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70-411 - Administering Windows Server 2012 - Dump Information

Vendor : Microsoft
Exam Code : 70-411
Exam Name : Administering Windows Server 2012
Questions and Answers : 312 Q & A
Updated On : April 23, 2019
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70-411 Questions and Answers

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70-411 Administering Windows Server 2012

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70-411 exam Dumps Source : Administering Windows Server 2012

Test Code : 70-411
Test Name : Administering Windows Server 2012
Vendor Name : Microsoft
Q&A : 312 Real Questions

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Microsoft Administering Windows Server 2012

Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Databases | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ace your coaching for the abilities measured by using exam 70-462—and on the job—with this authentic Microsoft examine guide.

Work at your own pace via a series of classes and reports that utterly cover each and every exam goal. Then, toughen and observe what you’ve learned via precise-world case scenarios and observe workout routines.

Maximize your efficiency on the examination by gaining knowledge of the expertise and event measured by way of these pursuits:

  • install and configure SQL Server
  • hold circumstances and databases
  • Optimize and troubleshoot SQL Server
  • control facts
  • implement safety
  • enforce high availability.
  • apply exams

    check your abilities with the practice checks on CD. that you could work through tons of of questions the use of varied trying out modes to meet your certain learning needs. You get targeted explanations for correct and incorrect answers—together with a customized learning direction that describes how and the place to focal point your stories.


    MCSA windows Server 2012 R2: a way to analyze e book & advantageous links | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    windows Server first got here into existence in the 12 months 1993 as home windows NT 3.1. home windows Server 2012 R2 nowadays comes with many stronger facets, that had been now not obtainable in old versions. As Server types are upgraded, the demand for IT gurus who recognize the in’s and out’s about it boost drastically.

    MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2

    Microsoft certified options associate or MCSA certification is for IT gurus and developers who want to get their first job in Microsoft know-how. if you possess a Microsoft Certification, then your price is expanded again and again and you have an side over others

    earning an MCSA windows Server 2012 certification qualifies you for a place as a network or computer techniques administrator or as a pc community specialist, and it is the first step to your route to fitting a Microsoft licensed options skilled (MCSE).

    To start getting to know MCSA home windows Server 2012 R2, you ought to comprehend the basics of computing device, networking and home windows OS. There are three exams a candidate ought to circulate as a way to earn MSCA home windows Server 2012 Certification.

    The three required tests are 410, 411 and 412. When a candidate clears first Microsoft examination he/she is recognized as a Microsoft certified expert.

    Three papers of MCSA home windows Server 2012 R2 are:

  • 70-410 : setting up and Configuring windows Server 2012
  • 70-411: Administering windows Server 2012
  • 70-412: Configuring advanced windows Server 2012 functions
  • Now let’s take a look what all these three tests comprise.

    70-410: installation and Configuring home windows Server 2012

    here is the primary paper a candidate need to pass in an effort to clear different both and get certified as an MCSA in windows Server 2012.

    70-410 talks about installing and configuration of server and native storage. Configuring a lot of server roles and features, Hyper-V, installing and administer lively listing and growing and managing group policy.

    This examination serves as a basis for 70-411 and 70-412 examination. As in other two papers, topic’s lined below 410 are improved further to take into account working of windows Server 2012 in deep.

     70-411: Administering home windows Server 2012

    70-411 talks about deploying and managing server images the use of Widows Deployment features, implementing patch management, configure alert, records Collector units (DCS) and computer screen digital machines.

    It comprises syllabus on a way to configure disbursed File system; deploy and configure DFS namespaces, replication scheduling, faraway differential compression settings, growing clone of database, configure file and disk encryption the use of BitLocker, community liberate, NPS, managing Bitlocker polices, and the like.

    70-412: Configuring advanced windows Server 2012 functions

    here is the ultimate one and considered to be the toughest exam, as questions asked within the paper aren't limited to the direction syllabus – i.e. apart from theoretical skills candidate are confirmed on their useful talents.

    The leading contents of this examination encompass:

  • Configure and manage excessive availability server using community Load Balancing, failover clustering and virtual desktop flow.
  • Configure and control network File equipment statistics shop, optimize storage using iSCSI target and initiator, iSNS, catastrophe healing using backup and fault tolerance approach.
  • identity and entry solution, lively listing Infrastructure and network services are few other issues that a learner might be getting to know.

    a way to put together for MCSA home windows Server 2012
  • teacher-led practicing: look for Microsoft practising middle who have Microsoft licensed coach, they're going to teach purposeful and theoretical a part of this exam.
  • Self-paced working towards: Self-paced training can also be accomplished by means of Microsoft virtual Academy website.
  • gaining knowledge of with the aid of e-book: A candidate can buy 70-410, 70-411, and 70-412 reliable books from Microsoft Press store. The books from Microsoft Press can be found as ebook and neatly as in tough cover.
  • A candidate whereas making ready for the examination can also take support from Microsoft Technet & Born To gain knowledge of authentic discussion board. This discussion board has a lot of advantageous supplies, information, practice examine papers that can be used to brush up MCSA home windows Server 2012 R2 education.

    home windows Server 2012 R2 was released in August 2012, from the time of its inception it has in fact grown up. if you're planning to get MCSA windows Server 2012 R2 certified, then go ahead and begin preparing for the exam. visit its legitimate site for extra particulars.


    Designing and Administering Storage on SQL Server 2012 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the publication 

    right here section is topical in strategy. in place of describe all of the administrative functions and capabilities of a undeniable screen, such as the Database Settings page within the SSMS Object Explorer, this area provides a precise-down view of probably the most essential issues when designing the storage for an instance of SQL Server 2012 and how to obtain maximum efficiency, scalability, and reliability.

    This area begins with an overview of database data and their magnitude to general I/O performance, in “Designing and Administering Database data in SQL Server 2012,” adopted by way of advice on how to operate important step-via-step initiatives and management operations. SQL Server storage is established on databases, however a number of settings are adjustable on the illustration-level. So, amazing importance is placed on appropriate design and administration of database files.

    The next part, titled “Designing and Administering Filegroups in SQL Server 2012,” gives an outline of filegroups as well as details on essential initiatives. Prescriptive assistance additionally tells critical methods to optimize using filegroups in SQL Server 2012.

    subsequent, FILESTREAM performance and administration are mentioned, together with step-via-step projects and administration operations within the area “Designing for BLOB Storage.” This section additionally offers a brief introduction and overview to a different supported formula storage known as faraway Blob shop (RBS).

    ultimately, a top level view of partitioning details how and when to use partitions in SQL Server 2012, their most valuable utility, standard step-by way of-step initiatives, and customary use-cases, comparable to a “sliding window” partition. Partitioning could be used for each tables and indexes, as particular in the upcoming part “Designing and Administrating Partitions in SQL Server 2012.”

