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8002 - II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement - Dump Information

Vendor : PRMIA
Exam Code : 8002
Exam Name : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement
Questions and Answers : 132 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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8002 II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement

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8002 exam Dumps Source : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement

Test Code : 8002
Test Name : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement
Vendor Name : PRMIA
Q&A : 132 Real Questions

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PRMIA II- Mathematical Foundations of

behind the Nets’ Success Is a carefully Crafted culture and, ultimately, a Clue | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

“There probably are only a few americans who had careers as long as Sean had while getting as jiffy, and there’s a great explanation for that,” observed R.C. Buford, the San Antonio Spurs’ everyday manager, for whom Marks played for 2 seasons and apprenticed as an assistant teach and entrance office executive.

“In each function he’s had, he’s been a subculture builder,” Buford mentioned.

around the N.B.A., that word — tradition — has develop into like a easy catchphrase, an opening statement for most beneficial intentions.

“americans use it all of the time — they’re going to work complicated, play protection, play for the crew — but how many in fact do?” noted P.J. Carlesimo, whose N.B.A. stops in teaching and broadcasting have protected San Antonio and Brooklyn. “on account of his time with the Spurs, Sean is aware of what a superb locker room is like.”

For distinction, take the Knicks. Their new administration group also talks up culture creation, however their stylistic method in teach David Fizdale’s first season has been archetypal Y.M.C.A. select-up. The Knicks’ front office claims operational independence from the team owner, James L. Dolan, but can’t even name a casual news conference devoid of tailoring the visitor listing to his petty grievances.

In San Antonio, the place the Holt household has without question left the basketball people by myself, Marks turned into informed in no uncertain terms that he could smartly be a bridge to a future devoid of Gregg Popovich, the 70-yr-historic head educate and team president.

however the blank slate in Brooklyn — the place ownership is a largely absentee and ambiguously directed partnership between Mikhail Prokhorov and Joseph Tsai — presented a clear-slate challenge that became extra intriguing than daunting.

“We knew there have been going to be some darkish days,” Marks referred to. “but we all gave up respectable jobs because we thought we had an opportunity to construct whatever thing special.”


inserting the performance of the govt in context — half 2 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in part 1 of this collection I looked on the financial system and crime. among the facets I made became that the executive has effectively abandoned its “5 in 4” plan — and is now claiming it changed into Michael Lee-Chin's aspirational goal. I insisted, although, that nowhere within the fashioned announcements of the plan did the executive disown the goal and as such any evaluation of its efficiency should take account of the indisputable fact that its performance target turned into 5 per cent in every year for four years. The facts show that the economic climate has been growing to be at just over one per cent per annum with 2016/17 at 1.three per cent, 2017/18 at 0.9 per cent, and 2018/19 anticipated to are available in beneath two per cent.

In a speech at Essex Valley in St Elizabeth, in mid-January, major Minister Andrew Holness bemoaned the sluggish tempo of financial boom and set two per cent each year as the new goal.

CRIME

On the crime entrance, a welcome 20 per cent discount in murders become realised nationally in 2018 over 2017, led by way of a 70.1 per cent discount in St James, home of 1 of three states of emergency (SOE). This efficiency is instructive for a couple of explanations, one being that discount rates took place in 12 of the 19 policing divisions, besides the fact that children there have been SOEs in just three. One corporate enviornment division, Kingston primary, by which there become no SOE skilled a reduction of 40.7 per cent, whereas a rural division, Manchester, additionally now not having an SOE, realised a discount of 32.6 per cent.

schooling

Assessing the performance of the executive within the management of the schooling sector is a fancy assignment for at the least two motives:

(1) well timed information on the efficiency of the numerous areas of the Ministry of education and entities in the sector, aren't available; and

(2) one of the areas for which key performance indications can be found aren't squarely below the handle of the Ministry of training.

In taking account of these constraints i will present an analysis of the sphere. In getting ready this article I consulted with about 30 stakeholders — former policymakers, former and current senior managers and advisors within the Ministry of training, educational planners, and practitioners. about a dozen (40 per cent) of the stakeholders responded to my questions and therefore the views expressed herein in part replicate their contributions.

There are three key considerations in the sector on which i will be able to focus in this opening dialog:

(i) Foundations of essential considering and reasoning

(ii) the new requisites Curriculum and the primary Exit Profile

(iii) The position of fogeys

pondering and reasoning

some of the areas during which I locate that our schooling device is at its weakest is within the construction of the capacities of scholars to have interaction in important considering. The building of vital pondering is, and has been adopted as, a crucial goal of education.

important pondering, in its simplest that means, is the method during which someone explanations through and assesses records and suggestions to form a judgement (ie, arrive at a position). In most education programs the foundations of essential thinking are centered within the acquisition of the study of arithmetic and language. searching on the performance of students in these critical foundational subjects gives cause for continued subject. The remaining three country wide education Inspectorate (NEI) studies (2017, 2015, and 2014) give the context.

The 2017 record was in response to a sample of 189 colleges. In that document college students' attainment in English and mathematics was at or above the national average of the ministry's ambitions in 21 per cent of the faculties inspected. In seventy nine per cent it become beneath the country wide regular.

The 2015 report represented the completion of the primary inspection cycle which all started in 2010 and mentioned on all 953 public colleges (simple and secondary). In that document college students' attainment in English and arithmetic was above the ministry's objectives in six per cent of the colleges inspected, on the target in 16 per cent of colleges, however below in seventy eight per cent.

The 2014 document used a pattern of 129 colleges. in this round, students' attainment in English and arithmetic become above the ministry's target in two per cent of the colleges inspected, at the objectives in 10 per cent, but beneath the target in 88 per cent.

one of the vital considerations to be aware is that the same faculties don't seem to be represented in each and every round of inspection, and there is just one document (2015) on a complete cycle; so the 129 faculties in 2014 don't seem to be blanketed within the 189 in 2017, however each sets, and the others in the sector, are reflected in 2015. The 2017 file starts a brand new cycle of inspections.

besides the fact that those constraints, the finding which stands out is efficiency within the two foundational areas of essential pondering (math and English). there's, in the beginning, first rate information in that the percent of schools wherein performance is below goal fell from 88 per cent in 2014 (involving 129 faculties) to seventy eight per cent in 2015, reflecting the photograph islandwide. but that this figure is still within the excessive 70s (79 per cent) in 2017 in 189 schools, after the complete circular of inspections (2010 – 2015), and after which systematic interventions would have taken area, is a trigger for challenge.

