|Exam Name||:||Nortel VPN Gateway Rls.7.0 Configuration and Management|
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|Updated On||:||April 22, 2019|
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920-235 exam Dumps Source : Nortel VPN Gateway Rls.7.0 Configuration and Management
Test Code : 920-235
Test Name : Nortel VPN Gateway Rls.7.0 Configuration and Management
Vendor Name : Nortel
Q&A : 62 Real Questions
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SANTA CLARA, Calif. -- Nortel Networks (NYSE:NT)(TSX:NT) these days introduced a complete protection framework supported by way of new items so that it will allow commercial enterprise purchasers to get rid of the boundaries in their existing communications infrastructure. Nortel Networks comfy mobility framework is designed to enable firms to provide secure, bendy access to multimedia content material in converged networks for cell and faraway users -- from any place and from any device -- whereas positioning corporations to drive dramatically lessen costs.
Nortel Networks new relaxed mobility framework is designed to help business valued clientele drive as much as a 35 percent reduction of far off access charges, in response to Nortel Networks estimates. The framework provides a simplified security infrastructure that can assist organizations to reduce total cost of ownership by way of eliminating the deserve to install separate solutions. A key element of here is centralized protection management throughout a whole lot of structures, enabling deployment of security policies within the most budget friendly and consistent method.
The digital deepest Networking (VPN) items added as part of this comfortable mobility framework encompass a gateway anticipated to be the business's first to present both at ease Socket Layer (SSL) and internet Protocol safety (IPSec) VPNs from the same equipment.
also introduced were a hardware answer for you to deliver SSL VPN capabilities to the latest Nortel Networks Contivity cozy IP capabilities Gateway portfolio and VPN gateway items; a new Contivity product that offers IPSec VPNs and firewalls for teleworkers and faraway workplaces; a comfy VPN portal answer; and enhancements to latest items that bring trade-leading security to each wired and instant local enviornment networks.
"presenting a complete, integrated method to managing and enabling comfy faraway entry is essential in ultra-modern cellular environment," stated John Girard, vice president and analysis director, Gartner. "The far flung person must be capable of focal point on their job and never community entry issues to be positive. agencies will advantage if they are capable of use a single VPN platform to provision either SSL or IPSec with average interfaces for administration, entry controls and user interface."
"Analog contraptions carried out a Contivity-primarily based VPN answer basically three years ago," talked about Lawrence W. Loh, chief assistance officer, Analog contraptions. "This has been very a success, and in consequence our preliminary implementation of at ease, internet-based entry has extended to a a whole lot bigger number of our employees and companions."
"Our workforce has turn into increasingly greater mobile and we've improved our use of converged purposes, combining voice and records over a single connection," Loh pointed out. "Nortel Networks comfortable mobility strategy is correct on track, because it will integrate IPSec and SSL. it will also tackle the greater challenge of enforcing a comfy, multimedia-equipped infrastructure throughout the distinctive dimensions of safety, entry, administration and administration."
a part of Nortel Networks 'One community. a global of option.' commercial enterprise know-how vision, the cozy mobility framework is designed to permit agencies to enhance the effectiveness of their business operations without compromising network efficiency or safety, while helping unrestricted mobility of company tourists and faraway users.
"Nortel Networks is familiar with the challenges of remote entry security," talked about Atul Bhatnagar, vice chairman and regular supervisor, commercial enterprise statistics Networks, Nortel Networks. "The beauty of this solution is that it combines managed far flung access, secure digital deepest networks and advanced multimedia verbal exchange functions to convey cozy any place, every time multimedia entry. This strategy is designed to enhance worker productiveness and presents the competencies to yield a greatly-decreased total charge of possession for a far off access infrastructure."
Managing a lot of distinctive faraway access strategies, guidelines, valued clientele, updates, patches and VPN options is complicated, high priced and time-consuming. Nortel Networks relaxed mobility framework is designed to supply expanded levels of entry and simplify administration without compromising the safety, control and manageability of present VPN deployments.
