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920-325 - Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance - Dump Information

Vendor : Nortel
Exam Code : 920-325
Exam Name : Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance
Questions and Answers : 52 Q & A
Updated On : April 22, 2019
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920-325 Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance

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920-325 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance

Test Code : 920-325
Test Name : Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance
Vendor Name : Nortel
Q&A : 52 Real Questions

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Nortel Communication Server (CS) Rls.

Microsoft and Nortel Make Unified Communications available to companies all over | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

LAS VEGAS — June 16, 2008 — today at NXTcomm08, Microsoft Corp. and Nortel announced a completely hosted service solution that promises a unified communications journey to small and midsize companies (SMBs), extending merits prior to now attainable only to massive companies. The hosted answer is in keeping with the Nortel Communications Server 2000 (CS 2000), an online Protocol multimedia softswitch, and the Microsoft answer for Hosted Messaging and Collaboration version 4.5 (HMC 4.5), which contains hosted models of Microsoft office Communications Server 2007 and Microsoft alternate Server 2007. Nortel is offering the primary integration with HMC 4.5 to support manage real-time communications and carry a unified messaging event. furthermore, to support carriers simplify and speed up deployment, Nortel’s international features portfolio provides a finished suite of integration and end-consumer capabilities to finished the conclusion-to-end solution.

by means of combining the carrier-grade CS 2000 with HMC four.5, provider providers can present SMBs new, effective unified communications that mix true-time communications, reminiscent of voice, with Microsoft’s collaboration features, comparable to click-to-name, click-to-conference, missed name e mail messages, mobility and telephony presence. These elements all work seamlessly with the Microsoft workplace portfolio and the Microsoft office Communicator client to bring a different adventure to the end consumer. This new solution additionally permits SMBs to benefit from unified communications without having to purchase, deploy, manipulate and keep extra community infrastructure and complicated in-condo methods, enabling them to shop operational prices and raise productiveness.

“Unified communications is a strategic buy that, up unless today, has been leveraged primarily by way of the large business,” stated Ruchi Prasad, vp and ordinary supervisor of the creative Communications Alliance at Nortel. “This improved joint Microsoft and Nortel solution makes unified communications accessible to groups of all sizes. For carrier suppliers, this answer offers new income opportunities and the means to extend their addressable market and convey better-price utility and repair bundles to their consumers.”

“we're currently seeing robust interest in the hosted unified communications solution amongst our provider company consumers,” stated Steve Zimba, managing director, global Telecom enterprise, Microsoft. “The wholly hosted unified communications answer offers opportunities for elevated salary and helps service providers carry the linked work trend to SMBs, presenting the potential to speak pretty much every time, anywhere and on any gadget.”

At NXTcomm08, Microsoft and Nortel will exhibit the hosted unified communications answer and demonstrate its cost in bettering company agility. NXTcomm08 attendees can reap more information through travelling the Microsoft booths SL5916 and SL5923 and the Nortel booth SL3516. more information can be found at

About Nortel

Nortel is a recognized chief in supplying communications capabilities that make the promise of company Made elementary a fact for our shoppers. Our next-technology applied sciences, for both carrier provider and enterprise networks, assist multimedia and enterprise-critical applications. Nortel’s applied sciences are designed to aid dispose of these days’s obstacles to effectivity, velocity and performance by using simplifying networks and connecting people to the advice they need, when they want it. Nortel does business in additional than 150 countries world wide. For greater tips, consult with Nortel on the net at For the newest Nortel information, seek advice from

About Microsoft

centered in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq “MSFT”) is the global leader in utility, capabilities and options that aid americans and businesses recognise their full abilities.

be aware to editors: if you have an interest in viewing additional information on Microsoft, please visit the Microsoft net page at on Microsoft’s company advice pages. web links, telephone numbers and titles had been appropriate at time of e-book, however may also due to the fact have modified. For additional information, journalists and analysts may contact Microsoft’s speedy Response crew or other applicable contacts listed at

LG-Nortel Unveils Line of laptop IP telephones | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

the brand new requisites-compliant IP telephone 8800 collection by LG-Nortel, a three way partnership of LG Electronics (LGERF.PK) and Nortel (NT), gives you IP telephony functionality for agencies, SMBs and service-hosted VoIP capabilities.

Incorporation of a wide-band codec allows the LG-Nortel IP cell 8800 sequence to bring the premier voice nice continuously, the company stated.

The LG-Nortel IP cell 8800 collection supports common protocols including Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Media Gateway manage Protocol (MGCP), which ensures compatibility with more than a few VoIP name servers, including Nortel conversation Server (CS) 2000 and Adaptive software Engine platform, dashing deployment throughout an commercial enterprise despite the fact that distinctive name servers are put in.

fashions within the LG-Nortel IP telephone 8800 sequence range from entry-degree instruments designed for ease of use via personnel, to extra sophisticated fashions that present elements akin to multiline guide, a mobilephone directory reveal and Bluetooth wireless headset help.

In linked information, LG-Nortel announced that the IP cell 8800 series has been selected via Cypress Communications, a provider of managed telephony and hosted unified communications solutions.

Nortel Launches New VoIP Softswitch | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Communications expertise issuer, Nortel, has introduced the Nortel conversation Server 1500 (CS 1500), a 2d era VoIP softswitch so that you can permit small and medium-sized wireline carrier providers to meet transforming into subscriber demand for native and long-distance voice and next technology services.

The CS 1500 core manage, gateways and operations, administration and upkeep interfaces are all housed in a single chassis answer. provider providers can installation the swap for end-office (classification 5) and entry Tandem (category four) purposes to exchange an current swap or as an addition to the network.

The entertaining issue about the VoIP softswitch is that it enables service suppliers to leverage their latest investment and infrastructure by means of offering compatibility with legacy networks. The change presents full latitude of legacy network interfaces and regulatory requirements, together with E-911 and CALEA.

Making the announcement, Alan Stoddard, GM, service Multimedia Networks, Nortel said, “Nortel is leveraging its VoIP management to assist carrier providers seamlessly evolve their networks to a brand new low-cost packet infrastructure able to delivering the advanced communications services, subscribers are traumatic.”

The product is complemented by a set of Nortel international functions for CS 1500 to assist the whole community lifecycle, together with engineering and setting up, safety evaluation, integration and acceptance, assisted on-site or far flung network operations, and on-going maintenance.

based on Bettina Tratz-Ryan, research Director, Gartner, “VoIP is an expected and nearly required progression of all conversation networks, and the center of attention is on now not best a way to make it healthy inside an evolving community and repair environment, however also a way to make it profitable. To this end, service suppliers are turning to softswitch architecture to migrate their networks to IP and carry scalable, multimedia services to end clients that generate new revenues from day one.”

The CS 1500 is scheduled for container trials beginning fourth quarter 2006 and everyday availability in chosen world markets all the way through the primary quarter of 2007.

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Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Software Installation and Maintenance

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Aerospace Acronym and Abbreviation Guide | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

14 CFR Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations

1090 ES 1090 MHz extended squitter

3D, 4D three- or four-dimensional

3G third generation

3GCN third-generation cabin network

4DT 4-Dimensional Trajectories

4096 Code combinations of four-digit tran­sponder code


A ampere(s)

A autotuned navaid

A-BPSK aviation binary phase shift keying

A-QPSK aeronautical quadrature phase shift keying

A-SMGCS advanced surface movement guidance and control systems

A/B autobrake

A/C aircraft

A/D analog-to-digital

A/FD Airport/Facility Directory

A/G air/ground; air to ground

A/L airline

A/L autoland

A/N alphanumeric

A/P autopilot

A/T autothrottle

A/V aircraft/vehicle

A&P airframe and power plant

AAC aeronautical administration communications

AAC airline administrative communi­cations

AAIB Air Accident Investigation Branch (U.K. equivalent of NTSB)

AAF airway facilities service

AAI Airline Avionics Institute

AAIPT Aging Aircraft Enterprise Team (Naval Air Systems Command)

AAIU air accident investigation unit

AAL above aerodome level

AALC autonomous approach landing capability

AAMP advanced architecture micro­processor

AAR Automated Aerial Refueling

AATD Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (U.S. Army)

AATT advanced air transportation technology

AAS advanced automation system (FAA)

ABC automatic brightness control

ABCS Army Battle Command System

ABSAA Airborne Sense and Avoid

AC advisory circular

AC alternating current

AC2 Dolby surround

ACAA Air Carrier Association of America

ACAC air-cooled air cooler

ACAMS aircraft condition analysis man­agement system

ACARS aircraft communications addressing and reporting system

ACAS airborne collision avoidance system

ACC active clearance control

ACC airspace control center

ACC area control center

ACD automatic conflict detection

ACDO Air Carrier District Office

ACE actuator control electronics

ACE advanced certification equipment

ACG Assessment Compliance Group

ACI-NA Airport Council International - North America

ACIPS airfoil cowl ice protection system

ACF area control facility

ACK acknowledgment

ACM adjacent center metering

ACMF airplane condition monitoring function

ACMP alternating current motor pump

ACMS aircraft condition monitoring system

ACNSS advanced communication/navi­gation/ surveillance system

ACO Aircraft Certification Office (FAA)

ACP audio control panel

ACS active control system

ACS aerial common sensor

ACS audio control system

ACT active

ACTC airport traffic control towers

ACTD advanced concept technology demonstration

ACU aircraft communications system

ACU antenna control unit

ACU apron control unit

ACU autopilot control unit

AD airworthiness directive (FAA)

ADA Air Defense Artillery

ADAHRS air data attitude heading reference system

ADAS automated weather observing system data acquisition system

ADB airport database

ADC air data computer

ADC Air Defense Command

ADC analog to digital converter

ADE application development engineer

ADF automatic direction finding

ADG air-driven generator

ADI attitude director indicator

ADIRS air data inertial reference system

ADIRU air data inertial reference unit

ADIZ Air Defense Identification Zone

ADL aeronautical data link

ADLP airborne data link protocol

ADLP aircraft data link processor (Mode S)

ADM air data module

ADMS airline data management system

ADN aircraft data network

ADO airline dispatch office

ADO airport district office

ADP air driven pump

ADR accumulated Doppler range

ADR accumulated Delta range

ADR address

ADR Advanced Data Research

ADR alternative dispute resolution

ADRAS airplane data recovery and analysis system

ADS air data system

ADS automatic dependent surveillance

ADS-A ADS-addressed

ADS-A ADS-automation

ADS-B ADS-broadcast

ADS-C ADS-contract

ADS-R ADS-rebroadcast

ADSEL address selective

ADSP automatic dependent surveillance panel

ADSSG ADS Study Group (ICAO)

ADSU automatic dependent surveillance unit

ADT air data tester

AEA Aircraft Electronics Association

AEB Aerial Exploitation Battalion

AECU audio electronic control unit

AED automated engineering design

AEDT Aviation Environmental Design Tool

AEE Office of Environment & Energy (FAA)

AEEC formerly Airlines Electronic Engi­neering Committee (ARINC)

AEO all engines operative

AEP ARINC engineering practices

AEP audio entertainment player

AERA automated en route air traffic control

AES aircraft earth station (Inmarsat)

AESA active electronically scanned array

AESS aircraft environment surveillance system

AEW airborne early warning

AEW&C Airborne Early Warning and Control

AF airway facilities

AFB Air Force base

AFC Aeronautical Frequency Committee (AEEC)

AFC automatic frequency compensa­tion

AFC automatic frequency control

AFCAS automatic flight control aug­mentation system

AFCS automatic flight control system

AFD adaptive flight display

AFD autopilot flight director

AFDC autopilot flight director computer

AFDS autopilot flight director system

AFDX avionics full-duplex switched Ethernet

AFEPS ACARS front-end processing system

AFGCS automatic flight guidance and control system

AFI authority format identifier

AFIRS autonomous flight information reporting system

AFIS airborne flight information system

AFIS automated flight inspection system

AFM aircraft flight manual

AFMS airplane flight manual supplement

AFMS automatic flight management system

AFN air traffic services facilities notification

AFP Airspace Flow Program

AFRL Air Force Research Lab

AFS additional secondary factors

AFS aeronautical fixed service (ICAO)

AFS automatic flight system

AFSK audio frequency shift keying

AFSS automated flight service stations

AFTN aeronautical fixed telecommuni­cations network

AFTRCC Aerospace and Flight Test Radio Coordinating Council

AFU artificial feel unit

AGACS automatic A/G communication system

AGAE A/G applications engineering

AGATE Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (NASA)

AGC automatic gain control

AGCOS A/G communication services

AGCS air-ground communication systems

AGCU auxiliary generator control unit

AGD ADS-B guidance display

AGDL A/G data link

AGIS A/G intermediate system

AGL above ground level

AGR A/G router

AGRM air/ground router-regional manager

AGS A/G system

AGSS ACARS ground system standard (AEEC)

AGTS A/G test station

AGVS A/G voice sub-network

AGW ARTS gateway

AHC attitude heading computer

AHMS aircraft health monitoring system

AHRS attitude heading reference system

AI alternative interrogator

AI application interface

AI area incursion

AIA Aerospace Industries Association

AIAA American Institute of Aeronau­tics and Astronautics

AIC aeronautical information circular

AIDC air traffic services interfacility data communications

AIDS aircraft/airborne integrated data system

AIED aeronautical industry engineer­ing and development

AIEM Airlines International Electronic Meeting (AMC)

AIFSS automated international flight service stations

AIL aileron

AIM aeronautical information management

AIM airman’s information manual

AIMS airplane information manage­ment system (Boeing 777)

AIMS airport information management system

AINSC aeronautical industry service communication

AIO analog input/output

AIP aeronautical information publication

AIP Airport Improvement Program

AIP analog input

AIR Aircraft Certification Service (FAA)

AIRAC aeronautical information regula­tion and control

AIRCOM digital air/ground communica­tions service (SITA)

AIRE Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (FAA)

AIRMET airman’s meteorological information

AIRO analog input/reference output

AIS aeronautical information service

AIS Automated Identification System (U.S. Army)

AIS automatic information services (Eurocontrol)

AISG Applications Interface Sub-Group (IATA)

AIT Advanced Individual Training (U.S. Army)

AIV accumulator isolation valve

AJPS AFEPS journal processing system

AK authentication key

AKO Army Knowledge Online

AL alarm limit

ALC airline link control

ALC asynchronous link control

ALC automatic level control

ALMDS airborne laser mine detection system

ALPA Air Line Pilots Association

ALPS automatic line protection service

ALS application layer structure

ALSF-2 Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Light-Model 2

ALT-HOLD altitude hold mode

ALT airborne link terminal

ALT altitude/alternate

AltBOC alternate binary offset carrier

ALTM altimeter

ALTN alternate

ALTRV altitude reservation

ALTS altitude select

ALU arithmetic and logic unit

AM access module

AM amplitude modulation

AMASS airport movement area safety system

AMC acceptable means of compliance (EASA)

AMC advanced mezzanine card

AMC Air Mobility Command

AMC auxiliary maintenance computer

AMC Avionics Maintenance Conference

AMCP aeronautical mobile communica­tions panel

AMD advisory map display

AME amplitude modulation equivalent

AMF Airborne, Maritime and Fixed Station

AMF-M AMF-Maritime

AMF-SA AMF-Small Airborne

AMF JTRS Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System

AMI airline modifiable information

AML approved model list

AMLCD active matrix liquid crystal display

AMIS aircraft management information system

AMOSS airline maintenance and operation support system

AMP audio management panel

AMP Avionics Modernization Program

AMPL amplifier

AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air to Air Missile

AMS acquisition management system

AMS apron management service

AMS ARINC maintenance service

AMS avionics management service

AmSAT American satellite

AMSL above mean sea level

AMS(R)S aeronautical mobile satellite (route) service

AMSS aeronautical mobile satellite service

AMTOSS aircraft maintenance task ori­ented support system

AMTS aeronautical message transfer service

AMU ACARS/avionics management unit

AMU audio management unit

AMUX audio multiplexer

ANC Air Navigation Commission (ICAO)

ANDC airport and navigation data compiler

ANFR Agence Nationale des Frequences (France)

ANFS aircraft network and file server

ANICS Alaskan NAS Interfacility Communication

ANLP ARINC network layer protocol

ANP actual navigation performance

ANP air navigation plan/performance

ANPA advanced notice of proposed amendment

ANPE actual navigation performance effect

ANR active noise reduction

ANS air navigation system

ANS ambient noise sensor

ANSI American National Standards Institute

ANSIR advanced navigation system iner­tial reference

ANSP air navigation service provider

ANSU avionics network server unit

ANTC advanced networking test center

AO acronymic obfuscation

AO Area of Operation (U.S. Army)