The requisites curriculum and PEP

The implementation of the new standards Curriculum (NSC) and its principal evaluation, the fundamental Exit Profile (PEP), has not been devoid of its fair proportion of challenge. while the Ministry of schooling ought to be recommended for adjusting the implementation schedule and interesting with stakeholders, the most reliable fret, in my assessment, and that of alternative stakeholders, is whether or not the PEP will land us anyplace different than the Grade Six success test (GSAT) did. conscious that one of the most basic motives for the PEP was to rationalise and make extra equitable the location of students in high schools, there are actual questions now as to whether PEP will remedy that unwell.

but even though PEP cures the inequity in placement to a few degree, the plenty greater lengthy-term difficulty is whether or not, given the findings on the advancement of crucial pondering, which the NSC is anticipated to tackle, what can be accomplished?

The issue of weaknesses in crucial considering permeates the total fabric of the schooling gadget, from true to backside, and a few of the identical academics who are to lead in the birth of content of the NSC are themselves needing to increase their vital thinking abilities. at the equal time, i'm not bound that an examinations-based mostly placement gadget is either per the character and philosophy of the NSC or the most suitable response to the inequities of our socio-financial and training systems.

The function of fogeys

one of the crucial government's signature coverage place is the 'removal' of auxiliary expenses, below what is established as the “Non-necessary Parental Contribution coverage”. I even have shared earlier than that i'm of the view that this policy is untimely and retrograde in addition to mistaken in its precise-world utility. amongst different issues, the notion that parents haven't any responsibility to make a contribution financially to the cost of their toddlers's training is a violation of the sacred responsibility of becoming a father or mother. however in addition to this 'violation', the truth is that high performing colleges can charge substantial charges which fogeys are expected to pay and, in every one of these colleges, the compliance cost is within the 90% range. That fact ought to mean something. among the issues it capacity is that folks are inclined to pay for a decent schooling. A stakeholder tells me of a father or mother who have two boys going to excessive college, one attends a excessive performing school and the other attends a struggling school. The costs charged by way of the high performing college is over $30,000.00 per yr with a couple of other fees charged right through the year. The expenses charged by way of the struggling faculty is below $10,000.00 p.a. in accordance with the stakeholder, who has intimate expertise of the statistics, the one mother or father willingly pays the higher expenses and laments that what her newborn is getting at the different college isn't value her cash.

options and viable solutions

on the subject of the deficits in crucial thinking, which occur themselves at all degrees of the education system and the society, the treatments are neither instant nor elementary, but there's one place at which we may also start. This starting factor is that we dispense with the concept and follow that the school room is for people that couldn't make it in other areas of endeavour and are searching for to recruit and maintain the brightest, most disciplined, and most committed for the classroom. this may imply better instructor-practising methods, more suitable pay, and better working conditions.

studying the lessons from the difficulties with the implementation of the NSC, one important practice we should undertake, as a society, is that of developing an tutorial coverage framework it really is supra-political. A supra-political academic coverage framework transcends political administrations and idiosyncrasies and preferences of individual ministers within and throughout political administrations. This coverage framework could be developed in concert with a broad pass component of stakeholders, with the related plans, innovations, timelines, and resources. The implementation can be led through a set of extremely in a position career educators, planners, and coverage consultants whose tenure isn't plagued by the trade of political administrators.

With respect to the non-obligatory parental contribution coverage I dangle the view that this policy has undermined an important social assemble named “parental responsibility”, while on the identical time being ineffectual in attaining its simple objective, that of improving entry to fine education. here's now not to claim that the State should still no longer give help to vulnerable families, however for fogeys who have been paying $60,000 per term to send their child to a private preparatory faculty to be told that the $30,000 per yr to send that equal newborn to a high college is non-compulsory is conveniently unhealthy policy for training and society.

I even have up to now proposed that executive should still establish a base determine for what it takes to deliver an excellent secondary education event. Having taken account of this determine, estimated to be within the region of $sixty five,000.00 per scholar, per year, the government may still then are searching for to boost a funding coverage, which takes account of parental contributions (which may still be necessary) and the differentials in fogeys' capacity to pay, as well as the fiscal capabilities of colleges and their help bases. putting all these variables in the combine the govt's fingers would play the position of “funding the hole”. This ability the abolition equality in per head subvention to faculties to at least one which money in line with diploma of need in in the hunt for to elevate best in every school.

The conversation is by using no ability completer...

Dr Canute Thompson is head of the Caribbean Centre for tutorial Planning, lecturer in the college of training, and co-founder and chief consultant for the Caribbean management Re-creativeness Initiative, at the university of the West Indies, Mona. he's additionally author of four books and a couple of articles on leadership. send feedback to the Observer or canutethompson1@gmail.com.


Two New infants’s Books have fun Hollywood Actress and Inventor Hedy Lamarr | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

It’s been a bit greater than eighty years considering the fact that Hedy Lamarr carried out in a single day stardom together with her first English-speaking film, 1938’s Oscar-nominated Algiers, but she’s once once more within the highlight, for reasons which have every little thing to do with her brains, as opposed to her celebrated elegance.

Two infants’s books out this week inform youngster-pleasant reports of the actress’s enjoyable contributions to the scientific community: Hedy Lamarr’s Double existence: Hollywood Legend and awesome Inventor, by means of Laurie Wallmark with illustrations through Katy Wu; and Hedy & Her surprising Invention, by Jan Wahl with illustrations by means of Morgana Wallace.

As their titles indicate, whereas both books touch on Lamarr’s Hollywood profession, it’s the work she did at night, after a full day on an MGM set, that introduced her probably the most delight, if now not notoriety at the time. certainly, these two experiences and their artful, colourful photos are the latest to highlight a truism we’ve yet to thoroughly draw close in our tradition: for those who use a mobile phone, GPS or Wi-Fi, you’re doing so due to know-how that resulted from Lamarr’s most exceptional invention.

“Hedy’s lifestyles became a real dichotomy, and sometimes she struggled with that,” Wallmark says. “however the world as we know it today could now not be with out her.”

each books trace the story of Lamarr’s childhood in Vienna, her love for her father, and her brief mind for taking any type of desktop aside to figure out the way it labored. Her love of playacting, in the meantime, combined with her beauty as she grew older, led the girl then called Hedwig Kiesler to acting classes, followed by means of theater and movie work in Vienna and Berlin. (both authors wisely miss Lamarr’s appearance in 1933’s Ecstasy; a scene displaying her swimming in the nude led to a scandal when that film became released, even because it additionally won the be aware of MGM head Louis B. Mayer.)

Rechristened Hedy Lamarr via Mayer upon her arrival in Hollywood in 1938, she co-starred in a number of excessive-wattage MGM movies, together with 1940’s boom city with Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy and 1941’s Ziegfeld lady with James Stewart and Judy Garland – in the latter, Lamarr’s personality earns repute, although now not happiness, as a result of her remarkable appears. artwork seemed to replicate existence, as both books explore the thought that the actress turned to her childhood love of inventing, setting up a draft desk and equipment in her home, so she might tinker with initiatives after a day on a soundstage.