offering the groundwork of the cozy mobility framework, right here products are the latest additions to the company's safety portfolio:
Nortel Networks Corp.might also 6-8, 2019, Denver, Colorado may also 6, 2019, Denver, Colorado September 17-19, 2019, Dallas, Texas October 1, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana October 2-22, 2019, los angeles, CA October 10, 2019, new york, long island November 5, 2019, London, England November 7, 2019, London, UK December 3-5, 2019, Vienna, Austria December three, 2019, new york, ny All Upcoming live movements
Nortel Networks has launched a few items to help its new safety framework, which is designed to get rid of boundaries in current communications infrastructures. The vendor's intention is to allow conclusion users to give at ease, flexible access to multimedia content material in converged networks for both cellular and far off clients through any machine, from any location. additionally, Nortel is asking to power down fees with the aid of reducing the costs of far off consumer access with the aid of up to 35%.Reinforcing this intention is a variety of items together with a digital deepest networking (VPN) gateway that helps each comfy socket layer (SSL) and IPSec VPNs in the same device. additionally, the Contivity at ease IP capabilities Gateway Portfolio will introduce SSL VPN capabilities to the supplier's latest Contivity latitude, whereas the Contivity 200 switch will offer VPNs, firewalls and coverage from denial of provider (DoS) assaults.moreover, Nortel is supplying the time-honored far off access Portal, in an effort to assess the most appropriate VPN access for clients, as neatly as the VPN client Administrator, which is designed for agencies with a large variety of VPN users."Nortel Networks is familiar with the challenges of faraway access safety," says Atul Bhatnagar, vp & ordinary supervisor, enterprise records networks, Nortel Networks. "The beauty of this answer is it really is combines managed faraway entry, at ease digital deepest networks and advanced multimedia communique functions to convey cozy any place, every time multimedia entry. This method is designed to boost employee productivity and presents the abilities to yield a drastically reduced complete cost of possession for a faraway entry infrastructure," he continues.For the entire newest enterprise news from the UAE and Gulf international locations, comply with us on Twitter and Linkedin, like us on fb and subscribe to our YouTube web page, which is up-to-date each day.
Nortel hopes to address the protection of remote work with an "office on a stick," a USB drive that can hyperlink an worker's computing device with a corporate VPN and hold the entire information from a session encrypted.
The force itself, akin to a standard USB (familiar Serial Bus) pressure with 1G byte or 2G bytes of storage, is only one piece of the Nortel cozy moveable workplace, a product that also includes a Nortel VPN (digital inner most network) gateway and services to aid organisations installation policies and person permissions.
As work becomes more cellular for many companies, IT departments are arising in opposition t the simultaneous growth of privateness laws and issues about records theft. They frequently use software VPNs to maintain far flung work at ease, however Nortel is aiming to achieve this with out the want for VPN client software or URLs (uniform useful resource locators) that employees should bear in mind. With the software for a VPN session dwelling on the USB power, users also can log in from almost any notebook.
to use the USB stick, employees can effortlessly plug it into a USB port and enter a username and password, referred to Rod Wallace, director of security capabilities and solutions at Nortel. software on the stick first tests the computing device for viruses and required safety mechanisms, after which units up an encrypted remote session. It customarily will give access to far flung purposes by means of the web browser or a further formula. it may possibly completely take over the equipment the usage of a far off computer and block off printing, doc-saving and far flung drives, fighting personnel from improperly copying delicate facts.
The remote session is encrypted and all facts the worker enters or downloads can go at once from the laptop's reminiscence onto the encrypted USB pressure, Wallace spoke of. due to this fact, IT directors can know that delicate counsel is rarely out on the earth on PCs they can not control. guidelines will also be configured in order that clients who plug the drive into less-comfortable PCs get both confined or no access to functions, he talked about.
One vicinity the at ease portable workplace has been deployed is with community-based mostly midwives who work for Liverpool ladies's hospital in England. they can enter and access patient records whereas away from the sanatorium and preserve them inner most, without desiring customer software or complicated log-in procedures, Wallace mentioned.
The Nortel at ease portable office is purchasable worldwide. For a standard business deployment aiding a hundred or greater concurrent clients, it charges between US$30,000 and $60,000 for the finished package including features.To comment on this article and different PCWorld content, consult with our fb web page or our Twitter feed.
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Setting up this product is not a simple task. Most of the setup is done via the command line, but the documentation does not help guide through this process very well. We found ourselves looking through different guides trying to locate configuration information. The absence of a quickstart card or a getting started guide makes this task even more difficult.
Once the appliance is configured, there is a web interface, but it is awkward and minimal at best. Overall management and administration tasks are difficult as well.
The main focus of the Nortel VPN Gateway is to provide security for VPN connections. This includes encryption that supports authenticated and encrypted connections, both internally and externally. The device can also terminate suspicious connections without leaving a trace on the user device. Furthermore, it supports an enhanced clientless mode that runs applets in the browser to build VPN tunnels for client/server applications.
