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8004 exam Dumps Source : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Test Code : 8004
Test Name : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Vendor Name : Avaya
Q&A : 110 Real Questions
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CHARLOTTE, N.C., Oct. 26, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Channeltivity these days brought the Channel partner working towards and Certification module to their cloud-based mostly accomplice Relationship administration (PRM) solution. This new module become designed to bring the wealthy performance of a gaining knowledge of administration device, tailor-made to the exciting needs of channel classes, right from their full carrier associate administration hub.
by seamlessly integrating practicing and Certification functionality into their PRM solution, Channeltivity is enabling channel managers to more effortlessly share practising materials with their partners and look at various their companions' abilities, appropriate from their companion portals.
The newly launched training and Certification module comprises:
"The practicing and certification of associate expertise is an important component of channel programs. With our new module we're enabling our customers to control every element of their associate application from one answer," mentioned Jason Jacobs, CEO of Channeltivity. "Our valued clientele advantage from elevated partner engagement when leveraging our all-in-one channel management solution, eventually accelerating channel application increase."
the new performance builds upon the enterprise's main accomplice Relationship administration solution designed for the excessive-tech and IT industries. Channeltivity empowers channel professionals with streamlined companion lifestyles cycle administration and revenue execution approaches. besides the brand new practicing and Certification module, the PRM solution offers companion Portal content management, Lead Distribution, Deal Registration, MDF management and lots greater.
About ChanneltivityChanneltivity is a accomplice relationship management software platform that helps corporations build potent relationships, optimize accomplice productiveness and support new sales. Channeltivity is handy to use, is quickly to installation, and connects to Salesforce.com.
To discover why 30,000+ channel earnings gurus around the world depend upon us, and to journey the solution through our arms-on demo, contact Channeltivity at 877-226-2564 or https://www.channeltivity.com
Contact:Dana Citron VP, marketing Channeltivitydcitron@channeltivity.com 877-226-2564
supply Channeltivityconnected links
source: Avaya Inc.
October 20, 2010 07:15 ET
Avaya join Channel companions Have access to New expertise and Designations in Video and facts, partner Helpdesk and enterprise administration and marketing Curricula
BASKING RIDGE, NJ--(Marketwire - October 20, 2010) - Avaya, a worldwide leader in enterprise communications methods, utility and functions, these days introduced new advantage, certifications and aid techniques to support Avaya join Channel companions supply ingenious, real-time enterprise communications and collaboration options to their valued clientele. Avaya join Channel companions will have access to new know-how certifications, business administration and advertising curricula and a worldwide associate HelpDesk to aid evolve each their consumer's company in addition to their own. The announcement was made throughout the Avaya 2011 Americas associate conference being held this week in Las Vegas, Nevada.
"The improvements Avaya is now bringing to market permit our Avaya connect Channel companions to exchange the conversation," talked about Jeremy Butt, vice chairman, international Channels, Avaya. "Our companions can have a strategic affect helping enterprises reinvigorate their company by using open, necessities-primarily based actual-time communications and collaboration functions. Avaya is equipping channel companions with the expertise, competencies, certifications and support to allow their success in this industry."
The announcement follows a sequence of technology innovations introduced by way of Avaya via 2010 that covered advancements in unified communications and collaboration, contact center and information networking for groups from small to very gigantic. Most currently, Avaya introduced a brand new portfolio of video-enabled collaboration solutions highlighted by using the Avaya Flare™ journey, the trade's first next-era person adventure that supplies wonderful collaboration capabilities across video, voice and textual content.
the brand new and accelerated know-how working towards, designations and advantage mirror Avaya's improved portfolio into records and Video options and consist of:
"providers with clear and strong certification courses allow companions to advance comprehensive ability-sets and build and develop their company," states Chris Ilg, director, Infrastructure Channels and Alliances, IDC. "As firms look for creative collaboration solutions to fuel innovation of their company, partners with the newest capabilities are ultimate positioned to meet the needs of purchasers today."
