller does not leave a voicemail. For now, NCVB is enjoying the first BCM Rls 5.0 feature it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which enables simultaneous ringing of up to five additional external devices. "Every call is potential business," said Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe capability, our sales team never has to miss another revenue-generating call again."

Minitel(2), a premier Nortel partner providing service across Canada, also chose to trial BCM Rls 5.0 in its own office production system. Its Toronto vice president of Operations, Dan Silverman, was so pleased with the progress of the in-house trial he convinced a large accounting firm client to deploy it as well. "The installation was as smooth as could be and the client is now rolling out both InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to multiple users in their organization with ease. We were able to get our client up to speed on the interface and rolling the application out by themselves in less than an hour," said Silverman.

Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana(2) (ULA) similarly tested the latest BCM software with positive results. "We are in the business of educating today's youth and preparing them for the future and the challenges ahead," said Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of Systems, ULA. "To do so, we count on having the latest in communications technology that helps us offer a rich UC experience for staff and students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, we found that the product's new feature set enhances our UC experience, while maximizing equipment already in place."

BCM50 customer, Philkeram-Johnson(2), the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, also welcomed the new software release. "Our Nortel BCM50 gives us room to grow, in terms of capacity and functionality, and it delivers the features we need to evolve to a unified communications environment," said Christos Syropoulos, commercial manager, Philkeram-Johnson. "We are constantly seeking ways to enhance our products and our productivity so we can respond more quickly to customers. I'm eager to find out more about the new features available in BCM Rls 5.0 and how we can use them to enhance our communications."

In addition to the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a user forward a voice message using a file so that it can be played or read by any mobile device in the world. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now provides up to 125 ports with support for as many as 300 users. Professional Call Recording, a capability typically supplied by a third party is also available as part of the latest BCM release.

As a further means of streamlining costs and operations making it even more simple for SMBs and Nortel channel partners to install, provision, and migrate pre-existing data, the new BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio includes common software and applications, O/S, training, accreditation, user interfaces, and documentation.

Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 in the world in number of hybrid-IP lines shipped and #2 in SMB market revenue for the second quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM solutions are localized and sold in over 120 countries through more than 1000 channels.

Hear from more BCM users and partners:

- "FindMe/FollowMe and Message Forwarding allow Charter Telecom's(2) sales and technical staff to be more accessible to our customers, whether in the office or on the road. With the ability for individual users to customize these features to their liking through a Web-based GUI tool Mailbox Manager. Our system administrator no longer has to make daily changes. FMFM and the ability to seamlessly transfer calls between our desk phones and cellular phones has also allowed us to lower our costs, provide our staff with more flexibility, and increase our availability to customers." - David Harper, voice systems engineer, Charter Telecom - Canada

- "Our office communications have been based exclusively on Nortel's BCM systems for years. We recently upgraded to the latest BCM technology, retaining most of our initial investment in hardware and all of the investment in software licenses. The new UC functionality increases our productivity and saves time. It also allows us to connect to other systems like Communications Server 1000 and Microsoft OCS. With InTouch we are able to manage our online contacts at MSN and Skype from a single application interface in MS Outlook, along with our office colleagues, customers, and partners." - Nikos Koulioumbis, SMB solutions director, UniNortel SA(2) - Greece

- "Innovative new features such as InTouch with federated presence, FindMe/FollowMe, Professional Call Recording and enhanced CTI applications are all great productivity enhancers that will save businesses time and money and this really resonated with the customers we talked to at a recent seminar held in Nortel's Maidenhead office. We had enthusiastic feedback from attendees including a London-based voice and data solutions provider who said he most enjoyed the portion of the seminar that focused on BCM Rls 5.0." - Thomas Jacques, managing director, 1st Communications(2) - UK

- "The BCM product has always been one that we've been proud to offer to our customers due to its converged voice and data solution for small and medium businesses. As a longtime channel partner of Nortel's in Mexico, we look forward to being able to offer those same features, in addition to newly enhanced ones with the new software release of BCM Rls 5.0 with new features such as FindMeFollowMe, Professional Call Recording, and enhanced CTI applications which will increase our customer's productivity." - Jorge Alberto Jimenez Hernandez, director of engineering, Innovaciones Telematicas, S.A. de C.V.(2) (INTELEMATICA) - Mexico

Nortel delivers communications capabilities that make the promise of Business Made Simple a reality for our customers. Our next-generation technologies, for both service provider and enterprise networks, support multimedia and business-critical applications. Nortel's technologies are designed to help eliminate today's barriers to efficiency, speed and performance by simplifying networks and connecting people to the information they need, when they need it. For more information, visit Nortel on the Web at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, visit www.nortel.com/news.