The VPN Gateway 3050 uses certificate-based authentication as well as two-factor and token based. Other types of authentication are also supported, including local authentication database, LDAP, Radius, NTLM, Active Directory and Netegrity services support. One of this appliance’s strengths is its scalability. It is intended to support large-scale data-centre operations that require SSL VPN capabilities.
We found documentation for this product to be difficult to follow and not very well organized. The documentation is provided on a separate CD.
When this is loaded, it displays a welcome screen that lists all of the guides and manuals. In all, there are seven different manuals, some of which are hundreds of pages long.
We found ourselves searching through tons of documentation trying to find answers to configuration and setup questions. However, we did find the documentation to be complete if you have the patience to search for what you need.
Nortel offers technical assistance via phone and email, as well as much more in-depth support in the form of an additional support contract. Other areas of help provided are a knowledge base, training and certification options.
We did not receive pricing information for this product and, therefore have not evaluated it in this category.
A virtual private network (VPN) is a tool that enables the secure transmission of data over untrusted networks such as the Internet. VPNs commonly are used to connect local area networks (LANs) into wide area networks (WANs) using the Internet. Perhaps you need to build a VPN between two offices but are not sure if the large infrastructure costs associated with an enterprise-level VPN solution are justifiable. The performance of applications that are intended for use over LANs (for example those that use network file sharing) seriously can be degraded over WAN connections. Likewise, lower bandwidth and longer latency in WAN connections can affect adversely the reliability and performance of groupware and thin-client applications. Perhaps you have a home office and would like to use your high-speed internet access to connect seamlessly and securely to your office LAN through an IPSec-capable router. Or perhaps you are just curious about VPNs and IPSec in general and want to experiment.
The VPN firewall discussed in this article will run on just about any 486-or-better PC that has 16MB or more main memory and two Linux-compatible Ethernet network cards. The idea is to provide a starting point from a single, self-contained package that will allow you to create robust, secure, scalable and highly configurable VPNs that also are interoperable with many common commercial VPN implementations. If you wish to experiment on a low-maintenance firewall-VPN gateway, then the package discussed here might be ideal for you.
This article shows you how to set up, at minimal expense, a working VPN gateway that uses the IETF's (Internet Engineering Task Force) IPSec (internet protocol security) specification. IPSec is an open standard and is supported by virtually all major firewall software and hardware vendors, such as Lucent, Cisco, Nortel and Check Point. This package will give you a widely interoperable IPSec that uses the de facto standard 3DES encrypted, MD5-authenticated site-to-site or point-to-site VPN. You should be able to do this without resorting to a full Linux distribution or recompiling a standard Linux kernel with a kernel IPSec module.
The VPN system we examine here is based on FreeS/WAN (www.freeswan.org), a portable, open-source implementation of the IPSec specification. FreeS/WAN has been demonstrated to interoperate, to various degrees, with Cisco IOS 12.0 and later routers, Nortel Contivity Switches, OpenBSD, Raptor Firewall, Check Point FW-1, SSH Sentinel VPN 1.1, F-Secure VPN, Xedia Access Point, PGP 6.5/PGPnet and later, IRE SafeNet/SoftPK, Freegate 1.3, Borderware 6.0, TimeStep PERMIT/Gate 2520, Intel Shiva LanRover, Sun Solaris and Windows 2000. The official FreeS/WAN web site has a regularly updated compatibility list with the latest version of its on-line documentation. FreeS/WAN version 1.5 is included in this package.
I have created a single-diskette distribution that installs the base configuration of a VPN firewall based on the Linux Router Project (LRP, www.linuxrouter.org), a compact Linux distribution that can fit on a single, bootable floppy diskette. The distribution here is essentially Charles Steinkuehler's Eiger disk image with Steinkuehler's IPSec-enabled kernel and LRP IPSec package. Firewalling is carried out through Linux ipchains. This particular version is based on the 2.2.16 kernel of Linux. This distribution is called DUCLING (Diskette-based Ultra Compact Linux IPSec Network Gateway). Compact Linux distributions have a twisted history. LRP technically refers to Dave Cinege's compact distribution. There are many variants around, including Charles Steinkuehler's distribution (EigerStein) of Matthew Grant's defunct Eiger version (lrp1.steinkuehler.net). Another such distribution is David Douthitt's Oxygen (leaf.sourceforge.net/content.php?menu=900&page_id=1). Also, there is LEAF (Linux Embedded Appliance Firewall), a developer's umbrella that tries to coordinate releases and documentation, sort of like a one-stop shop for compact Linux distributions (leaf.sourceforge.net). I use the term LRP to refer to the compact Linux distribution presented here, even though some may consider this terminology incorrect.