The lately launched Avaya connect associate HelpDesk gives a single aspect of contact for channel companions who have questions about Avaya's associate programs, tools and functions. accessible in 10 languages, this new useful resource presents really global assistance to channel partners to make it more straightforward for partners to do enterprise with Avaya, even with their level, geography, or portfolio offered. agents will assist with here application and procedure related concerns:
Avaya is providing entry to lessons resulting in knowledgeable Diploma in advertising and marketing company functions and solutions supplied by ITSMA and the Chartered Institute of advertising and marketing to assist channel partners build business abilities. The curriculum will support channel companions be mindful what they need to do inside their personal company to create and convey company capabilities and options and the way to win, develop and safeguard key customer money owed.
the new training and certifications may be attainable over the next two quarters. The Avaya join accomplice HelpDesk is accessible now.
About Avaya Avaya is a global leader in commercial enterprise communications programs. The company provides unified communications, contact centers, facts solutions, and related functions directly and thru its channel companions to main corporations and businesses all over. organizations of all sizes rely upon Avaya for state-of-the-art communications that enhance effectivity, collaboration, customer carrier and competitiveness. For more guidance please visit www.avaya.com
certain statements contained in this press liberate are ahead-searching statements. These statements could be recognized by means of forward-looking terminology comparable to "expect," "believe," "proceed," "might," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "can also," "might," "plan," "advantage," "predict," "may still" or "will" or different an identical terminology. we now have based these ahead-looking statements on our present expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections. whereas we accept as true with these expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections are not pricey, such ahead-searching statements are most effective predictions and contain normal and unknown hazards and uncertainties, lots of which are past our manage. These and other important factors may cause our precise consequences, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future effects, performance or achievements expressed or implied with the aid of these forward-searching statements. one of the crucial key elements that might trigger exact consequences to differ from our expectations include: our potential to boost and promote superior communications products and services, together with unified communications, contact core and information solutions; our capacity to enhance our oblique earnings channel; economic conditions and the willingness of organisations to make capital investments; the market for superior communications items and features, together with unified communications options; our means to continue to be competitive within the markets we serve; our capacity to manipulate our supply chain and logistics features; the potential to protect our intellectual property and prevent claims of infringement; our capacity to effectively integrate received companies into ours; our ability to preserve adequate security over our assistance systems; environmental, fitness and safety laws, regulations, fees and other liabilities; the skill to continue and attract key employees; risks concerning the transaction of business internationally; pension and put up-retirement healthcare and lifestyles coverage liabilities; and liquidity and our entry to capital markets. We caution you that the foregoing list of important components may additionally not contain the entire material factors which are important to you. For a further record and description of such hazards and uncertainties, please discuss with Avaya's filings with the SEC that are available at www.sec.gov. Avaya disclaims any intention or responsibility to update or revise any forward-looking statements, no matter if on account of new assistance, future pursuits or otherwise.
Avaya Inc. and Inocybe technologies have tested a system that guarantees to support as many as 168,000 connected gadgets. both corporations believe this often is the greatest number of devices, by a wide margin, ever supported on an open, specifications-based SDN architecture.
The rivalry became backed up via Neela Jacques, govt director of the OpenDaylight task, who talked about it's the largest-scaling architecture that OpenDaylight is aware of.
The challenges for any IoT architecture are to scale up to more and more gadgets, and to achieve this securely. greater contraptions "raise administration complexity and pose viable chance entry elements for unauthorized entry that can wreak havoc with vital community features and information," both agencies say.
Avaya carried out a are living lab-primarily based examine the usage of its SDN Fx structure and its Open community Adapter (ONA). well-nigh what they did, they explained, turned into to run a cluster of controllers in the back of a load balancer to make it appear like the cluster have been a single entity.
Inocybe, which makes a speciality of OpenDaylight-based SDN architectures, supplied a commercial turn-key OpenDaylight platform to perform SDN handle of Avaya’s SDN Fx IoT structure.
The demo was in response to deployments of Avaya's SDN Fx Healthcare answer, which became announced in February. That system changed into developed with the expectation that valued clientele would join tens of hundreds of contraptions.
Avaya provided some specifics of the device that was proven. It referred to an individual ODL example is enabled to aid up to 660 multi-protocol (Openflow and NetConf) digital switches -- in this case, the Avaya ONA. each area change port connects to a digital switch (the ONA) that connects to an IoT machine to be managed.