“Her elegance did not play a number one role in her ambitions for her lifestyles. This was proved by using the incontrovertible fact that even whereas she changed into working on films, in her spare time she became continuing with her inventions,” notes Wallace, a British Columbia-based mostly blended-media artist; Hedy & Her remarkable Invention is her first project as a toddlers’s e-book illustrator (Wahl, a prolific, award-successful toddlers’s e-book creator, handed away on January 29 on the age of 87). “In a sense, she should have felt trapped with the aid of her attractiveness. Her price at that time became wrapped up in her appearance and her success in films. but this didn't dull her scientific curiosity, or her incentive to invent.”

a few of Lamarr’s concepts focused on difficulty solving, like a glow-in-the-darkish dog collar or a traffic sign that could indicate when the easy was about to exchange. however in the earliest days of World conflict II, as studies of the eu battle included news of Germany jamming the signals of British torpedoes, Lamarr devoted herself to discovering a solution; she enlisted a friend, George Antheil, a composer and former weapons inspector, to companion together with her on the assignment, and both of them developed a system that became referred to as frequency hopping, allowing ships and torpedoes to communicate by the use of radio indicators devoid of worry of jamming or interference.

That conception is explained in convenient-to-realize language and accompanying illustrations in each books. “Age latitude can evolve with a ebook like this,” says Wallmark, whose preview work turned into 2017’s Grace Hopper: Queen of laptop Code, concerning the American computer scientist and rear admiral of the U.S. Navy. “I’ve read the publication to preschoolers, and i’ve carried out college visits with seventh graders. The younger ones might not get all of the science, but they’ll get the relaxation of the story.”

Lamarr and Antheil obtained a patent for his or her invention in August 1942; via then the U.S. had entered World war II, and the pair offered their device to the U.S. Navy, which deemed it too complicated and costly to enforce. Fearing one other nation might possibly be able to use the information device, although, the Navy declared it classified. it might be 40 years before the technology could be declassified, and by using then the patent had long expired. Lamarr and Antheil under no circumstances made a penny from their invention, which ultimately grew to become the precursor to comfortable wireless communications.

Hedy Lamarr died in 2000 at the age of 85, however by using then the scientific neighborhood had begun to well known her achievements; in 1997, 55 years after she and Antheil got their patent, they had been identified with the electronic Frontier foundation’s Pioneer Award, a moment illustrated in Wallmark’s book, which additionally mentions that in 2014, Lamarr become posthumously inducted into the national Inventors corridor of reputation.

This isn’t the primary time Lamarr’s success past film has been highlighted. Richard Rhodes’s Hedy’s Folly: The life and step forward innovations of Hedy Lamarr, probably the most eye-catching lady on earth was posted in 2011, while a pair of picture novels – the newest, Hedy Lamarr: an amazing life, with the aid of William Roy and Sylvain Dorange, turned into launched in 2018 – even have sought to talk about the yin and yang central to Lamarr’s very own and knowledgeable heritage. but the two books released on Tuesday are the primary written with toddlers in intellect, and Wallmark says the actress should be a task mannequin, for ladies and boys alike.

“What Hedy Lamarr’s lifestyles teaches us – and it’s an important message for all children to recognize – is that you simply don’t must choose to be only one component,” says Wallmark, who earned degrees in arithmetic and desktop science and taught the latter discipline earlier than fitting a children’s booklet writer. “It’s good enough to be a celeb and a brilliant inventor, or it’s adequate to be a soccer participant and also in the glee membership, for example. We additionally tend to grow up after which, whatever thing you select as your foremost in college, that’s what you do. but Hedy suggests us anything else is feasible.”


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The Energy 202: Ocasio-Cortez, Markey unveil Green New Deal with backing of four presidential candidates | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

THE LIGHTBULB

By Dino Grandoni and Jeff Stein

For months, the term Green New Deal has been bandied about by Democrats in Congress and on the campaign trail for president as their catchall phrase for a sweeping effort to halt runaway climate change.

On Thursday, the slogan got some meat on its bones as Sen. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) prepared to introduce a framework outlining the goals of a sweeping climate pact going forward — and stop other Democrats from defining the Green New Deal however they wanted.

Their measure already has the backing of four Democratic senators who have launched bids for the 2020 presidential nomination. But it is already being lampooned by Republicans — though embraced by progressives — for its broad aims on things unrelated to climate, including increased access to housing, health care and education for lower-income communities.

“This is really about providing justice for communities and just transitions for communities,” Ocasio-Cortez told NPR in an interview Thursday morning. “So really the heart of the Green New Deal is about social justice.”

Ocasio-Cortez and Markey form a notable pairing: The former leveraged her political stardom to galvanize progressives around a demand for a comprehensive climate plan while the latter brings gravitas to the proposal as one of the original sponsors of Barack Obama's ultimately unsuccessful cap-and-trade plan

The proposal is a nonbinding resolution, but its aims are ambitious. The Democratic resolution calls for the United States to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions within ten years by “dramatically expanding and upgrading renewable power sources.” It stands as a stark counterpoint to the Trump administration's downplaying of the scientific consensus behind climate change, as it has rolled back rules designed to contain global warming and withdrawn from the Paris climate accord aimed at reducing global pollution.

The five-page resolution is not confined to climate change, however. It promotes a plethora of progressive ideals — like housing, health care, education, unions and indigenous rights, which are only indirectly related to Democratic climate desires.

“The resolution is clear: We need to move to renewable energy as fast as possible,” said Stephen O'Hanlon, co-founder of the Sunrise Movement that has agitated for such a strategy.

That youth climate advocacy organization brought the idea of a Green New Deal to the fore in Washington by staging sit-in protests in the offices of a number of high-ranking Democrats, including then-Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.). Sunrise, which endorsed Ocasio-Cortez before her victory over then-Rep. Joe Crowley (D) in the New York primary last summer, worked with both the congresswoman's and Markey's offices to craft the resolution.

“If we’re moving to 100 percent clean and renewable energy in 10 years,” O'Hanlon added, “there won’t be the incentive to build new coal or fossil fuel infrastructure.”

At least four Senate Democrats currently running for president — Cory Booker of New Jersey, Kirsten Gillibrand of New York, Kamala Harris of California and Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts — will co-sponsor the plan, spokespeople for the senators confirmed.

Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), who is considering another run for president, is also backing the plan. All five senators had previously endorsed the concept of the Green New Deal. 