If you are running MS Windows 9x, the distribution self-extracts and installs itself onto a standard 3.5", high-density floppy diskette. You also can write the image to a boot floppy if you have a system running Linux. Once the extraction is done, you will need to boot off the floppy disk you have created, copy the network drivers for your network cards over and edit the appropriate configuration files. That's it—no creating and formatting disk partitions or messing with boot managers on your hard drive. If you are not happy with the distribution, just pop the diskette out, throw it away (or reformat it) and reboot your PC. Check the links on leaf.sourceforge.net/devel/thc for more information on these options.
Background on the Firewall and the VPN
This distribution of LRP uses a standard ipchains-based firewall. ipchains (replaced by iptables in the 2.4 series kernels—see David A. Bandel's “Taming the Wild Netfilter”, LJ, September 2001) is a freely distributed packet filter for Linux. It is very instructive to look through the ipchains HOWTO if you are not familiar with this firewalling tool. This can be found at www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/IPCHAINS-HOWTO.html.
The VPN is provided by FreeS/WAN's implementation of IPSec. FreeS/WAN's IPSec implementation is compliant with the IETF's IPSec specification. IPSec is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that provides for authentication and encryption. Three protocols are used to handle encryption and authentication, namely ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload), AH (Authentication Header) and IKE (the Internet Key Exchange). All these components are included in the FreeS/WAN implementation of IPSec and generally are transparent to end users. ESP and AH handle encryption and authentication, while IKE negotiates the connection parameters, including the initialization, handling and renewal of encryption keys. The only encryption scheme currently supported by FreeS/WAN is 3DES (the triple DES or Data Encryption Standard—the current de facto standard for IPSec encryption). Authentication is carried out using MD5 digests of a so-called shared secret (a shared key). The shared key could be a mutually agreed-to character string, RSA cryptographic key pairs or X.509 certificates. FreeS/WAN's KLIPS (kernel IPSec) component, which is compiled into the Linux kernel, implements AH, ESP and the handling of packets. IKE processes handle key negotiation, and renewals are implemented in FreeS/WAN's standalone pluto dæmon.
Requirements and Installation
First, you will need a PC with a floppy disk drive (I have tested only 3.5" disk drives) and two network cards in it. The demands of LRP (the distribution) are minimal and do not require a powerful PC. Anything that is Intel 486-class or better with more than 8MB of RAM will do. You also will need two floppy disks. Reliable, high-density 3.5" floppy disks should do, such as promotional diskettes from AOL. I have never had any problems with generic floppy disk drives, but I have found some problems with writing the distribution to floppy disks with Imation USB U2 SuperDisk drives.
You will need to download the appropriate DUCLING.tgz/zip distribution from ftp.cinemage.com/pub and extract the contents of the archive file. If you have a static IP address, then download the static version, and if you are assigned a dynamic IP address, you will need the distribution with a DHCP client. If you are running Windows 9x, download ducling-stat-W9x-1-0.zip or ducling-dyn-W9x-1-0.zip. Extracting the .tgz file with Winzip (www.winzip.com) will produce a file, ducling-dyn-1-0.exe or ducling-stat-1-0.exe and directory modules. The .exe file is a self-extracting image that formats a floppy disk and writes the image to that disk. Run the ducling-stat-1-0.exe or ducling-dyn-1-0.exe file and place a floppy disk into the floppy disk drive. Note that any data on the disk will be overwritten.
If you are using MS-DOS or Windows 3.1, the TSR utility FDREAD.EXE must be loaded at the DOS level first if you wish to read and write to the 1,722KB format disk. FDREAD.EXE is a freeware program from Christoph H. Hochstätter.
If you are running Linux, download ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz or ducling-stat-1-0.tgz, untar the image (the example here is for the DHCP-enabled dynamic IP address distribution):tar xvfz ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz
and write the image file, ducling-1-0.img, to a formatted floppy using the Linux fdformat and dd commands:fdformat /dev/fd0u1722 dd if=ducling-dyn-1-0.ima of=/dev/fd0u1722 Once the floppy disk image is created as mentioned above, you will have a bootable Linux floppy diskette.
The zipfile/directory named modules contain the required network driver modules as well as optional modules for firewall masquerading. Copy the contents of the module zipfile or directory onto a separate second MS-DOS-formatted floppy diskette for the configuration portion of this discussion (below). In Linux, format a second floppy disk by runningfdformat /dev/fd0
followed bymkdosfs /dev/fd0 and mounting the floppy drive and copying the modules over. Read the documentation included in the README files, which will give you details on configuring your firewall/router.
