|Exam Name||:||PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac|
|Questions and Answers||:||110 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 15, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure 8004 Dump|
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8004 exam Dumps Source : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Test Code : 8004
Test Name : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Vendor Name : Avaya
Q&A : 110 Real Questions
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LAFC’s Christian Ramirez scored the final purpose in opposition t Panama in his foreign debut, then install the ultimate one in opposition t Costa Rica whereas the Galaxy’s Sebastian Lletget, returning to San Jose’s Avaya Stadium for the primary time when you consider that struggling a devastating injury there two years ago, had a aim and an help in 27 minutes off the bench. (With Zimmerman additionally scoring against Panama, LAFC and Galaxy gamers both scored or assisted on four of the five u.s.a.desires in the two games.)
supply: Avaya Inc.
October 20, 2010 07:15 ET
Avaya connect Channel companions Have access to New competencies and Designations in Video and facts, associate Helpdesk and company administration and advertising and marketing Curricula
BASKING RIDGE, NJ--(Marketwire - October 20, 2010) - Avaya, a worldwide leader in business communications techniques, software and capabilities, today introduced new skills, certifications and guide programs to aid Avaya join Channel companions give imaginative, true-time enterprise communications and collaboration solutions to their purchasers. Avaya connect Channel companions could have entry to new expertise certifications, enterprise management and advertising curricula and a world companion HelpDesk to help evolve each their consumer's company as well as their own. The announcement became made all the way through the Avaya 2011 Americas partner conference being held this week in Las Vegas, Nevada.
"The innovations Avaya is now bringing to market enable our Avaya connect Channel partners to alternate the dialog," talked about Jeremy Butt, vice president, global Channels, Avaya. "Our partners can have a strategic have an impact on assisting organisations reinvigorate their business by using open, requirements-primarily based actual-time communications and collaboration applications. Avaya is equipping channel partners with the expertise, skills, certifications and assist to allow their success in this trade."
The announcement follows a collection of know-how innovations introduced through Avaya through 2010 that covered advancements in unified communications and collaboration, contact middle and information networking for businesses from small to very gigantic. Most recently, Avaya announced a brand new portfolio of video-enabled collaboration options highlighted by using the Avaya Flare™ event, the business's first subsequent-technology person event that can provide entertaining collaboration capabilities across video, voice and text.
the new and multiplied expertise practising, designations and advantage reflect Avaya's multiplied portfolio into facts and Video options and encompass:
"companies with clear and powerful certification programs enable companions to enhance comprehensive skill-units and build and develop their company," states Chris Ilg, director, Infrastructure Channels and Alliances, IDC. "As firms look for inventive collaboration solutions to gas innovation in their business, companions with the newest capabilities are most useful located to satisfy the needs of valued clientele these days."
The these days launched Avaya connect associate HelpDesk provides a single element of contact for channel partners who've questions on Avaya's companion programs, equipment and features. obtainable in 10 languages, this new useful resource offers in reality international assistance to channel companions to make it less complicated for companions to do company with Avaya, in spite of their level, geography, or portfolio sold. brokers will assist with here application and technique connected issues:
Avaya is offering entry to classes resulting in a professional Diploma in marketing company services and solutions provided through ITSMA and the Chartered Institute of advertising and marketing to support channel partners construct company abilities. The curriculum will aid channel partners remember what they deserve to do within their own enterprise to create and bring company features and solutions and how to win, develop and defend key consumer debts.
the new training and certifications should be purchasable over the subsequent two quarters. The Avaya join associate HelpDesk is purchasable now.
About Avaya Avaya is a worldwide chief in enterprise communications systems. The business offers unified communications, contact centers, information solutions, and linked services at once and thru its channel partners to leading groups and groups all over the world. corporations of all sizes depend upon Avaya for state-of-the-art communications that increase effectivity, collaboration, consumer provider and competitiveness. For more tips please discuss with www.avaya.com
certain statements contained in this press unlock are ahead-looking statements. These statements may be recognized by means of forward-searching terminology similar to "expect," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "are expecting," "intend," "may," "might," "plan," "competencies," "predict," "should" or "will" or other similar terminology. we now have based these forward-looking statements on our latest expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections. while we trust these expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections are cost-effective, such ahead-searching statements are best predictions and involve frequent and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which might be past our handle. These and other vital factors may cause our exact results, efficiency or achievements to differ materially from any future outcomes, efficiency or achievements expressed or implied by these ahead-searching statements. some of the key factors that may cause specific outcomes to vary from our expectations consist of: our capacity to enhance and promote superior communications items and capabilities, together with unified communications, contact center and information solutions; our ability to strengthen our oblique sales channel; economic conditions and the willingness of corporations to make capital investments; the marketplace for advanced communications items and services, together with unified communications solutions; our capability to stay competitive in the markets we serve; our means to control our deliver chain and logistics services; the skill to offer protection to our highbrow property and avoid claims of infringement; our ability to quite simply combine acquired groups into ours; our ability to hold ample protection over our assistance methods; environmental, fitness and safeguard legal guidelines, regulations, costs and different liabilities; the capacity to hold and attract key employees; hazards relating to the transaction of company internationally; pension and submit-retirement healthcare and lifestyles insurance liabilities; and liquidity and our entry to capital markets. We warning you that the foregoing record of critical elements may additionally not include all of the cloth components which are crucial to you. For an extra list and outline of such dangers and uncertainties, please check with Avaya's filings with the SEC that can be found at www.sec.gov. Avaya disclaims any intention or obligation to replace or revise any ahead-searching statements, no matter if because of new guidance, future events or otherwise.
