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Q. What kind of certification can i get for my capabilities in Microsoft office?
A. Microsoft offers the Microsoft office specialist and expert certifications for be aware, Excel, PowerPoint, entry, Outlook, SharePoint, One note and office 365 for office 2010. For workplace 2007, Microsoft offers expert certifications for word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and access. professional certification is available for Excel and observe 2007. For workplace 2013, all 2010 certifications may be provided apart from office 365.
For greater counsel, check out Microsoft's site. Passing each skilled checks and three additional tests can earn you an MOS grasp specialist certification.
Q. am i able to get college credit score for my Microsoft workplace expert certifications?
A. That depends on the institution. the 1st step is to have your certifications validated by the American Council on training (ACE). seek advice from their web site and publish your credentials for path evaluate. ACE gives route equivalency for the examination you passed. you will likely deserve to log into Certiport for your MOS certification numbers and exam numbers. These are entered into ACE’s web site and evaluated separately. you're going to acquire an e-mail back after a few days for each certification; now not all tests will always qualify for credit.
Q. Do I have to renew my MOS certifications?
A. No. however, if you simplest hang certifications on older models of the software, it’s a good suggestion to update them. The skills confirmed are mostly the equal. besides the fact that children, each and every new examination will check you on the most up-to-date elements. protecting certifications in both older types and new ones can put you in a position of energy when working with an organization it really is transitioning from one version to the other.
Q. I hardly ever see the Microsoft and admin certifications I grasp listed on job necessities. Are they nevertheless vital?
A. sure! whereas many job postings won’t indicate a requirement for these certifications, they cut short discussions on your skillability with certain technical and administrative capabilities. That leaves space to discuss your other traits. So, in its place of spending half the interview “proving” that you just comprehend Microsoft Excel, your MOS skilled certification in Excel 2010 speaks to that requirement. Spend the relaxation of the time discussing the way you can be applying these knowledge and displaying off your business acumen.
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Shutterstock Microsoft Excel may also be the most advantageous and versatile tool in your desktop. With it that you may balance budgets, create photographs to screen information, and if you are looking to, music the advanced facts of your favorite baseball avid gamers.
however Excel is barely as effective because the adult wielding the keyboard, and for the uninitiated, the application can appear quite frustrating and elaborate to navigate. while spreadsheet specialists can study a web page and spot the masterpiece that it might quickly become, an Excel rookie will just see a bunch of containers that appear to proceed into an countless void.
if you end up in the latter group and would opt to be in the former, this Microsoft Excel practicing Bundle at the moment being offered with the aid of Udemy may be the vicinity to delivery. The bundle contains classes for newcomers in addition to an advanced course for both Excel 2010 and 2013, that means that you can birth learning no count number what your experience level is or which version of the software you have got.
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This morning, Microsoft opened the tech preview of its long-anticipated office web Apps. here's a first analyze what the on-line version of Excel has in store.
From the on-line SkyDrive folders, which you could entry office web Apps by way of a drop-down menu.it be clear from a glance on the Excel web App interface that Microsoft has worked difficult to deliver "fidelity"--the term the company makes use of for the consistency of event between the desktop edition of the application and what you encounter within the office web Apps edition. Let's stroll throughout the manner of developing an Excel spreadsheet in office internet Apps to look how neatly it became out.
To begin, you log in to SkyDrive the usage of your home windows live identity. SkyDrive, Microsoft's free storage in the cloud, gives the spine for a lot of the office web Apps performance. At this element, the similarity between rival Google doctors and Microsoft's office net Apps is spectacular.
You begin by using making a file identify for your new workplace web Apps Excel workbook.in case you opt for Microsoft Excel workbook from the drop-down menu, the app then asks you to create a reputation to your new Excel spreadsheet. you're going to see a large thumbnail image on the correct side of the reveal that claims 'Preview'; however for the reason that here is a brand new file with out a counsel yet entered, the Preview isn't very excellent. At this step, office web Apps Excel would not resemble Microsoft office Excel in any respect.
The office internet Apps Excel workbook looks essentially similar to that of the desktop edition of Excel.when you click Create, youngsters, the fidelity kicks in. you are going to come across a quick extend while workplace web Apps creates the workbook, however later on it displays a web-primarily based Excel workbook that looks just like what you may see in a in the neighborhood installed replica of Excel.