If you are unable to fit all the desired packages and modules onto a single floppy diskette, you will need to examine alternative setups that use dual floppy diskettes (see the included README files with the DUCLING distribution), a bootable CD-ROM or even a small hard disk. Refer to the on-line sources of LRP documentation for further information.
The LRP Boot Floppies—The Surprising Truth
You may be surprised to discover that LRP uses DOS-formatted floppies. You may be even more surprised to discover that the DUCLING distribution installs itself as a 1,722KB bootable disk image. The 3.5" high-density floppy is technically a 2MB format medium, and you may see these diskettes rated as 2MB “raw” or “unformatted” capacity. The 1,440KB formatted capacity is merely the result of a conventional format that writes 80 tracks on the magnetic media with 18 sectors per track. With the appropriate tools, you can create diskettes that have 80 sectors and 24 tracks per sector, giving 1,920KB per floppy. Floppies having 1,680KB (80/21 sector/tracks per sector) are used regularly for LRP distributions and seem to have a reliable track record; 1,722KB (82/21), 1,743KB (83/21) and 1,760KB (80/22) also are reported to be in use. I have found the 1,722KB format floppy to be reliable enough for testing and have no problems to report so far.
I have created and used large-format floppies of up to 1,920KB. Extremely large-format floppies tend to be nonbootable, apparently as a result of a conflict between PC BIOSes and the nonstandard sector size on the diskette. It has been reported that large-format floppies larger than 1,680KB can suffer from floppy disk hardware dependability problems. Windows NT and Windows 2000 are reported to have reliability problems writing to large-format floppies larger than 1,680KB.
MS Windows 9x operating systems generally read standard as well as large-format floppy diskettes with no configuration changes. In Linux systems, it is often necessary to mount the floppy disk with the correct format specified, i.e., /dev/fd0u1722, where fd0u1722 specifies floppy disk device 0 (fd0) and the u1722 specifies a 1,722KB format. The standard floppy disk drive in Linux /dev/fd0 defaults to /dev/fd0u1440, the 1,440KB format.
For creating and manipulating large-format floppies, consult the LRP Boot Disk HOWTO by Paul Batozech. You'll find this, and other useful articles, in the resources listed at leaf.sourceforge.net/devel/thc. For MS Windows, I have found Gilles Vollant's WinImage (www.winimage.com) to be particularly useful and user friendly. However, it is in some ways more limited than the Linux tools, such as fdformat, mkdosfs and the more recent superformat application. The self-extracting 1,722KBps images for MS Windows discussed here were created using WinImage.
How the LRP Distribution Loads
Before you begin to work with LRP it is useful to note how the distribution works. If you examine the bootable diskette, you will see a series of files, including ldlinux.sys, linux, syslinux.cfg, root.lrp, etc.lrp, modules.lrp and local.lrp.
The file ldlinux.sys is the bootstrap loader that loads the kernel (the file named linux) and initial root.lrp package into memory. The kernel starts and creates a RAM disk and extracts the root.lrp package. A RAM disk is a portion of memory that is allocated as a partition. In other words, the kernel creates a space in memory and treats it like a read/write disk. The kernel then mounts the boot device specified in syslinux.cfg. The remaining .lrp packages on the boot disk are extracted as specified in syslinux.cfg and loaded to the RAM disk. The .lrp packages are merely standard UNIX tarballs (tar-gzipped archives). Once the .lrp packages are installed in the directory tree on the RAM disk, the system begins a boot based on the standard Linux rc file boot hierarchy.
LRP is simply a stripped-down standard Linux kernel with loadable modules and other software contained in sets of .lrp packages. LRP is truly Linux; generally, anything that will run on a generic Linux distribution should run off the LRP diskette. Often the obstacle to extending LRP's applications and capabilities is the space constraint of a single diskette. If you require additional capabilities, for example, remote administration through ssh, a DNS server and so on, you will want to look at multidiskette, CD-ROM or even the full disk drive distributions of LRP that are available.
Start up and Configuration of Router/Firewalling VPN
Once the bootable floppy disk is created, make sure the floppy is placed in the floppy disk drive of the machine on which you wish to run the firewall/VPN. Ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot from a floppy disk. Upon booting the firewall/VPN, you will see the LRP splash screen, messages from the Linux loader followed by a login prompt.