The San Jose Earthquakes hang their annual Media Day at their apply facility subsequent to Avaya Stadium in San Jose. The Earthquakes began their work-outs to prepare for the upcoming 2016 season earlier this week. (pictures with the aid of Gary Reyes/Bay area news community)
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Editor’s Note: John Kloosterman is the co-chair of the Business and Human Rights Practice Group and a shareholder at Littler Mendelson. Michael Congiu is the co-chair of the Business and Human Rights Practice Group and a shareholder at Littler Mendelson.
It is hard to imagine an industry that more broadly impacts our personal and professional lives. The electronics and information communication technology (ICT) industry has democratized access to information and, depending on perspective, has profoundly connected or polarized our world. These sociological questions aside, we also fundamentally rely on mobile and other electronic devices to carry out our work – whether through a smartphone, tablet, or other computing device.
On a parallel track, the concepts of business and human rights continue to renovate how business views its place in the world, and its relationships to its customers, markets, and the states where it has operations. These somewhat coextensive and shifting paradigms provoke broad and complicated questions about the future of corporate citizenship and sustainability, as well as more personal and discrete questions about the role we play as consumers and how we interact with available technologies.
Unpacking these matters starts, to a point, with business assuming an awareness of and commitment to human rights issues, and gaining a better understanding as to how these devices are made and by whom. The former represents a growing consensus among companies both within and beyond the ICT industry. The latter is easier said than done. Many of our favorite devices are the product of supply chains that pass through suppliers and workers in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, California and a host of other locations before reaching our pockets and briefcases.
Exploring a particular “supply chain” must account for the reality that “supply chains” are rarely, if ever, linear or static. Supply chains contain a company’s suppliers, plus the suppliers’ suppliers, those second-level suppliers’ suppliers, and so on, and these entities may change based on reasons that do not link back to the company selling the final product. Indeed, the processors that make our devices functional start out as minerals – gold, cassiterite (tin), tungsten and coltan (tantalum). Once extracted, the minerals may pass through the hands of several trading houses and other middlemen, before being sold to an exporter who ships the minerals to a refinery, where they are made into metal; once refined into metal, tracing the source of the minerals can be impossible. Before the refining, tracing the origin of the minerals is theoretically possible but practically impossible because of the number of traders and exporters involved.
The ICT Benchmark
One organization has sought to benchmark 20 publicly traded ICT companies using various human rights criteria that focus on forced labor. KnowTheChain.org has described this initiative as follows:
[The chosen] companies were selected on the basis of their size (market cap) and the extent to which they derive revenues from physical products as opposed to services. KnowTheChain assessed information available on each company’s own website as well as additional public disclosure that over half of the companies provided in response to engagement questions.
The companies were evaluated using a methodology with seven themes: commitment and governance; traceability and risk assessment; purchasing practices; recruitment; worker voice; monitoring; and remedy.See ICT Benchmark Finding Report, at https://knowthechain.org/wp-content/plugins/ktc-benchmark/app/public/images/benchmark_reports/KTC_ICT_Benchmark_Findings_June.pdf.
This Benchmark’s 2016 findings reflect the realities of the changing business and human rights landscape and the profound challenges in effective supply chain management. For example, the Benchmark’s findings reflect that “[e]ighteen of the 20 companies benchmarked have publicly demonstrated awareness of and commitment to addressing forced labor in the supply chain. However, far fewer of these companies also have strong processes in place to implement these commitments.”
While most of the benchmarked companies—and a growing number of companies within and beyond the ICT industry—have public human rights commitments, effectively implementing these commitments amongst an often interdependent and fluid set of organizations within a supply “chain” presents great challenges.