In total, nine senators and 60 House members are on board, according to Markey's office. The supporters include Congressional Progressive Caucus leaders Mark Pocan (Wis.) and Pramila Jayapal (Wash.), as well as Ocasio-Cortez allies Ro Khanna (Calif.), Rashida Tlaib (Mich.), and Joe Neguse (Colo.).

Markey and Ocasio-Cortez are expected to formally introduce their resolution on Thursday afternoon with “dozens” of supporters among congressional Democrats, according to a source with knowledge of the rollout who was not authorized to discuss it publicly.

Their proposal stipulates that any infrastructure deal struck with President Trump and other Republicans must address climate change, such as by building resilience to extreme weather events. It gives progressives something many of them have been itching for: The promise of a guaranteed high-paying job for every American. Among its demands are new trade rules to “stop the transfer of jobs and pollution overseas.”

The proposal also calls for a sweeping overhaul of the transportation sector “as much as is technologically possible,” with investments in zero-emissions vehicles along with high-speed rail and other public transit.

“We have something very ambitious in mind, something akin to what we undertook in the Second World War,” said Robert Hockett, a professor at Cornell University who provided input on the plan. “It gives us a document around which to galvanize planning and action, and gives political figures running for office something they can sign onto or repudiate. There won’t be room anymore for just supporting 'the concept.' ”

But one crucial thing the proposal does not spell out: How the federal government is expected to pay for or achieve these broad aims.

The Green New Deal would be paid for “the same way we paid for the original New Deal, World War II, the bank bailouts, tax cuts for the rich and decades of war — with public money appropriated by Congress,” Ocasio-Cortez said, according to the Associated Press.

That gave Republicans on Capitol Hill an opening to attack the plan as an ill-conceived wishlist — even before it was formally unveiled.

“Wealth transfer schemes suggested in the radical policies like the Green New Deal may not be the best path to community prosperity,” said Rep. John Shimkus (Ill.), the top Republican on the House Energy and Commerce subcommittee on climate change and other environmental issues.

That House panel was one of two — along with the Natural Resources Committee — to hold hearings on climate change on Wednesday.

After two years out of power in Congress and the White House, Democrat are sending a message that the planet's warming will finally once again be a priority in Washington by scheduling that pair of hearings as among the first held in the new Congress.

“Today we turn the page on this committee from climate change denial to climate action,” Natural Resources Chairman Raúl Grijalva (D-Ariz) said.

Ocasio-Cortez and Markey’s proposal does not include an outright ban on fossil fuels, which some close to the bill see as a concession to moderates and labor groups. Some environmental activists defended that decision, saying the investments in green energy would make the ban unnecessary.

"There's some bold and visionary pieces in the Green New Deal resolution," said Erich Pica, president of Friends of the Earth, a climate advocacy group. "But the failure to mention and explicitly state that we have to end the era of fossil fuels is just a huge missed opportunity to be real about where we are and where we need to go."

The plan also does not explicitly exclude some major forms of low-emissions electricity — mainly, nuclear energy and hydropower — as some observers worried it would.

While environmentalists have previously protested both forms of power over concerns like the risk of meltdown or the fragmentation of river habitat, climate analysts — including those with the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — say both are necessary today to reduce emissions enough to stave off the worst effects of climate change.

An IPCC report in October describing how the world has just over a decade to hold global warming to moderate levels proved to be a big motivating factor in the recent wave of climate activism. Ocasio-Cortez and Markey’s resolution cites those findings.

You are reading The Energy 202, our must-read tipsheet on energy and the environment. Not a regular subscriber?

THERMOMETER

Paradise, Calif. after the wildfire. (AP Photo/Noah Berger)

— The toll extreme weather takes: Last year’s disastrous series of hurricanes, wildfires and extreme weather events killed at least 247 people and cost the nation about $91 billion. Of the 14 separate events noted in the data released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, $73 billion of the damage was attributed to Hurricanes Michael and Florence and the spate of wildfires in the West, The Post’s Brady Dennis and Chris Mooney report. While 2018 did not eclipse the $306 billion in damage caused by devastating natural catastrophes in 2017, “the most recent numbers continue what some experts call an alarming trend toward an increasing number of billion-dollar disasters, fueled, at least in part, by the warming climate.”

Put in perspective: “Since 1980, the United States has experienced 241 weather and climate disasters where the overall damage reached or exceeded $1 billion, when adjusted for inflation,” Dennis and Mooney write. “Between 1980 and 2013, according to NOAA, the nation averaged roughly half a dozen such disasters a year. Over the most recent five years, that number has jumped to more than 12.” Deke Arndt, chief of the monitoring branch at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, told reporters the nation had “about twice the number of billion dollar disasters than we have in an average year over the last 40 years or so.”

Man, it’s a hot one: To boot, NASA and NOAA scientists made a separate announcement Wednesday that the Earth’s average surface temperature last year was officially the fourth highest in nearly 140 years of data. The past four years have been the warmest on record, according to the data, and nine of the 10 warmest years on record have occurred since 2005. And in most or all of those years, the temperature on Earth was at least 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit above the average 19th century temperature. Gavin Schmidt, director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA, said it was “quite clearly the fourth-warmest year in our record, which goes back to 1880, and probably was warmer than many hundreds of years before that.”

Glaciers and ice caps on Baffin Island in Arctic Canada. (Gifford Miller, University of Colorado Boulder/INSTAAR)

— Earth is looking a lot like it did during an ancient warming period: The planet is paralleling some of the conditions from the most recent major warm period 115,000 years ago. One clue for researchers was the discovery of ancient plants that emerged from retreating mountain glaciers in northeastern Canada, The Post’s Chris Mooney reports. The plants they found were “very old indeed, and had probably last grown in these spots some 115,000 years ago,” he writes. “That’s the last time the areas were actually not covered by ice, the scientists believe.”

But there’s a major (and troubling) discrepancy between current and ancient conditions: Sea levels were 20 to 30 feet higher back then. “Scientists are now intensely debating precisely which processes could have played out then — and how soon they’ll play out again. After all, West Antarctica has already been shown, once again, to be beginning a retreat.”

POWER PLAYS

Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (Tom Williams/CQ Roll Call)

— Senate Democrat trolls Chamber of Commerce: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.) entered a tongue-in-cheek submission in a $25,000-prize contest being held by the business lobbying group for the "best, most viable ideas for a long-term sustainable funding source for infrastructure." The liberal senator recommended eliminating fossil-fuel subsidies and placing a price on carbon. "One would expect a business organization whose members can’t grow or thrive in the absence of an expanding economy or reliable infrastructure to be on the front lines of this fight," he wrote. "Unfortunately... the U.S. Chamber of Commerce [has] not supported climate action."