To create a roster for a little League baseball team, I created columns for each baby's name, age, position, and contact quantity. up to now so good: the entire tools I necessary for primary cellphone formatting appeared to be existing. youngsters, some of the issues that i'm used to having within the laptop Excel--equivalent to Merge Cells and Autofit Column Width--were missing.
happily, because I actually have the computer edition of Excel installed, i used to be capable of click on the Open in Excel button on the Ribbon and work with my 'team Roster.xlsx' file there. I could merge the cells on the excellent so that I may make a title for the spreadsheet that spanned the columns of data, and that i may use Autofit to alter the column width to healthy the statistics each and every contained.
Excel web App contains formulation functionality similar to that of the desktop edition, nevertheless it isn't as intuitive or robust. A components bar sits above the cells. if you category '=' followed by using a letter, it's going to reveal a drop-down menu of the attainable system operators. that you can drag the mouse over the cells to opt for the fields to encompass within the formula. i used to be capable of add a field to calculate the normal age of the players on the team, however the manner was sort of clunky in comparison with what i am used to within the Microsoft workplace version of Excel.
entering and formatting basic cell records is the same right here as you possibly can expect in the desktop version.The Excel utility in office net Apps additionally allows for multiple users to work with and alter the equal workbook at the same time (OneNote also enables this type of cooperation). people can collaborate together via the web browser from anywhere in the world.
workplace web Apps does, truly, bring on the promise of fidelity in the seem to be and suppose. growing my file in workplace internet Apps Excel turned into pretty much the identical as doing so with the desktop version of Excel, and the identical conventions (such as the Ribbon interface) deliver a well-recognized environment.
The fidelity ends, notwithstanding, for extra superior initiatives. notwithstanding the consistency of event extends to the interface and simple aspects, power clients of Excel will nonetheless need to have the computing device edition installed. however, even vigor clients will advantage from the capacity to entry and work with records by way of a web browser from any place in the world, and to collaborate with friends or consumers in precise time.
want to see greater of the Microsoft office web Apps? Take a more in-depth look on the PowerPoint web App and office internet Apps' sharing and collaboration features. At press time, word and OneNote had been not yet thoroughly useful.
Tony Bradley is an information security and unified communications skilled with greater than a decade of enterprise IT experience. He tweets as @PCSecurityNews and gives information, suggestions and experiences on information safety and unified communications technologies on his website at tonybradley.com.To comment on this article and other PCWorld content, talk over with our facebook web page or our Twitter feed.
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Shutterstock Microsoft Excel can be the most useful and versatile tool on your computer. With it you can balance budgets, create graphics to display data, and if you want to, track the advanced statistics of your favorite baseball players.
But Excel is only as powerful as the person wielding the keyboard, and for the uninitiated, the program can seem rather frustrating and difficult to navigate. While spreadsheet experts can look at a page and see the masterpiece that it could soon become, an Excel rookie will just see a bunch of boxes that seem to continue into an endless void.
If you find yourself in the latter group and would prefer to be in the former, this Microsoft Excel Training Bundle currently being offered by Udemy may be the place to start. The bundle includes classes for beginners as well as an advanced course for both Excel 2010 and 2013, meaning that you can start learning no matter what your experience level is or which version of the software you have.
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One of the options that has always been available in Excel's LINEST() worksheet function is the const argument, short for constant. The function's syntax is:
=LINEST(Y values, X values, const, stats)
Setting the const argument to FALSE can easily have major implications for the nature of the results that LINEST() returns. And there is a real question of whether the const argument is a useful option at all. In fact, the question is not limited to LINEST() and Excel. It extends to the whole area of regression analysis, regardless of the platform used to carry out the regression.
Some credible practitioners believe that it's important to force the constant to zero in certain situations, usually in the context of regression discontinuity designs.
Others, including myself, believe that if setting the constant to zero appears to be a useful and informative option, then linear regression itself is often the wrong model for the data.The Excel 2003 Through 2010 Versions
Figure 1 shows an example of the difference between LINEST() results when the constant is calculated normally, and when it is forced to equal zero.
Figure 1 LINEST() returns the same results, whether you use Excel 2003 or Excel 2010.
In Figure 1, the two sets of results are based on the same underlying data set, with the Y values in A2:A21 and the X values in B2:D21. The first set of results in F3:I7 is based on a constant calculated normally (const = TRUE). The second set of results in F10:I14 is based on a constant that is forced to equal zero (const = FALSE).