A Way Forward?
In this complex space, the first steps can be the most difficult, and our thoughts on a way forward focus on (1) how to make a public commitment to these issues; and (2) how to implement that commitment. This exercise can and should be dynamic and fluid, and necessarily based on the specific risks in a company’s particular operations and industry. The UN Guiding Principles were flexibly designed to allow for companies to flexibly implement their own operationally-specific commitments. With that in mind:
1. Public commitments about your human rights practices, whether found in a code of conduct or supplier code of conduct, should avoid general pronouncements that cannot be reasonably or practically followed. Similarly, simply adopting ILO standards or agreeing to follow voluntary international standards (like the UN Global Compact) should not occur without understanding attendant consequences. Company and supplier codes of conduct should be viewed as legal documents that reflect promises that the company actually expects to keep. While aspirational statements and commitments are well-intentioned and can be laudable, the wiser course is to partner with legal counsel and stakeholders to develop commitments to specific human rights risks that are particularly prominent to the company and its industry and that the company can practically and positively impact.
2. Look to existing laws for implementation templates. For example, the California Supply Chains Act can serve as an implemental roadmap. The Supply Chains Act, similar to the UK Modern Slavery Act and legislation pending in the EU, requires covered companies to report on five areas: (i) third-party verification of supply chains to evaluate the risk of forced labor and trafficking; (ii) conducting independent, unannounced audits of suppliers; (iii) requiring suppliers to certify that materials incorporated into the product comply with local laws on forced labor and human trafficking; (iv) maintaining internal accountability standards and procedures for employees and contractors regarding trafficking and forced labor; and (v) providing training on trafficking and forced labor issues to employees with responsibility for supply chain management.
This California law does not require action in these identified areas. It simply requires that a company report what it is, or is not, doing in these identified areas. That said, companies that take action in these five areas will better position themselves to develop intelligent policies and be better positioned to implement those policies and, to a degree, better position the company in the future of the ICT industry and broader market.
January 12, 2017
If you're thinking of breaking into banking, you've probably thought about studying for a CFA qualification. You've probably also contemplated an MBA. Both are popular among financial services professionals looking to get ahead. Both are also broad-ranging qualifications which apply across a range of financial services jobs. And in the case of MBAs at least, some banks have special 'associate entry programs' for hiring MBAs from top business schools.
However, there are plenty of other financial services-relevant qualifications out there. Many are more specific than the CFA or the MBA and focus on particular areas of the finance industry. Most aren't mandatory - in the UK, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) scrapped obligatory qualifications for investment bankers back in 2007.
These alternative qualifications aren't guaranteed to get you a job - but then neither is the CFA Charter or an MBA? Best of all, they're cheap - especially compared to the huge tuition fees at top business schools.
If you want to work in banking, but aren't fixated on the front office and are prepared to look beyond the standard acronyms, these are the qualifications you should look out for:Qualifications for banking compliance jobs 1. The CISI Diploma in Investment Compliance
Run by: The Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment
What they say: 'The Diploma in Investment Compliance is a global qualification that offers a clear career pathway for compliance specialists and practitioners. Achieving this qualification, will provide you with the confidence of possessing a thorough understanding of the financial services regulatory environment both in the UK and internationally.'
Entry requirements: You'll have to study the 'Introduction to Securities and Investment Banking First. '
Cost: Around £1.7k, including tuition and exam fees.
Study time: You need to pass three exams to achieve the diploma. On average, the CISI says you'll need to study for around 80 hours for each unit. Passing the diploma typically takes 18 months to two years according to BPP Professional Education.
Pass rate: Thought to be 70% for the first two exams. 50% for the third.
What we say: The CISI diploma is best known in the UK market. It might help get you an interview, but it's very unusual for a job to specify the diploma as a prerequisite.2. The Advanced Certificate in Compliance
Run by: The International Compliance Association
What they say: 'The ICA Advanced Certificates in Compliance is suitable for those new to compliance or in a junior role and will help you develop a good understanding of compliance fundamentals.These courses are endorsed by the British Bankers' Association in the UK.'
Entry requirements: 'Sound educational background' and 'good written English.'
Cost: £1.5k + VAT or local taxes if outside the UK.
Study time: The course lasts for six months and is provided by 'International Compliance Training', the ICA's approved training provider. You'll be studying at home but will participate in two 'highly interactive workshops.'
Pass rate: Not provided.