Following that, distinct paired situations of Avaya’s ODL controller act as a cluster behind a load balancer, offered by means of KEMP applied sciences Inc. , which allows for the cluster to be seen as a single entity through IoT gadgets. The highest possible variety of controllers within the equipment is 255. Multiply that by way of the variety of digital switches (660) obtained both agencies to a possible 168,300 linked contraptions on the gadget.
finally, a allotted leading-memory database and messaging bus allows for the SDN answer to deliver true-time information replication and consistency throughout distinct applications and functions for a single manage path failover; for that reason, creating a incredibly obtainable environment the place IoT contraptions can reconnect to ODL in a close clear vogue, Avaya mentioned.
meanwhile, the Inocybe platform performed right here administration duties:
— Brian Santo, Senior Editor, add-ons, T&M, gentle analyzing
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180 new slides that cover the new UCITS IV directive have been added to the existing 3,080 slides that are the basis for the Certified Hedge Fund Compliance Expert (CHFCE) distance learning and online certification programWashington, DC, September 22, 2009 --(PR.com)-- The International Association of Hedge Funds Professionals (IAHFP) has updated the official presentations that lead to the Certified Hedge Fund Compliance Expert (CHFCE), Distance Learning and Online Certification Program. UCITS IV is part of the necessary knowledge required to pass the exam.
"The final cost of the program is US$ 797," said George Lekatis, President of the International Association of Hedge Funds Professionals (IAHFP).
"What is included in the price is unique. We send:
A. The official presentations we use in our instructor-led classes (3260 slides)
A1. Compliance for Hedge Funds around the world - 200 slides
A2. Governance, Risk and Compliance: What you need to know - 150 slides
A3. The risk and compliance management challenges around the world - 200 slides
A4. The Sarbanes Oxley Act - 250 slides
A5. The Sarbanes Oxley Implementation: What you have to know about the Auditing Standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board - 110 slides
A6. Understanding the Frameworks for Risk and Compliance Management: COSO and COSO ERM - 110 slides
A7. Understanding the Frameworks for Risk and Compliance Management: COBIT - 200 slides
A8. The Basel ii Accord and the new international standards in credit, market and operational risk. After the current market crisis, the Basel ii rules become more important - 500 slides
A9. Stress testing: The best practice and the international standard - 50 slides
A10. Understanding the European Union (500 million people, unique legal and regulatory environment) - 150 slides
A11. Understanding the European Sarbanes Oxley - the 8th Company Law Directive, the Market Abuse Directive and the Transparency Directive of the European Union - 350 slides
A12. The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) - the European Union's harmonized regulatory regime for investment services across the 30 member states - 550 slides
A13. Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS): What is important to understand - 140 slides
A14. Regulatory Arbitrage. Case Studies: Regulatory Arbitrage after the Basel ii framework and the 8th Company Law Directive of the European Union - 120 slides
A15. UCITS IV - 180 slides
B. Up to 3 Online ExamsYou have to pass one exam. If you fail, you must study the official presentations and try again, but you do not need to spend money. Up to 3 exams are included in the price.
To learn more about the exam:www.hedge-funds-association.com/CHFCE_Certification_Steps_1.pdf
C. Personalized Membership Certificate printed in full colour.Processing, printing, packing and posting to your office or home.
D. Membership to the Association, Networking and Exposure to the Market
You will receive a monthly newsletter to stay current with new developments, challenges and opportunities," continued George.
More information about the program:http://www.hedge-funds-association.com/Distance_Learning_and_Certification.htm
More information about the association:http://www.hedge-funds-association.com
International Association of Hedge Funds Professionals (IAHFP)1200 G Street NW Suite 800, Washington DC 20005, USA Tel: (202) 449-9750Web: www.hedge-funds-association.com
PreambleThe letter inviting me to deliver this Keynote Address includes the following: “Our Association is very passionate about the Civil Service… regaining its lost glory” (bold and italics added). I am certain that the Association is referring to the “glorious” era of civil services about which the following positive statements had been made.