Not the first time he has taken aim at the chamber: Whitehouse recently challenged claims made by the trade group in support of the oil industry in a friend-of-the-court brief filed in a lawsuit between four California local governments and major oil companies.

Volunteers prepare to clean a restroom at Joshua Tree National Park  on Jan. 4. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)

— Park Service won’t use visitor fees for park operations: The National Park Service has reportedly decided to use congressionally appropriated funds to pay for maintenance and staffing during the partial government shutdown, reversing an earlier move to use park visitor entrance fees, the Hill reports, citing an internal Park Service memo. “We have confirmed with the [White House] Office of Management and Budget that the NPS can move obligations made during the appropriations lapse from the FLREA fee account and apply those obligations to the National Park Service annual operating account,” NPS deputy director Dan Smith said in the memo, per the report.

Meanwhile: Rep. Betty McCollum (D-Minn.), the chairwoman of the House Appropriations subcommittee that oversees the Park Service, called for an investigation of the Trump administration’s initial move to use entrance fees. “It is evident that NPS and DOI allowed national parks sites to remain open without adequate staff and services to protect the parks and their visitors,” she wrote in a letter to the Government Accountability Office.

During a hearing Wednesday, McCollum said she’s “more than convinced, sadly, that the administration has ignored the law and the policies that the agencies have had in place for years to protect our citizens and our public lands,” per the Hill.

Senate Minority Leader Charles E. Schumer (D-N.Y.) (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

— Schumer recommends FERC replacement: Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) has recommended energy lawyer Allison Clements to replace Cheryl LaFleur on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, E&E News reports. LaFleur announced last week that she would not seek a third term and plans to stay on the commission until her term expires on June 30. “Clements, currently the director of clean energy markets at the Energy Foundation, has a long history of providing clarity to clean energy groups and the public on complicated policies and rulemakings at FERC,” per the report. In a memo, Capital Alpha suggested Clements could succeed FERC Chairman Neil Chatterjee if a Democratic president takes the White House in 2020. Though it is tradition for the president to defer to Senate leaders on picks for the commission, Trump is not required to accept Schumer’s recommendation.

DAYBOOK

Today

  • The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee holds a hearing on the status and outlook of energy innovation.
  • EXTRA MILEAGE

    — A mammoth snow pile on the Golden State: More than 10 feet of snow clobbered California's mountains over the past week, The Post's Ian Livingston writes, and even brought snow to nearby coastal regions. 


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    ACCTG 321 Tax Effects of Business Decisions (4)Issues in taxation, including tax considerations in business decision making, tax effects of business transactions, taxation of compensation, fringe benefits, capital gains, fixed asset transactions, disposition of business distribution from corporations. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 301; may not be repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 321

    ACCTG 411 Auditing Standards and Principles (4)Intensive introduction to the attest function in society today. The environment, the process, and the report of the public auditor are analyzed. Potential extensions of the attest function are examined. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; 2.0 in ACCTG 320; may not be repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 411

    ACCTG 440 Accounting and Financial Management Decisions (4)Business financial planning with an emphasis of the role of accounting information in financial decisions. Topics include the accounting and finance aspects of business valuation, short and long term financing, short and long term investments, alternative types of debt and equity financing, and related topics. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; 2.0 in ACCTG 311; 2.0 in ACCTG 321; FIN 350; may not be repeated. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 440

    ACCTG 450 Business Taxation (4)Issues of taxation for entities other than individuals, including corporations, subchapter S corporations, partnerships, estates, and trusts. Includes corporate distributions, liquidations, and reorganizations. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 321; may not be repeated. Offered: WSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 450

    ACCTG 471 Forensics and Ethical Decision Making in Accounting (4)Provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and techniques of forensic accounting and ethical decision making in accounting. Prerequisite: ACCTG 225; MGMT 200; either QMETH 201, IND E 315, MATH 390/STAT 390, Q SCI 381, PSYCH 315, PSYCH 318, SOC/STAT/CS&SS 221, STAT 220, or STAT 311.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 471

    ACCTG 480 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations (4)Fund and budgetary accounting as applied to public sector organizations, such as governments, foundations, hospitals, and colleges. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 302; may not be repeated. Offered: WSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 480

    ACCTG 485 Advanced Financial Accounting (4)Accounting for partnerships, accounting for business combinations, parent-subsidiary and branch relationships, foreign exchange. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; may not be repeated. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 485

    ACCTG 490 Special Topics in Accounting (1-6, max. 12)Special topics of current concern to faculty and students. Offered only when faculty is available and student interest is sufficient. Class is announced in advance of scheduled offerings.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 490

    ACCTG 495 Accounting Internship (1-4, max. 8)One quarter's internship with a certified public accounting firm, industrial organization, or government agency. Prerequisite: ACCTG 301. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 495

    ACCTG 499 Undergraduate Research (1-6, max. 9)Arranged and supervised by individual members of the faculty.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 499

    ACCTG 500 Financial Accounting (4)Introduction to concepts and procedures underlying determination and presentation of information for financial decisions by investors and other decision makers outside the business enterprise. Study of problems of valuation, income determination, and financial reporting.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 500

    ACCTG 501 Managerial Accounting (4)Study of the generation and the use of accounting information within the firm for purposes of planning and controlling operations. Topics covered include cost concepts, responsibility accounting systems, cost control, and the use of accounting information in short- and long-term management decision problems. Prerequisite: ACCTG 500.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 501

    ACCTG 502 Financial Reporting and Analysis (4) F. HodgeProvides students with an understanding of the numbers side of business. Students will learn how to use financial information in real-life management situations to impact business decisions. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 502

    ACCTG 503 Introduction to Accounting for Managers (4)Provides potential managers with a basic knowledge of financial and managerial accounting. Focuses on the use, not the preparation, of accounting information. Examples presented for a variety of for-profit and nonprofit organizations.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 503

    ACCTG 505 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices (26)Covers the subjects in the required core for undergraduate accounting majors: intermediate accounting, advanced accounting, cost accounting, auditing, and tax accounting. Credits do not count toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 215 and ACCTG 225 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 505

    ACCTG 506 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices I (10)First of an intensive three-course program. Emphasizes the practical application of accounting concepts in a business setting. Credits do not count toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 215; ACCTG 225 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 506

    ACCTG 507 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices II (8)Second of an intensive three-course program. Covers the third part of financial accounting, accrual-based financial statements, and cost accounting for decision-making. Credits do not count toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 506. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 507

    ACCTG 508 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices III (8)View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 508

    ACCTG 510 Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis (4)Extension of the core financial accounting material, focusing on the use of financial statements to assess the financial position and prospects of companies. Examines the critical financial reporting issues that influence interpretation of financial statements. Prerequisite: either B A 500, ACCTG 500, or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 510