What we say: An entry-level certificate in compliance. Good for people who want to work in money laundering and financial crime. You'll need work experience to get a job - there are few jobs that specify this qualification as a necessity for compliance hires. UK-centric. Hardly anyone has this qualification on Wall Street or in Hong Kong or Singapore.Qualifications for sales, trading or structuring jobs 3. The Fixed Income Certificate (formerly the International Fixed Income and Derivatives Program)
Run by: The International Capital Markets Association.
What they say: 'The gold standard qualification for finance professionals for almost 40 years. The programme places emphasis on developing practical skills for trading, investment and risk management, designed to give a fixed income professional all the knowledge needed to understand pricing, risk and trading opportunities in these markets.'
Entry requirements: There are no specific requirements, but the presumption is that you'll already be working in banking - either in a front office role, or in a support function. You can take a sample paper here to see if it's right for you.
Cost: £3.3k for ICMA members and £4.3k for non-members.
Study time: The classroom based version of the programme is delivered as a one week course across Europe.
Pass rate: Not provided.
What we say: Not mandatory, but IFID is known among fixed income traders and portfolio managers in London. Often used by back office people trying to gain product knowledge and move into the middle office. Again, less common in Asia and the U.S.4. The CISI Diploma in Capital Markets
Run by: The Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment
What they say: 'The Diploma in Capital Markets is a leading professional finance qualification for practitioners working in wholesale securities markets....It is ideal for practitioners pursuing careers in treasury and financial controlling functions, private equity analysis, portfolio management, fixed income analysis, fund management, financial consulting, financial risk management, investor relations, internal audit and specialist financial operations.'
Entry requirements: There are no formal entry requirements. But most candidates will have a degree.
Cost: If you're paying for classroom tuition, it will probably cost you around £5k for the three units. If you're teaching yourself, it will cost you around £1.8k in study materials and past papers.
Study time: You're advised to study for 200 hours for each diploma unit (and you need to choose three). The diploma typically takes between 18 months and two years to achieve. You can either choose to study on your own, or can pay for training.
Pass rate: 44% to 80%, depending upon the papers you take.
What we say: Very rarely specified in job descriptions. Popular among back and middle office (including compliance) staff who want to learn more about the products they're dealing with.5. The London Business School's Masters in Finance
Run by: The London Business School
What they say: 'Ranked number one in the world by the Financial Times for the last five consecutive years, the School's outstanding global reputation in finance and strong links with financial institutions, recruiters and practitioners means there is no better place for you to study finance.'
Entry requirements: You'll need at least two years' experience in a financial services job to be eligible for the course. Most people have 3-6 years' experience and part time students have 3-12 years' experience.
Study time:10 months or 16 months (if you want to be able to complete an internship) full time; 22 months at weekends.
Pass rate: Not provided.
Where to find out more: Click here.
What we say: Expensive, but cheaper than an MBA. The pre-eminent qualification for London financial services professionals who want to escape the middle or back office. Better for sales and trading than corporate finance (for the investment banking division, try an MBA).6. The CQF (Certificate in Quantitative Finance)
Run by: Fitch but founded by Paul Wilmott, a well known quant.
What they say: The CQF is, "designed for in-depth training for individuals working in, or intending to move into, e.g. derivatives, IT, quantitative trading, insurance, model validation or risk management.
Entry requirements: You'll need to be (very) good at maths. Before you can start the course, you'll have to complete a maths test.
Cost: Around £13k.
Study time: Four hours per week (delivered in the form of two two hour long weekly CQF lectures, delivered via webcast) for six months. You can learn about the program here.
Pass rate: Not provided.
What we say: The CQF has good international recognition and will sometimes be specified on job descriptions. It's good if you want a risk modelling or model testing role, or if you want to be a quantitative developer building computer models for the quants who design banks' complex derivative products. Most 'front office quants' will have a PhD or an MSc. It's less well known in the worlds of data analysis and machine learning.7. Series 7 (Full name: the General Securities Representative Exam)
Run by: The U.S. Financial Industry Regulation Authority. (FINRA)
What they say: 'The Series 7 Examination is designed to assess the competency of entry-level General Securities Representatives...The Series 7 Examination is the General Securities Representative Qualification Examination.' [In other words, this is mandatory. You have to pass the Series 7 if you want to work in sales or trading - but only if you want to work in the U.S.)
Entry requirements: You have to be working for a FINRA-member firm and they have to sponsor you. Series 7 isn't really open to anyone...If you've been working in the UK, you might be allowed to skip some of the modules.
Cost: Employers usually pay.
Study time: You'll probably need to study for 1-2 hours per day for six to eight weeks.
Pass rate: Around 65%..