AOA ACARS over aviation VHF link control

AOA angle of arrival

AOA angle of attack

AOAS advanced oceanic automation system

AOC aeronautical operational control

AOC aircraft operational control

AOC Airline Operational Control Center

AOC airline operations center

AOC airport obstruction chart

AOC airport operational communications

AOCC airline operations control center

AODB airport operational database

AODC age of data, clock (GPS)

AODE age of data, ephemeris (GPS)

AOG aircraft on ground

AOHE air/oil heat exchanger

AOM aircraft operating manual

AOP aeronautical OSI profile

AOP airline operational procedure

AOP analog output

AOPA Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association

AOR Atlantic Ocean region

AOR area of responsibility

AOR-E Atlantic Ocean region-east

AOR-W Atlantic Ocean region-west

AP airport location (ACARS/AFEPS)

APA Allied Pilots Association

APA autopilot amplifier

APANPIRG Asia/PAC Air Navigation Planning & Implementation Regional Group

APAS Active/Passive Aircraft Survivability

APB acquisition program baseline

APB auxiliary power breaker

APC aeronautical passenger communication

APC aeronautical public correspondence

APC aircraft power conditioner

APC autopilot computer

APCO Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials - International

APFA Association of Professional Flight Attendants

APFDS autopilot flight director system

APEX application/executive software

APEX Airline Passenger Experience Association (formerly WAEA)

API application programming interface

APIM ARINC Industry Activities Project Initiation/ Modification

APIRS attitude and positioning inertial reference system

APMS automated performance measurement system

APL Applied Physics Laboratory

APLC airport performance laptop computers

APM approach path monitor

APN ARINC packet network

APP approach control

APPR approach

APR actual performance reserve

APRL ATN profile requirement list

APU auxiliary power unit

APUC auxiliary power unit controller

APX application/executive software

AQF avionics qualification facility

AQP avionics qualification procedure/program

AQP advanced qualification program

AQS advanced quality system

AR authorization required

ARB arbitrary waveform generator

ARC aviation rulemaking committee (FAA)

ARD advanced requirement definition

ARDEP analysis of research & develop­ment in Eurocontrol programs

ARF airline risk factor

ARFORGEN Army Force Generation

ARM area regional manager

ARMC area regional maintenance center

ARMS Airspace resource management system

ARNS aeronautical radio navigation services

ARP aerospace recommended practice

ARP airport reference point

ARP antenna reference point

ARTAS ATM surveillance tracker and server

ARTCC air route traffic control center

ARTP NextGen Aviation Research and Technology Park

ARTS automated radar terminal system

ASA aircraft surveillance applications

ASAS aircraft separation assurance system (AEEC)

ASAS aircraft surveillance application system

ASAS aviation safety analysis system

ASC aircraft system controller

ASC aural synthesizer card

ASCII American standard code for information interchange

ASCB avionics standard communication bus

ASCPC air supply and cabin pressure controllers

ASCS air supply control system

ASCU anti-skid control unit

ASD aircraft situation display

ASDAR aircraft-to-satellite data relay

ASDB aircraft specific database

ASDE airport surface detection equipment

ASDE-3 airport surface detection equipment, model 3

ASDE-X airport surface detection equipment, model X

ASDI Aircraft Situation Display to Industry

ASDL aeronautical satellite data link

ASDR airport surface detection radar

ASE aircraft survivability equipment (U.S. Army)

ASE altimetry system error

ASECNA Agency for Security of Aerial Nav­igation in Africa and Madagascar

ASG ARINC signal gateway

ASI airspeed indicator

ASI avionics system integration

ASIAS Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (FAA)

ASIC application specific integrated circuit

ASL above sea level

ASM airspace management

ASM autothrottle servo motor

ASME American Society of Mechani­cal Engineers

ASOR Allocating Safety Objectives and Requirements

ASOS automated surface observa­tion system

ASP ACARS sub-network protocol

ASP acquisition strategy paper

ASP aeronautical fixed service sys­tems planning (AFS)

ASP Airspace Systems Program (NASA)

ASP altitude set panel

ASP arrival sequencing program

ASPIRE Asia and Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions

ASPP application specific program­mable processor

ASR airport surveillance radar

ASRAAM advanced short range air-to-air missile

ASRS aviation safety reporting system

ASSA Airport Surface Situational Awareness

ASSTC aerospace simulation and sys­tems test center

ASSV alternate source selection valve

ASTA airport surface traffic automation

ASTAMIDS Airborne Standoff Minefield Detection System

ASTERIX All-Purpose Structured Euro­control Surveillance Information Exchange

ASTF airspace system task force

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTOR Airborne Stand-Off Radar (U.K.)

ASVI avionics serial video interface

ASV alternate servo valve

AT air transport

AT at an altitude

ATA actual time of arrival

ATA Air Transport Association

ATAS aviation traffic and application software

ATC advanced technology center

ATC air traffic control

ATCA Air Traffic Control Association

ATCBI ATC beacon interrogator

ATCC area and terminal control center

ATCRBS ATC radar beacon system

ATCSS ATC signaling system

ATCT air traffic control tower

ATIS airport traffic information system

ATIS automated terminal informa­tion service

ATIS-B automatic terminal information service-broadcast

ATDL air transport data link

ATE automatic test equipment

ATE avionics test and evaluation

ATFM air traffic flow management

ATG advanced concept technology demonstration

ATHR autothrust system

ATI airborne tracker illuminator

ATIDS airport surface target identifi­cation system/ service

ATIS airport traffic information system

ATIS automatic terminal information service

ATL autothrottle limit

ATLAS abbreviated test language for avionics systems

ATM air traffic management

ATM asynchronous transfer mode

ATMAC Air Traffic Management Committee (RTCA)

ATMAS ATM automation system

ATMB Air Traffic Management Bureau (China)

ATM DSS ATM decision support service

ATMS area navigation, test and man­agement services

ATN aeronautical telecommunica­tion network

ATNE ATN engineering

ATNP ATN panel

ATO air traffic operations

ATO Air Traffic Organization (FAA)

ATOL automatic take-off and landing

ATOP advanced technologies and oce­anic procedures

ATP acceptance test procedure/plan

ATPAC Air Traffic Procedures Advisory Committee (FAA)

ATR acceptance test report

ATR air transport racking

ATR air transport radio: ARINC form-factor/ standard case dimensions

ATS air traffic services

ATS air turbine starter

ATS autothrottle system

ATS air traffic service

ATSAP Air Traffic Safety Action Program (FAA)

ATSAW Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness

ATSC air traffic services communication

AT/SC autothrottle/speed control

ATSGF air traffic services geographic filter

ATSMP air traffic services message pro­cessor

ATSO air traffic services organization

ATSP air traffic services provider

ATSRAC Aging Transport Systems Rule­making Advisory Committee (U.S.)

ATSU air traffic services unit

ATWR apron tower (and operator)

AUSRIRE All Union Scientific Research Institute of Radio Equipment: CIS (former Soviet) agency

AUX auxiliary

AVC aviation VHF car rental availability (messages)

AVH aviation VHF hotel availability (messages)

AVIM Aviation Intermediate Level Maintenance (U.S. Army)

AVL automated vehicle locations

AVLAN avionics local area network

AVLC aviation VHF link control

AVM airborne vibration monitor

AVS aviation VHF seat availability

AVOD audio and video channels on demand

AVOL aerodrome visibility operational level

AVPAC aviation VHF packet communications

AVS aviation VHF seat availability (messages)

AVUM Aviation Unit-Level Maintenance (U.S. Army)

AWACS airborne warning and control sys­tem

AWAS automated weather advisory sta­tion

AWG American wire gauge

AWIN advanced weather information system

AWIN aviation weather information

AWIPS advanced weather interactive processing system

AWLU aircraft wireless LAN unit

AWM auto warning mixer

AWO all weather operations

AWOP AWO panel

AWOS automated/airport weather observing system

AWR aviation weather research

AZ azimuth: angular measurement in horizontal plane


B-NAV basic area navigation

BAMS Broad Area Maritime Surveillance

BBML broadband multi-link

BCD binary code decimal

BCT Brigade Combat Team (U.S. Army)

BCTM Brigade Combat Team Modernization (U.S. Army)

BDA battle damage assessment

BDA bomb damage assessment

BDMIS business data management and invoicing system

BDRVT Bi-Diretional Remote Video Terminal

BDS comm-B designation subfield

BEA Bureau d’Enquetes Accidents (French equivalent of NTSB)

BEBS best-equipped/best-served

BEP back-end processor

BEPMS BEP management system

BER bit error rate

BFE buyer furnished equipment

BFO beat frequency oscillator

BFS broadband fiber source

BFT Blue Force Tracking

BGARS basic general aviation research simulator

BGI bus grant inhibit

BGP border gateway protocol

BI burn-in

Bi-SC Bi-Strategic Command

BiG bilingual ground station (ACARS and VDL Mode 2)

BIH Bureau l’International de l’Heure

BIS boundary intermediate system

BISMS BIS management system

BIST built-in self-test

BiSync binary synchronous control

BIT built-in test

Bit binary digit

BITE built-in test equipment

BIU bus interface unit

BLK block/black

BLI budget line item

BLOS beyond line of sight

BMV brake metering valve

BNR binary

BNR binary numerical representation

BNS boundary notification system (squitters)

BOC binary offset carrier

BOC bottom of climb

BOP/COP bit-oriented protocol/character-oriented protocol

BP bite processor

BPCU bus power control unit

BPL broadband over powerlines

BPS bits per second

BPSK binary phase shift keying

BR basic regulation

BR bridge

BRG bearing

BRI basic rate interface

BRNAV basic area navigation

BRT brightness

BSG baseband signal generator

BSN backbone sub-network

BSC binary synchronous communication

BSCU brake system control unit

BSP board support package

BSU beam steering unit

BSU bypass switch unit

BTB bus tie breaker

BTMU brake temperature monitor unit

BU backup

BUEC BU emergency communications

BUFR binary universal form for commu­nication representation

BW bandwidth

BWAN BU wide area network

Byte a grouping of eight bits


C2 command and control

C3 command, control and communication

C41 command, control, communica­tions, computers & intelligence

C4ISR command, control, communica­tions, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance

C-MANPADS Counter-Man Portable Air Defense System

C/A code course acquisition code (GPS)

C/NO carrier-to-noise density ratio

C/R command/response

C/SOIT communications/surveillance operational implementation team

C/UT code/unit test

C&C command and control

C&W control and warning

CA conflict alert

CAA Cargo Airline Association

CAA Civil Aviation Administration

CAA Civil Aviation Authority

CAAC Civil Aviation Administration of China

CAAFI Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (FAA)

CAAS common avionics architecture system

CAASD Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE Corp.)

CAB Civil Aeronautics Board

CAB combat aviation brigade (U.S. Army)

CAC caution advisory computer

CACP cabin area control panel

CAD computer-aided design

CADC central air data computer

CADS centralized automatic dependent surveillance

CAE component application engineer

CAGE commercial avionics GPS engine

CAH cabin attendant handsets

CAI caution annunciator indicator

CALSEL variation of SELCAL system

CAM computer-aided manufacturing

CAN controller area network

CANbus control area network

CANSO Civil Air Navigation Services Organization

CAOC Combined Air Operations Center

CAP Civil Air Patrol (U.S.)

CAP Collaborative Arrival Planning

CAPA Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations

CAPS commercial airliner protection system

CARE cooperative actions on R&D in Eurocontrol

CARTS Common Automated Radar Terminal System

CAS CDTI assisted separation

CAS close air support

CAS collision avoidance system

CAS commercially available software

CAS computed airspeed

CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority

CASA controller automated spacing aid

CASCADE Co-operative ATS (Air Traffic Services) through Surveillance and Communication Applications Deployed in ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference)

CASE computer-aided software engineering

CASR Civil Aviation Safety Regulations

CASS Consolidated Automated Support System

CAT categories (I, II, IIIa/b/c) approach

CAT clear air turbulence

CAT computer aided testing

CATEX categorical exclusion

CATM Collaborative Air Traffic Management

CATMT Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies

CAVS CDTI assisted visual separation

CBA cost/benefit analysis

CBM condition based maintenance

CBP Customs and Border Patrol (U.S.)

CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear high yield explosives (U.S. Army)

CBT computer-based training

CC connection confirm

CCA circuit card assembly

CCB configuration control board

CCB converter circuit breaker

CCD category class diagram

CCD charged coupled device

CCD coherent change detection

CCD cursor control device

CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee

CCITT Consultative Committee Interna­tional Telephone and Telegraph

CCP consolidated control panel

CCS cabin communication system

CCS common core system

CCSD common constraint situation display

CCTV closed-circuit television

CD carrier detect

CD chrominance difference

CDA continuous descent approach

CDA coordinating design authority

CDAM centralized data acquisition module

CDAM common data acquisition module

CDG configuration database generator

CDI course deviation indicator

CDM collaborative decision-making

CDMS CDM system

CDMS control and data management system

CDP continuous data program

CDQM collaborative departure queue management

CDR critical design review

CDS central dispatch system

CDS cockpit display systems

CDS common display system

CDSS cockpit door surveillance system

CDT controlled departure time

CDTI cockpit display of traffic information

CDU control display unit

CDV compressed digital video

CEC cooperative engagement capability

CEI cabin equipment interfaces

CENTCOM U.S. Central Command

CENTRIXS Combined Enterprise Regional Exchange System

CEP circular error probable

CEQ Council on Environmental Quality

CF certification

CF change field

CFDIU centralized fault display interface unit

CFDS central fault display system

CFDU configurable file data unit

CFIT controlled flight into terrain

CFM cubic feet per minute

CFM configuration management

CFMU central flow management unit

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CFS cabin file server

CG center of gravity

CHAIN Compartmented High Assurance Information Network

CHI computer/human interface

CHIS center hydraulic isolation system

CI configuration item

CI cabin interphone

CID category interaction diagram

CIDIN common ICAO data interchange network

CIDS cabin interphone distribution system

CIE Commission Internationale de I‘Eclairage

CIGS copper-indium-gallium-diselenide

CIP capital investment plan

CIP convergence & implementation program (Eurocontrol)

CIS common information services

CIS corporate information system

CLEEN Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise Program (FAA)

CLNP connectionless network protocol

CLNS connectionless network service

CLTP connectionless mode transport protocol

CM context/configuration management

CMC central maintenance computer

CMCF CMC function

CMCS CMC system

CMD command

CMF common message format

CMGT contract management

CMM capability maturity model

CMM common mode monitor

CMM component maintenance manual

CMN control motion noise

CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor

CMP configuration management plan

CMS cabin management system

CMU communication management unit

CND can not duplicate

CNDB customized navigation database

CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (France)

CNG 2020+ carbon neutral growth from 2020 and beyond (AIA)

CNI communications, navigation and identification

CNP communications/navigation/pulse

CNR customer notification reports

CNS communication, navigation surveillance

CNS/ATM communications, navigation, sur­veillance/air traffic management

CNSI communications/navigation/surveillance/ identification

CNUS cabin network server unit

COA certificate of authorization

COCOM combatant commander (U.S. Army)

CODEC coder/decoder

CofA certificate of airworthiness

COM cockpit operating manual

COMINT communications intelligence

COMINT/DF COMINT direction finding

COMM communications

COM/MET/OPS communications/meteorological/ operations

CON continuous

CONEMP concept of employment (U.S. Army)

CONOPS concept of operations

CONUS continental United States

CONUSE concept of use

COP character-oriented protocol

COP common operating picture (U.S. Army)

COTP connection-oriented transport protocol

COTR contracting officer’s technical representative

COTS commercial-off-the-shelf

CP central processor

CP conflict probe

CP control panel

CPA closest point of approach

CPA collision prediction and alerting

CPC cabin pressure controller

CPC controller-pilot communications

CPC cursor position control

CPCI computer program configuration item

CPCS cabin pressure control system

CPDLC controller-pilot data link commu­nications

CPE circular position error

CPI continuous process improvement

CPM core processing module

CPM critical path method

CPR compact position reporting

CPS cabin pressure sensor

CPS central processing system

CPU central processing unit

CR change of request

CR connection request

CR contrast ratio

CRA conflict resolution advisory

CRAF Civil Reserve Air Fleet

CRC cyclic redundancy checking/code

CRD Concepts and Requirements Directorate (U.S. Army)

CRD current routing domain

CRADA cooperative research and devel­opment agreement

CRDA converging runway display aid

CRM crew/cockpit resource management

CRPA controlled reception pattern antenna

CRS Congressional Research Service (U.S.)