    Designing and Administrating Database data in SQL Server 2012

    on every occasion a database is created on an example of SQL Server 2012, not less than two database files are required: one for the database file and one for the transaction log. via default, SQL Server will create a single database file and transaction log file on the identical default destination disk. beneath this configuration, the data file is called the fundamental records file and has the .mdf file extension, via default. The log file has a file extension of .ldf, with the aid of default. When databases need greater I/O performance, it’s ordinary to add extra statistics info to the person database that wants delivered efficiency. These introduced records files are referred to as Secondary info and typically use the .ndf file extension.

    As outlined within the previous “Notes from the field” area, including varied files to a database is a good way to raise I/O performance, primarily when those additional information are used to segregate and offload a element of I/O. we are able to supply further counsel on the use of numerous database data in the later section titled “Designing and Administrating varied statistics info.”

    if you have an illustration of SQL Server 2012 that does not have a excessive efficiency requirement, a single disk likely offers sufficient performance. but in most circumstances, exceptionally an important construction database, ideal I/O performance is important to assembly the dreams of the firm.

    right here sections handle vital proscriptive suggestions regarding data files. First, design assistance and suggestions are provided for the place on disk to vicinity database data, as smartly as the optimal number of database info to make use of for a selected construction database. other assistance is provided to describe the I/O affect of certain database-level alternate options.

    inserting statistics info onto Disks

    At this stage of the design system, think about that you've a user database that has only one information file and one log file. where those individual data are positioned on the I/O subsystem can have a big have an impact on on their typical efficiency, typically as a result of they must share I/O with other information and executables kept on the same disks. So, if we can region the user statistics file(s) and log files onto separate disks, the place is the surest vicinity to put them?

    When designing and segregating I/O by workload on SQL Server database information, there are definite predictable payoffs in terms of enhanced efficiency. When setting apart workload on to separate disks, it's implied that by means of “disks” we mean a single disk, a RAID1, -5, or -10 array, or a extent mount point on a SAN. right here checklist ranks the optimum payoff, when it comes to providing more advantageous I/O performance, for a transaction processing workload with a single primary database:

  • Separate the user log file from all other user and device facts information and log info. The server now has two disks:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It homes the home windows OS data, the SQL Server executables, the SQL Server system databases, and the creation database file(s).
  • Disk B:\ is completely for serial writes (and very on occasion for writes) of the consumer database log file. This single trade can frequently deliver a 30% or superior improvement in I/O efficiency compared to a device the place all facts files and log info are on the identical disk.
  • determine 3.5 indicates what this configuration might appear to be.

    Figure 3.5.

    figure 3.5. illustration of basic file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Separate tempdb, each information file and log file onto a separate disk. Even improved is to position the statistics file(s) and the log file onto their personal disks. The server now has three or 4 disks:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It houses the home windows OS information, the SQL Server executables, the SQL Server gadget databases, and the consumer database file(s).
  • Disk B:\ is solely for serial reads and writes of the person database log file.
  • Disk C:\ for tempd records file(s) and log file. keeping apart tempdb onto its own disk offers various amounts of development to I/O efficiency, but it surely is often in the mid-young adults, with 14–17% development general for OLTP workloads.
  • Optionally, Disk D:\ to separate the tempdb transaction log file from the tempdb database file.
  • figure 3.6 shows an illustration of intermediate file placement for OLTP workloads.

    Figure 3.6.

    determine three.6. instance of intermediate file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Separate user data file(s) onto their own disk(s). constantly, one disk is satisfactory for many person statistics info, because they all have a randomized study-write workload. If there are dissimilar user databases of high significance, be sure to separate the log data of different user databases, so as of business, onto their personal disks. The server now has many disks, with an further disk for the important consumer facts file and, where necessary, many disks for log files of the consumer databases on the server:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It residences the home windows OS files, the SQL Server executables, and the SQL Server system databases.
  • Disk B:\ is completely for serial reads and writes of the user database log file.
  • Disk C:\ is for tempd facts file(s) and log file.
  • Disk E:\ is for randomized reads and writes for all the user database information.
  • power F:\ and more advantageous are for the log files of alternative crucial person databases, one pressure per log file.
  • figure three.7 indicates and instance of advanced file placement for OLTP workloads.

    Figure 3.7.

    determine three.7. example of superior file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Repeat step three as mandatory to extra segregate database data and transaction log data whose endeavor creates competition on the I/O subsystem. And be aware—the figures most effective illustrate the conception of a logical disk. So, Disk E in figure three.7 might easily be a RAID10 array containing twelve precise actual challenging disks.
  • using varied records info

    As mentioned previous, SQL Server defaults to the advent of a single basic facts file and a single fundamental log file when developing a new database. The log file consists of the suggestions obligatory to make transactions and databases absolutely recoverable. as a result of its I/O workload is serial, writing one transaction after the next, the disk examine-write head rarely moves. definitely, we don’t want it to circulate. additionally, due to this, adding additional info to a transaction log basically in no way improves performance. Conversely, records information include the tables (together with the facts they contain), indexes, views, constraints, stored techniques, and the like. Naturally, if the facts files dwell on segregated disks, I/O performance improves because the facts data now not deal with one another for the I/O of that particular disk.

    less smartly standard, although, is that SQL Server is capable of deliver more desirable I/O efficiency if you add secondary records info to a database, even when the secondary records files are on the same disk, because the Database Engine can use assorted I/O threads on a database that has diverse facts info. The standard rule for this technique is to create one information file for each two to 4 logical processors obtainable on the server. So, a server with a single one-core CPU can’t truly take knowledge of this approach. If a server had two 4-core CPUs, for a total of eight logical CPUs, an important person database might do well to have 4 information data.

    The more recent and quicker the CPU, the larger the ratio to use. A brand-new server with two four-core CPUs might do optimum with simply two records data. also observe that this technique offers enhancing efficiency with extra statistics data, however it does plateau at either four, eight, or in rare circumstances sixteen information data. hence, a commodity server could demonstrate enhancing efficiency on user databases with two and four information data, however stops showing any growth using greater than 4 facts data. Your mileage may additionally range, so make sure to look at various any alterations in a nonproduction ambiance before implementing them.