What we say: You'll have to have the Series 7 in the U.S. Hardly anyone has it in London or Hong Kong - unless they've transferred from Wall Street.For the risk professional 8. 'Risk in financial services'
Run by: The Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment
What they say: 'Risk in Financial Services offers a comprehensive global introduction to the major risk areas in financial services. It addresses international issues, reflecting the needs of a worldwide market, and provides a sound grounding in the principles of the risk management framework, corporate governance and risk oversight. It covers specific techniques used in identifying, reducing and managing operational risk, credit risk, market risk, investment risk and liquidity risk.'
Entry requirements: None given. However, the presumption is that you'll be working in risk or compliance already.
Cost: Expect to pay around £300+ in exam fees. Or, £1.3k+ if you want tuition.
Study time: 100 hours for the Risk in Financial Services. An extra 70 hours if you want to supplement it with 'UK Financial Regulation'. Some training providers off a three day intensive course.
Pass rate: Thought to be around 62%.
What we say: Rare.9. 'Professional Risk Manager Qualification' (PRM)
Run by: The Professional Risk Managers' International Association (PRMIA)
What they say: ''The Professional Risk Manager (PRM™) Designation is a globally recognized, graduate-level risk management credential.'
Entry requirements: You'll need some work experience: 4 years if you don't have a bachelor degree, two years if you do, and no work experience at all if you've been to graduate school of have passed an 'accepted professional designation' like the CFA.
Cost: $1.1k (minimum).
Study time: Candidates are required to pass four exams, varying in length from one to two hours. You'll need to purchase exam vouchers along with study materials and the PRM handbook. The vouchers expire within three years of purchase.
Pass rate: 65% overall, but 59% for exams I and III and 78% for exam IV.
What we say: A well recognized international qualification. Often specified as a prerequisite for risk jobs in the U.S.10. 'The Financial Risk Manager's Qualification' (FRM)
Run by: The Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP)
What they say: 'The FRM Exam, offered by the Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP), is a practice-oriented exam designed to assess a candidate’s knowledge and understanding of the skills necessary to function effectively as a financial risk manager. '
Entry requirements: To be able to use the FRM designation, you'll need at least two years' work experience in risk management, trading, portfolio management, academia, industry research, economics, auditing, risk consulting or risk technology.
Cost: Varies - it's cheaper if you enroll sooner! $750 to $1,050 for each exam.
Study time: 'On average, individuals devoted about 275 hours to exam preparation. Individual figures, however, varied from less than 100 hours (6%) to more than 400 hours (11%).'
Pass rate: Around 43% for part 1, 58% for part 2.
What we say: Popular qualification for risk managers, valuation specialists and product consultants. Recognized globally. Often specified alongside the PRM.12. 'The Certificate in Risk Management in Financial Services'
Run by: The Institute of Risk Management
What they say: 'This practical qualification addresses the real issues facing organisations in financial services, particularly banking and insurance.'
Entry requirements: None in particular. -'The qualification is the entry level qualification for anyone embarking on a career in risk management or working in a risk-related discipline.'
Cost: £1.9k. You might get a discount if you're in a low income country.
Study time: Six to nine months, distance learning.
Pass rate: Not clear. But the pass mark is 50%.
What we say: Rarely seen in job descriptions.For the corporate finance professional 13. The Diploma in Corporate Finance
Run by: The ICAEW in combination with the Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment.
What they say: 'The New Diploma in Corporate Finance will equip you with advanced corporate finance knowledge, skills and expertise. It will enhance the value you bring to the organisations you work with and help accelerate your career.'
Entry requirements: You'll usually need to have passed the ICAEW's Chartered Accountancy exams or to have a Certificate in Corporate Finance.
Cost: £721 in exam fees, more if you want to pay for tuition.
Study time: On average, 500 hours of study are needed. It's 'achievable within a year.'
Pass rate: Thought to be around 69%.
What we say: Not very well known outside Europe. Not specified in job descriptions. Most common among strategists in corporates, accountants and lawyers. Good for Big Four accountants who want to move into M&A.
Photo credit: Crayon Fence by chrismetcalfTV is licensed under CC BY 2.0.