Notice that not a single value in the results is the same when the constant is forced to zero as when the constant is calculated normally.Basing the Deviations on the Means
Figure 2 begins to demonstrate how this comes about.
Figure 2 The deviations are centered on the means.
In Figure 2, cells G15:H15 contain the sums of squares for the regression and the residual, respectively. They are based on the predicted Y values, in L21:L40, and the deviations of the predicted values from the actuals, in M21:LM40.
The sums of squares are calculated by means of the DEVSQ() function, which subtracts every value in the argument's range from the mean of those values, squares the result, and sums the squares.
The value in cell G13, 0.595, is the R2 for the regression. One useful way to calculate that figure (and a useful way to think of it) is:
That is, R2 is the ratio of the sum of squares regression to the total sum of squares of the Y values. The result, 0.595, states that 59.5% of the variability in the Y values is attributable to variability in the composite of the X values.
Notice in Figure 2 that the statistics reported in G11:J15 are identical to those reported in G3:J7 (except that LINEST() reports the regression coefficients and their standard errors in the reverse of worksheet order). The former are calculated using Excel's matrix functions; the latter are calculated using the LINEST function.
Also notice in Figure 2 that the correlation between the actual and the predicted Y values is given in cell H22. It is 0.772. The square of that correlation, in cell H23, is 0.595—that is of course R2, the same value that you get by calculating the ratio of the sum of squares regression to the total sum of squares.
There's nothing magical about any of this. It's all as is expected according to the mathematics underlying regression analysis.Changing the Deviation Basis to Zero
Now examine the same sort of analysis shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 The deviations are centered on zero.
Notice the values for the sum of squares regression and the sum of squares residual in Figure 3. They are both much larger than the sums of squares reported in Figure 2. The reason is that the deviations that are squared and summed in Figure 3 are the differences between the values and zero, not between the values and their mean.
This change in the nature of the deviations always increases the total sum of squares. (For the reason that this is so, see Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel 2010, Que, 2011, Chapter 2.)
The change from centering the predicted values on their mean, and the errors in prediction on their mean, also changes the relative size of the sums of squares. It can happen that the sum of squares regression gets larger relative to the sum of squares residual, and the result is to increase the apparent value of R2. Using the sums of squares shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, for example:
12870.037 / (12870.037 + 8742.913) = .595
(Compare with cells G5 and G13.)
55879.198 / (55879.198 + 12875.802) = .813
(Compare with cells G5 and G13.)
So the suppression of the constant in Figure 3 has resulted in an increase in the R2 from .595 to .813, and that's a substantial increase. But does it really mean that the regression equation that's returned in Figure 3 is more accurate than the one returned in Figure 2? After all, the square root of R2 is the multiple correlation between the actual Y values and the composite, predicted Y values. The higher that correlation, the more accurate the prediction.How the Deviations Affect the R2
We can test that accuracy by calculating the correlations, squaring them, and comparing the results to the values for R2 that are returned under the two conditions for the constant: present and absent.
Look first again at Figure 2. There, the multiple R is calculated at .772, and the multiple R2 is calculated at .595 (cells H22 and H23). The value of .595 agrees with the value returned by LINEST() in cell G5, and by the ratio of the sums of squares in cell G13.
Now return to Figure 3. There, the multiple R is calculated at .684, and the multiple R2 is calculated at .468 (cells H22 and H23). But the value of .468 does not agree with the value returned by LINEST() in cell G5, and by the ratio of the sums of squares in cell G13.
In sum, running LINEST() on the data shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 has these effects on the apparent accuracy of the predictions:
This is an inconsistency, even an apparent contradiction. Regarded as a ratio of sums of squares, R2 is higher without the constant. Regarded as the square of the correlation between the actual and predicted Y values, R2 is lower without the constant.The Constant and the Deviations
Of course, the problem is due to the fact that in omitting the constant, we are redefining what's meant by the term "sum of squares." As a result, we're dismembering the meaning of the R2.
When you include the constant, the deviations are the differences between the observed values and their mean—that's what "least squares" is all about. When you omit the constant, the deviations are the differences between the observed values and zero—that's what "regression without the constant" is all about.
If the predicted values happen to be generally farther from zero than from their own mean, then the sum of squares regression will be inflated as compared to regression with the constant. In that case, the R2 will tend to be greater without the constant in the regression equation than it is with the constant.A Negative R2?