Our civil service is exceedingly efficient, absolutely incorruptible in its upper stratum, and utterly devoted and unstinting in the discharge of its many onerous duties. For our civil servants, government workers and labourers to bear, uncomplainingly and without breaking down, the heavy and multifarious burdens with which we have in the interest of the public saddled them, is an epic of loyalty and devotion, of physical and mental endurance, and of a sense of mission, on their part. From the bottom of my heart I salute all of them. – Awo. The Autobiography of Obafemi Awolowo (1960, p. 293).
… civil services that are for the most part recruited on merit, that are geared to efficiency standards, and that are largely untouched by crude politics.
– Nigerian Opinion (a University of Ibadan-based public affairs magazine), Vol 1, No. 8, 1965, “Editorial”.
“… an able and efficient service, with a spirit of unity and pride in its work, one of the best in the Commonwealth” – D. J. Murray, “The Western Nigeria Civil Service through political crises and military coups,” Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies (1970).
What happened to the civil services that earned the above encomiums? Drawing on my study and observation of these institutions over six decades, I will review what happened around two opposites: institution building and institution destroying. In the second part of the address, I will provide an overview of a blueprint for regaining the “lost glory” of the federal civil service through a bold initiative aimed at transforming it within the wider public service into a world class (first class) institution and provide a summary of the rather modest results recorded to date. Some concluding observations constitute the third and final part of the address.
Institution Building and Institution Destroying Institution building
The builders of the Nigerian civil services that emerged from the colonial administrative service during the decolonization decade of the 1950s were the top political leaders and the most senior civil servants (commonly referred to as higher civil servants) who engaged in joined-up efforts at the centre and in the regions of the federation. In the specific case of the Western Nigeria Civil Service (WNCS) of which Osun State Civil Service was an offshoot in 1991, it was the partnership between Obafemi Awolowo (regional Premier) and Simeon Adebo (Head of Service) that birthed and nurtured the institution which earned the former’s unusual praise cited in the Preamble.
It is important to highlight three crucial success factors that the political leadership provided. Awolowo headhunted Adebo and some other senior staff to serve in leadership positions in the WNCS. Second, he and his political team had articulated a development agenda with an action plan for which the civil service was to bear the primary responsibility for translating into concrete results on the ground. Third the government ensured decent pay and provided the resources (personnel, materials and equipment) that the WNCS needed for discharging its functions. Regarding the government’s development programme that the WNCS had the responsibility to implement, the two quotes below are self-explanatory:
“We had evolved elaborate plans which, with such modifications as inside knowledge of governmental facts and figures might dictate, were ready to be launched at a moment’s notice.” – Awo. The Autobiography of Obafemi Awolowo (1960), p. 257.
Appointed by merit
“Even before they assumed power, the Action Group party in the West had produced policy papers for practically all fields of governmental activity” – Simeon Adebo, Our Unforgettable Years (1984), p. 155.
Adebo and his civil service leadership team who had been appointed by merit proceeded to institutionalise merit-based recruitment. They also worked with the legislative arm of government to ensure that there was a legal framework for the civil service, resulting in the region’s public administration law, 1959. Another crucial institution building measure that was introduced and implemented was the education and training of staff. This was based on a training policy agreed between the political leadership and the leadership of the civil service. A civil service training school that was established in 1959 handled the training of junior staff while the initial steps were taken towards the establishment of an Institute of Administration for the training of senior staff. (It was established in 1962, in partnership with the region’s University of Ife, later re-named Obafemi Awolowo University).
Significantly, Adebo ensured that the relationships between himself and the other higher civil servants on the one hand, and Awolowo and his ministers on the other, in respect of the functions of policy advice and policy coordination and monitoring, were cooperative and smooth: ministerial primacy in policy making was respected and higher civil servants were responsible for ensuring effective policy coordination, implementation and monitoring. Regarding the actual running of the WNCS, guidance was provided by the “leadership by example” philosophy of Adebo: he was the leading embodiment of the attributes highlighted in Awolowo’s 1959 praise of the civil service.