on the role of employee financial participation in creating jobs and reactivating the unemployed
The European Parliament,
– having regard to the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), and in particular Article 3(3),
– having regard to Article 9 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which requires the EU to promote a high level of employment, guarantee adequate social protection, fight against social exclusion and ensure a high level of education, training and protection of human health,
– having regard to the Council conclusions of 7 December 2015 on the promotion of the social economy as a key driver of economic and social development in Europe,
– having regard to the Commission communication of 2 June 2016 entitled ‘A European agenda for the collaborative economy’ (COM(2016)0356),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 27 March 2014 entitled ‘Long-term Financing of the European Economy’ (COM(2014)0168),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 12 December 2012 entitled ‘Action Plan: European company law and corporate governance – a modern legal framework for more engaged shareholders and sustainable companies’ (COM(2012)0740),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 3 October 2012 entitled ‘Single Market Act II – Together for new growth’ (COM(2012)0573),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 3 March 2010 entitled ‘Europe 2020: a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’ (COM(2010)2020),
– having regard to the Commission recommendation of 3 October 2008 on the active inclusion of people excluded from the labour market(1),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 25 June 2008 entitled ‘Think Small First – A “Small Business Act” for Europe’ (COM(2008)0394) and the Commission’s 2008 and 2009 Work Programmes,
– having regard to the Commission communication of 14 March 2006 entitled ‘Implementing the Lisbon Community Programme for Growth and Jobs: Transfer of Businesses – Continuity through a new beginning’ (COM(2006)0117),
– having regard to the Commission communication of 5 July 2002 entitled ‘A framework for the promotion of employee financial participation’ (COM(2002)0364) and Parliament’s resolution of 5 June 2003 thereon(2),
– having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) of 21 October 2010 on employee financial participation in Europe,
– having regard to its resolution of 15 January 2013 on information and consultation of workers, anticipation and management of restructuring(3),
– having regard to its resolution of 14 January 2014 on financial participation of employees in companies’ proceeds(4), and the opinion of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (2013/2127(INI)),
– having regard to the study requested by Parliament’s Committee on Employment and Social Affairs entitled ‘Employee financial participation in companies’ proceeds’, which was published in September 2012,
– having regard to the Mid-Term Review of the Capital Markets Union Action Plan published on 8 June 2017 (COM(2017)0292),
– – having regard to the Commission’s pilot project entitled the ‘Promotion of employee ownership and participation’, of which the final version was published in 2014,
– having regard to the PEPPER IV Report, entitled ‘Benchmarking of employee participation in profits and enterprise results in the member and candidate countries of the European Union’, which was published in October 2009 by the Free University of Berlin,
– having regard to the PEPPER III Report, entitled ‘Promotion of employee participation in profits and enterprise results in the new member and candidate countries of the European Union’, which was published in June 2006 by the Free University of Berlin,
– having regard to the report of 18 December 2003 of the high-level group of independent experts on transnational obstacles to the growth of employee financial participation in transnational enterprises,
– having regard to the PEPPER II Report, entitled ‘Promotion of participation by employed persons in profits and enterprise results (including equity participation) in Member States’, which was published by the Commission in January 1997 (COM(1996)0697),
– having regard to the PEPPER I Report, entitled ‘Promotion of employee participation in profits and enterprise results’, which was published in March 1991 by the Commission and the European University Institute,
– having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,
– having regard to the report of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (A8-0293/2018),
A. whereas there are several employee financial participation (EFP) models an employer can choose from: profit sharing, individual employee share ownership, worker ownership in cooperative models and employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs);
B. whereas the most appropriate EFP model must be carefully chosen by the individual company and its workers, taking due account of the specific national taxation rules and sectoral context, and will mostly depend on the size, activity and status of the company, especially if it is listed; whereas it is not appropriate to develop a comprehensive ‘one size fits all’ model for EFP at EU level;
C. whereas, according to data from the 2013 European Company Survey(5), EFP schemes can vary greatly according to company characteristics; whereas 62% of European establishments use some form of variable pay, with profit sharing accounting for 30% and pay linked to group performance 25%; whereas share-ownership schemes are used by 5% of establishments; whereas these EFP schemes are more prevalent in the private sector than in the public sector (with some national exceptions), as well as in certain economic sectors, particularly information and communications technology, finance, insurance, and consultancy; whereas larger companies are more likely to use these EFP schemes than small and medium-sized enterprises, and they are also more common in foreign-capital or multinational companies and in companies located in economically(6) central or advanced regions;
D. whereas ESOPs are a form of EFP using an intermediate entity able to exercise voting rights or other forms of governance on behalf of employees, who could voluntarily chose them;
E. whereas EFP schemes involving workers in consultation and decision-making have proven(7) benefits for both employees and the company, including in terms of sustainable governance, transparency, social dialogue, mutual respect between employers and employees, and other aspects such as recruitment, retention, motivation, job satisfaction and skills development, as well as overall performance and profitability;