    Sizing assorted facts info

    believe we've a brand new database application, called BossData, coming on-line it's a extremely vital construction application. it is the most effective construction database on the server, and in response to the counsel offered past, we now have configured the disks and database data like this:

  • power C:\ is a RAID1 pair of disks appearing because the boot pressure housing the windows Server OS, the SQL Server executables, and the device databases of grasp, MSDB, and model.
  • force D:\ is the DVD power.
  • power E:\ is a RAID1 pair of excessive-pace SSDs housing tempdb records information and the log file.
  • pressure F:\ in RAID10 configuration with loads of disks residences the random I/O workload of the eight BossData information data: one primary file and seven secondary data.
  • pressure G:\ is a RAID1 pair of disks housing the BossData log file.
  • lots of the time, BossData has mind-blowing I/O efficiency. however, it on occasion slows down for no immediately evident purpose. Why would that be?

    as it turns out, the dimension of varied facts info is also essential. each time a database has one file bigger than yet another, SQL Server will ship extra I/O to the significant file on account of an algorithm known as round-robin, proportional fill. “circular-robin” ability that SQL Server will ship I/O to at least one records file at a time, one right after the other. So for the BossData database, the SQL Server Database Engine would send one I/O first to the simple statistics file, the subsequent I/O would go to the primary secondary information file in line, the next I/O to the subsequent secondary statistics file, and so forth. so far, so respectable.

    despite the fact, the “proportional fill” part of the algorithm capacity that SQL Server will focus its I/Os on every information file in flip until it's as full, in percentage, to the entire different data information. So, if all but two of the records data within the BossData database are 50Gb, however two are 200Gb, SQL Server would send four times as many I/Os to the two larger records info in order to preserve them as proportionately full as the entire others.

    In a circumstance where BossData wants a complete of 800Gb of storage, it could be a great deal more suitable to have eight 100Gb information info than to have six 50Gb information info and two 200Gb records files.

    Autogrowth and that i/O performance

    if you’re allocating house for the first time to each statistics information and log info, it is a most desirable observe to devise for future I/O and storage wants, which is also known as capability planning.

    in this situation, estimate the amount of area required now not simplest for operating the database within the close future, however estimate its total storage wants smartly into the future. After you’ve arrived at the quantity of I/O and storage vital at an inexpensive point in the future, say twelve months hence, you should preallocate the particular amount of disk area and i/O skill from the starting.

    Over-counting on the default autogrowth points causes two big issues. First, growing to be an information file explanations database operations to decelerate while the new space is allotted and can lead to statistics files with commonly various sizes for a single database. (confer with the prior section “Sizing multiple records info.”) transforming into a log file factors write recreation to stop unless the brand new space is allotted. 2nd, always growing to be the information and log data usually results in extra logical fragmentation within the database and, in turn, performance degradation.

    Most skilled DBAs will also set the autogrow settings sufficiently excessive to avoid usual autogrowths. for instance, records file autogrow defaults to a meager 25Mb, which is certainly a extremely small volume of house for a busy OLTP database. it's recommended to set these autogrow values to a substantial percent size of the file anticipated at the one-yr mark. So, for a database with 100Gb facts file and 25GB log file expected on the one-12 months mark, you could set the autogrowth values to 10Gb and 2.5Gb, respectively.

    additionally, log files which have been subjected to many tiny, incremental autogrowths had been shown to underperform compared to log files with fewer, larger file growths. This phenomena happens as a result of each time the log file is grown, SQL Server creates a new VLF, or digital log file. The VLFs connect to one one more the use of pointers to exhibit SQL Server the place one VLF ends and the next starts. This chaining works seamlessly behind the scenes. but it’s elementary normal experience that the more frequently SQL Server has to examine the VLF chaining metadata, the greater overhead is incurred. So a 20Gb log file containing 4 VLFs of 5Gb each and every will outperform the same 20Gb log file containing 2000 VLFs.

    Configuring Autogrowth on a Database File

    To configure autogrowth on a database file (as shown in determine three.8), observe these steps:

  • From within the File page on the Database residences dialog container, click the ellipsis button discovered in the Autogrowth column on a desired database file to configure it.
  • in the trade Autogrowth dialog container, configure the File increase and highest File measurement settings and click good enough.
  • click ok within the Database properties dialog container to complete the project.
  • that you may alternately use here Transact-SQL syntax to regulate the Autogrowth settings for a database file in response to a growth fee of 10Gb and an unlimited optimum file measurement:

    USE [master] goALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] alter FILE ( identify = N'AdventureWorks2012_Data', MAXSIZE = unlimited , FILEGROWTH = 10240KB ) GO information File Initialization

    every time SQL Server has to initialize an information or log file, it overwrites any residual records on the disk sectors that should be would becould very well be putting around as a result of previously deleted info. This process fills the files with zeros and happens on every occasion SQL Server creates a database, provides information to a database, expands the size of an latest log or information file through autogrow or a guide increase manner, or due to a database or filegroup repair. This isn’t a very time-consuming operation until the information worried are huge, comparable to over 100Gbs. but when the files are huge, file initialization can take fairly a very long time.

    it is possible to stay away from full file initialization on information data via a strategy call rapid file initialization. as a substitute of writing the complete file to zeros, SQL Server will overwrite any current facts as new facts is written to the file when fast file initialization is enabled. rapid file initialization doesn't work on log files, nor on databases where transparent information encryption is enabled.

    SQL Server will use speedy file initialization each time it might probably, offered the SQL Server service account has SE_MANAGE_VOLUME_NAME privileges. here is a windows-stage permission granted to contributors of the windows Administrator group and to users with the operate volume preservation task protection policy.

    For greater counsel, seek advice from the SQL Server Books online documentation.

    Shrinking Databases, data, and that i/O efficiency

    The reduce Database project reduces the actual database and log files to a particular size. This operation eliminates extra space within the database in line with a percent price. additionally, which you could enter thresholds in megabytes, indicating the quantity of shrinkage that should take vicinity when the database reaches a certain size and the volume of free house that must stay after the extra area is removed. Free space will also be retained within the database or launched back to the operating gadget.

    it is a ultimate apply now not to cut back the database. First, when shrinking the database, SQL Server strikes full pages at the conclusion of statistics file(s) to the primary open area it will possibly discover originally of the file, allowing the conclusion of the info to be truncated and the file to be reduced in size. This process can increase the log file measurement because all moves are logged. 2nd, if the database is closely used and there are lots of inserts, the records info may additionally must grow once again.