The features of the WNCS summarised above also characterised, in varying degrees, the civil services at the centre and in the other regions as highlighted in the 1965 praise cited in the Preamble. Although the political leadership that had helped to nurture the civil services were replaced by military politicians with no knowledge of civil governance beginning from January 1966, the institutions maintained significant aspects of their quality characteristics through the first decade of military rule.
However, during the immediate years after the end of the 1967-1970 civil war, there was evidence of civil servants getting involved in politics both at the centre and in the states. Alison Ayida’s The Nigerian Revolution, 1966-1976 (1973) that contained controversial political statements is an illustration of the situation at the centre whilst in the states, the civil services became the venues for political bargaining over the sharing and location of development projects and government amenities, issues that belonged to the political realm during civilian rule. (The combined prohibition of political parties and elected assemblies by the military had created the vacuum in the political space). A major public service reform initiative, the Public Service Review Commission (1972-1974) – customarily referred to after the name of its chairman, Jerome Udoji – sought, among other things, to restore efficiency standards in the civil service through the introduction and use of modern management techniques and improved internal processes. However, implementation focused more on recommendations for salary increases than on those for achieving improved efficiency.
Then, in 1975, there was the purge of the public service which clearly marked the beginning of the decline of the civil services as the vast majority of the 12,000 officials “purged” were civil servants. (The grounds for the purge included: “abuse of office”, “decline in productivity”, “divided loyalty” and “corruption”). At a stroke, the security of tenure of civil servants – the cornerstone of a career civil service – disappeared. There was another round of public service purge in 1984/1985 and many civil servants were among the victims. In addition to politicisation and lack of security of tenure, merit-based recruitment was undermined by the “federal character” principle that was introduced in the 1979 Constitution under the watch of the military. Failure to articulate clear guidelines for the application of the federal character principle resulted in its interpretation in practice as a crude, opaque, and sometimes blatantly unfair, quota system.
Sadly, the civilian rule interlude of 1979-1983 witnessed the maintenance of the battering the civil services had suffered under the military with intensification of the politicisation bug in some instances at both the federal and state levels. Efforts aimed at reforming the civil service during the last decade of military rule did not adequately address the restoration of the key characteristics that had made them strong institutions during the pre-military era. Consequently, the civil services inherited by civilian administrations at the centre and in the states in 1999 were fundamentally weak, in varying degrees. Notwithstanding the civil service reform initiatives introduced since 1999 at the centre and in a significant number of states, I am not aware of any civil service that has regained the “lost glory” of their predecessors of the pre-military era. Indeed, regarding the federal civil service, the assimilation of permanent secretaries as “political appointees” for remuneration purposes, effective from January 2009 (see the Revenue Mobilisation, Allocation and Fiscal Commission, RMAFC Act 2008), was another harmful dose of politicisation. And the introduction of tenure limitation for permanent secretaries and directors at the centre, effective from January 2010 (a maximum of eight years), is a further blow to civil servants’ security of tenure because it implies that the career civil service ends below the director level.
Part Two: Towards a World Class Civil Service
In 2009, a National Strategy for Public Service Reform (NSPSR) was prepared for the Federal Government (FG) by a mixed team of external experts and selected senior civil servants with the support of the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom. The vision articulated in the NSPSR is: “A world-class public service delivering government policies effectively and implementing programmes with professionalism, integrity, excellence and passion to secure sustainable national development.” (The NSPSR was “refreshed” in 2014 and “reviewed and updated” in 2017). The strategy has three phases: a rebuilding/reinvigorating phase; a transformation phase; and a final phase to lead to a world class public service status. And it has four pillars: an enabling institutional and governance environment; an enabling socio-economic environment; public financial management (PFM) reform; and civil service administration reform (CSAR).
The development objective of the CSAR is: “To re-invigorate [rebuild] and transform the civil service into an efficient, productive, incorruptible and citizen-centred institution with the capacity to deliver the government’s policies and programme”. Six key target results are identified in the strategy: (i) effective governance and management of the civil service as an institution; (ii) organizational efficiency and effectiveness; (iii) professional and results-oriented civil service; (iv) well-motivated civil servants; (v) improved competence of civil servants; (vi) an accountable and results-focused workforce. The development objectives of the three other pillars and their key target results are interlinked with those of the CSAR. This means that to achieve a world class civil service, simultaneous implementation progress must be made in respect of the three other pillars.