CRISD computer resources integrated support document

CRISTAL CoopeRative Validation of Surveil­lance Techniques and Applications (Eurocontrol)

CRM collision risk model

CRM crew resource management

CRMA code reuse multiple access

CRR cutover readiness review

CRS course

CRT cathode ray tube

CRTC combat readiness training center

CRZ cruise

CS commercial service

CS common service

CS control station

CSC cargo system controller

CSC common signaling channel

CSC computer software component

CSCI computer software configuration item

CSD Coalition Shared Databases (U.S. Army)

CSF command/status frame

CSMA carrier sense multiple access

CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection

CSCP cabin system control panel

CSDB commercial standard data bus

CSDS cargo smoke detector system

CSEU control systems electronics unit

CSMM crash survivable memory modules

CSMU cabin system management unit

CSP Common Sensor Payload

CSPA closely spaced parallel approach

CSPO closely spaced parallel operations

CSPR closely spaced parallel runways

CSS cabin systems subcommittee (ARINC)

CSTAC Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee

CSU channel service unit

CSU computer software unit

CSU configuration strapping unit

CTA control area

CTA controlled time of arrival

CTAF common traffic advisory frequency

CTAI cowl thermal anti-icing

CTAS center TRACON automation system

CTC cabin temperature controller

CTC combat training centers (U.S. Army)

CTD cabin training device

CTL control

CTMO centralized air traffic flow man­agement organization

CTOL conventional takeoff and landing

CTR center

CTR control zone

CTRD configuration test requirements document

CTRL control

CTS clear to send

CTS conformance test suite

CTS/TCTS combat training system/tactical combat training system

CTU cabin telecommunications unit

CU channel utilization

CU combiner unit (HUD)

CU control unit

CUG closed user group

CUTE common use terminal equipment

CV/DFDR cockpit voice and digital flight data recorder

CVR cockpit voice recorder

CVRCP cockpit voice recorder control panel

CW clockwise

CW continuous wave

CWI continuous wave interference

CWID Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration

CWP central weather processor

CWP controller/ed working position

CWS control wheel steering

CY calendar year


D8PSK differential 8-phase-shift keying

D-ATIS digital automatic terminal information service

D-OTIS data link operational terminal service

D-TAXI data link taxi clearance delivery

D-TOC digital transfer of communications

DA descent advisor

DA design authority

DA design altitude

DA digital-to-analog

DABS discrete addressable beacon system

DAC digital-to-analog converters

DADC digital air data computer

DADS digital air data system

DAE defense acquisition executive (U.S. Army)

DA(H) design altitude (height)

DAISS digital airborne intercommunica­tion switching system

DAP digital service access product

DAP direct action penetration

DAP downlink aircraft parameter

DAP download of aircraft parameter

DAR data access recorder

DARC direct access radar channel

DARP dynamic aircraft route planning

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S.)

DAS designated alteration station

DAS digital audio subcommittee

DAS distributed aperture system

DASS defensive aids sub-system

DB database

dB decibel

dBA dB adjusted

DBI downlink block identifier

dBI dB referenced to an isotropic antenna

dBI decibels above isotopic circular

dBM dB below 1 milliwatt

DBS direct broadcast satellite

DBU database unit

DBU dial backup

dBW dB-watts or referenced to 1 watt

DC data communications

DC direct current

DC disconnect confirm

DCA Department of Civil Aviation (Thailand)

DCAS digital control audio system

DCD double channel duplex

DCE data communications equipment

DCGF data conversion gateway function

DCL departure clearance (European)

DCM digital coherent mute

DCMF data communication management function

DCMS data communication management system

DCN document/drawing/design change notice

DCP data communication process

DCP display control panel

DCS double channel simplex

DCU data concentration unit

DCV directional control valve

DD data delivery

DD data distribution

DDA digital differential analyzer

DDD dual disk drive

DDL digital data link

DDM difference in depth of modulation

DDP declarations of design and performance

DDR draft document review

DDR double data rate

DDRMI digital distance radio magnetic indicator

DDS direct digital synthesizer

DDT downlink data transfer

DDU data distribution unit

DER designated engineering representative

DERA Defense Research and Evaluation Agency (U.K.)

DEU display electronics unit

DF direction finding

DFA direction finding antenna

DFCS digital flight control system

DFDAF digital flight data acquisition function

DFDAMU digital flight data acquisition management unit

DFDAU digital flight data acquisition unit

DFDR digital flight data recorder

DFDU digital flight data unit

DFGC digital flight guidance computer

DFGS digital flight guidance system

DFIDU dual function interactive display unit

DFIU digital flight instrument unit

DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (Germany)

DFS digital frequency select

DfT Department for Transport (U.K.)

DFU digital function unit

DG directional gyro

DGNSS differential global navigation sat­ellite system

DGPS differential global positioning system

DH decision height

DHCP dynamic host configuration protocol

DHS Department of Homeland Security

DI data interrupt

DIFAX digital facsimile

DIGNU deeply integrated guidance and navigation unit

DIP data interrupt program

DIP dual in-line package

DIR director

DIRCM direct infrared countermeasures

DIR/INTC direct intercept

DISA Defense Information Systems Agency (U.S.)

DISC disconnect

DISCH discharge

DIST distance

DITS data information transfer system

DL data link

DLAP data link application processor

DLC data link control

DLCI data link control identifier

DLE data link entity

DLK data link

DLL data link layer

DLM data link management unit

DLME data link and message engineering

DL/MSU data loader/mass storage unit

DLNA diplexer/low-noise amplifier

DLORT data link operational requirements team

DLP data link processor

DLS data link service/system

DLU download unit

DM disconnected mode

DMA direct memory access

DMD digital memory device

DME distance measuring equipment

DME/N DME normal

DME/P DME precision

DMM data memory module

DMS data link management system

DMS debris monitoring sensor

DMU data management unit

DoD Department of Defense (U.S.)

DoT Department of Transportation (U.S.)

DOTS dynamic ocean tracking system

DPI dots per inch

DPR dual port RAM

DPSK differential phase shift keying

DR dead reckoning

DR deduced reckoning

DRAM dynamic random access memory

DRER designated radio engineering representative (FAA)

DRN document release notice

DRVSM domestic reduced vertical separation minimum

DSAD digital service access device

DSARC defense system acquisition review cycle

DSB double side band

DSB-AM DSB-amplitude modulation

DSDU data signal display unit

DSF display system function

DSP data link service provider

DSP departure sequencing program

DSP digital signal processor

DSP display select panel

DSP domain specific part

DSPDRV display driver

DSR display system replacement

DSS decision support services

DST decision support tool

DSU data signaling unit

DT&E development test and evaluation

DTD data terminal display

DTD document type definition

DTE data terminal equipment

DTED digital terrain evaluation data

DTG distance-to-go

DTM demonstration test milestone

DTMF dual tone multifrequency (telephone)

DTP distributed targeting processor

DTPDU data protocol data unit

DTRS data transceiver router server

DTS digital theater systems

DTU data transfer unit

DU display unit

DUAT direct user access terminal

DUATS direct user access terminal system

DUST dual-use science and technology

DVF demonstration and validation facility

DVM digital voltmeter

DVMC digital video map computer

DVOR Doppler VHF omnidirectional range DVRS digital voice recorder system

DWAN direct wide area network


E-PIREPS electronic pilot reports

E/D end-of-descent

E/O engine-out

E&E electronics and equipment

EA electronic attack

EA enterprise architecture

EA environmental assessment

EAA Experimental Aircraft Association


EAD engine alert display

EAD European AIS database (Eurocontrol)

EADI electronic attitude director indicator

EADS European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co.

EAFR enhanced airborne flight recorder

EAI engine anti-ice

EAL evaluation assurance level

EAL-7 evaluation assurance level-7

EANPG European Air Navigation Planning Group

EAP engine alert processor

EAROM electrically alterable read-only memory

EARTS en route automated radar tracking system

EAS equivalent airspeed

EASA European Aviation Safety Agency

EASIE enhanced ATM and Mode S implementation in Europe

EATCHIP European air traffic control har­monization & integration program

EATMS European ATM System (Eurocontrol)

EATRADA European ATM Research and Development Association

EBR extended bit rate

EC European Commission

ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference

ECAM electronic caution alert module

ECC error correcting code

ECEF earth-centered, earth-fixed

ECJ European Court of Justice

ECL emitter coupler logic

eCM equipment conditioning monitoring

ECMP electronic component manage­ment system

ECN engineering change notice

ECO engineering change order

ECP EICAS control panel

ECP engineering change proposal

ECS engineering compiler system

ECS environmental control system

ECS event criterion subfield

ECSL left environmental control system card

ECSMC environmental control system

miscellaneous card

ECSR right environmental control system card

ECU electronic control unit

ED EICAS display

EDA electronic design automation

EDAC error detection and correction

EDARC enhanced direct access radar channel

EDC error detection and correction

EDDS electronic document distribution service

EDI electronic data interchange

EDI engine data interface

EDIF engine data interface function

EDIS emergency digital information service

EDIU engine data interface unit

EDMS electronic data management system

EDP electronic data processing

EDP engineering development pallet

EDP engine driven pump

EDS embedded diagnostic system

EDS explosive detection system

EDU electronic display unit

EE electrical engineer

EE electronics equipment

EEAS enhanced en-route automation system

EEC electronic engine control

EEC Eurocontrol Experimental Center

EEPROM electrical erasable programmable ROM

EEU electrical load management system electronics unit

EFB electronic flight bag

EFC expected further clearance

EFD electronic flight display

EFDP European flight data processing (Eurocontrol)

EFIC electronic flight instrument controller

EFIP electronic flight instrument processor

EFIS electronic flight instrument system

EFIS CP EFIS control panel

EFVS enhanced flight vision system

EGI embedded GPS/INS

EGIHO expedited ground-initiated handoff

EGNOS European Geostationary Overlay System

EGP exterior gateway protocol

EGPWS enhanced ground proximity warning system

EGT exhaust gas temperature

EHF extremely high frequency

EHSI electronic horizontal situation indicator

EHV electro-hydraulic valve

EIA Electrical Institute of America

EIA Electronic Industries Association

EICAS engine indication and crew alert system


EIPI extended initial protocol identifier

EIRP earth incident radiated power

EIRP effective isotropic radiation power

EIS electronic instrument system

EIS engine indication system

EIS environmental impact statement

EISA extended industry standard architecture

EIU electronic interface unit

ELB electronic logbook

ELEC electrical

ELM extended length message

ELMS electrical load management system

eLORAN enhanced long range aid to navigation

ELOS equivalent level of safety (U.S. Army)

ELS electronic library system

ELT emergency locator transmitter

EM electromagnetic

EM element manager

EMATS endurance management air traffic system

EMC electromagnetic compatibility

EMC entertainment multiplexer controller

EMD engineering, manufacturing and development

EMER emergency

EMI electromagnetic interference

EMP electro magnetic pulse

EMS emergency medical services

EMS engine management system

EMS environmental management system

EMU expansion module unit

ENG engine

ENOC engineering network operations center

EO/IR electro-optic/infrared

EOC emergency operations center (U.S. Army)

EOD end of day

EO DAS electro-optical distributed aper­ture system

EOLA European pre-operational data link applications

EOM end of message

EOT end of text

EOTS electro-optical targeting system

EP engineering project

EP external power

EPC engineering project contractor

EPCS engine propulsion control system

EPLD electronically programmable logic device

EPLRS enhanced position location and reporting system

EPR engine pressure ratio

EPR environmental protection requirements (Europe)

EPROM erasable programmable ROM

EPS electrical power system

EPU estimated position uncertainty

EPV end-point voltage

EQTG electronic qualification test guide

ERA Environmentally Responsible Aviation program (AIA)

ERAM En Route Automation Moderniza­tion

ERAST environment research aircraft and sensor technology

ERB Engineering Review Board

ERD end routing domain

ERMP extended range multi purpose

EROPS extended range operations

ERP effective radiation power

ERP eye reference point

ERPDU error protocol data unit

ERP PDU echo replay protocol data unit

ERQ PDU echo request protocol data unit

ERU engine replay unit

ES end system

ES extended squitter

ESA European Space Agency

ESAI electronic standby attitude indicator

ESAS electronic situation awareness system

ESAS enhanced situational awareness system

ESD electrostatic discharge

ESDS electrostatic discharge and soldering

ESH end system hello

ESID engine and system indication display

ESIS electronic standby instrument system

ESIS engine and system indication system

ESM electronic support measures

ESOIC enhanced small-outline IC

ESR equivalent-series resistance

ESS electronic switching system

ESS environmental stress screening

ESSD electrostatic sensitive devices

ESU environmental sensor unit

ETA estimated time of arrival

ETAS enhanced TRACON/tower auto­mation system

ETB end of block (ASCII/IA5 character)

ETB engineering test bed

ETC estimated time of completion

ETD estimated time of departure

ETE estimated time enroute

ETI elapsed time indicator

ETM elapsed time measurement

ETM electronic training manuals

ETMS engine-trend monitoring services

ETMS enhanced traffic management system

ETNO European Telecommunications Network Operators

ETOPS extended operations

ETOPS extended twin-engine operations

ETP equal time point (halfway there, by time)

ETRC expected taxi ramp clearances

ETS Emission Trading Scheme

ETVS enhanced terminal voice switch

ETX end of transmission

EU electronic unit

EU European Union

EUAFS enhanced upper air forecast system

EUPS external uninterruptible power supply


EURET European research on transport systems

EUROCAE European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (European equivalent of RTCA)

EUROCONTROL European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation

EV earned value

EVM error vector magnitude

EVS enhanced vision system

EW electronic warfare

EWIS electrical wiring interconnection system

EZAP enhanced zonal analysis procedures


F Fahrenheit

F/O first officer

F&E facilities and equipment

FA final approach

FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.)

FAA/EURO FAA/Eurocontrol R&D committee

FAATC FAA Technical Center

FAB functional airspace blocks

FAB-T family of advanced beyond-line-of-sight terminals

FAC Federal Advisory Committee

FAC final approach course

FAC flight augmentation computer

FACT future airport capability task

FADEC full authority digital engine/elec­tronic control

FAF final approach fix

FAI first article inspection

FAMIS full aircraft management/inertial system

FANS Future Air Navigation System (ICAO)

FAR federal acquisition regulation

FAR federal aviation regulation

FAROA Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness

FAS final approach segment

FAST final approach spacing tool

FAT factory acceptance test

FBCB2 Force XXI Battle Command Bri­gade and Below

FBL fly by light

FBN fly by night

FBO fixed-base operator

FBW fly by wire

FC functional capability

FC foot candles

FC-AV Fibre Channel-Audio Video

FCA functional configuration audit

FCC Federal Communications Com­mission (U.S.)