If you have made it this far, congratulations! You have installed an LRP distribution successfully. Now you can start to configure the firewall properties of the LRP as outlined in the bundled documentation.
Once any firewalling tweaks are completed, the VPN needs to be configured. The bundled DUCLING documentation discusses the details for configuring a subnet-to-subnet setup. This involves configuring IPSec's authentication mode (/etc/ipsec.secrets), the IPSec network configuration (/etc/ipsec.conf) as well as the firewalling rules to allow access to ports 500 (UDP), 50 and 51 (TCP).
Note that you need not necessarily require a static IP address in order to run VPN links. A “roadwarrior” configuration is described in the next section, in which the one VPN client has an undetermined static IP address. I have run VPNs between pairs of nodes with dynamically assigned IP addresses. The management of VPN nodes with DHCP-assigned IP addresses becomes tricky if both IP address assignments change frequently. The following section discusses a roadwarrior configuration using DUCLING and a Microsoft-based IPSec client.
This example shows an MS Windows 9x/2000 client point-to-site using SSH Communications Security Sentinel 1.1 (Public Beta 3). FreeS/WAN is interoperable with a wide range of IPSec implementations. The ease of implementation and computability will vary depending on the product. Many IPSec products that support 3DES/MD5 encryption through IKE are interoperable with FreeS/WAN. However, I found that legally obtaining fully functional IPSec implementations that support strong encryption can be arduous, especially if you live outside of the United States.
Many vendors offer only limited capabilities in their freely available IPSec implementations. For example, a product may only support weak encryption (DES) or may limit VPN capabilities to transport mode only. It is important to distinguish between the two VPN modes that are offered through IPSec: transport mode and tunnel mode. Transport mode encrypts and authenticates traffic between two fixed end points. Tunnel mode is more useful for connecting subnets and allows tunneling through firewall and router parameters into different subnets. Basically, transport mode restricts traffic to point-to-point communication. Tunnel mode also allows point-to-site (point-to-subnet) or site-to-site communications. At least one vendor does not seem to allow its implementation of IPSec to run over a connection using a static IP address.
The SSH Communications Security Sentinel product (www.ipsec.com) does not seem to suffer from any of these problems, possibly due to the fact that the company is based outside of the US. I downloaded and tested the 30-day trial beta 3 release of Sentinel 1.1 and found it to be very easy to configure on a Windows 98 desktop PC. The Sentinel documentation provides configuration examples for interconnectivity with a FreeS/WAN VPN gateway.
Here is a summary of a roadwarrior configuration that allows remote users with dynamically assigned IP addresses to connect transparently to a LAN behind a firewall. You will need to open ports 50, 51 (TCP) and port 500 (UDP) to the dynamic IP address or the ISP's DHCP address range. Figure 1 shows the basic setup. You will need to edit /etc/network.conf on the DUCLING FreeS/WAN firewall (go into lrcfg, choose 1), then 1) and seteth0_IP_SPOOF=NO
to disable the blocking of tunneled packets. The bundled documentation contains the detailed instructions on how to do these tasks.
Figure 1. A Roadwarrior-to-Site Configuration
The contents of the FreeS/WAN ipsec.conf file are given in Listing 1. The corresponding ipsec.secrets file contains the entry18.104.22.168 0.0.0.0: PSK "Put your roadwarrior secret string here"
where the phrase in quotes is a shared-secret string. The IP address 0.0.0.0 denotes any IP address, so remember to choose a secure shared-secret string. The rightsubnet and rightnexthop parameters are left blank and imply that the connection is a point-to-subnet connection.
Listing 1. The FreeS/WAN conn Listing for the Setup Shown in Figure 1.
To set up the Sentinel IPSec service:
Download SSH Sentinel from www.ipsec.com and install, following the instructions.
Go into the Sentinel Policy Manager (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Sentinel Policy Manager
Choose the Key Management tab, Authentication Keys and select Add (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Adding a New Key
Select Create a new preshared key then Next (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Configuring Preshared Key
Type in your preshared key. It must be identical to the shared-secret string you have inserted in /etc/ipsec.conf (without the quotes). (See Figure 5.)
Figure 5. Typing in Shared Secret
On the main console of SSH Sentinel Policy Manager, in the Security Policy pane, select VPN connections®Add.
Enter in the IP/hostname of the remote VPN gateway; for our example, it is 22.214.171.124, and choose the preshared secret that you created in step 5 as the Authentication key (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Entering Key and UP Information
Select 3DES encryption, Main Mode and MODP 1024 for IKE Mode and IKE Group, respectively. The Advanced pane generally can be left with the defaults.