By 2017, that is, about nine years after the NSPSR was submitted to FG, it had not been formally approved by the Federal Executive Council (FEC) for implementation. (I made an unheeded plea for its rapid adoption for implementation in the Presidential Inauguration Lecture that I delivered in May 2011).
With an average of 12-month tenure between 2007 and 2014, no Head of Service (HOS) was able to champion the implementation of the CSAR. And no political champion of civil service reform has emerged since 2009. However, implementation of aspects of PFM began almost immediately in 2009 and by 2017, significant implementation progress had been recorded in respect of some aspects of the key target results envisaged.
The latest development regarding CSAR is a new initiative by the incumbent HOS: Federal Civil Service Strategy and Implementation Plan (FCSSIP), 2017 – 2020, prepared with the support of Africa Initiative on Governance and McKinsey & Company. The strategy has the following themes: re-design and re-launch three core training modules, including leadership enhancement and development programme (LEAD-P); launch a strategic sourcing of identified skills to bring in external talent at senior levels to drive high-level impact; institutionalise performance management by finalizing the performance management system, piloting tools and introducing non-monetary recognition; launch a salary review of the civil service; drive innovation in service by establishing a public service innovation unit within the OHCSF; launch an EPIC culture transformation of the civil service (efficient, productive, incorruptible and citizen-centred); accelerate roll-out of the full implementation of Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS). The HOS obtained FEC approval for (FCSSIP), 2017 – 2020 in July 2017. Understandably, implementation is still at an early stage.
It is important to stress that the approved stand-alone CSAR is effectively delinked from the three other pillars of the NSPSR, contrary to the clearly articulated linkages among all the four pillars: reforms under the enabling institutional and governance environment (pillar 1) are to ensure that that the governance and institutional environment are conducive to reforms in the public service; pillar 2 is focused on achieving the socio-economic development of the country through policies and programmes, and service delivery by the public service; and pillars 3 and 4 are focused on the internal processes – public financial management and the management of the civil service respectively.
Overall, implementation progress in respect of the three other pillars is mixed. Implementation progress in respect of Public Financial Management (PFM) reform has already been highlighted. Regarding the pillar on “An Enabling Institutional and Governance Environment”, it is only in respect of the key target result focused on “transparency and zero tolerance for corruption” that limited progress has been recorded since 2015 when the incumbent president emerged as the champion of an anti-corruption war. Furthermore, Nigeria joined the Open Government Partnership (OGP) initiative in 2016 and adopted a National Action Plan (2017-2019), focused on fiscal transparency, anti-corruption, access to information, and citizen engagement.
Finally, sector ministers and higher civil servants cooperated to champion the implementation of some aspects of the key target results of the pillar on “An Enabling Socio-Economic Environment” between 2011 and 2015. Some concrete results were recorded, notably in respect of high growth rate and emergence of Nigeria as Africa’s largest economy (after the rebasing of the country’s Gross Domestic Product, GDP, in 2013/2014). Since 2016, the Vice President and the sector ministers are cooperating with the relevant higher civil servants to champion the implementation of all the key target results that are consistent with the goals spelled out in the incumbent government’s Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP). But it’s too early to assess implementation progress.
Part Three: Three Concluding Observations
I conclude this Address with brief observations on the following: (1) politicians and civil servants as institution builders and institution destroyers; (2) weak-strong civil service continuum; and (3) impact of technology on civil service.
Based on the experiences reviewed in this Address, I would conclude that politicians bear the primary responsibility both for building a strong civil service and for destroying one that already exists. The explanation is that a political leadership team with a clear development programme that it would like to see implemented effectively would understand the need for a strong civil service and take the necessary steps for ensuring its emergence and nurturing. However, the complementary role of the civil service leadership team in the building and nurturing of the institution was also highlighted. Similarly, politicians (in khaki and agbada) played the lead role in the institution destroying narratives provided. Again, with the exception of ten to fifteen years when civil servants maintained the strong institutions that they had partnered pre-military era politicians to build, they were also partners (active or passive) during the subsequent institution destroying years.