FCC flight control computer

FCDC flight critical direct current

FCL flight crew licensing (EASA)

FCM future concepts for maintenance

FCMA FANS Central Monitoring Agency

FCP flight control panel

FCP flight control processor

FCS flight control system

FCS frame check sequence

FCS Future Combat Systems

FCS future concepts for simulators

FD fault detection

FD flight dynamics/director

FD final data

FDAF flight data acquisition function

FDAU flight data acquisitions unit

FDB flight plan data bank

FDDI fiber distribution data interface

FDE fault detection and exclusion

FDEP flight data entry panel

FDH flight deck handset

FDI fault detection and isolation

FDIMU flight data interface management unit

FDIO flight data input/output

FDM flight data monitoring

FDM frequency division multiplex

FDMA frequency division multiple access

FDMS flight deck merging and spacing

FDPS flight data processing system

FDR flight data recorder

FDRS flight data recorder system

FDP flight data processor

FEATS Future European Air Traffic System

FEC forward error correction

FEP front-end processor

FERNS Far East Radio Navigation Service

FF fuel flow

FFS full flight simulator

FFT full flight trainer

FGC flight guidance computer

FGS flight guidance system

FHA functional hazard assessment

FIAO flight inspection area office

FIB forwarding information base

FIFO first in, first out

FIM fault isolation manual

FIR flight information region

FIS flight information services

FIS-B FIS-broadcast

FIX position in space usually on aircraft’s flight plan

FL flight level

FL foot lampert

FLCH flight level change

FLEX flexibility in the terminal environment

FLIR forward-looking infrared

FLTCK flight check

FltWinds flight and weather information and decision support

FLW forward-looking windshear radar

FM frequency modulation

FMA flight mode annunciator

FMAC Frequency Management Advisory Council

FMC flight management control/computer

FMC field programmable gate array mezzanine card

FMC future concepts for maintenance

FMCDU flight management control and display unit

FMCF flight management computer function

FMCS flight management computer system

FMCW frequency-modulated continuous wave

FMEA failure mode and effects analysis

FMF flight management function

FMGC flight management guidance computer

FMGEC flight management guidance envelope computer

FMP flight mode panel

FMS flight management system

FMS full mission simulator

FMS-ATM Flight Management System-Air Traffic


FMSG Frequency Management Study Group (ICAO)

FMST flight management system trainer

FMU fuel metering unit

FMV full motion video

FNPRM further notice of proposed rulemaking

FOC flight operations center

FOC full operational capability

FOC fuel/oil cooler

FOD foreign object debris

FODA flight operations data assurance

FOG fiber optic gyro

FONSI finding no significant (environmental) impact

FOQA flight operational quality assurance

FOS fiber optics subcommittee (AEEC)

FOSA flight operator surface application

FOV field of view

FOWG Fiber Optics Working Group (Naval Air Systems Command)

FPA flight path angle

FPA focal plane array

FPAC flight path acceleration

FPC flight profile comparator

FPGA field programmable gate array

FPM feet per minute

FPV flight path vector

FQIS fuel quality indicating system

FQPU fuel quality processor unit

FQR formal qualification review

FR frame relay

FRA flap retraction altitude

FRAD frame relay access device

FRCS flight recorder configuration standard

FRED flight recorder electronic documentation

FRM fault reporting manual

FRM flammability reduction means

FRM frame reject mode

FRMR frame reject

FRP Federal Radionavigation Plan (U.S.)

FRPA fixed reception pattern antenna

FRQ frequency

FSAS flight service automation system

FSDO Flight Standards District Office (FAA)

FSE FANS systems engineering

FSE field service engineer

FSEMC Flight Simulator Engineering and Maintenance Conference

FSEU flap slat electronics unit

FSF Flight Safety Foundation

FSM flight schedule monitoring

FSR field service representative

FSS flight service station

FSWE FANS software engineering

FT functional test

FT/ADIRS fault tolerant/air data inertial reference system

FTE flight technical error

FTK freight tonne kilometers

FTP file transfer protocol

FTPP fault tolerant power panel

FTS Federal Telecommunications System

FUE first unit equipped (U.S. Army)

FUSE family of unmanned systems experiments (U.S. Army)

FVHF future VHF system study (Eurocontrol)

FW failure warning

FWC flight warning computer

FWD forward

FWS flight warning system


G/A ground/air or ground-to-air

G/G ground/ground

G/S glide slope

GA general aviation

GA go-around

GAAS gallium arsenide

GACS genetic ATN communications service

GAGAN geostationary augmentation network

GAIN galley inserts

GAIT ground-based augmentation and integrity technique

GAMA General Aviation Manufacturers Association

GAN global area network

GAO Government Accountability Office (U.S.)

GATM global air traffic management

GAViS general aviation vision system

GBAS ground-based augmentation system

GBSAA ground-based sense and avoid

GBST ground-based software tool

GBT ground-based transceiver

Gbyte gigabyte (billion bytes)

GCA ground-controlled approach

GCAS ground collision avoidance system

GCB generator circuit breaker

GCC ground cluster controller (ACARS)

GCP glare-shield control panel

GCS ground clutter suppression

GCS ground control station

GCU generator control unit

GDLP ground data link processor

GDOP geometric dilution of precision

GDP ground delay program

GENOT general notice

GEO geosynchronous/geostationary earth orbit

GEP ground entry point

GES ground earth station

GFE government furnished equipment

GFI general format identifier

GFLOPS gigaflops

GFSK Gaussian frequency shift keying

GG graphics generator

GGR G/G router

GGS GPS ground station

GGTFM ground-ground traffic flow man­agement

GH ground handling

GHG greenhouse gas

GHz gigahertz

GI group identifier

GIB global navigation satellite system integrity broadcast

GIC global navigation satellite system integrity channel

GIC GPS integrity channel

GIG Global Information Grid

GIG-BE GIG-Band Expansion

GICB ground-initiated comm-B

GIHO ground initiated handoff

GINS GPS-inertial navigation systems

GIOVE-A Galileo In-Orbit Validation Experiment-A

GIP government-industry partnership

GIS geodetic information system

GIS geographic information system

GIS graphical information system

GIVE grid inospheric vertical error

GJU Galileo joint undertaking

GL ground location (ACARS/AFEPS)

GL group length

GLC geographic locator codes

GLNS GPS landing and navigation system

GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System (Russia)

GLS GNSS landing system

GLS GPS landing system

GLU GPS landing unit

GM guidance material

GMC ground movement control

GMDS ground mobile data service

GMR giant magnetoresistive

GMT Greenwich mean time

GMTI ground moving target indicator

GMU GPS monitoring unit

GNA global network architecture

GNE gross navigational error

GNR global navigation receiver

GNSS global navigation satellite system


GoMATS Gulf of Mexico advanced traffic surveillance

GOMEX Gulf of Mexico

GOPS giga operations

GOS grade of service

GOSIP government open systems interconnection profile

GP general purpose

GPADIRS global positioning, air data, inertial reference system

GPCBT guidelines for the production of computer-based training (Eurocontrol)

GP&C global positioning and communications

GPIB general purpose instrument bus

GPIRS global positioning/inertial reference system

GPP general purpose processor

GPPU general-purpose processing unit

GPRS general packet radio services

GPS Global Positioning System

GPSSU GPS sensor unit

GPU ground power unit

GPWC ground proximity warning computer

GPWS ground proximity warning system

GR ground router

GRAS ground-based regional augmentation system

GRIP gridded binary (National Weather Service model output)

GRP geographic reference point

GS ground speed/station

GSC ground station controller (ACARS)

GSE ground support equipment

GSIF ground station information frame

GSM global systems mobile

GSMS ground station management system

GSP glare shield panel

GTC ground terminal computer

GUI graphical user interface

GVA geometric vertical accuracy

GVE graphics vector engine

GW gateway

GWDS graphic weather display system

GWS graphical weather services


HAA high-altitude airship

HAATA Houston Area Airspace Transition System

HAD hardware architecture document

HADDS Host Air Traffic Management Data Distribution System

HADS high-altitude platform station

HAE height above ellipsoid

HAG height above geoid

HAI Helicopter Association International

HALE high-altitude, long-endurance

HARS high altitude route system

HART heterogeneous airborne reconnaissance teams (U.S. Army)

HAT height above touchdown zone

HCI human-computer interface

HCP heads-up control panel

HCS host computer system

HD high density airports

HD high definition

HDD head-down display

HDG heading

HDG SEL heading select

HDL hybrid data link

HDLC high-level data link control

HDLC-B HDLC-balanced

HDLMS hybrid data link management system

HDMI high-definition multimedia interface

HDOP horizontal dilution of precision

HDP hardware development plan

HE altitude error

HEA head equipment assembly

HEMS helicopter emergency medical services

HERF high-energy radio frequency (or energy radiated fields: dense)

HF high frequency

HF human factors

HFACS human factors analysis and classification system

HFDL high-frequency data link

HFDM high-frequency data modem

HFDR high frequency data radio

HFI human factors integration

HFNPDU high frequency network protocol data unit

HFOM horizontal figure of merit

HFS high frequency system

HFSG human factor study group

HFSNL high frequency subnetwork layer

HFWG human factors working group

HGA high gain antenna

HGAS HGA system

HGC head-up guidance computer

HGS head-up guidance system

HGS HFDL ground station

HHLD heading hold

HID host interface display

HIL horizontal integrity limit

HIRF high-intensity radiated field

HITL human in the loop

HITS highway in the sky

HLCS high lift control system

HLE higher layer entity

HLL high level language

HMD helmet-mounted display

HMI hazardously misleading information

HMI human-machine interface

HMOS high-density metal oxide semiconductor

HMS handheld manpack and small form fit

HMSD Helmet Mounted Sight & Display

HMU height monitoring unit

HO handoff

HOCSR host/oceanic computer system replacement

HOTAS hands on throttle and stick

HOW hand-over word

HP high pressure

HP holding pattern

hPa hecto Pascal

HPA high power amplifier

HPC high pressure compressor

HPL horizontal protection limit

HPR high power relay

HPSOV high pressure shutoff valve

HPT high pressure turbine

HRD home routing domain

HS-DSAD high speed digital service access device

HSD high-speed data

HSI horizontal situation indicator

HSIT hardware and software integration test

HSL heading select

HSR high stability reference

HSRP hot standby routing protocol

HTC highest two-way channel

HUD head-up display

HUL horizontal uncertainty level

HUMINT human intelligence

HUMS health and usage monitoring system

HVPS high voltage power supply

HVT high-value target

HWCI hardware configuration item

HX heat exchanger

HYD hydraulic

HYDIM HYD interface module

Hz Hertz (cycles per second)


I/O input/output

I&TE integration and test engineering

IA interoperability assessment

IAA incident awareness and assessment

IACSP international aeronautical com­munications service provider

IAC integrated avionics computer

IAGS integrated ARINC ground station

IANA Internet assigned number authority

IAOA indicated angle of attack

IAOPA International Council of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association

IAPA instrument approach procedures automation

IAPS integrated avionics processing system

IARP inverse address resolution protocol

IAS indicated airspeed

IAT investment analysis team

IATA International Air Transport Association

IBAC International Business Aviation Council

IC integrated circuit

IC intercabinet

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

ICAO IFPP ICAO Instrument Flight Procedures Panel

ICAO OCP ICAO Obstacle Clearance Panel

ICARD ICAO five-letter name code & route designator


ICAP improved capability

ICAW Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (FAA)

ICC IAPS card cage

ICCAIA International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Association

ICD interactive design center

ICD interface control document/drawing

ICD installation control drawing

ICM interline communications manual

ICMP Internet control message protocol

ICNIA integrated communications, navi­gation and identification avionics

ICP integrated core processor

ICS intercommunications system

ICS interface control specification

ICSS integrated communication switching system

ICU instrument comparator unit

ICU integrated control unit

ID identifier/identification

IDC indicator display/control

IDC internal diagnostic capabilities

IDD interface design document

IDEN integrated digital enhanced network

IDG integrated drive generator

IDI initial domain identifier

IDIQ indefinite-delivery/indefinite quantity

IDM Improved Data Modem

iDMU integrated data management unit

IDP initial domain part

IDRP interdomain routing protocol

IDS ice detection system

IDS inter-domain system

IDS integrated display system

IDU interactive display unit

IEC IAPS environmental control module

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

IEC International Engineering Consortium

IED improvised explosive device

IED insertion extraction device

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IF intermediate frequency

IFALPA International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations

IFASS integrated system for surveillance and radio transmission

IFATCA International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations

IFC indicated final cost

IFDL intraflight data link

IFE&C in-flight entertainment and connectivity

IFE in-flight entertainment

IFF identification, friend or foe

IFIS integrated flight information system

IFPS integrated initial flight plan processing system

IFR instrument flight rules

IFRB International Frequency Registration Board

IGES initial graphic exchange specification

IGES intermediate ground earth station

IGIA Interagency Group on International Aviation

IGV inlet guide vane

IHAS integrated hazard avoidance system

ILA International Law Association

ILM independent landing monitor

ILS instrument landing system

ILSP integrated logistics support plan

IMA integrated modular avionics

IMC instrument meteorological conditions

IMG implementation manager group

IMU inertial measurement unit

INFO information frame

INAV interactive navigation

inHg inches of mercury

INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization

INMS integrated network management system

INS inertial navigation system

INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization

InterNIC Internet Network Information Center

Interop interoperability

IO information operations (U.S. Army)

IOC initial operating capability

ION Institute of Navigation

IOR Indian Ocean region

IOS Internet operating system

IOT&E initial operational test and evaluation

IP intellectual property

IP Internet protocol

IPACG Informal Pacific ATC Coordination Group

IPC intermediate pressure compressor

IPC interprocess communication

IPD industrial products division

IPI initial protocol identifier

IPT integrated product team

IPR Internet protocol router

IPT integrated product team

IPT integrated project team

IPT intermediate pressure turbine

IR infrared

IRAC Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

IR&D investment research and development

IRIG-B inter-range instrumentation group-time code format B

IRIS Iris Recognition Immigration System

IRP integrated refuel panel

IRR internal rate of return

IRS inertial reference system

IRS interface requirements specification

IRU inertial reference unit

IS intermediate system

ISA industry standard architecture

ISA Instrument Society of America

ISC integrated systems controller

ISDN integrated services digital network

ISDOS information system design and optimization system

ISDU inertial system display unit

ISH intermediate system hello

ISIS integrated sensor is structure

ISLN isolation

ISMS in-flight safety monitoring system

ISO International Standards Organization

ISO PA ISO protocol architecture

ISP integrated switching panel

ISP internet service provider

ISR intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance

ISR interrupt service routine

ISS integrated surveillance system

ISSN intermediate system sub-network

ISSS initial sector suite system/sub­system

ISU initial signal unit

ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations

ITC in-trail climb

ITD in-trail descent

ITP in-trail procedures

ITS integrated test system

ITSE integrated test and support environment

ITU International Telecommunications Union

ITWS integrated terminal weather system

IUPS internal uninterruptible power supply

IV isolation valve

IVSI instantaneous vertical speed indicator


J-UCAS joint unmanned combat air systems

J/S jammer-to-signal ratio

JAA Joint Aviation Authorities

JCA joint capabilities area

JCA Joint Cargo Aircraft

JAR joint airworthiness requirement

JAR-OPS Joint Aviation Regulations Opera­tions

JAR-AWO JAR-all weather operations

JATO jet assisted takeoff

JCAB Japanese Civil Aviation Bureau

JCAT Joint Combat Assessment Team

JFET junction field effect transistor

JFEX Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment

JFX Joint Forces Exercise

JHMCS joint helmet-mounted cueing systems

JIIM joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational (U.S. Army)

JIM Joint, Interagency and Multinational

JIPT joint integrated product team

JPALS Joint Precision Approach and Landing System

JPDO Joint Planning and Development Office (U.S.)