    ACCTG 511 Advanced Financial Statement Analysis (4)Covers accounting issues related to firm valuation and use of financial statement information to assess the risks and rewards of various firm strategies. Prerequisite: ACCTG 510 or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 511

    ACCTG 513 Tax Effects of Business Decisions (4)Importance of tax considerations in making business decisions. Covers regulatory and economic impacts of the U. S. tax system. Prerequisite: either B A 500, ACCTG 500, or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 513

    ACCTG 515 Problems in Managerial and Cost Accounting (4)Extension of the core management accounting material. Uses cases and discussion to analyze costing techniques, use of accounting data in planning and evaluation of managerial performance, and use of accounting data in short-run and long-run decisions. Prerequisite: either B A 502, ACCTG 501, or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 515

    ACCTG 520 Accounting, Audit and Assurance Regulation (4)Examines important regulatory issues in accounting, auditing, and assurance. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 520

    ACCTG 521 Advanced Cases in Assurance Services (4)Advanced case studies for professional accountants focusing on current issues and the use of analytical tools with real-world applications in audit and assurance settings. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 521

    ACCTG 522 Data Analytics for Professional Accountants (4)Application of data analytics concepts and techniques for professional accountants, with real-world applications in audit, assurance, and advisory settings. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 522

    ACCTG 523 Advanced Financial Statement Analysis (4)Advanced traditional and data-driven analysis of financial statements from a user perspective with real-world applications for professional accountants. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 523

    ACCTG 524 Individual Taxation (4)Political, economic, and social forces influencing federal income taxation, role of taxation in personal decisions. Coverage of individual tax matters, including business and investment income, business and personal deductions, property transactions, and tax issues of employees.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 524

    ACCTG 525 Business and International Taxation (4)Issues of taxation for entities other than individuals, including corporations, subchapter S corporations, partnerships, estates, and trusts. Includes corporate distributions, liquidations, and reorganizations. International dimensions of business taxation introduced. Prerequisite: ACCTG 524.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 525

    ACCTG 526 Advanced Accounting Codification Research (4)Advanced research and application of the codification for complex accounting issues for public companies including tax, consolidation, and recent / or announced accounting standard changes. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 526

    ACCTG 527 Communications in Professional Accounting (4)Development of communications skills for professional accountants, including effective written and oral skills with a focus on real-world settings in audit, assurance, and advisory services. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 527

    ACCTG 528 Advanced Cases in Accounting Advisory (4)Project-based learning involving real-world applications of contemporary problems in accounting advisory settings using innovative analytical tools and data-driven research techniques. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 528

    ACCTG 529 Business Ethics and Law for Accountants (4)Explores basic legal and ethical principles underlying the practice of accounting. Special attention devoted to identifying legal and ethical issues as they arise in commercial and professional accounting contexts. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 529

    ACCTG 530 Tax Issues in Property Ownership (4)Analysis of gain and loss realization, recognition, and characterization of such. Detailed exploration of statutory and case law regarding acquisition, ownership, and disposition of assets. Treatment of capital and ordinary gains and losses. Timing issues regarding deferral transactions and installment reporting are analyzed. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 530

    ACCTG 531 Timing and Periods of Taxation (3)Analysis of the cash and accrual methods of accounting, choice of taxable period and multi-period transaction analysis. Consideration of statute of limitations and mitigation thereof. Details of passive activity losses. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 531

    ACCTG 532 Data Analytics for Tax Accountants (2) H. MamaniIntroduction to data analytics concepts and techniques for tax accountants. Emphasis on data visualization. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 532

    ACCTG 533 Procedural and Policy Issues (4)Analysis of the procedures of federal taxation: assessment, collection, and refund claims. Detailed exploration of the rules governing the statute of limitations and the mitigation thereof. An introduction to tax policy considerations is given. Tax penalties are explored. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 533

    ACCTG 534 Fundamentals of Corporate Taxation (3)Detailed analysis of contribution of assets to corporations. Calculation of recognized gains and basic effects of asset contributions. Treatment of income and deduction items of corporate operations. Analysis of distribution of assets to shareholders with respect to their stock. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 534

    ACCTG 535 Advanced Issues in Corporate Taxation (4)A continuation of ACCTG 534. Fundamentals of moving assets out of and within corporate solution. Basics of corporate reorganizations: acquisitive and divisive. The details of the election to obtain (or avoid) the Section 338 election are explored in detail. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 534 or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 535

    ACCTG 536 Tax Provisions (3)Examines the components of corporate income tax provisions. Topics include the current and deferred provision, balance sheet and income statement impacts, rate reconciliations, and audit documentation and standards. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 535 or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 536

    ACCTG 537 Income Taxation of Conduits I (3)Tax consequences to owners and entity from formation, operation, distributions from, and liquidation of partnerships and S corporations. Study of taxable and tax-free formations, nature of "bottom line" income and separately stated items, changes to owners' tax basis, basics of non-liquidating and liquidating distributions. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 537

    ACCTG 538 Income Taxation of Conduits II (3)A continuation of ACCTG 537. Study of complex issues in partnership and S corporation taxation. Substantial portion involves resolving case studies to improve analytic skills and interrelate partnership and S corporation planning issues. Sections 751(b) and 736 examined in detail. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 537 or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 538

    ACCTG 539 Tax Research and Decision Making (4)Decision-making processes in relation to problems of taxation. Tools of tax analysis and research and the communication of conclusions flowing from professional tax work. Role of the professional accountant in client business transactions and in negotiations with taxing authorities is highlighted and simulated on the basis of actual case histories. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 539

    ACCTG 540 Ethics and Communications for Taxation Professionals (4)Focuses on ethics and internal communications in accounting settings. Evaluation of the ethics of difficult tax questions and practice communicating explanations and recommendations to colleagues and managers.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 540

    ACCTG 541 Communications for Taxation Professionals II (4)Introduction to the communications forms and to practices of professional accountants and accounting managers. Development of effective written and oral skills employed in accounting presentations, such as audit reports and consultants' reports. Study of results of organizational communications research applicable to accounting firms and/or units within firms. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 541

    ACCTG 542 Communications for Taxation Professionals III (4)Development of oral and written skills associated with the tax accountant's role as a client advocate. Develop communication production related to the various stages of a tax case. Prerequisite: ACCTG 541.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 542

    ACCTG 543 Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates (3)Development of fundamental skills regarding income taxation of trusts and estates. Calculation of distributable net income and the distribution deduction for the fiduciary entity. Basic analysis of the throwback rules. Case studies. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 543