Although I have asserted that civil services in Nigeria have been weak since the mid-1970s, it is important to stress that there are varying degrees of institutional weakness. This is best represented on a weak-strong civil service continuum in which at the extreme weak end, the civil service is incapable of ensuring the continuity of the state (there is state collapse) while at the extreme strong end, the civil service would qualify as world class or first class. In the Nigerian case, the civil services have successfully ensured the continuity of the machinery of government both at the centre and in the states through military coups and changes of government, including cases when opposition parties have replaced ruling parties. Regarding the actual performance of the civil services, the degree of efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery to the public is a key measure for determining where each civil service would lie on the weak side of the continuum: close to the extreme end would represent poor service delivery while close to the middle of the continuum would represent fairly efficient service delivery. It would be interesting to find out from the incumbent leadership teams of the federal and state civil services the putative positions of their respective institutions in respect of service delivery to the public.
Below are two illustrations of civil services at the strong end of the continuum that have earned the status of world class or first class institutions.
Botswana’s civil service has been acknowledged by both its political leaders and outside observers as one of the key factors that made it possible for the country to emerge as one of only thirteen (13) countries world-wide that recorded sustained high growth (7 per cent and above) for 25 years or longer during the second half of the 20th Century (Commission on Growth and Development, 2008). In the case of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, a former prime minister, highlights the contribution of the civil service in the country’s rise “From Third World to First” (2000). And in 2008, the country’s incumbent Prime Minister, Mr. Lee Hsien Loong, asserted that Singapore’s civil service has remained critical to the country’s good development performance: “[Singapore’s Public Service] is our most sustainable competitive advantage. The investments in Singapore’s future are only realisable with a first-class public service” (bold and italics added).
Today, both weak and strong civil services are impacted, in varying degrees, by technology. Based on my observation of the federal civil service and a few state civil services, I would assert that only a small number of Nigerian civil servants have basic computer skills (Microsoft Office, PowerPoint and Email) and a smaller number would qualify as effective Internet users (connecting, accessing and using browsers). Until all officers on Grade Level 7 and above master basic computer skills and become effective internet users, no civil service can make real progress towards e-government, that is, the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery to the public. (Of course, fully functional e-government will depend on significant improvement in electricity supply and increased broadband penetration, currently less than 30%).
A worrisome illustration of limited capacity in ICT at the federal level is the failure to effectively implement the Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS), that was first introduced in April 2007. Besides the astonishing claims of savings (close to one trillion naira to date) through removal of ghost workers (at least, between 100 and 150,000) during the last eleven years, the incumbent HOS’s on-going civil service reform strategy includes removal of many more tens of thousands of ghost workers and an estimated saving of N120 billion by 2020. (For example, in 2014, Jonathan administration claimed to have eliminated 60,000 ghost workers and saved N170billion whilst Buhari administration claims to have saved N198 billion from eliminating ghost workers in 2016).
However, the introduction of e-learning tablets (Opon imo) in secondary schools in the State of Osun since 2013 is evidence that leapfrogging is feasible in ICT use. And it is almost certain that there are individual professionals (doctors, engineers, architects, teachers, accountants) within the civil services across the country who enhance their productivity and efficiency through effective use of the Internet and possibly one or two social media platforms (for example, Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram and Twitter). But a critical mass of professionals needs to join their ranks before efficiency and productivity can be significantly enhanced within the civil services.
*Professor Ladipo Adamolekun writes from Iju, Akure North, Ondo State.Related
Issued by Transparency International UK
Failing to take account of the threat from corruption during peacekeeping operations puts the long-term success of international interventions at risk, warns a new report by Transparency International’s Defence and Security Programme.
Corruption has become a mission-critical issue in many recent operations. Yet it is often ignored in planning and execution. Mandates rarely mention it, and training centres currently do not provide any meaningful guidance on how peacekeepers can prevent corruption from becoming more entrenched in the host nation and in the mission itself.