Certain statements in this press release may contain words such as "could", "expects", "may", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "targets", "envisions", "seeks" and other similar language and are considered forward-looking statements or information under applicable securities legislation. These statements are based on Nortel's current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the operating environment, economies and markets in which Nortel operates. These statements are subject to important assumptions, risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict and the actual outcome may be materially different from those contemplated in forward-looking statements. For additional information with respect to certain of these and other factors, see Nortel's Annual Report on Form10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. Unless otherwise required by applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

(1)Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are trademarks of Nortel Networks.

(2)This is a 3rd party link as described in our Web linking practices.

Use of the terms "partner" and "partnership" does not imply a legal partnership between Nortel and any other party.

About using Nix in my development workflow | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Two years ago, whenever I needed to use some language or tool which wasn’t available on my machine, I would have used the system’s package manager to install it. It worked on my computer, but when I needed to reproduce the setup elsewhere it was another story. I was still a student then.

I remember a group project in which we were using Node.js. I had a recent version installed on my Mac via Homebrew, while at the university and on other student’s computer based on Ubuntu Linux, it was installed from the default repos. Then, my code using default parameters in functions would run on my machine but not on other’s, since their Node.js version was greatly outdated.

Using this approach can quickly become a nightmare, especially when you try to write a documentation on how to set up the development environment. You end up writing things like: “If you are on macOS please do this, on Debian do that, and Fedora run this other command.” You can verify it works now, but there is no guarantee it will still work in a few months.

asdf

At the end of my studies, while starting my internship, I started to do a lot more software development at home. Mainly because I didn’t have to worry anymore about not doing my homework. This is back then I discovered Elixir and started to build up my workflow, seeking for quality, reproducibility and joy of use. With my Node.js story in mind, I discovered language version managers. I went for asdf as it would handle for me quite a bunch of languages, including Erlang, Elixir, Node.js and Ruby.

If you are not familiar with it, asdf can install exactly the version you want for each language it handles through a plugin system. You can even have multiple versions installed on the same machine and set the wanted one for every project using a .tool-versions file which looks like this:

erlang 21.0elixir 1.7.3-otp-21

It is simple to use, and you can set up easily your build environment on different machines, running asdf install in a project directory.

Yet, if the setup process is simplified, there are still issues:

• after installing asdf, you need to install all the needed plugins. It is only a matter of asdf plugin-install <plugin-name> commands, but it is not automated;
• some languages require dependencies to build. Erlang, for instance, needs some packages to be installed before asdf install erlang <version> works. You need a compiler, ncurses, OpenSSL and quite a few more. Setup instructions depends on the system you use;
• If your project depends on other tools like, say, fwup for Nerves projects, you still have to provide manual setup instructions.
• This is where Nix enters the game.

Nix

Nix defines itself as The Purely Functional Package Manager. Having learned the advantages of Functional Programming while using Elixir and looking at Haskell and other FP languages over the past year, its concept was very tempting to me.

Being purely functional means given an input, you always get the same output. That is, given a version of nixpkgs and a set of packages, you always get the same environment. In fact, packages are named derivations in the Nix jargon: they are functions that takes other derivations — their dependencies — as input and produce a derived result. They are built in isolation, so all dependencies must be explicitely stated. This ensures reproducibility.

Nix stores all the built derivations in the Nix store, usually located at /nix/store. A same package can be present multiple times in the Nix store, at different versions or even at the same version but using different versions of its dependencies. Remember: a built derivation is the product of all its dependencies; if you change something, it is a different product.

To achieve a unique naming for each derivation, a hash is computed from the set of its dependencies. You then get a path like:

/nix/store/k13mm9jqxm2ndlwzsj7zicsq7lpmmjlg-elixir-1.7.3

Unlike other package managers, Nix does not use the conventional /{,usr,usr/local}/{bin,sbin,lib,share,etc} directories. Instead, it uses a lot of symbolic links to create profiles. A profile is a kind of derivation used to setup a user environment. In a profile, you get a standard Unix tree with symbolic links to executables and configuration files stored in other derivation outputs. For instance,~/.nix-profile/bin/elixir is a symbolic link to:

/nix/store/k13mm9jqxm2ndlwzsj7zicsq7lpmmjlg-elixir-1.7.3/bin/elixir

Actually, ~/.nix-profile is itself a link:

~/.nix-profile -> /nix/var/nix/profiles/per-user/***/profile

Which itself points to profile-56-link wich finally points to somewhere in the Nix store:

That is, as I have said above, a profile is a derivation. It derives from a set of packages, that themselves derive from other packages. Depends on becomes in Nix derives from. This is conceptual but you get the idea.

Updating a symbolic link has the interesting property of being an atomic operation. This enables atomic transactions: when performing an upgrade, a new user-environment derivation is built, with a different hash. Then, a new generation is created for the profile — understand: a new symbolic link profile-57-link pointing to the new derivation. Then, and only then, the profile link is updated to point to profile-57-link. You’ve just performed an atomic upgrade. If things went south, you’ve also got atomic rollbacks for free: just update again the profile link to point to profile-56-link and you are back in the past.