Finally, suppose you're still using a version of Excel through Excel 2002, and you have used LINEST(), without the constant, on a data set such as the one shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 A negative R2 is possible only if someone has made a mistake.
Even the idea of a negative R2 is ridiculous. Outside the realm of imaginary numbers, the square of a number cannot be negative, and ordinary least squares analysis does not involve imaginary numbers. How does the R2 value of -0.09122 in cell F4 of Figure 4 get there?
For that matter, how does Excel 2002 come up with a negative sum of squares regression and a negative F ratio (cells F6 and F5 respectively in Figure 4)? If the square of a number must be positive, then the sum of squared numbers must also be positive. And an F ratio is the ratio of two variances. A variance is an average of squared deviations, and therefore must also be positive—and the ratio of two positive numbers must also be positive.How to Get a Negative R2
The answer is poorly informed coding. Recall that, when the constant is calculated normally, the total sum of squares of the actual Y values equals the total of the sum of squares regression and the sum of squares residual. For example, in Figure 2, the total sum of squares is shown in cell A23 at 21612.950. It is returned by Excel's DEVSQ() function, which sums the squared deviations of each value from the mean of the values.
Also in Figure 2, the sum of squares regression and the sum of squares residual are shown in cells G15:H15. The total of those two figures is 21612.950: the value of the total sum of squares in cell A23.
Therefore, one way to calculate the sum of squares regression is to subtract the sum of squares residual from the total sum of squares. Another method, of course, is to calculate the sum of squares regression directly on the predicted values. But if you're writing the underlying code in, say, C, it's much quicker to get the sum of squares regression by subtraction than by doing the math from scratch on the predicted values.
When the constant is forced to zero, the sum of squares residual that's returned in all versions of Excel equals the result of pointing SUMSQ(), not DEVSQ(), at the residual values. This is entirely correct, given that you want to force the constant to zero.
The sum of squares residual using the normal calculation of the constant is as follows:
Residual = Actual – Predicted
That is, find each of N residual values, which is the actual Y value less the predicted Y value (Ŷ). Subtract the mean of the residuals () from each residual, square the difference, and sum the squared differences. Excel's DEVSQ() function does precisely this.
The sum of squares residual forcing the constant to zero is as follows:
or, more simply:
Excel's SUMSQ() function does precisely this.The Mistake, Corrected—In Part
Now, what LINEST() did in Excel version 2002 (and earlier) was to use the equivalent of SUMSQ() to get the sum of squares residual, but the equivalent of DEVSQ() to get the total sum of squares. If you add SUMSQ(Predicted values) to SUMSQ(Residual values), you get SUMSQ(Actual values).
But only in the situation where the mean of the actual values is zero can SUMSQ(Predicted values) plus SUMSQ(Residual values) equal DEVSQ(Actual values).
The problem has been corrected in Excel 2003 and subsequent versions. But as late as Excel 2010, the problem lives on in Excel charts. If you add a linear trendline to a chart, call for it to force the constant to zero, and display the R2 value on the chart, it can still show up as a negative number. See Figure 5.
Figure 5 A negative R2 can still appear with a chart's trendline.
Notice in Figure 5 that although Excel 2010 was used to produce the chart, the linear trendline's properties include a negative R2 value. (The equation would be correct, though, if you chose to show it along with R2.)Conclusion
This series of papers on how Microsoft has implemented LINEST() concludes with a discussion of Microsoft's extraordinary decision regarding how to handle extreme multicollinearity in the X variables.
Excel can perform pretty much any data manipulation you want, but working out which function to use for a given task isn't always obvious. Excel expert Charley Kyd explains how to use formulas for a common but not trivial task: finding the first and last occurrence of a given entry when you've got a list of items matched to specific dates.
Excel has a pair of functions (INDEX and MATCH) which make finding the first occurrence of an item in a dated list easy, but picking out the last occurrence is a lot harder. Kyd explains how you can achieve that by using the SUMPRODUCT function, which works with arrays of data. Hit the blog post for a full explanation (you can easily copy the formula without knowing how it works, but that will make troubleshooting tricky if something goes wrong).
The example shown in the blog makes the technique look a little trivial, since it's easy for a human to pick out the first and last dates in a small list, but it becomes much more useful if you're working with hundreds of entries. It's not a trick you'll need every day, but a useful reference to keep on hand if you often do complex spreadsheet work.
Use SUMPRODUCT to find the last item in an Excel list [Microsoft Excel 2010 Blog]
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