    ACCTG 545 State and Local Tax Issues (4)Focuses on state and local tax issues such as multi-state tax treaties, sales taxes, nexus, taxes on gross receipts, and apportionment. Prerequisite: Undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 545

    ACCTG 547 Estate and Gift Taxation (3)Development of fundamental knowledge of the unified transfer tax on the transfer of property from one person to another. Calculation of gross estate, adjusted gross estate, and taxable estate. Calculation of gift and estate taxes owing. Discussion of estate planning concepts. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 547

    ACCTG 548 Speaker Forum-Tax (3)Covers topics such as state and local taxation, international taxation, interperiod tax allocation, qualified and nonqualified stock options, the R&D credit, and IRS audit issues presented by practicing professionals in the industry.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 548

    ACCTG 549 International Tax Issues (4)Covers international tax concepts including the foreign tax credit, international tax ownership structures, permanent establishments, income sourcing rules, and international tax treaties.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 549

    ACCTG 564 Governmental Accounting (4)Budgetary and financial accounting/reporting as applied at the state, local, and special-purpose governments; financial accounting and reporting for not-for-profit organizations.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 564

    ACCTG 566 Issues in International Accounting (4)Insights into the conceptual, managerial, professional, and institutional issues of international accounting. Focus on current topics in international accounting and on the cultural, managerial, and governmental forces that shape both internal and external accounting in specific countries.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 566

    ACCTG 575 Internship (14)Professional internship in graduate accounting program. Cannot be taken for credit if ACCTG 577 is taken for credit. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 575

    ACCTG 576 Experiential Learning Project (2)Written communication describing experiences learned in the MPAcc internship or MPAcc Independent research project. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 576

    ACCTG 577 Independent Research Project (2-8)Independent research on a topic of contemporary interest to the accounting profession. Cannot be taken for credit if ACCTG 575 is taken for credit. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by permission of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 577

    ACCTG 579 Special Topics in Accounting (2/4, max. 12)Accounting topics of current concern to faculty and students. Offered only when faculty are available and sufficient student interest exists. Seminar content announced in advance of scheduled offering. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 579

    ACCTG 580 Doctoral Seminar: Introduction to Accounting Research (4)Examination of research problems and techniques in accounting. Interdisciplinary nature of accounting research emphasized. Work in finance, economics, and psychology used to develop current trends in accounting research. Prerequisite: doctoral student status.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 580

    ACCTG 581 Doctoral Seminar in Managerial Accounting (4)Critical examination of conceptual and practical issues of cost and managerial accounting. Specific topics may change from quarter to quarter, and they include application of behavioral, quantitative, and economic models to managerial accounting problems. Prerequisite: ACCTG 511 or permission of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 581

    ACCTG 582 PhD Research Seminar: Introduction to Selected Research Topics (4)Introduces first-year and second-year accounting PhD students to the research areas and methodologies of the current account faculty. Research areas include financial, managerial, audit, and tax. Research methodologies include analytical, archival, experiments, and surveys.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 582

    ACCTG 596 Doctoral Seminar in Financial Accounting Research (4)Review and critical analysis of research strategies and methods applied to problems in financial reporting practice and financial accounting standard setting. Prerequisite: doctoral student status and ACCTG 580 or equivalent or permission of graduate office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 596

    ACCTG 597 Doctoral Seminar in Managerial Accounting Research (4)Critical analysis of current managerial accounting research, both published and unpublished. Prerequisite: doctoral student status and ACCTG 581 or equivalent or permission of graduate office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 597

    ACCTG 599 Doctoral Seminar in Accounting (1, max. 12)Study and research in advanced topics of accounting. Generally concerned with unpublished areas of research as well as research methodology and philosophy. Conducted by departmental faculty and occasional distinguished visiting faculty. Prerequisite: doctoral student status.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 599

    ACCTG 600 Independent Study or Research (*-)View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 600


    State BOE backs some reform measures, rejects others | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    CHARLESTON, W.Va. — The state Board of Education voted Wednesday to get behind some parts of the controversial omnibus education reform bill while rejecting other provisions in the measure.

    Members met in emergency session for approximately five hours going over each of the major issues of the bill, SB 451, and then voting to endorse or reject the proposals on an individual basis.

    Board members said they felt the need to act quickly with the state Senate discussing the bill in a rare Committee of the Whole meeting Wednesday.

    “I think that the lightning speed with which this bill has moved has necessitated that we have this emergency session,” said David Perry, president of the state Board of Education.

    Both Perry and Dr. Steve Paine, superintendent of schools, said they were not notified of the contents of SB 451 prior to its origination last week in the Senate Education Committee.

    “I respect the Legislature and I respect the legislative process and I would ask that they would reciprocate and respect the expertise that exists on this state Board of Education and I have even started to talk about the people that we have as resources,” Paine said.

    “The fact that they think that we will not get a reform agenda that would work — we all want higher student achievement levels.”

    Paine cited individual BOE member education credentials.

    “Look at the Board that we have,” he said. “Now why are we not being consulted when we talk about reform agenda?”

    During the meeting, Sarah Stewart, legal counsel for the state Department of Education, detailed the dozens of provisions within the more than 130-page bill.

    The charter schools provision generated the majority of questions and comments covering funding, constitutionality and policy. At least one BOE member said the individual proposal warranted “a full review” potentially lasting several days.

    Questions about the provision dealing with allowing counties to raise levy rates garnered some additional questions along with the provisions dealing with student transfers, educational savings accounts and student transfers.

    Stewart said the proposed bill removes a current requirement that both counties involved approve a transfer.

    Overall, “There’s a lot of hidden questions and concerns and we have to find those answers and all we can do to find those answers is to get together and discuss it,” said Miller Hall, vice president of the state Board of Education.

    The board voted to support things like pay raises for education workers, paying math teachers more, tax credits for classroom teachers, a change in the unexcused absences policy and increasing the local share cap for county school system funding.

    The board voted not to endorse the bill’s nonseverability clause, making central office staff ‘will and pleasure’ employees, not paying teachers for work stoppages, charter schools and education savings accounts.

    The board approved two additional motions. One offered by member Tom Campbell calling for the legislature to consider the issues separately not in one bill.

    “Education of our children is extremely important. Many people impact the success or failure of that and hearing those various opinions on issues if vital and that’s why we suggest the issues be separated,” Campbell said.

    A motion from Perry was approved calling for the creation of a special committee of education and legislative stakeholders to be appointed by state School Superintendent Steve Paine to study the future of education.

    “It would be formed to look at a world-class educational system over the next year and come back to the legislature with suggestions,” Perry said.

    The board also voted not to take an official position on some issues.

    Paine said he backed Governor Jim Justice’s five percent pay raise proposal which dated back to October.