JPEO Joint Program Executive Office

JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JPO Joint Planning Office

JPS journal processing system

JRANS Japanese regional air navigation system

JRC Joint Resource Council

JSTeF JTRS Science and Technology Forum

JSAT joint system acceptance test

JSF Joint Strike Fighter

JTAG Joint Test Action Group

JTIDS joint tactical information distribu­tion system

JTRS joint tactical radio system

JUAS COE Joint Unmanned Aircraft System Center of Excellence (U.S. Army)

JV joint venture

JVMF joint variable message format


kA kiloamperes

KARI Korea Aerospace Research Insti­tute

KB kilobytes (thousand bytes)

KBITS kilobits

Kbps kilobits per second

Kgls kinematic GPS landing system

KHz kilohertz (1000 cycles per second)

KIAS knots indicated airspeed

KPS KB per second

KT knot

KTS knots

KVA kilovolt-ampere

KW kilowatt


L1 L-band carrier (1575.42 MHz)

L2 L-band carrier (1227.6 MHz)

LAAS local area augmentation system

LACAC Latin American Civil Aviation Commission

LADAR laser radar

LADGPS local area differential GPS

LAGPS local area global positioning system

LAHSO land and hold short operation

LAIRCM large aircraft infrared countermeasures

LAM levels of avionics maintenance

LAN local area network

LAPB link access protocol, balanced

LASER light amplification by simulated emission of radiation

LAT latitude

LBA Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (German equivalent of FAA)

LCA layered component architecture

LCC leadless chip carrier

LCC life cycle cost

LCC low-cost carrier

LCD liquid crystal display

LCF link control field

LCI logical channel identifier

LCM life cycle management

LCN local communications network

LCP lighting control panel

LCR link connection refusal

LDA landing directional aid

LDA laterally displaced approach

LDCC leaded chip carrier

LDCS local departure control system

LDGPS local area differential global posi­tioning satellite

LDOC long distance operational control

LDRCL low density radio-communica­tions link

LDU lamp driver unit

LE link establish

LED light-emitting diode

LEO low earth orbiting

LF low frequency

LFE lead-free electronics

LFR LF radio range

LGA low gain antenna

LHP lighting HIRF protection

LIDAR light detection and ranging

LINCS long-haul/leased interfacility national airspace communica­tions system

LISN line impedance stabilization network

LLC logical link control

LLWAS low-level wind shear alert system

LME link management entity

LMI logical management interface

LMM locator middle marker

LMT local mean time

LNA low-noise amplifier

LNAV lateral navigation

LOA letters of agreement

LOB left outboard

LOC localizer/location

LODA letter of design approval (FAA)

LOI level of interoperability

LOM locator outer marker

LON longitude

LOPA layout of passenger accommodations

LORAN long-range air navigation

LOS line of sight

LP localizer performance

LPB loss prevention bulletin

LPC low pressure compressor

LPDU link protocol data unit

LPT low pressure turbine

LPV localizer performance with vertical guidance

LRC long-range cruise

LRF/D laser range finder/designator

LRIP low rate initial production

LRM line replaceable module

LRR long-range radar

LRU line replaceable unit

LSA light sport aircraft

LSAS longitudinal stability augmentation system

LSAT life support for trauma and transport (U.S. Army)

LSB least significant bit

LSB lower sideband

LSD least significant digit

LS-DSAD low speed frame relay service access device

LS-FRAD low speed frame relay access device

LSI large scale integration

LSK line select key

LSN local subnetwork

LSP link state protocol data unit

LSS lightening sensor system

LTA lighter-than-air

LTD laser target designator

LTC lowest two-way channel

LV lower sideband voice

LVC low visibility conditions

LVL level

LVDT linear voltage differential transducer

LVP low visibility procedure

LVPS low voltage power supply

LVT low volume terminal

LZ landing zone


M mach number

M2K Mobility 2000 (U.S. Air Force)

M-SNDCF mobile-subnetwork dependent convergence function

M-TADS Modernized Target Acquisition and Designation Sight

M/ASI mach/airspeed indicator

M/S meters per second

M&S merging & spacing

MA message assurance

MAA maximum authorized IFR altitude

MAB Military ATM Board (Europe)

MAC medium access controller

MACC military area control center

MACS multiple access communication system

MADARS malfunction detection, analysis and recording system

MAGIC manager of air-ground interface communications

MAHWP missed approach holding waypoint

MALDT mean administrative and logistics delay time

MALE medium-altitude, long-endurance

MALSR Medium-Intensity Approach Lighting System with Runway Alignment Indicator

MAN metropolitan area network

MANPADS man portable air defense system

MAP missed alert parameter

MAP missed approach

MAP missed approach procedure

MAP monitor alert parameter

MAPt missed approach point

MAR mobile access router

MARSA military assumes responsibility for separation

MASPS minimum aviation system perfor­mance standard

MAST multiaircraft simulation terminal

MAT maintenance access terminal

MAV micro air vehicle

MAWP missed approached waypoint

MAX maximum

mb millibars

MB marker beacon

MBE multiple bit error

MBER minimum bit error rate

MBPS megabytes per second

MC master change

MCA minimum crossing altitude

MCAP Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Processor

MCB microwave circuit board

MCC maintenance control computer

MCDP maintenance control display panel

MCDU multifunctional control display unit

MCI mode C intruder

MCN manufacturing control number

MCOS multi-computing operating system

MCP maintenance control panel

MCP mode control panel

MCT max continuous thrust

MCU modular concept unit

MCU multifunction concept unit

MDA minimum descent altitude

MDA Missile Defense Agency (U.S.)

MDAH minimum descent altitude/height

MDAU maintenance data acquisition unit

MDC maintenance diagnostic computer

MDCRS Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting Service

MDD mission data debrief

MDH minimum decent height

MDL multipurpose data link

MDMP military decision making process (U.S. Army)

MDR mode digital radio

MDS minimum discernible signal

MDT maintenance display terminal

MDT mean downtime

MEA minimum en route altitude

MEARTS Microprocessor En Route Automation Radar Tracking System

MEC main equipment center

MEL minimum equipment list

MEO medium earth orbit

MEOT multiple-expert opinion team

MES main engine start

MET meteorology

METAR meteorological aviation routine weather report

METL mission essential task list (U.S. Army)

METOC meteorological and oceanographic condition

MF medium frequency

MFCP multifunction control display panel

MFD multifunction display

MFDS multifunction display system

MFDU multifunction display unit

MFDUA miscellaneous flight data acquisi­tion unit

MFIT mean fault isolation time

MFM maintenance fault memory

MGSCU main gear steering control unit

MGR manager

MHD magnetic hard drive

MHD multi-hazard display

MHRS magnetic heading reference system

MHS message handling service

MHz megahertz

MIB management information base

MIC microphone

MicroEARTS Micro Enroute Automated Radar

Tracking System

MIDS multifunction information distri­bution system

MIDS-J Multifunctional Information Distri­bution System-JTRS

MIDS-LVT Multifunctional Information Distribution System Low Volume Terminal

MIDU multi-purpose interactive display unit

MILS multiple independent levels of security

MILSPEC military specification

MIL-STD military standard

MIMO multi-input/multi-output

MIN minimum/minute

MIPS management interface protocol specification

MIPS million instructions per second

MKR marker

MLA maneuver limited altitude

MLM mid-level management

MLS microwave landing system

MLW maximum landing weight

MM mass memory

MM middle marker (glideslope)

MMI man-machine interface

MMIC monolithic microwave integrated circuit

MMR multimode receiver

MMS maintenance management system

MMS metering, merging and spacing

MMSI miniature munitions system interface

MMU memory management unit

MMW millimeter wave

MNCID management network category interaction diagram

MNPS minimum navigation performance specification

MNS managed network service

MO managed object

MO magneto-optical

MOA memorandum of agreement

MOA military operation area

MOC memorandum of cooperation

MOCA minimum obstacle clearance altitude

MOD magneto-optical drive

MOD modification

MODEM modulator/demodulator

MOPR minimum operational perfor­mance requirements

MOPS minimum operational perfor­mance standards

MOQA maintenance operations quality assurance

MORA minimum off-route altitude

MOS metal oxide semiconductor

MOS military occupational specialty

MOSA modular open systems approach

MOSP multi-mission optronic stabilized payload (U.S. Army)

MOU memorandum of understanding

MOV metal oxide varsitor

MP-CDL Multi-Platform-Common Data Link

MPAR multipurpose airport radar

MPEG Moving Picture Expert Group

MPCU multiport protocol converter unit

MPDS mobile packet data service

MPEL maximum permissible exposure level

MPM microwave power module

MPP materials, processes and parts

MPS maintenance processor system/subsystem

MRA minimum reception altitude

MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul

MRR manufacturing revision request

MRT mean repair time

MRT multi-remote terminal

Ms millisecond

MSB most significant bit

MSC message sequence chart

MSCP mobile satellite service provider

MSD mass storage device

MSG message

MSI medium scale integration

MSK minimum shift keying

MSL mean sea level

MSP Mode S specific protocol

MSSR monopulse secondary surveil­lance radar

MSSS Mode S specific services

MSU mode select unit

MT minimum time

MTA message transfer agent

MTBF mean time between failure

MTBO mean time between outages

MTBR mean time between removal/repairs

MTBUR mean time between unscheduled removal

MTBUR mean time between unit replacements

MTC maintenance terminal cabinet

MTD maintenance terminal display

MTF maintenance terminal function

MTI moving target indicator

MTM module test and maintenance

MTMBIU MTM bus interface unit

MTOW maximum takeoff weight

MTR military training route

MTS multi-spectral targeting system

MTSAT Multifunction Transport Satellite

MTTDA mean time to dispatch alert

MTTF mean time to failure

MTTM mean time to maintenance

MTTMA mean time to maintenance alert

MTTR mean time to repair

MTTRS mean time to restore service

MTTUR mean time to unscheduled removal

MU management unit

MUE modernized user equipment

MUM manned unmanned teaming

MUOS Mobile User Objective System

MUS minimum use specification

MUSE multi-user system environment

MUX multiplexer

mV millivolts

MVA minimum vectoring altitude

MVMC marginal visual meteorological conditions

MWARA major world air route area

MWP meteorological weather processor

MWS missile warning system


N1 fan speed

N2 intermediate compressor speed

N3 high-speed compressor

N-UCAS Navy-Unmanned Aerial Combat System

NACp navigation accuracy category for position

NACv navigation accuracy category for velocity

NAC NextGen Advisory Committee

NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research

NADIN national airspace data interchange network

NADIN II NADIN packet switch

NAILS national airspace integrated logistics support

NAK negative acknowledgment

NAPA National Academy of Public Administration

NAOMS National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service

NAPRS national airspace performance reporting system

NAS national aircraft standard

NAS National Airspace System (FAA)

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASPALS National Airspace System Preci­sion Approach and Landing Sys­tem (FAA)

NAT North Atlantic region

NAT North Atlantic tracks

NATA National Air Transport Association

NATCA National Air Traffic Controllers Association (U.S.)

NATS National Air Traffic Services (U.K.)

NATS North Atlantic track system

NAT TFG North Atlantic Traffic Forecasting Group

NAV navigation

NAVAID navigational aid

NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command

NAVSAT navigation satellite

NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command

NBAA National Business Aviation Association

NC numerical control

NC3A NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency

NCATT National Center for Aircraft Technician Training

NCD no computed data

NCES Net-Centric Enterprise Services

NCI not currently implemented

NCO Network Centric Operations

NCOIC Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium

NCOW net-centric operations and warfare

NCP NAS change proposal

NCS network control system

NCS network coordination station

ND navigation display

NDB navigation database

NDB nondirectional radio beacon

NDI nondestructive inspection

NDI nondevelopmental item

NE network element

NEAN North European ADS Network

NEAP North European CNS/ATM application project

NEC Network-Enabled Capability

NED Network Enterprise Domain

NELS Northwest European Loran System

NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association (U.S.)

NEO Network Enabled Operations

NEPA National Environmental Policy Act

NESACC North, East & Southern area control centers for China

NESDIS national environmental satellite data and information service

NET network entity title

NEXCOM Next Generation Air/Ground Communications System

NextGen Next Generation Air Transporta­tion System (U.S.)

NEXRAD next-generation weather radar

NFF no fault found

NFS network file server

NGIP NextGen Implementation Plan

NGIWG NextGen Implementation Plan Work Group

NGIWP NextGen Implementation Plan Work Plan

NGJ NextGen Jammer (U.S. Navy)

NIAC NAS Information Architecture Committee (FAA)

NIC navigation integrity category

NIC network interface controller

NIC new installation concept

NICE NAT implementation manage­ment group cost effectiveness

NICE network integrated cabin equipment

NIEC NextGen Integration and Evaluation Capability

NIH not invented here

NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency (U.S.)

NIMS NAS infrastructure management system

NIR network interface router

NIRV network interface router VHF datalink

NIS not in service

NISC NAS information security coordination

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

NIU North American ISDN User Forum (NIST)

NIP network interface processor

NL network layer

NLM network loadable module

NLP network layer protocol

NLR Netherlands National Aerospace Laboratory

NM nautical mile

NM network management

NMC National Meteorological Center

NMCCD network management category class diagram

NMCD network management category diagram

NMF network management function

NMIRS network management interface requirements specification

NML NATO Maturity Levels

NMP network management plan

NMS network management system

NMS navigation management system


NNEW NextGen Network Enabled Weath­er (FAA)

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.)

NOC network operations center

NOC note of change

NOCAR North Atlantic oceanic concept and requirements

NOCC National Operational Control Center

NO COM no communication

NOI notice of inquiry (FCC)

NOPAC North Pacific

NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command

NOTAM notice to airmen

NOTUS notice to users (ARINC)

NPA non-precision approach

NPDU network protocol data unit

NPIAS national plan for integrated airport systems

NPR national performance review

NPRM notice of proposed rule making

NPV net present value

NR network router

NRA non-radar airspace

NRD network routing domain

NRP national route program

NRS navigation reference system

NRZ non-return to zero

NS network service

NSA National Security Agency (U.S.)

NSAP network service access point

NSC network service center

NSDU network service data unit

NSEL NSAP selection

NSEU neutron single event upset

NSSL National Severe Storms Laboratory (U.S.)

NTDA NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm

NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration (U.S.)

NTF no trouble found

NTSB National Transportation Safety Board (U.S.)

NTST National Television Systems Committee

NUC navigation uncertainty category

NUCp navigation uncertainty category for position

NUI network user identification

NUP NEAN update program

NVCD night vision cueing and display

NVIS night vision imaging system

NVM non-volatile memory

NVRAM non-volatile RAM

NVS National Airspace System Voice Switch (FAA)

NWS National Weather Service (U.S.)

NWxP NextGen Weather Processor (FAA)


O-QAR optical quick access recorder

O&M operations and maintenance

O&S operating and support

OAC oceanic area control center

OAS oceanic automation system

OASIS operational area satellite information system

OASIS operational and supportability implementation system

OASIS organic airborne and surface influence sweep

OASYS obstacle avoidance system

OAT operational acceptance test

OAT outside air temperature

OATS orbit and attitude tracking system

OBP operational build plan

OBS omnibearing selector

OBS optical bypass switch

OCA oceanic control area

OCC occasionally connected computing

OCC operations control center

OCD oceanic clearance delivery

OCIG Oceanic Communications Improvement Group

OCO overseas contingency operations

OCP oceanic clearance processor

OCTAS obstacle cable and terrain avoidance system

ODA open document architecture

ODA Organization Designation Authorization

ODAPS oceanic display and planning system

ODIAC operational requirements for ATM air/ground data communications (Eurocontrol)

ODID operational display and input development

ODIN observe, detect, identify, neutralize

ODL oceanic data link

ODL optical data link

OEI one engine inoperative

OEM original equipment manufacturer

OEP Operational Evolution Partnership (FAA)

OES Office of Emergency Services

OEU overhead electronics unit

OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

OFDPS oceanic flight data processing system

OFP operational flight program

OGE operational ground equipment

OHA operational hazard assessment

OHSC overhead stowage compartments

OHU overhead unit (HUD)

OI operational improvement

OID object identifier

OIG Office of Inspector General (U.S.)

OIS operational information systems

OIT onboard information terminal

OJT on-the-job training

OLAN onboard local area network

OLDI on-line data interchange

OLED organic LED

OM outer marker

OMB Office of Management and Budget (U.S.)

OMS onboard maintenance system

OMT object modeling technique

OMT onboard maintenance terminal

ONR Office of Naval Research (U.S.)

OOA object-oriented analysis

OOD object-oriented design

OODA observe, orient, decide and act

OOOI out/off/on/in

OPA operational performance assessment

OPAS overhead panel ARINC 629 system

OPBC overhead panel bus controller

OPD Optimized Profile Descent

OPS operations

OPS OPS per second

OPSPECS OPS specifications

OPU overspeed protection unit

OPV optionally piloted vehicle

OR operational requirements

ORB object request broker

ORD operational requirements document

ORD operations readiness demonstration

OS open service

OS operating system

OSA operational safety assessment

OSCAR Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio

OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense (U.S.)

OSDS oceanic systems development support

OSE open systems environment

OSED operational service and environment definition

OSEIC operational service and environment information capture

OSGCS one system ground control station

OSI open systems interface/interconnection

OSIE OSI environment

OSI-RM OSI-reference model

OSJTF Open Systems Joint Task Force (U.S.)

OSPF open shortest path first

OSPGCS one system portable ground control station (U.S. Army)

OSR order status report

OSRVT One System Remote Video Terminal

OTA Office of Technology Assessment (U.S.)

OTA other transaction agreement

OT&E operational test and evaluation

OTFP operational traffic flow planning

OTH over the horizon

OTM-4D Oceanic Trajectory Management-4D

OTP Office of Telecommunications Policy (U.S.)