Set the IKE SA lifetime (i.e., the interval between rekeying) to the same value as in the ipsec.conf file, typically 480 minutes (eight hours).
Save all settings and try to ping an internal node behind the firewall (try the internal interface, 192.168.x.254). You should be connected. Try running Sentinel's diagnostics to make sure you are connected. I have found that Sentinel's diagnostic mode can hang the FreeS/WAN-Windows connections sometimes. If this happens, go to the FreeS/WAN gateway and do a restart of IPSec and then bring up the various connections.
Figure 7. The VPN Connection Properties Tab
Once again, if you need to restart the connection, log in to the LRP box and type#/etc/initd.d/ipsec restart
to restart the IPSec components.
I also found in Windows 2000 Professional (but not Windows 98) that I had to add the routing manually to the shared subnet 192.168.0.0/24 from the DOS console:route ADD 192.168.0.0 MASK 255.255.255.0 126.96.36.199
(refer to the documentation for the Microsoft route command).
This article outlines the means to implement a firewalling VPN gateway from a single 3.5" floppy diskette. With a single floppy diskette, you should be able to connect hosts and networks of various topologies securely using the Internet. The DUCLING distribution is a bare-bones distribution. Once you are convinced that a FreeS/WAN VPN can fulfill your needs, you can look at either going to a more full-featured LRP distribution or even a full-blown Linux system, implementing such things as remote access (via the secure shell, ssh, for example) or a DNS server.
For many companies, rolling out an IPSec client to road warriors and trusted business partners was once the only way to provide the secure access they needed. Now SSL VPNs are quickly gaining steam, poised to replace cumbersome IPSec implementations.
SSL VPNs provide easy, clientless access to corporate resources without requiring a fat client on each remote PC. Remote users connect using their Web browser and have secure, managed access to Web applications, file shares, and the like.
I reviewed two SSL VPN gateways from longtime security vendors: Check Point Software Technologies' Connectra 2.0 and Nortel's VPN Gateway 3050. Both systems are quite capable of handling an enterprise's remote-access needs, but each has its little, not-so-charming quirks, too.
Check Point Connectra 2.0
The Check Point Connectra Web security gateway should easily fit into your existing network infrastructure, especially if you already have Check Point products in place. It provides access to both Web and TCP/IP applications, adds an application firewall and malicious-code-detection engine, and offers improved integration with Check Point's SmartCenter management platform. It lacks a TCP/UDP (User Datagram Protocol) port-forwarding service, present in other SSL VPN gateways, but it circumvents that with its layer 3 tunnel.
I installed the Connectra 2.0 without any problems. The underlying OS detected my hardware and installed itself in less than an hour. I logged in to the Connectra using Internet Explorer 6 (IE is the only supported browser for administration) and defined authentication servers and protected resources.
The Connectra's list of authentication sources is not as extensive as it is for other vendors' SSL VPNs, but for most situations LDAP, Active Directory via LDAP, RADIUS, local database, and digital certificates will suffice. I created a connection to Active Directory for my users, but not without a little effort. Make sure you know your complete LDAP log-in information. This part could use a little wizardry to make the process more straightforward.
By using Network Extender, Check Point's layer 3 service, I defined links to Web and file resources and to TCP/IP application access. Network Extender allows granular control over bidirectional TCP and UDP layer 3 tunneled traffic. Disappointingly, it is only available for IE users.
Specifying Web resources and SMB file shares proved straightforward. However, accessing file shares requires Microsoft WebDAV. This delivers a Windows Explorer look and feel, but, again, it limits you to IE.
A unique feature in Connectra allows admins to create mail services for remote users. As Nortel does with its VPN Gateway 3050, Check Point includes templates for OWA (Outlook Web Access) and standard SMTP, POP3, and IMAP to make defining the resources quick and easy. I had no trouble creating links to my OWA servers.
Connectra focuses heavily on network and end-point security, putting in place services that protect the enterprise at the network and application level. The product advances application-level security by checking traffic for known worms, plus it inspects all HTTP traffic through its Web Intelligence service. Additionally, Connectra allows administrators to enforce some validation on the HTTP traffic, such as denying unsafe HTTP methods, but the list of available choices is vague and doesn't allow for any tweaking of the rules.
I was, however, impressed with the Connectra's built-in application protection. Although it's basic, admins can choose to prevent cross-site scripting, SQL and command injection, and directory traversal. This protection is no match for an application firewall such as Imperva's SecureSphere , but it's a step in the right direction.