    SQL 2005 and later addresses gradual autogrowth with fast file initialization; hence, the boom technique is not as sluggish because it become during the past. youngsters, sometimes autogrow does not catch up with the space necessities, inflicting a efficiency degradation. eventually, with no trouble shrinking the database ends up in extreme fragmentation. if you absolutely ought to reduce the database, you should do it manually when the server is not being closely utilized.

    that you would be able to reduce a database by correct-clicking a database and deciding upon initiatives, reduce, and then Database or File.

    alternatively, you can use Transact-SQL to decrease a database or file. the following Transact=SQL syntax shrinks the AdventureWorks2012 database, returns freed house to the operating system, and allows for for 15% of free area to remain after the cut back:

    USE [AdventureWorks2012] moveDBCC SHRINKDATABASE(N'AdventureWorks2012', 15, TRUNCATEONLY) GO Administering Database information

    The Database residences dialog box is where you manage the configuration alternate options and values of a user or gadget database. you could execute additional projects from inside these pages, corresponding to database mirroring and transaction log delivery. The configuration pages within the Database houses dialog container that have an effect on I/O efficiency consist of the following:

  • information
  • Filegroups
  • options
  • exchange tracking
  • The upcoming sections describe each page and atmosphere in its entirety. To invoke the Database homes dialog field, operate right here steps:

  • choose start, All programs, Microsoft SQL Server 2012, SQL Server management Studio.
  • In Object Explorer, first hook up with the Database Engine, expand the desired instance, and then expand the Databases folder.
  • select a preferred database, akin to AdventureWorks2012, correct-click on, and choose homes. The Database residences dialog box is displayed.
  • Administering the Database residences files page

    The 2d Database houses web page is called information. here which you could change the owner of the database, enable full-textual content indexing, and manage the database info, as proven in figure three.9.

    Figure 3.9.

    figure 3.9. Configuring the database information settings from in the information page.

    Administrating Database files

    Use the files web page to configure settings referring to database data and transaction logs. you will spend time working in the files web page when firstly rolling out a database and conducting capability planning. Following are the settings you’ll see:

  • statistics and Log File kinds—A SQL Server 2012 database consists of two forms of information: facts and log. every database has as a minimum one data file and one log file. in the event you’re scaling a database, it's feasible to create more than one information and one log file. If assorted records files exist, the primary facts file within the database has the extension *.mdf and subsequent information files hold the extension *.ndf. moreover, all log data use the extension *.ldf.
  • Filegroups—if you’re working with multiple data info, it is viable to create filegroups. A filegroup allows you to logically group database objects and information together. The default filegroup, primary as the basic Filegroup, keeps all the system tables and information files now not assigned to different filegroups. Subsequent filegroups deserve to be created and named explicitly.
  • preliminary size in MB—This environment suggests the preliminary dimension of a database or transaction log file. that you can boost the size of a file through editing this value to a much better quantity in megabytes.
  • expanding preliminary dimension of a Database File

    operate the following steps to raise the information file for the AdventureWorks2012 database the use of SSMS:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and choose residences.
  • opt for the info page within the Database residences dialog container.
  • Enter the new numerical value for the favored file dimension in the preliminary dimension (MB) column for a data or log file and click on adequate.
  • other Database options That have an effect on I/O performance

    bear in mind that many other database options can have a profound, if not at least a nominal, affect on I/O performance. To analyze these alternate options, appropriate-click the database name in the SSMS Object Explorer, and then select homes. The Database residences web page looks, permitting you to opt for alternate options or change monitoring. a few issues on the options and change monitoring tabs to take into account consist of right here:

  • options: healing mannequin—SQL Server presents three recovery models: simple, Bulk Logged, and whole. These settings can have a big impact on how an awful lot logging, and consequently I/O, is incurred on the log file. consult with Chapter 6, “Backing Up and Restoring SQL Server 2012 Databases,” for greater tips on backup settings.
  • alternatives: Auto—SQL Server will also be set to instantly create and immediately replace index records. take into account that, although typically a nominal hit on I/O, these strategies incur overhead and are unpredictable as to when they could be invoked. subsequently, many DBAs use automated SQL Agent jobs to routinely create and update records on very excessive-performance techniques to prevent competition for I/O resources.
  • alternate options: State: read-best—although now not conventional for OLTP systems, putting a database into the examine-simplest state particularly reduces the locking and i/O on that database. for prime reporting programs, some DBAs location the database into the read-only state throughout commonplace working hours, and then region the database into examine-write state to replace and cargo facts.
  • alternate options: State: Encryption—clear information encryption provides a nominal amount of delivered I/O overhead.
  • alternate tracking—alternatives inside SQL Server that boost the volume of gadget auditing, comparable to alternate tracking and alter records seize, vastly boost the universal gadget I/O as a result of SQL Server need to listing the entire auditing counsel showing the device undertaking.
  • Designing and Administering Filegroups in SQL Server 2012

    Filegroups are used to residence data data. Log files are by no means housed in filegroups. every database has a main filegroup, and further secondary filegroups may be created at any time. The simple filegroup is also the default filegroup, besides the fact that children the default file community can also be modified after the reality. whenever a desk or index is created, it will be allocated to the default filegroup except one more filegroup is certain.

    Filegroups are customarily used to vicinity tables and indexes into agencies and, often, onto particular disks. Filegroups may also be used to stripe facts information across distinct disks in situations where the server does not have RAID accessible to it. (besides the fact that children, putting data and log information directly on RAID is a sophisticated solution using filegroups to stripe records and log information.) Filegroups are also used as the logical container for special goal records administration elements like partitions and FILESTREAM, each mentioned later during this chapter. however they deliver other advantages as well. for example, it is feasible to lower back up and get better individual filegroups. (check with Chapter 6 for extra suggestions on recuperating a particular filegroup.)