OTS off the shelf

OVHT overheat


P2FEP Preliminary Eurocontrol test of air/ground datalink (PETAL)-II front-end processor

P3I preplanned product improvements

P-Code GPS precision code

P-DME precision DME

P-RNAV precision area navigation

P/F poll/final

P/RST press to reset

PA passenger address

PA power amplifier

PA precision approach

PABX private automatic branch exchange

PAC path attenuation compensation

PACIS passenger address and commu­nication interphone system

PAD packet assembler-disassembler

PAL programmable array logic

PAM pulse amplitude modulation

PAMRI peripheral adapter module replacement item

PANS-OPS procedures for air navigation services-aircraft operations

PANYNJ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

PAPD precise and accurate positioning device

PAPI precision approach path indicator

PAR precision approach radar

PARTNER Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction

PAT process action team

PATS portable avionics test solution

PAU passenger address unit

PAVES programmable audio video enter­tainment system

PAWES performance assessment and workload evaluation

PAX passenger

PBD place bearing/distance (waypoint)

PBID post burn-in data

PBN performance-based navigation

PBL performance-based logistics

PBX public/private branch exchange

PC personal computer

PC printed circuit

PCA physical configuration audit

PCB printed circuit board

PCC pilot controller communication

PCD panoramic cockpit display

PCI peripheral component interface (32-bit local bus)

PCI protocol control information

PCM pulse code modulation

PCMIA Personal Computer Memory Card Interface Association

PCO protocol converter unit

PCU passenger control unit

PCU personal control unit

PCU power control unit

PCU program coordination office

PD profile descent

PDB performance data base

PDC pre-departure clearance

PDCU panel data concentrator unit

PDD package design document

PDDI product definition data interface

PDF primary display function

PDL program design language

PDM predefined controller text message

PDM project development manager

PDN public data network

PDOP position dilution of precision

PDR preliminary design review

PDS persistent data storage

PDS primary display system

PDU protocol data unit

PE precision engagement

PECT peer entity contact table

PED portable electronic device

PEO C3T Army Program Executive Office Command, Control and Commu­nications Tactical

PER packed encoding rule

PERT program evaluation and review technique

PETAL preliminary Eurcontrol test of air/ground data link

PF pilot flying

PF power factor

pFAST passive final approach spacing tool

PFC passenger facility charge

PFC primary flight computer

PFCS primary flight control system

PFD primary flight display

PHARE Program for Harmonized ATM Research in Europe (Eurocontrol)

PHY physical

PI parameter identifier

PICMG PCI Industrial Computer Manufac­turers Group

PIA performance, integrity and availability

PICS protocol implementation confor­mance statements

PID parameter identifier

PID pilot information display

PID primitive identifier

PID process ID

PIM programmable infosec module

PIP product improvement program

PIREP pilot report

PKI public key infrastructure

PL parameter length

PLA power lever angle

PLB personal locator beacon

PLBT personal locator beacon and voice transceiver

PM program manager

PM phase modulation

PMA parts manufacturer approval

PMA parts manufacturer authority

PMA permanent magnet alternator

PMAT portable maintenance access terminal

PMC provisional memory cover

PMC PCI mezzanine card

PMG permanent magnet generator

PMOS p-type metal oxide semiconductor

PMP project/program management plan

PMS performance management system

PN pseudo noise

PNCS performance navigation computer system

PND primary navigation display

PNF pilot not flying

PNR point of no return

PO part of

POA plain old ACARS

POA position offset applied

POC point of contact

POC proof of concept

POCC project operations control center

POH pilot’s operating handbook

POM program objective memorandum

POP plug-in optronic payload

POP point of presence

POR Pacific Ocean region

POR program of record

POSIX portable operating system interface

POTS plain old telephone system/service

PPA production preparation agreement

PPDU physical layer protocol data unit

PPI planned position indicator

PPL processor-to-processor link

PPM pages per minute

PPM parts per million

PPM pulse position modulation

PPP point-to-point protocol

PPS packets per second

PPS precise positioning service

PPS pulse per second

PRAIM predictive RAIM

PRF pulse repetition frequency

PRI primary rate interface

PRM precision runway monitor

PRM-A Precision Runway Monitor-Alter­nate (FAA)

PROM programmable read-only memory

PRN pseudo random noise

PRS public regulated service

PRSOV pressure regulating and shutoff valve

PS power supply

PSA PS assembly

PSD port sharing device

PSDN packet switched data network

PSE packet-switching exchange

PSEU proximity sensor electronic unit

PSL projected service life

PSL/PSA problem statement language

/problem statement analyzer

PSM power supply modules

PSN packet switching network

PSPL preferred standard parts list

PSR primary surveillance radar

PSS proximity sensor system

PSSA preliminary system safety assessment

PSTN public switched telephone network

PSU passenger service unit

PT plane talk

PTAN precision terrain aided navigation

PTD performance test domain

PTI packet type identifier

PTM peripheral transition module

PTR production test requirements

PTS problem tracking system

PTSD production test specification document

PTT push to talk

PTU power transfer unit

PV parameter value

PV photovoltaic

PVC permanent virtual circuit

PVD plan view display

PVT position, velocity, time

PWM pulse-width modulation

PWR power

PXI PCI extensions for instrumentation


QA quality assurance

QAP QA plan

QAR quick access recorder

QDR quality defect report

QDR quality deficiency report

QEC quadrantral error corrector

QFE Q code, field elevation pressure

QM quality management

QMP QM plan

QMS QM system

QNH sea level pressure

QNT quint networking technology

QOP quality operating procedures

QPL qualified product list

QRC quick reaction capability

QRH quick reference handbook

QOS quality of service

QP quality procedure

QT qualification test

QVL qualified vendor list


R-CDL Radar Common Data Link

R/W read/write

R&D research and development

R&M reliability and maintainability

R&PWG Requirements and Planning Work Group (FAA)

RA radio altitude

RA resolution advisory

RA routing area

RAA Regional Airline Association

RAAF Royal Australian Air Force

RAAS runway awareness and advisory system

RAC-GAT Russian/American Coordinating Group for Air Traffic Control

RAC runway analysis chart

RAD rapid application development

RAE Royal Aircraft Establishment (Farnborough)

RAeS Royal Aeronautical Society (U.K.)

RAF requirements analysis folder

RAF Royal Air Force (U.K.)

RAI radio altimeter indicator

RAID redundant arrays of independent disks

RAIM receiver autonomous integrity monitoring

RALA request automatic line adapter

RALT radar altimeter

RAM-T reliability, availability, maintainability and testability

RAM random access memory

RAMICS rapid airborne mine clearance system

RAMS reliability, availability, maintainability, sustainability

RAP required automation performance

RAPT regional airspace procedures team

RAS route area statistics (IATA)

RATMP required air traffic management performance

RBT reference business trajectory

RC radio controlled

RCAG remote control air-to-ground

RCAT Reconfigurable Cockpit and Avi­onics Testbed

RCD radar cable detection

RCE radio control equipment

RCF required communications performance

RCL radio communications link

RCO remote communications outlet

RCP radio control panel

RCR routing and circuit restoral

RCSU remote control and status unit

RCU radio control unit

RCU remote control unit

RC&W rack connectors and wiring

RD (taxi) route deviation

RD routing domain

RDARA regional domestic air route area

RDC routing domain confederation

RDDMI radio digital distance magnetic indicator

RDF RD format

RDI radio direction indicator

RDI RD identifier

RDP radar data processing

RDR radar

RDSS radio determination satellite system

RDT&E research, development, test and evaluation

REA radar electronics assembly

RE&D research, engineering and development

REDAC Research, Engineering and Devel­opment Advisory Committee (FAA)

REFT remote unit reference transmitter (FAA)

REP required environmental performance

REQ request

RER residual error rate

RERP Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program

REVS radar-enhanced vision system

RF radio frequency

RF radius-to-fix

RFA Regulatory Flexibility Act (U.S.)

RFC request for comments

RFG requirement focus group

RFI radio frequency interference

RFI request for information

RFID radio frequency identification

RFM rotorcraft flight manual

RFMS rotorcraft flight manual supplement

RFO request for offer

RFP request for proposal

RFQ request for quote

RFU radio frequency unit

RGB red green blue

RGCSP Review of the General Concept of Separation Panel (ICAO)

RGL regulatory guidance library

RGS relay ground station

RH radio handler

RHF ridiculously high frequency

RHO response on handoff

RHSM reduced horizontal separation minima

RI runway incursion

RIB routing information base

RIN Royal Institute of Navigation (U.K.)

RIP routing information protocol

RISC reduced instruction set computer

RLE response on link establishment

RLG ring laser gyro

RLS reliable link service

RM regional manager

RM&A reliability, maintainability and availability

RMCDE radar message conversion and distribution equipment

RMI radio magnetic indicator

RMMS remote maintenance monitoring system

RMP risk management plan

RMS risk management system

RMS root mean square

RNAV area navigation

RNP required navigation performance

RNP AR RNP authorization required

RNP SAAAR RNP Special Aircrew and Aircraft Authorization Required

RNR receive not ready

RO radio operator

ROA recognized operating agency

ROC rate of climb

ROC rest of operational capability

ROD rate of descent

ROI return on investment

ROIP radio over Internet protocol

ROM read only memory

ROM rough order of magnitude

RON remain over night

ROT runway occupancy time

RP routing protocol

RPAT RNP Parallel Approach Transmission

RPDE rapid preliminary development effort

RPG rocket-propelled grenade

RPI relative position indicator

RPK revenue passenger kilometers

RPM revolutions per minute

RPOA Recognized Private Operation Agency

RR receive ready

RRI router reference implementation

RSDP reliable sequencing delivery-confirmation protocol

RSN regional sub-network

RSP required surveillance performance

RSSI received signal strength indicator

RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition

RT radio telecommunication

RTA required time of arrival

RTB rocket-towed barrier

RTC red time clock

RTCA formerly Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics

RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services

RTD resistance temperature detector

RTK real-time kinematic

RTM radio transmission module

RTO rejected takeoff

RTOS real time operating system

RTR remote transmitter receiver site

RTS request to send

RTSP required total system performance

RTTI run-time type identification

RTU radio tuning unit

RU rack unit (1 inch)

RVFP RNAV visual flight procedures

RVP required vision performance

RVR runway visual range

RVSM reduced vertical separation minimum

RVT remote video terminal

RWI reduce weather impact

RWM R/W memory

RWP required weather performance

RWR radar warning receiver

RWSL runway status lights

RX receiver

RZ return to zero


S0 Segment 0

S1 Segment 1

S&A sense-and-avoid

S&A see and avoid

SA selective availability

SA situational awareness

SAA special activity airspace

SAA sense and avoid

SAAAR special aircraft and aircrew authorization required

SAASM selective availability/anti-spoofing module

SAASM/EGI SAASM/embedded GPS inertial system

SAD software architecture document

SADT software architecture design team

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

SAFIR systems aid for integration and fault reporting

SAI system architecture and interfaces

SAI System Architecture and Inter­faces Subcommittee (AEEC)

SAM slot allocation management

SAM South American region

SAM surface-to-air missile

SAMM surface area movement management

SAMPE Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Equipment

SAP service access points

SAR search and rescue

SAR synthetic aperture radar

SARPS standards and recommended practices (ICAO)

SAS stability augmentation system

SAS station address set

SASS surveillance analysis support system (Eurocontrol)

SAT static air temperature

SAT systems and acceptance testing

SATCOM satellite communications

SATNAV satellite navigation

SB service bulletin

SBAS satellite-based augmentation system

SBC single board computer

SBD schematic block diagram

SBD short data burst

SBS Surveillance and Broadcast Services

SC special committee (RTCA)

SCA self-contained approaches

SCA software communications archi­tecture

SCAP Security Certification and Accreditation Procedures (U.S. Department of Defense)

SCAP standard computerized airplane performance

SCAT special category

SCCI system controller and cockpit indicator

SCD system category diagram

SCE super-conducting electronics

SCPC single carrier per channel

SCSI small computer system interface

SCT Surface Collaborative Decision Making Team

SD secure digital

SDA System Design Assurance

SDD system/software design document

SDD system development and demon­stration

SDDN software-defined data network

SDF software development folder

SDI source destination identifier

SDL software data loader

SDLC synchronous data link control

SDM software development methodology

SDP software development plan

SDR software defined radio

SDR system design review

SDRAM synchronous dynamic random access memory

SDR software-defined radio

SDU satellite data unit

SE systems engineering

SEC aircraft information security

working group (AEEC)

SEC software enabled control

SECAM sequential color with memory

SEI Software Engineering Institute

SEL select identifier

SELCAL selective calling

SEMP system engineering management plan

SESAR Single European Sky Air Traffic Management

Research program (Eurocontrol)

SETA system engineering and technical assistance SE-Vision synthetic-enhanced vision

SEWG security working group

SFAR special federal regulation

SFDF subsystem fault detection function

SFE supplier (or seller)-furnished equipment

SFT software fault tolerance

SG subgroup

SI&T software integration and test

SICAS secondary surveillance radar improvements and collision avoidance systems


SID standard instrument departure

SIGINT signals intelligence

SIGMET significant meteorological information

SIL source integrity level

SIL surveillance integrity level

SINCGARS single-channel ground and airborne radio system

SIPRNET secret internet protocol route network (U.S. Army)

SIS signal in space

SISG Systems Implementation Subgroup (IATA)

SIT system integration and test

SITA Societe Internationale de Tele­communications


SITD system integration test description

SITP system integration test plan

SITP/D SITP/description

SITR system integration test report

SITS Security Integrated Tool Set

SIU server interface unit

SIWG seat integration

SJU SESAR Joint Undertaking

SKPP separation kernels in environments

requiring high robustness

SKT station-keeping technology

SLA service level agreement

SLC synchronous link control

SLH system level health

SLI system level interface

SLM standard length message

SLoC source lines of code

SLS satellite landing system

SLUC system level use case

SLV service level verifier

SM systems management

SMA surface movement advisor

SMART standard modular avionics repair and test

SMB serial mezzanine board

SMC Space and Missile Systems Center (Air Force)

SMD standardized microcircuit drawing

SMD surface mount device

SMDS switch multimegabit data service

SME system management entity

SMGCS surface movement guidance and control systems

SMI standard message identifier

SMR simulator maintainability and reliability

SMR specialized mobile radio

SMR surface movement radar

SMS safety management system

SMS short messaging service

SMS spectrum monitoring system

SMT standard message text

SMU sensor management unit

SMUG stores management upgrade system

SN subnetwork

SNA system network architecture

SNAC SN access

SNCR SN connection reference

SNDCF SN dependent convergence function

SNDCF/P SNDCF/protocol

SNICF SN independent convergence function

SNLE SN link establishment

SNMP simple network management protocol

SNMPv1 SNMP version 1

SNPA SN point of attachment

SNPDU SN protocol data unit

SNPRM supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking

SNR signal-to-noise ratio

SNSDU SN service data unit

SOC service operations center

SOC system on a chip

SOF Special Operations Forces

SOH start of header

SOI system operator instructions

SOIA simultaneous offset instrument approach

SOM software operator manual

SOIT satellite operational implementa­tion team

SON statement of operational need

SOP standard operating procedure

SOSCOE System-Of-Systems Common Operating Environment

SOW statement of work

SP signal processing

SPAR Survivability Planner Associate Re-router

SPEAR system performance evaluation and analysis reporting

SPCR system problem/change report

SPI serial peripheral interface

SPI-IR surveillance performance and interoperability implementing rule

SPICE STANS preparation integrator for CNS/ATM environment (Eurocontrol)

SPM software programmer’s manual

SPO system program office

SPR safety and performance requirements

SPS software product specification

SPS standard positioning service

SPS stratospheric platform system

SPTF Spectrum Policy Task Force (FCC)

SQ service quality

SQAP software quality assurance plan

SQB SQ/billing processor

SQD SQ data

SQP signal quality parameter

SRAM static random access memory

SREJ selective reject

SRM selective reject mode

SRM systematic risk management

SRR system/software requirements review

SRS software requirements specification

SRTM shuttle radar topography mission

SRU shop replaceable unit

SRW Soldier Radio Waveform

SSA source selection activity

SSA system safety assessment

SSAC source selection advisory committee

SSAP strategic safety action plan

SSB single side band

SSDD system/segment design document

SSE safety, security and environmental performance

SSEB source selection evaluation board

SSOI sidestick order indicator

SSR secondary surveillance radar

SSS surveillance server system

SSS system/segment specification

SSU subsequent signal unit

STA scheduled time of arrival

STANAG standardization agreement

STANS simulation for a total air naviga­tion system (Eurocontrol)

STAP space-time adaptive processing

STAR standard terminal arrival route

STARS standard terminal automation replacement system (FAA)

STB systems test bed

STC supplemental type certificate

STCA short-term traffic advisory

STD standard

STD system technical description

STDMA self-organized time division multiple access

STDMA synchronized time division multiple access

STF SATCOM tracking facility

STIU satellite telecommunications intermediate unit

STK Scandinavian Surveillance Office

STM serial transition module

STMS surface traffic management system

STOL short takeoff and landing

STOVL short takeoff/vertical landing

STP system test plan

STP/D STP/description

STR system technical report

STR system test report

STVS small tower voice switch

STX start of text

STUAS small tactical unmanned aircraft system

SU signal unit

SUA special use airspace

SUB subscribe

SUM software user manual

SUPPS regional supplementary procedures (ICAO)