F. whereas employee participation in decision-making could improve organisational performance and employees’ quality of working life, and whereas it could act as a workplace innovation tool(8) to promote a sense of ownership, enhance the flow of information in the company and improve levels of trust between employers and employees;
G. whereas EFP schemes can have positive impacts on the economy of Member States by supporting companies, including SMEs, and the job market; whereas workers’ financial participation in their company can contribute to job satisfaction, a sense of ownership, mutual respect between employers and employees and overall performance, and can help employees find opportunities in their home countries;
H. whereas, in the context of the development of the Capital Market Union (CMU), EFP could contribute to the CMU objectives of inclusive growth and transparency in economic activity; whereas EFP, if coupled with training for participants provided by companies and Member States, could improve financial education amongst EU citizens, potentially reducing their reluctance to invest, and potentially increasing retail investment;
I. whereas the European Employment Strategy and the Europe 2020 Strategy set priorities to improve the quality of jobs and ensure better working conditions; whereas increasing employee participation in company financial results and offering better rewards could help meet these goals;
J. whereas EFP must go hand-in-hand with a high level of information, training and consultation with staff so that they are fully aware of the functioning of the financial participation schemes that they could join, to enable them to make a fully informed assessment of the potential benefits and risks of these schemes, such as in the case of the company’s bankruptcy;
K. whereas, through EFP, enhanced social dialogue and strategic decision-making, employers might invest in development opportunities for their workforce, thus contributing to the fight against social exclusion and ensuring a high level of training;
L. whereas, by involving employees in the decision-making process, depending on the specificity of the scheme, EFP can, in some cases, help companies, including SMEs, with respect to restructuring and business continuity by addressing company succession and generational renewal problems, for example in family businesses;
M. whereas it should be borne in mind that EFP has positive and negative elements to it;
N. whereas EFP bears some financial risks, but might also act as a shock absorber, allowing bonuses or other rewards and also ensuring that workers have a portfolio of saved shares; whereas ESOPs in particular may be an example of an employee buy-out model for non-listed companies where the priority buy-out process could allow employees to potentially safeguard their own jobs when there is the possibility of buy-outs by other companies;
O. whereas measures are therefore needed to protect employees from facing risks such as losing both their job and the capital invested when their employer is impacted by a crisis; whereas EFP may not be used to reduce the social and employment rights acquired by employees, must not replace normal basic pay, other forms of remuneration or contributions to pension schemes, and must not be a way to transfer risks onto the worker or not to comply with labour law;
P. whereas participation in the EFP should remain voluntary for employees, particularly in SMEs, while not affecting their labour market mobility, their social security or their right to take collective action; whereas employees should therefore have access at all times to information regarding the economic situation of the company, with the exception of its trade secrets and commercially sensitive information, and be informed of the advantages and disadvantages of each EFP scheme available;
Q. whereas fiscal incentives are key elements to promote EFP that could pay off in a medium to long term, considering that countries which have a long tradition of employee financial participation also have the most developed employee ownership and the highest fiscal benefits;
R. whereas proactive employment policies such as support for genuine self-employment and regular and social entrepreneurship are critical tools for the reintegration of the unemployed into the labour market, in line with the European Entrepreneurship Action Plan adopted in January 2013;
S. whereas the current European Social Fund promotes social entrepreneurship and the social and solidarity economy, and the upcoming ESF Plus should continue to do so; whereas EFP can make a valuable contribution to the development of the social and solidarity economy by, for example, making investment or funding more accessible;
T. whereas EFP can be complementary to EU programmes aimed at improving access to capital, especially for SMEs, such as the COSME programme, the InnovFin programme, the Creative Europe programme and the European structural and investment funds;
U. whereas EFP could be a complementary tool to the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund which helps people who have lost their jobs as a result of major structural changes due to globalisation or the economic and financial crisis with respect to re-skilling, training, supporting self-employment, business start-ups and employee takeovers;
V. whereas EU guidelines for EFP could help Member States develop frameworks for EFP schemes that could potentially lead to benefits both for employers and employees and also increase public awareness of EFP;
W. whereas information about the economic situation of the company concerned, as well as information about the attached risks, should be available to the workers concerned at all times;
1. Calls on the Commission to consider appropriate recommendations to encourage Member States and companies, particularly SMEs, to develop and offer EFP schemes for the benefit and in the interest of both employees and companies; stresses that these schemes should:
- protect workers’ income safety,
- not exploit workers in a crisis situation,
- not shift entrepreneurial risk to workers,
- guarantee a high level of protection for workers’ investments;
2. Calls on the Member States to provide non-mandatory incentives, including tax incentives that do not override national taxation rules, in line with best practice principles, when promoting employee ownership schemes among companies and employees, at the same time as supporting the highest standards of social protection for employees and safeguarding their right to collective action;