    To function typical administrative tasks on a filegroup, study right here sections.

    creating additional Filegroups for a Database

    perform here steps to create a brand new filegroup and files the use of the AdventureWorks2012 database with each SSMS and Transact-SQL:

  • In Object Explorer, appropriate-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and choose properties.
  • opt for the Filegroups page within the Database properties dialog container.
  • click on the Add button to create a brand new filegroup.
  • When a new row looks, enter the name of the brand new filegroup and enable the alternative Default.
  • Alternately, you may create a new filegroup as a set of including a brand new file to a database, as shown in determine three.10. in this case, perform the following steps:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click on the AdventureWorks2012 database and choose residences.
  • choose the files web page within the Database homes dialog box.
  • click on the Add button to create a new file. Enter the name of the new file within the Logical identify box.
  • click on in the Filegroup field and select <new filegroup>.
  • When the brand new Filegroup page seems, enter the name of the brand new filegroup, specify any essential alternate options, after which click good enough.
  • alternatively, which you can use the following Transact-SQL script to create the new filegroup for the AdventureWorks2012 database:

    USE [master] passALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] ADD FILEGROUP [SecondFileGroup] GO developing New statistics information for a Database and placing Them in distinctive Filegroups

    Now that you just’ve created a brand new filegroup, that you may create two extra data data for the AdventureWorks2012 database and region them within the newly created filegroup:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click on the AdventureWorks2012 database and select properties.
  • opt for the data web page within the Database residences dialog box.
  • click on the Add button to create new data data.
  • in the Database data part, enter the following tips in the appropriate columns:

    Columns

    cost

    Logical identify

    AdventureWorks2012_Data2

    File type

    records

    FileGroup

    SecondFileGroup

    size

    10MB

    course

    C:\

    File identify

    AdventureWorks2012_Data2.ndf

  • click good enough.
  • The prior photograph, in determine 3.10, showed the simple aspects of the Database information page. then again, use the following Transact-SQL syntax to create a new records file:

    USE [master] goALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] ADD FILE (name = N'AdventureWorks2012_Data2', FILENAME = N'C:\AdventureWorks2012_Data2.ndf', measurement = 10240KB , FILEGROWTH = 1024KB ) TO FILEGROUP [SecondFileGroup] GO Administering the Database homes Filegroups web page

    As stated up to now, filegroups are an outstanding option to prepare statistics objects, handle efficiency considerations, and cut backup instances. The Filegroup web page is premier used for viewing present filegroups, growing new ones, marking filegroups as read-best, and configuring which filegroup may be the default.

    To improve performance, that you can create subsequent filegroups and area database files, FILESTREAM information, and indexes onto them. furthermore, if there isn’t adequate physical storage obtainable on a quantity, which you could create a new filegroup and bodily region all information on a distinct volume or LUN if a SAN is used.

    at last, if a database has static facts equivalent to that present in an archive, it's possible to stream this records to a specific filegroup and mark that filegroup as examine-only. examine-only filegroups are extremely quick for queries. study-only filegroups are also effortless to lower back up because the information hardly ever if ever adjustments.


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    Administering Windows Server 2012

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    About this Course

    This version of this course 20411A utilizes pre-release software in the virtual machines for the labs.

    This 5-day course is part two, of a series of three courses, which provide the skills and knowledge necessary to implement a core Windows Server 2012 Infrastructure in an existing enterprise environment. The three courses in total will collectively cover implementing, managing, maintaining and provisioning services and infrastructure in a Windows Server 2012 environment. While there is some cross-over in skillset and tasks across the courses this course will primarily cover the administration tasks necessary to maintain a Windows Server 2012 infrastructure, such as user and group management, network access and data security.

    Audience ProfileThis course is intended for Information Technology (IT) Professionals with hands-on experience working in a Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environment, who want to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 environment. The key focus for students in this course is to broaden the initial deployment of Windows Server 2012 services and infrastructure and provide the skills necessary to manage and maintain a domain based Windows Server 2012 environment, such as user and group management, network access and data security.

    Candidates would typically be System Administrators or aspiring to be System Administrators. They must have at least one year hands-on experience working in a Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environment. Candidates must also have knowledge equivalent to that already covered in “20410A: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012” course as this course will build upon that knowledge.

    At Course Completion

    After completing this course, students will be able to: •Implement a Group Policy infrastructure.•Manage user desktops with Group Policy.•Manage user and service accounts.•Maintain Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).•Configure and troubleshoot Domain Name System (DNS).•Configure and troubleshoot Remote Access.•Install, configure, and troubleshoot the Network Policy Server (NPS) role.•Implement Network Access Protection (NAP).•Optimize file services.•Configure encryption and advanced auditing.•Deploy and maintain server images.•Implement Update Management.•Monitor Windows Server 2012.

    Kurset fører til eksamen: 70-411

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    Designing and Administering Storage on SQL Server 2012 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    The following section is topical in approach. Rather than describe all the administrative functions and capabilities of a certain screen, such as the Database Settings page in the SSMS Object Explorer, this section provides a top-down view of the most important considerations when designing the storage for an instance of SQL Server 2012 and how to achieve maximum performance, scalability, and reliability.

    This section begins with an overview of database files and their importance to overall I/O performance, in “Designing and Administering Database Files in SQL Server 2012,” followed by information on how to perform important step-by-step tasks and management operations. SQL Server storage is centered on databases, although a few settings are adjustable at the instance-level. So, great importance is placed on proper design and management of database files.

    The next section, titled “Designing and Administering Filegroups in SQL Server 2012,” provides an overview of filegroups as well as details on important tasks. Prescriptive guidance also tells important ways to optimize the use of filegroups in SQL Server 2012.

    Next, FILESTREAM functionality and administration are discussed, along with step-by-step tasks and management operations in the section “Designing for BLOB Storage.” This section also provides a brief introduction and overview to another supported method storage called Remote Blob Store (RBS).

    Finally, an overview of partitioning details how and when to use partitions in SQL Server 2012, their most effective application, common step-by-step tasks, and common use-cases, such as a “sliding window” partition. Partitioning may be used for both tables and indexes, as detailed in the upcoming section “Designing and Administrating Partitions in SQL Server 2012.”

    Designing and Administrating Database Files in SQL Server 2012

    Whenever a database is created on an instance of SQL Server 2012, a minimum of two database files are required: one for the database file and one for the transaction log. By default, SQL Server will create a single database file and transaction log file on the same default destination disk. Under this configuration, the data file is called the Primary data file and has the .mdf file extension, by default. The log file has a file extension of .ldf, by default. When databases need more I/O performance, it’s typical to add more data files to the user database that needs added performance. These added data files are called Secondary files and typically use the .ndf file extension.

    As mentioned in the earlier “Notes from the Field” section, adding multiple files to a database is an effective way to increase I/O performance, especially when those additional files are used to segregate and offload a portion of I/O. We will provide additional guidance on using multiple database files in the later section titled “Designing and Administrating Multiple Data Files.”

    When you have an instance of SQL Server 2012 that does not have a high performance requirement, a single disk probably provides adequate performance. But in most cases, especially an important production database, optimal I/O performance is crucial to meeting the goals of the organization.