Moreover, only what you asked for is made available in the environment. For instance, Elixir depends on Erlang. Erlang is then installed somewhere in the Nix store and the Elixir installation is aware of it so it can work correctly. But unless you explicitely asked to also install Erlang, only Elixir binaries will be linked in your user environment.

Nix as a declarative configuration manager

Package managers usually work in an imperative way. That is, you ask them to install this, to perform an upgrade or to uninstall that. One really neat feature of Nix is Nix, the language. It is a purely functional domain-specific language that comes with Nix.

The primary use of Nix, the language, is to write derivations. Yet, different applications of Nix also leverage the language to manage packages and configuration declaratively. In NixOS — a special GNU/Linux distribution based on Nix — , all the system configuration and globally installed packages are declared in /etc/nixos/configuration.nix. It can look like:

{ config, pkgs, ... }: {network.hostname = "nixos-test";time.timeZone = "Europe/Paris"; # Omitting a lot of options, this is just a sample. environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [curlgitgnupghtop...];}

To change the state of the system, you just have to edit the file, then ask NixOS to switch to the new environment:

# nixos-rebuild switch

It derives a new system environment, switches to it and reloads services as needed. With this kind of configuration, you can easily reproduce your system setup on different machines.

Another example is home-manager. It aims to provide the same kind of declarative configuration as NixOS but at the user level. I personally use it to manage my dotfiles and my set of user-wide-available utilities accross different machines.

Apart system and user environments, Nix can be used to setup a third kind of environment. Let’s talk about it.

Nix as a reproducible environment builder

It is neither practical nor wantable to update your system or user environment each time you need a particular dependency for a given project. First, the given dependency can be required only by a specific project: you do not need to have it available (system|user)-wide. Second, you want your environment to be shareable with other developers. Asking them to update their global environment with this or that requirement is not the best thing to do. This is where Nix shells enter.

A Nix shell is a temporary environment where build inputs of a derivation are made available to the user. Let’s say it more simply with an example: you can create a shell.nix file at the root of your project containing something like:

{ pkgs ? import <nixpkgs> {} }: with pkgs; mkShell {buildInputs = [ ocaml git ];}

Then, run the nix-shell command. You are in a Nix shell, with OCaml and Git made available to you. The shell.nix can be committed, thus shared between developers.

Using Nix

To start working on a project using Nix, the first step is to install Nix itself. From the official documentation, all you have to do is running:

$curl https://nixos.org/nix/install | sh There are in fact two kinds of installation for Nix: • the single-user installation, where /nix/store is owned by the user installing Nix. This is the simplest way to install Nix if you are the only user on your machine and don’t want to use Nix extensively outside of setting your development environment. It is also the easiest to uninstall as you just have to delete the /nix directory; • the multi-user installation, where /nix/store is owned by root and a nixbld group has write access to it. All Nix operations are then performed by nix-daemon. Different users can use Nix simultaneously and you gain a system environment like on NixOS. In the multi-user installation, builds are performed by special builder users in complete isolation. It is a little bit more complex to manage, but this is the recommended way to install Nix if you plan to use it a lot, even if you are the only user on your machine. It is supported on macOS and all Linux running systemd with SELinux disabled. • As far as I know, the default installer currently choses automatically the type of installation. It could change in the near future to prompting the user for a choice. In the meantime, you can force how to install Nix by doing, for a single-user installation:$ sh <(curl https://nixos.org/nix/install) --no-daemon

For a multi-user installation it is:

$sh <(curl https://nixos.org/nix/install) --daemon Nix being installed on you machine, you can create a shell.nix in your project: # This defines a function taking pkgs as parameter, and uses# nixpkgs by default if no argument is passed to it.{ pkgs ? import <nixpkgs> {} }: # This avoids typing pkgs. before each package name.with pkgs; # Defines a shell.mkShell {# Sets the build inputs, i.e. what will be available in our# local environment.buildInputs = [ elixir git ];} Then, all you have to do is running:$ nix-shell

Nix will copy or build derivations, then run a shell in which Elixir and Git are available. By default, the Nix shell is a bash. If you are like me and want to keep your good old zsh for your day-to-day environment, there is an interesting plugin for that.

In a standard Nix shell, your system-wide environment is still available. While it is quite useful for day-to-day work, you can easily miss a dependency when first building your environment. If you want to be sure not to miss any dependency and ensure reproducibility, you should run a pure Nix shell, that is a Nix shell where only the inputs explicitely stated in the shell.nix are available:

\$ nix-shell --pure

You loose all your environment, all your aliases, all your usually available programs. You are in a standardised bash that will be the same on every machine where you run a pure shell. It is not a comfortable place to work, but it is really comfortable when your application builds in such a shell. It means any other developer or the future you will be able to setup the same environment and build the application as expected. But for your comfort, you can use a standard Nix shell most of the time.

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