    “I had no idea that that pay raise bill would have amended into it or added to it all the different components of this omnibus bill,” Paine said. “Otherwise, we probably could have said something about our concerns at that time, but we didn’t know it was coming.”

    On Tuesday, Governor Justice said he wanted his pay raise bill to go through the legislative process without additional measures lumped into it.

    “I think it was really important for the Governor to weigh in on this bill and we appreciate his statements,” Paine said in response.

    “It’s time for us to figure out how to get together, talk about the issues, negotiate if necessary and let’s move this agenda and this state forward the way he is so capably leading right now.”

    The next regular meeting of the state Board of Education is scheduled for Feb. 13.

    The WVBE voted to endorse the following sections of SB451:

    Tax Credit (§11-21-25) Provides up to $250 annual tax credit to classroom teacher at public or private school for supplementary education materials or professional development costs.

    Student Unexcused Absences (§18-8-4) Removes the requirement to send a written notice to a parent/guardian when a student receives 3 and 5 unexcused absences and instead requires the school to make “meaningful contact” with the parent/guardian upon 3 and 5 unexcused absences.

    Professional Student Support Personnel (§18-9A-2) Expands the statutory definition of “professional student support personnel” from only nurses and counselors to include any professional personnel providing direct social and emotional student support services to students (e.g., social workers, psychologists; Communities in Schools site coordinator, etc.).

    1,400 Enrollment Floor (§18-9A-2) Sets a net student enrollment floor of 1,400 students for purposes of a county’s basic foundation program. Currently, this will impact 11 counties whose net enrollment is currently below 1,400 students.

    Step 5 Funding (§18-9A-8) Increases Step 5 funding for Professional Student Support Personnel by removing the current statutory cap and inserts a 4.70 ratio of per 1,000 students.

    Step 6a Funding (§18-9A-19) Increases Step 6a funding for current operations by 1%.

    Local Share Cap (§18-9A-12) Places a cap on every county’s local share amount equal to the county’s local share amount in FY16. If a county’s local share amount increases from the FY16 amount, the county will keep those additional funds. Currently, this modification would affect 36 counties.

    Teacher Salary Increases (§18A-4-2) Provides a 5% pay raise to classroom teachers (includes professional student support personnel in Step 5).

    Supplement for Math Teachers (§18A-4-2) For purposes of the salary schedule, provides three additional years of experience for certified math teachers that teach math at least 60% of the time.

    Math Teacher Incentive (§18A-4-2d) Provides a one-time, $2,000 supplement to middle and high school math teachers that complete a specialized math course and teach math at least 60% of the time.

    County Salary Supplement (§18A-4-5a) Allows county Boards of Education to provide salary supplements to teachers that are certified to and do teach in a critical need and shortage subject, teach in schools in remote geographic locations or teach in locations that have experienced high rates of turnover in experience teachers.

    School Service Personnel Salary Increase (§18A-4-8a) Provides a 5% pay raise to school service personnel.

    Underwood-Smith Scholarship (§18C-4-1, et seq) Changes the focus of the scholarship program to students intending to pursue teaching careers in WV in math, science or special education at the elementary, middle or secondary level and provides scholarship recipients with additional academic support and training for math, science, or special education mentors, starting in the recipient’s freshman year and continuing until they receive a degree.

    West Virginia Board of Risk and Insurance Management (BRIM) Coverage (§29-12-5a) Requires county Board of Education to annually notify its employees in writing about applicable coverage provided by BRIM.

    The WVBE voted to endorse the following sections of SB451, with provisions as noted below:

    Re-incentive Personal Days (§5-16-13) For members of the Teachers’ Retirement System on or after July 1, 2019, allows 10 days of accrued leave to be converted to $500. (The WVBE voted that this measure also include School Service Personnel).

    Levy Rates (§11-8-6f) Allows county Board of Education to vote annually to increase their maximum levy rate up to a specific statutory maximum amount. (The WVBE endorsed this measure provided that no school district receive a loss in state funding).

    School Counselors (§18-5-18b) Removes the percentages of counselor time that is to be spend on administrative duties and clarifies that counselors main responsibility is to provide direct counseling services to students and supporting students with their academic, social and emotional needs. (The WVBE endorsed this measure provided that no less than 75% of counselors’ time be spent counseling students).

    Student Promotion (§18-5-46) Declares that teacher’s recommendation on whether a student to advance to the next grade level shall be primary consideration when making that determination. (The WVBE endorsed this measure amending the language to say “important consideration” rather than “primary consideration.”)

    The WVBE voted not to endorse the following sections of SB451:

    Nonseverability Clause (§18-1-5) Purports to declare that if any part of the “Act” (which presumably is the Bill) is struck down by the legal system, then all other parts of the bill will revert back to current language.

    Open Enrollment/Student Transfers (§18-5-16) Revises the inter-county transfer process and authorizes a county board of education to establish an open enrollment policy.

    Central Office Staff (§18-5-32) Changes the employment status of central office staff (“central office administrators, supervisors and directors”) from a continuing contract status to will-and-pleasure of the county Superintendent and may be removed by the county Superintendent upon approval by the county Board of Education.

    Strikes/Work Stoppages (§18-5-45a) Prohibits “banked time” from being used to make-up days where school was closed due to a strike or work stoppage. When a work stoppage causes the county superintendent to close school, the county Board of Education must withhold employee pay for each day closed due to work stoppage and interscholastic athletic events cannot be held on days that school was closed due to work stoppage.

    Charter Schools (§18-5G-1, et seq) Allows for the establishment of public charter schools.

    Education Savings Account (§18-31-1, et seq) Establishes Education Savings Accounts (ESAs), which are accounts funded by the state to eligible students to pay qualifying education expenses.

    Equity Payment (§18A-4-5) Changes the statutory equity payment to teachers and school service personnel to a state supplement.

    Payroll Protection (§18A-4-9) Before dues to an employee organization providing representation, lobbying or other employee related service may be automatically deducted from a county Board of Education employee, the employee must submit an annual request authorizing the deduction.

    The WVBE voted to take no position on the following sections of SB451:

    Reductions in Force (RIF) (§18A-4-7a) Changes the current statutory requirement that RIF decisions be based on seniority and instead requires that RIF decisions be based on qualifications. The employee that is least qualified is the employee that is to be RIF’ed.

    Leave Accrual (§18A-4-10) Changes when personal leave is accrued by county Board of Education employees from the beginning of the employment term to on the last working day of each month in the employment term. Employees currently accrue 15 days at the beginning of the employment term and under the revised language, would accrue 1.5 days at the end of each month (10 months total).



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    PRMIA 8002 Exam (II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement) Detailed Information



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