    The following sections address important proscriptive guidance concerning data files. First, design tips and recommendations are provided for where on disk to place database files, as well as the optimal number of database files to use for a particular production database. Other guidance is provided to describe the I/O impact of certain database-level options.

    Placing Data Files onto Disks

    At this stage of the design process, imagine that you have a user database that has only one data file and one log file. Where those individual files are placed on the I/O subsystem can have an enormous impact on their overall performance, typically because they must share I/O with other files and executables stored on the same disks. So, if we can place the user data file(s) and log files onto separate disks, where is the best place to put them?

    When designing and segregating I/O by workload on SQL Server database files, there are certain predictable payoffs in terms of improved performance. When separating workload on to separate disks, it is implied that by “disks” we mean a single disk, a RAID1, -5, or -10 array, or a volume mount point on a SAN. The following list ranks the best payoff, in terms of providing improved I/O performance, for a transaction processing workload with a single major database:

  • Separate the user log file from all other user and system data files and log files. The server now has two disks:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It houses the Windows OS files, the SQL Server executables, the SQL Server system databases, and the production database file(s).
  • Disk B:\ is solely for serial writes (and very occasionally for writes) of the user database log file. This single change can often provide a 30% or greater improvement in I/O performance compared to a system where all data files and log files are on the same disk.
  • Figure 3.5 shows what this configuration might look like.

    Figure 3.5.

    Figure 3.5. Example of basic file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Separate tempdb, both data file and log file onto a separate disk. Even better is to put the data file(s) and the log file onto their own disks. The server now has three or four disks:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It houses the Windows OS files, the SQL Server executables, the SQL Server system databases, and the user database file(s).
  • Disk B:\ is solely for serial reads and writes of the user database log file.
  • Disk C:\ for tempd data file(s) and log file. Separating tempdb onto its own disk provides varying amounts of improvement to I/O performance, but it is often in the mid-teens, with 14–17% improvement common for OLTP workloads.
  • Optionally, Disk D:\ to separate the tempdb transaction log file from the tempdb database file.
  • Figure 3.6 shows an example of intermediate file placement for OLTP workloads.

    Figure 3.6.

    Figure 3.6. Example of intermediate file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Separate user data file(s) onto their own disk(s). Usually, one disk is sufficient for many user data files, because they all have a randomized read-write workload. If there are multiple user databases of high importance, make sure to separate the log files of other user databases, in order of business, onto their own disks. The server now has many disks, with an additional disk for the important user data file and, where needed, many disks for log files of the user databases on the server:
  • Disk A:\ is for randomized reads and writes. It houses the Windows OS files, the SQL Server executables, and the SQL Server system databases.
  • Disk B:\ is solely for serial reads and writes of the user database log file.
  • Disk C:\ is for tempd data file(s) and log file.
  • Disk E:\ is for randomized reads and writes for all the user database files.
  • Drive F:\ and greater are for the log files of other important user databases, one drive per log file.
  • Figure 3.7 shows and example of advanced file placement for OLTP workloads.

    Figure 3.7.

    Figure 3.7. Example of advanced file placement for OLTP workloads.

  • Repeat step 3 as needed to further segregate database files and transaction log files whose activity creates contention on the I/O subsystem. And remember—the figures only illustrate the concept of a logical disk. So, Disk E in Figure 3.7 might easily be a RAID10 array containing twelve actual physical hard disks.
  • Utilizing Multiple Data Files

    As mentioned earlier, SQL Server defaults to the creation of a single primary data file and a single primary log file when creating a new database. The log file contains the information needed to make transactions and databases fully recoverable. Because its I/O workload is serial, writing one transaction after the next, the disk read-write head rarely moves. In fact, we don’t want it to move. Also, for this reason, adding additional files to a transaction log almost never improves performance. Conversely, data files contain the tables (along with the data they contain), indexes, views, constraints, stored procedures, and so on. Naturally, if the data files reside on segregated disks, I/O performance improves because the data files no longer contend with one another for the I/O of that specific disk.

    Less well known, though, is that SQL Server is able to provide better I/O performance when you add secondary data files to a database, even when the secondary data files are on the same disk, because the Database Engine can use multiple I/O threads on a database that has multiple data files. The general rule for this technique is to create one data file for every two to four logical processors available on the server. So, a server with a single one-core CPU can’t really take advantage of this technique. If a server had two four-core CPUs, for a total of eight logical CPUs, an important user database might do well to have four data files.

    The newer and faster the CPU, the higher the ratio to use. A brand-new server with two four-core CPUs might do best with just two data files. Also note that this technique offers improving performance with more data files, but it does plateau at either 4, 8, or in rare cases 16 data files. Thus, a commodity server might show improving performance on user databases with two and four data files, but stops showing any improvement using more than four data files. Your mileage may vary, so be sure to test any changes in a nonproduction environment before implementing them.

    Sizing Multiple Data Files

    Suppose we have a new database application, called BossData, coming online that is a very important production application. It is the only production database on the server, and according to the guidance provided earlier, we have configured the disks and database files like this:

  • Drive C:\ is a RAID1 pair of disks acting as the boot drive housing the Windows Server OS, the SQL Server executables, and the system databases of Master, MSDB, and Model.
  • Drive D:\ is the DVD drive.
  • Drive E:\ is a RAID1 pair of high-speed SSDs housing tempdb data files and the log file.
  • DRIVE F:\ in RAID10 configuration with lots of disks houses the random I/O workload of the eight BossData data files: one primary file and seven secondary files.
  • DRIVE G:\ is a RAID1 pair of disks housing the BossData log file.
  • Most of the time, BossData has fantastic I/O performance. However, it occasionally slows down for no immediately evident reason. Why would that be?

    As it turns out, the size of multiple data files is also important. Whenever a database has one file larger than another, SQL Server will send more I/O to the large file because of an algorithm called round-robin, proportional fill. “Round-robin” means that SQL Server will send I/O to one data file at a time, one right after the other. So for the BossData database, the SQL Server Database Engine would send one I/O first to the primary data file, the next I/O would go to the first secondary data file in line, the next I/O to the next secondary data file, and so on. So far, so good.

    However, the “proportional fill” part of the algorithm means that SQL Server will focus its I/Os on each data file in turn until it is as full, in proportion, to all the other data files. So, if all but two of the data files in the BossData database are 50Gb, but two are 200Gb, SQL Server would send four times as many I/Os to the two bigger data files in an effort to keep them as proportionately full as all the others.