3. Underlines that EFP has to be embedded in a system of workers’ involvement, for example in company decision-making, including through workers’ representatives, and that EFP must not be a substitute for fair and decent pay, nor an alternative to public pensions or to collectively agreed pension schemes;
4. Calls on the Commission to implement the ‘five-point action plan’ included in the final report of the pilot project for the promotion of employee ownership and participation of 2014;
5. Recognises the link between legislative measures at national level favouring EFP schemes and the number of companies and employees using them;
6. Highlights the transnational obstacles that are faced by both companies offering such schemes in several Member States, and employees, namely discrepancies in legislation and the risks of double taxation which may incur substantial administrative costs and impinge on the freedom of movement of workers, which plays an important role in combating the scourge of unemployment and enhancing convergence and integration among Member States;
7. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to raise awareness as advised in the final report of the pilot project for the promotion of employee ownership and participation from 2014, to capitalise on the findings of research projects and encourage the cross-border transferability of best practices, and to propose a set of simple, elementary and basic supportive models;
8. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to provide dedicated websites that would include model profit-sharing agreements for SMEs and VSEs for ease of implementation, as well as information about attached risks and other relevant material; further calls on the Commission and Member States to continue collecting data on the use and spread of financial participation schemes, as well as to examine the impact of financial participation on the functioning of the company, the quality of its work and its retention of workers, with the help of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions;
9. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to assist companies which show an interest in EFP with solutions and specific support measures to avoid excessive administrative and development costs associated with implementing EFP, especially in SMEs, and to encourage outsourcing operators such as banks and investment funds to propose simple EFP schemes tailored to suit this type of company, while making sure that intermediaries do not take advantage of the smallest companies, and that there are no hidden costs;
10. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote financial education in order to empower EU citizens and raise awareness about the implications of EFP;
11. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to engage with social partners, employee ownership organisations and other stakeholders at the beginning of the process in order to design the most appropriate EFP frameworks, and when an EFP scheme is considered relevant, to negotiate it on a ‘plant-by-plant’ basis while considering the size and type of company, its workforce and financial situation, but also the national legislation and practices;
12. Recommends negotiating employee savings schemes and tools at a branch-by-branch level in order to provide SMEs and VSEs with standard agreements that can be implemented directly and conveniently by these companies;
13. Highlights that EFP should be open to all employees on a non-discriminatory basis, regardless of age, gender, nationality, full-time / part-time work arrangements, etc.;
14. Adds that differentiation between employees may be justified to meet the different needs and interests of the employees, such as restricted shares plans that are confined to executives;
15. Considers that ESOPs should also allow employees to use the ESOP account for other equity than that of the current employer, so as to mitigate concentration risk, particularly for SMEs;
16. Recalls that the decision to join EFP schemes should be totally voluntary, meaning no action should be taken against employees if they decide not to join and when they agree, their participation should be based on appropriate training and the informed consent of the employee, who is fully aware of his or her entitlements, obligations and risks, of the situation of the company, of the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme, of the taxation effects when joining the scheme and of the conditions which apply when he or she leaves the company or the scheme;
17. Considers that EFP should not replace or diminish normal basic remuneration or any other form of contribution such as social security contributions, but should be complementary to all social and contractual rights, this being a pre-condition to implementing EFP;
18. Believes that more links should be developed between EFP and the social economy, especially through programmes such as Creative Europe which offer microloans up to EUR 25 000 to small companies and social businesses;
19. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider the rapid evolution and change of the labour market and the consequent challenges regarding skills, digitalisation, automation, wealth inequalities and social security cuts, and the continuous creation of new opportunities to support and protect workers and enable them to adapt and develop professionally and personally;
20. Stresses the important role that EFP can play in fostering entrepreneurship and an entrepreneurial mind set by facilitating research and access to capital, especially for start-ups;
21. Highlights that although micro-enterprises play an important role in the economy of most EU Member States, no supportive measures for employee share ownership are implemented for them as yet;
22. Welcomes initiatives led by directorates-general of the Commission such as DG EMPL, FISMA and GROW supporting employment, SMEs and the capital markets union, and calls for a coordinated approach for the best use of available resources, remembering that the final beneficiary is the European citizen;
23. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.(1)
OJ L 307, 18.11.2008, p. 11.(2)
OJ C 68E , 18.3.2004, p. 429.(3)
OJ C 440, 30.12.2015, p. 23.(4)
OJ C 482, 23.12.2016, p. 41.(5)
Third European Company Survey, Eurofound, 2013.(6)
Changes in remuneration and reward systems, Eurofound, 2016.(7)
Annual economic survey of employee share ownership in European countries.(8)
Workplace innovation in European companies, Eurofound, 2016.
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