SUT system under test

SVC switched virtual circuit

SvRR service readiness review

SVS synthetic vision system

SVU satellite voice unit

SW software

SWAP severe weather avoidance procedure program

SWaP size, weight and power

SWARM Smart Warfighting Array of Reconfigurable

Modules (U.S. Army)

SWIM System Wide Information Man­agement (FAA)

SWIT software integration and test

SWIT switched virtual circuit

SWTP software technology plan

SWTRR software test readiness review

SYS system identifier

SYSCAT-B system category-B (FAA message format)

SysCI system configuration item

SysDD system design document


T-PED transmitting portable electronic device

T&E test and evaluation

TA tailored arrivals

TA target acquisition

TA traffic advisory (TCAS)

TAA technical advanced aircraft

TAC Theater Aviation Command

TACAN tactical air navigation

TADSS training aides, devices, simulators, simulations

TAF terminal aerodrome forecast

TAF terminal area forecast (ICAO)

TAIC transport accident investigation commission

TAIS total airport management system

TAMD theater air and missile defense

TAMR Terminal Automation Modernization Replacement

TAOARC Terminal Area Operations Aviation Rulemaking

Committee (FAA)

TAR trials ATN router

TAP terminal area procedure

TAP tower automation program

TAS traffic advisory system

TASS terminal air surveillance system

TAT total air temperature

TAWS terrain avoidance warning system

TBFM time based flow management

TBM time based metering

TBO trajectory based operations

TC transport connection

TCA terminal control area

TCAD traffic collision alerting device

TCAS traffic alert collision avoidance system

TCAS II traffic alert collision avoidance system II

TCC turbine clearance control

TCDL tactical common data link

TCP transmission control protocol

TCP/IP TCP/Internet protocol

TCS tower communications system

TD technical documentation

TDF training device facility requirements

TDLS tower data link services (system)

TDM time division multiplexed

TDMA time division multiple access

TDOA time difference of arrival

TDST tower data services terminal

TDWR terminal Doppler weather radar

TDZE TouchDown zone elevation

TECOM technical committee

TEDS transducer electronic data sheet

TEI text element identifiers

TELCO telephone company

TEN-T trans-European network-transport

TERA Terminal Enhancements for RNAV ATC

TERCOM terrain contour matching

TERPS terminal en route procedures

TERPS terminal instrument procedures

TES tactical exploitation system

TES trials end system (for ATN)

TESCOS terminal coordination system

TF5 Task Force 5 (RTCA)

TFC traffic

TFDM tower flight data manager/management

TFM traffic flow management

TFM-M Traffic Flow Management Mod­ernization (FAA)

TFMS traffic flow management system

TFR temporary flight restriction

TFTP trivial file transfer protocol

TG transmission gate

TG4 maximum time between GSIF’s timer

TG5 maximum link overlap timer TGT target

TIA Telecommunications Industry Association

TIF traffic information file

TIP tower integrated program

TIS traffic information service

TIS traffic information system

TIS-B traffic information service-broad­cast

TL terminal location (ACARS/AFEPS)

TLS target level of safety

TM technical manual

TMA traffic management advisor

TMC traffic management coordinator

TMC test, monitor and control

TMI traffic management initiative

TMOS Transformational Satellite Com­munications System Mission Operations System

TM&O telecommunications manage­ment and operations

TMLLF terrain masking low-level flight

TMMAC tactical airborne moving map capability

TMS-T traffic management system transition

TMU traffic management unit

TO technical order

TOA time of applicability

TOC Tactical Operations Center

TOC transfer of communications

TOFT tactical operational flight trainer

TO/GA take off/go around

TOM time of measurement

TOR terms of reference (ICAO/FAA)

TOT time of transmission

TOW takeoff weight

TP test point

TP4 transport protocol class 4

TPA taxi positional awareness

TPAW turbulence prediction and warn­ing system

TPDU transport protocol data unit

TPF transaction processing facility

TPL terminal permission list

TPM technical performance management

TPU terminal processing units

TQM total quality management

TRACON terminal radar approach control

TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command (U.S. Army)

TRB technical review board

TRD transit routing domain

TRNS terrain referenced navigation system

TRR test readiness review

TS time source

TS transport service

TSA technical services agreement

TSA temporary segregated areas

TSA Transportation Security Administration (U.S.)

TSAP transport service access point

TSAT Transformational Satellite Com­munications System

TSB Transportation Safety Board (Canada)

TSC term service commitment

TSC transportation system center

TSDP technical support and data packages

TSDU transport service data unit

TSG technical subgroup

TSG technical standards and guidelines

TSO technical standard order (FAA)

TSOA technical standard order authorization

TSP tactical signal intelligence payload

TSP transmitted signal power

TSS technology support and services

TSPD technical support and data package

TSTM time source transition module

TT test tools

TTG time to go

TTL transistor-transistor logic

TTNT tactical targeting networking technology

TTP time-triggered protocol

TTP tactics, techniques and procedures

TTS time to station

TTW time to waypoint

TUAS tactical unmanned aerial system

TUAV tactical unmanned aerial vehicle

TURB turbulence

TVE total vertical error

TWDL two-way data link communica­tions

TWIP terminal weather information for pilots

TWP technical work program

TX transmit


UA unmanned aircraft

UA unnumbered acknowledgment

UART universal asynchronous receiver transmitter

UAS unmanned aircraft system

UASTB Unmanned Aircraft System Training Battalion

(U.S. Army)

UAT universal access transceiver

UATP universal air travel plan

UAV unmanned aerial vehicle

UBI uplink block identifier

UCAV unmanned combat aerial vehicle

UCD universal cockpit display

UCI user computer interface

UD user data

UDF unducted fan

UDP user datagram protocol

UGCS universal ground control station

UGDT universal ground data terminal

UGS unattended ground sensors

UHF ultra-high frequency

UI unnumbered information

UIR upper information region

UL uplink

ULV ultra-low voltage

ULWG upper layer working group

UML unified modeling language

UMS unmanned system

UMTS universal mobile telecommuni­cations system

UP universal platform

UPRM universal platform resource management

UPS uninterruptible power supply

URET user request evaluation tool

URL universal resource locator

USAACE United States Army Aviation Center of Excellence

USAF U.S. Air Force

USB universal serial bus

USC United States code

USCG U.S. Coast Guard

USSOCOM United States Special Operations Command

UTC universal time coordinated

UTP unshielded twisted pair

UV ultraviolet

UUT unit under test

UWB ultra wide-band


V volt

VITA VMEbus International Trade Group

V/ULOS versions of the HaveQuick and VHF/UHF

line of sight

V&V verification and validation

VAC volts alternating current

VAD Visual Acquisition Disrupter

VAM value-added manufacturer

VANS value-added network services

VAR value-added reseller

VAP value-added processor

VAS value-added services

VASI visual approach slope indicator

VBV variable bleed valve

VC virtual circuit

VCB virtual circuit bridge

VCDU video control display unit

VCU VDL control unit

VDC volts direct current

VDD version description document

VDGS visual docking guidance system

VDL VHF data link

VDL4 VHF Data Link Mode 4

VDLM2 VDL Mode 2

VDLM3 VDL Mode 3

VDLM4 VDL Mode 4

VDR VHF data radio

VDU visual display unit

VEE visual engineering environment

VER version

VFD virtual flight deck

VFOM vertical figure of merit

VFR visual flight rules

VGA video graphics adapter

VGA video graphics array

VG/DG vertical gyro/directional gyro

VGS VDLM2 ground station

VHF very high frequency

VHSIC very high speed integrated cir­cuit

VIA versatile integrated avionics

VIP verbal intruder positioning

VLJ very light jet

VLSI very large scale integration

VMC vehicle management computer

VMC visual meteorological conditions

VMD video motion detection

VME versa module Eurocard bus

VME VHF management entity (VMEbus)

VMECC versa module Eurocard card cage

VMON VNMS health monitoring

VMS vehicle management system

VNAV vertical navigation

VNE never-exceed speed

VNMS VDLM2 network management system

VNO maximum structural cruising speed

VOCRAD voice radio

VOIP voice over Internet protocol

VOR VHF omnidirectional radio range

VPN virtual private network

VPT virtual procedure trainer

Vr 157 knots

VR rotation speed

VREF approach reference speed

VRG VDL reference guide

VSAT very small aperture terminal

VSCS voice switching and control system

VSD VDL specific DTE address

VSM vertical separation minimum

VSRS voice switch replacement sys­tem

VSTC validation of supplemental type certificate

VSWR voltage standing wave radio

VTAM virtual telecommunications access method

VTAS voice, throttle and stick

VTOL vertical takeoff and landing

VTS vessel traffic system

VUIT-2 Video from Unmanned Aerial Systems

for Interoperability Teaming Level II


WAAS wide area augmentation system

WACS wireless airport communication system

WADGPS wide area differential GPS

WAFC world area forecast center

WAM wide area multilateration

WAN wide area network

WARC World Administrative Radio Conference

WARP weather and radar processor

WAS wide area search

WASP wireless access service point

WATRS west Atlantic route structure

WBS weight balance system

WBS work breakdown structure

WC waypoint capture

WDM wavelength division multiplexed

WDM LAN wavelength division multiplexed local area network

WG working group (EUROCAE)

Wi-Fi wireless fidelity

WGS world geodetic system

Wilco will comply

WIN-T Warfighter Information Network

WINN Weather Information Network

WIP wide area augmentation system integrity panel

WIPPS wide-body integrated platform protection system

WJHTC William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAA)

WLG wireless ground-link

WMO World Meteorological Organiza­tion

WMSCR weather message switching center replacement

WNW wideband networking waveform

WORM write-once/read many (optical disk technology)

WP work procedure

WPR waypoint position report

WPT waypoint

WQAR wireless quick access recorder

WRC World Radiocommunication Conference

WS windshear

WSDDM weather support for deicing decision-making

WSR weather surveillance radar

WTMA Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals

WTMD Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures

WWG wireless working group

WWW/E who, what, where/performance evaluation (RTCA)

WX weather

WXR weather radar


X cancel

XID exchange identification

XFR transfer

XL-ETFE cross-linked ethylene tetraflourothylene

XMC switched fabric mezzanine card

XMIT transmit

XMTR transmitter

XPDR transponder

XTI X-open transport interface

XTP express transfer protocol

XTRA X-ban thin radar aperture

XWIND crosswind


ZCA zero conflict airspace

ZFW zero fuel weight

ZOC zone of convergence

Zulu Greenwich mean time

ZVF zero velocity filter

For additions or corrections to the online version and the next print edition of the Avionics Magazine Aerospace Acronym & Abbreviation Guide, contact the editors:

Bill Carey at, or Emily Feliz at

Ask HN: What do you want to see in Debian 10 (“buster”)? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


Chris Lamb here, Debian Project Leader. As a bit of background, I've been around the "startup" scene on and off, even participating in YCombinator during S12. I have a few side projects here and there and I also do a lot of full-stack web development using Python/Django.

I'm very much interested in soliciting your feedback and feature requests for the Debian 10 ("buster") development cycle which opens up tomorrow after the release of "stretch" today. This is obviously a shameless appropriation of Ubuntu's post a few months ago and some requests would definitely overlap but I feel we could get some interesting replies nonetheless.

Please include in your replies the following bullets:

- HEADLINE: 1-line description of the request

- DESCRIPTION: A lengthier description of the feature. Bonus points for constructive criticism...

- DISTRIBUTION: (Optional) [stable, testing, unstable, or even a Debian deriviative]

- ROLE/AFFILIATION: (Optional, your job role and affiliation)

We would be exteremely interested in your feedback! Everything is fair game -- kernel, security, community, default settings, architectures, init systems (!), desktop, Docker, documentation, default packages, cloud images, etc. etc.. Feel free to comment even if you are using a Debian derivative such as Ubuntu, Mint, etc. too.

Thanks, HN!


RPAP3 provides a flexible scaffold for coupling HSP90 to the human R2TP co-chaperone complex | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


N-terminal His-tagged RuvBL1 and untagged RuvBL2 were cloned as indicated in Lopez-Perrote et al.28. For pull-down experiments, a 3xMyc tag was incorporated to the N-terminus of RUVBL1. The RPAP3 full length (FL) was purchased from GenScript. The RPAP31-430, RPAP31-400, RPA31-420, RPAP3395-665, RPAP3430-665, RPAP3523-665, RPAP3430-541, RPAP3541-665, and RPAP3395-665 (RPAP3-ΔNT) gene truncations were cloned using NdeI sites and ligation-free cloning using infusion cloning (Clonetech lab Inc.) into a modified pGex6p modified plasmid named p3E (University of Sussex, UK), which resulted in N-terminal GST-tagged RPAP3 genes (Supplementary Table 1).

The human PIH1D1 full-length gene and PIH1D1180-290 truncated genes were cloned into a pET28b using NdeI site, which resulted in 6XHis-hPIH1D1. PIH1D1 constructs were co-expressed with RPAP3 since PIH1D1 was insoluble when expressed alone. RuvBL1 full-length gene was cloned into NheI and BamHI sites of a modified pRSETA plasmid (containing 3×Myc tags) and RuvBL2 gene was cloned into pET28b using NdeI and BamHI sites. Human Hsp90 full-length beta gene was cloned into modified pET28b plasmid (contacting 6His-2Xstrep-tags) using NdeI, which resulted in 6His-2Xstrep-PreSc-Hsp90FL beta gene.

Protein expression and purification

The human RUVBL1–RUVBL2 protein complex and RUVBL2 used in the pull-down experiments, and human HSP90 beta were transformed into Rosetta (DE3) pLysS cells (F−ompT hsdSB(rB− mB−) gal dcm (DE3) pLysSRARE (CamR), Merck Millipore Ltd.). The cells were grown in the presence of ampicillin and kanamycin antibiotics at 37 °C until the cells reached their log-phase. Then the cells were induced by the addition of 1 mM IPTG. The cells were further grown at 25 °C overnight for protein expression. The cell mass was pelleted by spinning the cell culture at 6238×g for 10 min. The cells were lysed using a sonicator in 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl (HEPES buffer) and 1 tablet of EDTA-free protease inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich Ltd.). The cell lysate was centrifuged at 20,000×g for an hour at 4 °C. The clear supernatant was loaded on to the equilibrated Talon beads in 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl for His-tag affinity-chromatography. The beads were washed with HEPES buffer to remove the contaminant proteins. The proteins of interest were eluted with 500 mM imidazole in HEPES buffer. The eluted proteins were analyzed by 4–12% SDS-PAGE and concentrated to 6 mg ml−1 using viva-spin (MWCO 10K, Sartorius). The proteins were further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using S200 10/300 column (GE Healthcare Ltd.). The GST-tagged RPAP3FL and RPAP3 shorter gene constructs alone and in complex with PIH1D1 full length and PIH1D1180-290 were expressed in Rosetta (DE3) pLysS cells. The cells were lysed similar to RUVBL1/2 and HSP90 beta. The proteins were purified using GST-tag affinity chromatography by adding the clear cell lysate to the GST-beads. The GST-bound proteins were washed with HEPES buffer and they were eluted with 50 mM glutathione. The proteins were incubated with PreScission protease (3C protease) to cleave the GST-tag at 4 °C overnight and the proteins free of GST-tag were concentrated to 20 mg ml−1 using viva-spin with MWCO of 10k. The proteins were further purified by gel filtration chromatography using S200 26/60 column in degassed 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl. For those pull-down experiments using untagged RUVBL1, 6xHis-tagged RUVBL1 was purified and the tag cleaved using PreScission protease.

RUVBL1–RUVBL2 complexes used for cryo-EM studies were produced and purified as before28. N-terminal His10-tagged human RuvBL1 and untagged human RuvBL2 were co-transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells grown in LB medium. The lysate was applied to a HisTrap HP column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 300 mM NaCl, 10% (v/v) glycerol, and 20 mM imidazole. Elution was performed using a 20–500 mM imidazole gradient, followed by a preparative SEC using a Sephacryl S300 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated in 50 mM Tris, 300 mM NaCl and 1 mM DTT. The uncropped SDS-PAGE gels of the SEC of the RUVBL1–RUVBL2 and RPAP3–PIH1D1 used for cryo-EM are shown in Supplementary Fig. 7. The purification was monitored by SDS–PAGE. RUVBL1 used for the pull-down experiments contained an N-terminal 3xMyc tag, to help distinguish RUVBL1 and RUVBL2 in SDS-PAGE.