    In a situation where BossData needs a total of 800Gb of storage, it would be much better to have eight 100Gb data files than to have six 50Gb data files and two 200Gb data files.

    Autogrowth and I/O Performance

    When you’re allocating space for the first time to both data files and log files, it is a best practice to plan for future I/O and storage needs, which is also known as capacity planning.

    In this situation, estimate the amount of space required not only for operating the database in the near future, but estimate its total storage needs well into the future. After you’ve arrived at the amount of I/O and storage needed at a reasonable point in the future, say one year hence, you should preallocate the specific amount of disk space and I/O capacity from the beginning.

    Over-relying on the default autogrowth features causes two significant problems. First, growing a data file causes database operations to slow down while the new space is allocated and can lead to data files with widely varying sizes for a single database. (Refer to the earlier section “Sizing Multiple Data Files.”) Growing a log file causes write activity to stop until the new space is allocated. Second, constantly growing the data and log files typically leads to more logical fragmentation within the database and, in turn, performance degradation.

    Most experienced DBAs will also set the autogrow settings sufficiently high to avoid frequent autogrowths. For example, data file autogrow defaults to a meager 25Mb, which is certainly a very small amount of space for a busy OLTP database. It is recommended to set these autogrow values to a considerable percentage size of the file expected at the one-year mark. So, for a database with 100Gb data file and 25GB log file expected at the one-year mark, you might set the autogrowth values to 10Gb and 2.5Gb, respectively.

    Additionally, log files that have been subjected to many tiny, incremental autogrowths have been shown to underperform compared to log files with fewer, larger file growths. This phenomena occurs because each time the log file is grown, SQL Server creates a new VLF, or virtual log file. The VLFs connect to one another using pointers to show SQL Server where one VLF ends and the next begins. This chaining works seamlessly behind the scenes. But it’s simple common sense that the more often SQL Server has to read the VLF chaining metadata, the more overhead is incurred. So a 20Gb log file containing four VLFs of 5Gb each will outperform the same 20Gb log file containing 2000 VLFs.

    Configuring Autogrowth on a Database File

    To configure autogrowth on a database file (as shown in Figure 3.8), follow these steps:

  • From within the File page on the Database Properties dialog box, click the ellipsis button located in the Autogrowth column on a desired database file to configure it.
  • In the Change Autogrowth dialog box, configure the File Growth and Maximum File Size settings and click OK.
  • Click OK in the Database Properties dialog box to complete the task.
  • You can alternately use the following Transact-SQL syntax to modify the Autogrowth settings for a database file based on a growth rate of 10Gb and an unlimited maximum file size:

    USE [master] GO ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] MODIFY FILE ( NAME = N'AdventureWorks2012_Data', MAXSIZE = UNLIMITED , FILEGROWTH = 10240KB ) GO Data File Initialization

    Anytime SQL Server has to initialize a data or log file, it overwrites any residual data on the disk sectors that might be hanging around because of previously deleted files. This process fills the files with zeros and occurs whenever SQL Server creates a database, adds files to a database, expands the size of an existing log or data file through autogrow or a manual growth process, or due to a database or filegroup restore. This isn’t a particularly time-consuming operation unless the files involved are large, such as over 100Gbs. But when the files are large, file initialization can take quite a long time.

    It is possible to avoid full file initialization on data files through a technique call instant file initialization. Instead of writing the entire file to zeros, SQL Server will overwrite any existing data as new data is written to the file when instant file initialization is enabled. Instant file initialization does not work on log files, nor on databases where transparent data encryption is enabled.

    SQL Server will use instant file initialization whenever it can, provided the SQL Server service account has SE_MANAGE_VOLUME_NAME privileges. This is a Windows-level permission granted to members of the Windows Administrator group and to users with the Perform Volume Maintenance Task security policy.

    For more information, refer to the SQL Server Books Online documentation.

    Shrinking Databases, Files, and I/O Performance

    The Shrink Database task reduces the physical database and log files to a specific size. This operation removes excess space in the database based on a percentage value. In addition, you can enter thresholds in megabytes, indicating the amount of shrinkage that needs to take place when the database reaches a certain size and the amount of free space that must remain after the excess space is removed. Free space can be retained in the database or released back to the operating system.

    It is a best practice not to shrink the database. First, when shrinking the database, SQL Server moves full pages at the end of data file(s) to the first open space it can find at the beginning of the file, allowing the end of the files to be truncated and the file to be shrunk. This process can increase the log file size because all moves are logged. Second, if the database is heavily used and there are many inserts, the data files may have to grow again.

    SQL 2005 and later addresses slow autogrowth with instant file initialization; therefore, the growth process is not as slow as it was in the past. However, sometimes autogrow does not catch up with the space requirements, causing a performance degradation. Finally, simply shrinking the database leads to excessive fragmentation. If you absolutely must shrink the database, you should do it manually when the server is not being heavily utilized.

    You can shrink a database by right-clicking a database and selecting Tasks, Shrink, and then Database or File.

    Alternatively, you can use Transact-SQL to shrink a database or file. The following Transact=SQL syntax shrinks the AdventureWorks2012 database, returns freed space to the operating system, and allows for 15% of free space to remain after the shrink:

    USE [AdventureWorks2012] GO DBCC SHRINKDATABASE(N'AdventureWorks2012', 15, TRUNCATEONLY) GO Administering Database Files

    The Database Properties dialog box is where you manage the configuration options and values of a user or system database. You can execute additional tasks from within these pages, such as database mirroring and transaction log shipping. The configuration pages in the Database Properties dialog box that affect I/O performance include the following:

  • Files
  • Filegroups
  • Options
  • Change Tracking
  • The upcoming sections describe each page and setting in its entirety. To invoke the Database Properties dialog box, perform the following steps:

  • Choose Start, All Programs, Microsoft SQL Server 2012, SQL Server Management Studio.
  • In Object Explorer, first connect to the Database Engine, expand the desired instance, and then expand the Databases folder.
  • Select a desired database, such as AdventureWorks2012, right-click, and select Properties. The Database Properties dialog box is displayed.
  • Administering the Database Properties Files Page

    The second Database Properties page is called Files. Here you can change the owner of the database, enable full-text indexing, and manage the database files, as shown in Figure 3.9.

    Figure 3.9.

    Figure 3.9. Configuring the database files settings from within the Files page.