Overall, end-point security is well done and manages host checks, browser cache policies, and personal firewall status. Through Check Point's Integrity Clientless Scan, Connectra will check the remote PC for potential risks such as malware, but this feature is -- you guessed it -- limited to IE users. This scan also looks for Check Point Integrity Firewall, but no other vendors' firewalls. Also, as with VPN Gateway 3050, there is no way to define specific processes or Registry entries to scan for.
Connectra 2.0 warrants consideration, especially when compared with other enterprise remote-access solutions. It has all of the core features, plus solid end-point security. I don't like its heavy reliance on IE, and I would like to have more control over some security features, but it's still a stable and capable system.
Nortel VPN Gateway 3050
Nortel's VPN Gateway 3050 appliance scales well and has highly configurable SSL parameters. It comes with all of the SSL VPN services I've come to expect in a gateway and does most other SSL VPN vendors one better by including IPSec VPN client support. TunnelGuard provides the end-point security and management piece via a download-on-demand Java applet, but it takes some time to get up and running. Also, integration with Active Directory is a bit sketchy.
I tested the 3050 by installing it in my test LAN, which was recently vacated by six other SSL VPN appliances. After setting IP addressing for my LAN through a local serial connection, I logged in with Firefox and finished the configuration using the administration UI. I found the UI nicely organized, but locating specific menu options was not as intuitive as it is with the Connectra.
I created a couple of test user accounts in the local user database and added Active Directory as my source for user authentication. The 3050 comes with support for RADIUS, NTLM (NT LAN Manager), SiteMinder, LDAP, and Active Directory via LDAP, but creating a connection to Active Directory nearly stumped me. Similar to my experience with the Connectra, I had to ferret out LDAP syntax and enter it manually, but unique to Nortel is the requirement to also list the Active Directory group and user-attribute mappings.
Once in place, the LDAP/Active Directory authentication worked superbly and even allowed for the passing of expired Active Directory user accounts for password remediation. As with other SSL VPN gateways, administrators can stack different authentication services with a predetermined precedence to allow for flexible user authentication. For example, a user might first be checked against the local user database and, when no match is found, checked against the next authentication service -- RADIUS, for example.
The 3050 offers great flexibility in how it provides remote access. Service providers can virtually slice up the 3050 into many distinct sites, each with its own authentication schemes and resource definitions. Like F5's Firepass, the 3050 comes with VLAN support and, when clustered, scales very well.
Like the Connectra, the 3050 has solid browser-based support but goes on to handle both TCP and UDP apps via a download-on-demand Java applet. The 3050 also comes with canned definitions for Citrix, Telnet, and SSH; it also allows for native Outlook (fat client) connection across the Internet. Nortel provides RPC across SSL without requiring any changes to your Exchange server, much like Exchange 2003's new RPC across HTTP service.
Netdirect is the ActiveX-based full tunnel for those who need a layer 3 connection. Although limited to Windows platforms, Netdirect does allow for full bidirectional TCP/IP traffic and supports both split and full tunneling. I like that the virtual adapter removes itself quietly on disconnect so there are no lasting traces on the PC.
Unlike the Connectra, admins running the 3050 have a huge amount of control over SSL implementation as well as HTTP-specific settings, which allow for granular control over items such as SSL Header rewrites, secure cookies, and image, script, document, and ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) caching. But missing is any type of application firewall.
End-point management and control are handled through Nortel's TunnelGuard service. A Java-based utility, TunnelGuard checks a remote PC for compliance, but only after the user authenticates. It will check for any disk content, running process, and digital certificates on files. Currently it will not perform Registry, program-version, or date checks, which prevents the utility from looking for valid and up-to-date anti-virus programs. Although it's comprehensive, I found the TunnelGuard management overly complex.
VPN Gateway 3050 is a great all-around performer that needs a little work on end-point security. I don't like that it requires IE for its heavy lifting, but the SSL control and IPSec client support help make up for these deficiencies.
The Connectra will fit in well at shops invested in Check Point's products. Its strong integration with SmartCenter is a bonus. Nortel's 3050 scales well and comes with very granular security, and it's a great choice for enterprises that have a heavy IPSec installed base and want a graceful migration path to SSL. Both systems rely too much on IE, but overall, both are worthy security solutions.InfoWorld Scorecard
Overall Score (100%)Nortel VPN Gateway 3050 9.0 7.0 9.0 7.0 8.0 8.2 Check Point Connectra 2.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 7.0 9.0 8.2
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