Pull-down assay for interaction mapping

Twenty micromolar GST-RPAP3 (full length and different lengths of RPAP3) and RPAP3–PIH1D1 and RPAP3–PIH1D1180–290 complexes were mixed with 30 μl GST beads, which were equilibrated in 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl. Sixty micromolar of the RUVBL2 alone and RUVBL1–RUVBL2 complex were added to the above mixture for the interaction mapping study. In these experiments, a 3xMyc tag was incorporated to the N-terminus of RUVBL1 to help in distinguishing RUVBL1 and RUVBL2 in SDS-PAGE. The above reaction mixture was incubated for 45 min at 4 °C rotating at 20 rpm min−1. The beads were washed three times with 500 μl of HEPES buffer and the bound fraction was eluted with 50 mM glutathione.

Human R2TP complex assembly was monitored by pull-down. For this, the purified RPAP3–PIH1D1 and RUVBL1–RUVBL2 proteins were used for the R2TP complex assembly. The 20 μM GST–RPAP3–PIH1D1 complex and 60 μM RUVBL1–RUVBL2 proteins were used in the experiments; 30 μl GST-beads (GE Healthcare) equilibrated in 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl (HEPES buffer) were added to the above protein complexes. Then the protein mixture was incubated for 45 min rotating at 20 rpm at 4 °C. The beads were washed three times with HEPES buffer to remove the non-specific proteins bound on to the GST-beads. The bound fraction was eluted with 50 mM glutathione in 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl. For the co-expression experiments shown in Fig. 1, we co-expressed Gst-RPAP3FL, Gst-RPAP3FL-RuvBL2FL, Gst-RPAP3541–665-RuvBL2FL and Gst-RPAP3541–665-RuvBL2 ∆DII. The interactions were analyzed using GST-affinity chromatography and the bound fractions were eluted with 50 mM glutathione in the 20 mM HEPES pH 7.85, 140 mM NaCl, and the quality of the protein complex was visualized using SDS-PAGE.

Cryo-EM of human R2TP

To image R2TP at high resolution, 0.45 μM RUVBL1–RUVBL2 (estimated as dodecamers) was incubated with 9 μM of RPAP3–PIH1D1 complex for 20 min in ice and the mix dialyzed for 5 h against 25 mM HEPES pH 7.8, 130 mM NaCl, 10 mM 2-Mercaptoethanol. After dialysis, the sample was recovered and incubated with ADP (pH 7.0) for 1 h at a final concentration of 0.5 mM. Subsequently, aliquots of 2.5 μl were applied to Quantifoil R1.2/1.3 carbon grids after glow-discharge, and then flash frozen in liquid ethane. An initial test data set was obtained in Grenoble Instruct Center, France, using a FEI Polara microscope operated at 300 kV. High-resolution structures were obtained from data collected in a Titan Krios (eBIC, Diamon, Oxford, UK), automatically, with three images per hole, using a GATAN K2-Summit detector in counting mode and a slit width of 20 eV on a GIF-Quantum energy filter (Supplementary Tables 2, 3).

High-resolution image processing of RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD

As general methodology, MotionCorr243 was used for whole-frame motion correction, GCTF44 for estimation of the contrast transfer function parameters, and RELION-2.045 for all subsequent steps. Local motion was corrected in MotionCorr2 dividing the frame in 36 patches (6 × 6 patches), with dose weighting. A manually picked subset of micrographs was used to obtain 2D references for template-based particle picking. The selected particles were then submitted to several rounds of 2D and 3D classifications, to discard low-quality particles and some remaining RUVBL1–RUVBL2 dodecamers. Low-pass filtered versions of previous structures were used as starting point of classifications and refinements, to reduce bias.

A specific classification protocol was designed to analyze the stoichiometry of RBDs bound to the RUVBL ring. For this, Class3D in RELION was used but using a mask covering the edge of the RUVBL ring and the regions outside the ring. Particles were split in up to eight groups using this focused classification strategy. The majority of particles were grouped into one class, containing 3 RBDs and corresponding to 67.3% of the particles. The remaining classes corresponded to particles containing 2 RBDs (16.4%) or 1 RBD (16.3%). Images of R2TP containing 3 RBDs were then processed applying 3-fold rotational symmetry and using standard procedures in RELION45.

For the refinement of the RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD complex at high resolution, 96,406 particles showing the best parameters after 2D classification in RELION were selected and subjected to a round of automatic 3D refinement in RELION to generate a consensus 3D model. When refinement was performed without applying rotational symmetry, similar results were obtained, but some differences in the quality of the different RBDs bound to one RUVBL ring, suggested that the complex had a rigid conformation at the RUVBL ring, and relatively flexible RBDs (or variable quality). To improve the quality of the structure defining the interaction between the RBD and the RUVBL ring, we applied the method previously developed to solve a similar situation for the structure of the apoptosome32. For this, each particle was rotated 120 and 240° so that all RBDs were then placed in the same position. Subsequently, particles were classified using the Class3D utility in RELION and using a mask representing 1 RBD and the ring of RUVBL1–RUVBL2. The most populated class was automatically refined using the Ref3D utility using the same mask used for Class3D, local search of angles and without applying symmetry. Further details on the strategy applied here can be found in the Methods section of Zhou et al.32. When applied to our data, resolution was improved from 3.8 Å when applying 3-fold rotational symmetry to 3.57 Å, estimated using gold standard Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) between two independent maps using cut-off of FSC = 0.143. B factor sharpening was performed using automatic procedures in Relion2. Local resolution was estimated using ResMap46. Structures were visualized using UCSF Chimera47.

Cryo-EM and processing of RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD and R2TP-ΔNT

The reconstitution of complexes between RUVBL1–RUVBL2 and RPAP3430–665, and the reconstitution of R2TP using the RPAP3–ΔNT–PIH1D1 sub-complex instead of RPAP3–PIH1D1 were performed with the same protocol used for the R2TP used in cryo-EM experiments. For consistency, all these observations were performed with the same buffer conditions used for the assembly of R2TP, and in the presence of ADP. Vitrifications, the general image processing, 2D classifications, and the generation of 2D averages and 3D volumes were performed following similar strategies to those described for the R2TP images, but the cryo-EM micrographs were collected in a 200-kV FEI Talos Arctica operated with a FEI Falcon II detector and located at the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB) in Madrid.

Image processing of flexible regions

For refinement of the flexible regions of the R2TP complex, the same set of 96,406 particles used to resolve the structure of RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD was classified searching for a subset of particles of R2TP with a more homogenous conformation for the flexible regions after extensive 3D classification steps using Relion. This subset, containing a selection of 27,385 particles, was then refined, converging to a structure with an estimated average resolution of 8.72 Å using gold standard Fourier Shell and FSC = 0.143.

To analyze the structural details for the interaction between PIH1D1 and RUVBL1–RUVBL2, the images of R2TP complexes containing 3 RBDs were refined without symmetry and using a mask that removed the influence of the flexible regions except the vicinities of the DII domains in RUVBL1–RUVBL2. One subset of 182,351 particles corresponding to complexes containing 3 RBDs and that displayed a defined density in DII-domain face of the RUVBL1–RUVBL2 reached an estimated resolution of 6.58 Å using gold standard Fourier Shell and FSC = 0.143.

Modeling and refinement of RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD

De novo modeling of the C-terminal domain of RPAP3 was performed using a strategy based on homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation. First, analysis of the sequence in the secondary structure prediction server PSIPRED revealed 8 α-helices consecutively, starting from Ala547 to C-terminus Gly665. A long and disordered region of RPAP3 N-terminal to this helical domain contributed to a clear identification of the domain. The sequence of RPAP3-RBD domain (residues 541–665) was submitted to I-TASSER homology modeling server35, which provided up to five different atomic models for the query sequence. The best solution according to the I-TASSER scoring was fitted within the target cryo-EM map.

The target cryo-EM map density contained 8 α-helices, the same as the predicted atomic model in I-TASSER. The prediction was first fitted as a rigid body in the map, followed by a flexible fitting using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in AMBER48 (Supplementary Movie 1). Flexible fitting was performed in two orientations: one from the initial fitted conformation and the second forcing the reverse orientation as control. The reverse orientation was discarded since no reasonable fitting of the model into the cryo-EM map was possible after the simulation.

A model for RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD was built initially by the fitting as a rigid body of the crystal structure of the human RUVBL1–RUVBL2 truncated hexamer (PDB 2XSZ)29 into the cryo-EM map with the addition of the model generated for the RBD using AMBER. The full structure of the RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD was refined using Phenix49 and Coot36.

The information of the crystal structure of the RPAP3 fragment comprising residues 578–624 helped to model the connectivity between helix 5 and helix 6 of the RBD, which faces RUVBL2. Density for side chains was also visible in most of the helices of the RBD (Supplementary Fig. 5), and this information was used during modeling. Detailed protein–protein interactions are mostly discussed at the level of secondary structural elements, except where side chain density was clear.

R2TP reconstitution and purification using GraFix

For the experiments using GraFix50, the different complexes were analyzed using a linear 10–40% sucrose gradient together with a 0–0.15% of glutaraldehyde gradient. Fifty microliters of the mixture were used for each gradient and run at 125812 g using a SW60Ti rotor, 16 hours and 4 °C. Fractions of 100 μl were collected from top to bottom of the gradient, the fixation reaction was stopped by adding glycine pH 7.0 at final concentration of 100 mM. Blue-Native system (Invitrogen) was used to analyze the fractions.

Cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry

R2TP was reconstituted as for the cryo-EM experiments and cross-linked with isotopically coded N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters disuccidinimidyl suberate (DSS H12/D12) and bis-sulfosuccidinimidyl suberate (BS3 H12/D12) (Creative Molecules, Canada) at a final excess concentrations of 100 and 250×. The reactions were incubated for 45 min at 37 °C, and quenched by adding 50 mM NH4HCO3 (final concentration) for another 15 min.

The cross-linked sample was freeze-dried and then resuspended in 50 mM NH4HCO3 to reach 1 mg ml−1 final protein concentration. The sample was then reduced using 10 mM DTT and alkylated with 50 mM iodoacetamide. Subsequently, proteins were digested with trypsin (Promega, UK) using 1:20 enzyme-to-substrate ratio, at 37 °C, and the incubation was done overnight. A final concentration of 2% (v/v) formic acid was added to acidify the samples, and the peptides were fractionated by peptide SEC in a Superdex Peptide 3.2/300 column (GE Healthcare) with 30% (v/v) acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) TFA as mobile phase and using a flow rate of 50 μl min−1. Fractions were collected, lyophilized, and resuspended in 2% (v/v) acetonitrile and 2% (v/v) formic acid.

Fractions were analyzed by nano-scale capillary LC–MS/MS using an Ultimate U3000 HPLC (ThermoScientific Dionex, USA) and a flow of approximately 300 nl min−1. Peptides were separated on a C18 Acclaim PepMap100 3 μm, 75 μm × 250 mm nanoViper (ThermoScientific Dionex, USA) and eluted with a acetonitrile gradient. The analytical column outlet was directly interfaced via a nano-flow electrospray ionization source, with a hybrid dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Orbitrap Velos, ThermoScientific, USA). A resolution of 30,000 was used for data-dependent analysis for the full mass spectrometry spectrum, followed by 10 MS/MS spectra in the linear ion trap. Mass spectrometry spectra were collected over a 300–2000 m/z range. MS/MS scans were collected using threshold energy of 35 for collision-induced dissociation.

For data analysis, Xcalibur raw files were converted into the open mzXML format through MSConvert (Proteowizard) with a 32-bit precision, and the converted files were directly used as input for xQuest searches on a local installation ( The following criteria were used for the selection of cross-linked precursor MS/MS data: a mass shift of 12.07532 Da among the heavy and the light cross-linkers; precursor charge ranging from 3+ to 8+; maximum retention time difference 2.5 min. Searches were performed against an ad hoc database containing the RUVBL1, RUVBL2, PIH1D1, and RPAP3 sequences plus their reverse as decoy. A number of parameters were set to perform the xQuest searches: maximum number of missed cleavages (excluding the cross-linking site) 3; peptide length 4–50 amino acids; fixed modifications carbamidomethyl-Cys (mass shift 57.02146 Da); mass shift of the light cross-linker 138.06808 Da; mass shift of mono-links 156.0786 and 155.0964 Da; MS1 tolerance 10 ppm, MS2 tolerance 0.2 Da for common ions and 0.3 for cross-link ions; search in enumeration mode (exhaustive search). The following criteria were used to filter search results: MS1 mass tolerance window −3 to 7 ppm. Finally, each MS/MS spectra was manually inspected and validated.

Sedimentation velocity assay of TP complex

Four-hundred microliters of 10 μM and 5 μM RPAP3–PIH1D1 prepared in 25 mM Hepes, 130 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM TCEP, pH 7.8, were loaded into analytical ultracentrifugation cells. The experiments were carried out at 10 °C and 149,103×g in an XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge (Beckman-Coulter Inc.). This was equipped with UV-VIS absorbance and Raleigh interference detection systems, and the sedimentation profiles were recorded at 280 nm. Least-squares boundary modeling of sedimentation velocity data and the continuous distribution c(s) Lamm equation model was used to calculate sedimentation coefficient distributions, as implemented by SEDFIT 14.151. The program SEDNTERP52 was used to correct experimental s values to standard conditions (water, 20 °C, and infinite dilution) to obtain the corresponding standard s values (s20,w).

Sedimentation equilibrium assay

Short column (90 μl) Sedimentation Equilibrium experiments were carried out at speeds ranging from 4536×g to 6532×g and at 286 nm, and using the same experimental conditions as those described for the Sedimentation Velocity experiments. A high-speed centrifugation run using 185,795×g was performed to estimate the corresponding baseline offsets after the last equilibrium scan. Weight-average buoyant molecular weights of proteins were determined by fitting a single species model to the experimental data using the HeteroAnalysis program, and corrected for solvent composition and temperature using the program SEDNTERP52.

RPAP3523–665 expression, purification, and crystallization

The gene encoding RPAP3523–665 fragment was cloned into the NdeI and BamHI site of the p3E plasmid (home grown plasmid from University of Sussex). BL21 (DE3) E. coli cells (F¯ ompT gal dcm lon hsdSB(rB- mB-) λ(DE3 *lacI lacUV5-T7gene 1 ind1 sam7 nin5), NZYTech) were transformed with p3E plasmid containing RPAP3523–665. The transformed cells were grown in LB media at 37 °C for 5 h followed by induction with 1 mM IPTG. The cells were further grown for 15 h at 20 °C. Cells were harvested using 5000×g for 10 min. The cell pellet was re-suspended in 20 mM HEPES pH 7.8, 140 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM TCEP, and sonicated at 4 °C. The cell lysate was spun at 20,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C and the supernatant was used for the GST affinity chromatography. The purified GST-RPAP3523–665 protein was treated with PreScission protease overnight at 4 °C to remove the GST-tag and the protein was further purified by SEC.

Purified RPAP3523–665 protein was concentrated to 8 mg ml−1 using 10k MWCO viva-spin (Sartorius). The crystallization trials were set up using 0.2 μl protein and 0.2 μl crystallization screen buffer using sitting drop method. The crystallization trial trays were incubated at 14 °C. Small crystals appeared in 0.5 M potassium thiocyanate, 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 7.0 (well H6) of SaltRX crystal screen (Hampton research Ltd) after 1 month of incubation. The crystals were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen using 30% glycerol as a cryo-protectant and the data were collected at Diamond Light source, UK. Wavelength used was 0.9763 Å.

The data were processed using standard methodology, and programs of the CCP4 suite53, Xia254, REFMAC55, BUSTER (, and COOT36, together with the ARCIMBOLDO software56 (Supplementary Table 4).

Data availability

Data supporting the findings of this manuscript are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

The EM maps have been deposited in EMDB and PDB: EMD-4289 (R2TP-C3symmetry); EMD-4287 (R2TP-1RBD); EMD-4290 (R2TP-subgroup1); EMD-4291 (R2TP-subgroup2); PDB 6FO1 (model of RUVBL1–RUVBL2–RBD with 1RBD), and PDB 6FM8 (crystal structure of RBD fragment).

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