    Administrating Database Files

    Use the Files page to configure settings pertaining to database files and transaction logs. You will spend time working in the Files page when initially rolling out a database and conducting capacity planning. Following are the settings you’ll see:

  • Data and Log File Types—A SQL Server 2012 database is composed of two types of files: data and log. Each database has at least one data file and one log file. When you’re scaling a database, it is possible to create more than one data and one log file. If multiple data files exist, the first data file in the database has the extension *.mdf and subsequent data files maintain the extension *.ndf. In addition, all log files use the extension *.ldf.
  • Filegroups—When you’re working with multiple data files, it is possible to create filegroups. A filegroup allows you to logically group database objects and files together. The default filegroup, known as the Primary Filegroup, maintains all the system tables and data files not assigned to other filegroups. Subsequent filegroups need to be created and named explicitly.
  • Initial Size in MB—This setting indicates the preliminary size of a database or transaction log file. You can increase the size of a file by modifying this value to a higher number in megabytes.
  • Increasing Initial Size of a Database File

    Perform the following steps to increase the data file for the AdventureWorks2012 database using SSMS:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and select Properties.
  • Select the Files page in the Database Properties dialog box.
  • Enter the new numerical value for the desired file size in the Initial Size (MB) column for a data or log file and click OK.
  • Other Database Options That Affect I/O Performance

    Keep in mind that many other database options can have a profound, if not at least a nominal, impact on I/O performance. To look at these options, right-click the database name in the SSMS Object Explorer, and then select Properties. The Database Properties page appears, allowing you to select Options or Change Tracking. A few things on the Options and Change Tracking tabs to keep in mind include the following:

  • Options: Recovery Model—SQL Server offers three recovery models: Simple, Bulk Logged, and Full. These settings can have a huge impact on how much logging, and thus I/O, is incurred on the log file. Refer to Chapter 6, “Backing Up and Restoring SQL Server 2012 Databases,” for more information on backup settings.
  • Options: Auto—SQL Server can be set to automatically create and automatically update index statistics. Keep in mind that, although typically a nominal hit on I/O, these processes incur overhead and are unpredictable as to when they may be invoked. Consequently, many DBAs use automated SQL Agent jobs to routinely create and update statistics on very high-performance systems to avoid contention for I/O resources.
  • Options: State: Read-Only—Although not frequent for OLTP systems, placing a database into the read-only state enormously reduces the locking and I/O on that database. For high reporting systems, some DBAs place the database into the read-only state during regular working hours, and then place the database into read-write state to update and load data.
  • Options: State: Encryption—Transparent data encryption adds a nominal amount of added I/O overhead.
  • Change Tracking—Options within SQL Server that increase the amount of system auditing, such as change tracking and change data capture, significantly increase the overall system I/O because SQL Server must record all the auditing information showing the system activity.
  • Designing and Administering Filegroups in SQL Server 2012

    Filegroups are used to house data files. Log files are never housed in filegroups. Every database has a primary filegroup, and additional secondary filegroups may be created at any time. The primary filegroup is also the default filegroup, although the default file group can be changed after the fact. Whenever a table or index is created, it will be allocated to the default filegroup unless another filegroup is specified.

    Filegroups are typically used to place tables and indexes into groups and, frequently, onto specific disks. Filegroups can be used to stripe data files across multiple disks in situations where the server does not have RAID available to it. (However, placing data and log files directly on RAID is a superior solution using filegroups to stripe data and log files.) Filegroups are also used as the logical container for special purpose data management features like partitions and FILESTREAM, both discussed later in this chapter. But they provide other benefits as well. For example, it is possible to back up and recover individual filegroups. (Refer to Chapter 6 for more information on recovering a specific filegroup.)

    To perform standard administrative tasks on a filegroup, read the following sections.

    Creating Additional Filegroups for a Database

    Perform the following steps to create a new filegroup and files using the AdventureWorks2012 database with both SSMS and Transact-SQL:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and select Properties.
  • Select the Filegroups page in the Database Properties dialog box.
  • Click the Add button to create a new filegroup.
  • When a new row appears, enter the name of the new filegroup and enable the option Default.
  • Alternately, you may create a new filegroup as a set of adding a new file to a database, as shown in Figure 3.10. In this case, perform the following steps:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and select Properties.
  • Select the Files page in the Database Properties dialog box.
  • Click the Add button to create a new file. Enter the name of the new file in the Logical Name field.
  • Click in the Filegroup field and select <new filegroup>.
  • When the New Filegroup page appears, enter the name of the new filegroup, specify any important options, and then click OK.
  • Alternatively, you can use the following Transact-SQL script to create the new filegroup for the AdventureWorks2012 database:

    USE [master] GO ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] ADD FILEGROUP [SecondFileGroup] GO Creating New Data Files for a Database and Placing Them in Different Filegroups

    Now that you’ve created a new filegroup, you can create two additional data files for the AdventureWorks2012 database and place them in the newly created filegroup:

  • In Object Explorer, right-click the AdventureWorks2012 database and select Properties.
  • Select the Files page in the Database Properties dialog box.
  • Click the Add button to create new data files.
  • In the Database Files section, enter the following information in the appropriate columns:

    Columns

    Value

    Logical Name

    AdventureWorks2012_Data2

    File Type

    Data

    FileGroup

    SecondFileGroup

    Size

    10MB

    Path

    C:\

    File Name

    AdventureWorks2012_Data2.ndf

  • Click OK.
  • The earlier image, in Figure 3.10, showed the basic elements of the Database Files page. Alternatively, use the following Transact-SQL syntax to create a new data file:

    USE [master] GO ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] ADD FILE (NAME = N'AdventureWorks2012_Data2', FILENAME = N'C:\AdventureWorks2012_Data2.ndf', SIZE = 10240KB , FILEGROWTH = 1024KB ) TO FILEGROUP [SecondFileGroup] GO Administering the Database Properties Filegroups Page

    As stated previously, filegroups are a great way to organize data objects, address performance issues, and minimize backup times. The Filegroup page is best used for viewing existing filegroups, creating new ones, marking filegroups as read-only, and configuring which filegroup will be the default.

    To improve performance, you can create subsequent filegroups and place database files, FILESTREAM data, and indexes onto them. In addition, if there isn’t enough physical storage available on a volume, you can create a new filegroup and physically place all files on a different volume or LUN if a SAN is used.

    Finally, if a database has static data such as that found in an archive, it is possible to move this data to a specific filegroup and mark that filegroup as read-only. Read-only filegroups are extremely fast for queries. Read-only filegroups are also easy to back up because the data rarely if ever changes.


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    Microsoft 70-411 Exam (Administering Windows Server 2012) Detailed Information



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