“Corruption is dangerous, divisive, and wasteful, but this is not a reason to hide our heads in the sand. Ignoring the threats of corruption to peacekeeping missions embeds it more deeply and damages the legitimacy of key institutions. It is possible and essential to understand the corruption risks involved” explains Mark Pyman, the main author of the study “Corruption and Peacekeeping” and Director of Transparency International UK’s Defence and Security Programme.
The report—which identifies 28 types of corruption that threaten peacekeeping operations—suggests tackling the problem in the early stages of a Mission is likely to result in successful institution building and stability for the host nation.
UN should set policy and guidance on the corruption threats
The study spells out ways in which the UN can give an important lead in combatting corruption risk in peacekeeping operations. It suggests it is realistic and practical to establish a robust framework that can form the basis of policy, guidance, and practice on corruption both for the UN itself and for contributors to peacekeeping operations
Transparency International calls on the UN to initiate a focused discussion on ways to institute practical anti-corruption and transparency measures in peacekeeping, and to establish more independent and professional oversight and investigation capabilities. The UN Secretary General could start this process by acknowledging the importance of addressing corruption and open the door for practical policy, guidance and reforms to be implemented.
Commenting on the findings, Senior Adviser to Transparency International and former UK Ambassador to NATO Sir Stewart Eldon said "The report is an important contribution to tackling the difficult issue of corruption and conflict. It is a real opportunity for the UN to take the initiative in developing standards and policies that will enable international organisations and troop and police contributors to tackle this problem at source. In so doing they will be more effective in helping countries transition to stability, and in protecting the ordinary citizens that peacekeeping missions are mandated to assist and protect."
Notes to editors:
1. A large consumer of international funds, UN Peacekeeping Missions and mandates accounted for USD 7.9 billion in the 2011-2012 financial year. This almost equates to the total combined official development assistance (ODA) given by donor countries to Afghanistan and Haiti in 2011.
2. Transparency International UK’s Defence and Security Programme helps to build integrity and reduce corruption in defence and security establishments worldwide through supporting counter corruption reform in nations, raising integrity in arms transfers, and influencing policy in defence and security. To achieve this, the programme works with governments, defence companies, multilateral organisations and civil society. The programme is led by Transparency International UK (TI-UK) on behalf of the TI movement. For more information about the programme please visit http://www.ti-defence.org
3. Examples quoted in the report:
i. Arising from the political settlement framework: For example, the challenge faced by MONUSCO in the DRC, where the tension was explicit between the need to support the elected government in the host country while being seen to uphold United Nations values. Mandate language recognised the sovereignty of the elected government, but placed the Mission in a very difficult position where the government or its services were associated with corruption.
ii. Arising in the troop contributing countries: For example, three former Nepalese police chiefs and one British businessman were convicted in 2012 over the procurement of obsolete and sub-standard equipment for Nepali UN peacekeepers for the Darfur mission in 2009.
iii. Corruption within the Mission and emerging from it: For example, officers in the Police Unit in MINUSTAH (Haiti) were extorting money from daily-paid workers and thereafter paid bribes to ensure the continuation of the illegitimate scheme. Similarly, discrimination against local staff employed in the UN mission was seen in the UN mission in Kosovo, with many staff having to pay ‘kickbacks’ to UN staff to secure employment. Fuel mismanagement, theft and fraud have been found across a number of UN Peacekeeping Missions including UNOCI (Ivory Coast), UNTAET (East Timor), and MONUSCO (DRC).
iv. In central UN Peacekeeping procurement: For example, in August 2008, Alexandar Yakovlev, the former Procurement Officer at the UN, was charged and convicted by the United States’ Federal Prosecutor for criminal offences in connection with the Oil-for-Food Programme. Between 2000 and 2005, Mr Yakovlev received over USD 1.3 million in bribes and kickbacks from numerous contractors working with the UN.
v. In poor quality oversight and investigation of corruption allegations: UN oversight systems have been internal and politicised, with no tolerance of whistle-blowers. For example, James Wasserstrom, who was investigating corrupt practices at UNMIK, the UN mission in Kosovo, himself faced serious retaliation from the UN when he raised concerns about corruption, particularly for taking kickbacks on electricity procurement in 2007.
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