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310-110 - Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0 - Dump Information

Vendor : SUN
Exam Code : 310-110
Exam Name : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0
Questions and Answers : 340 Q & A
Updated On : April 19, 2019
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310-110 Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

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310-110 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

Test Code : 310-110
Test Name : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0
Vendor Name : SUN
Q&A : 340 Real Questions

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2019 solar Belt power rankings: How do you rank anybody but App State No. 1? | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

at the end of each conference previews run-via, I take a look at how I understand the convention’s steadiness of vigor heading into the season. here's in no way in keeping with schedules, so they are not predictions. here's just how i'd rank the groups after writing heaps of phrases about each and every of them. we now have already accomplished the MAC and convention usa.

here’s a link to every crew’s statistics, and each team’s identify beneath is linked to its preview.

Tier 1

1. Appalachian State

The goal of this vigour ranking exercise is for me to boost my own opinions as an alternative of with ease citing S&P+ projections. those projections are decent and are going to be extra correct than my opinions a great percent of the time, but this way i go on the checklist with each.

sometimes i will’t ignore what the numbers are telling me, even though. With App State dealing with a training exchange, there's numerous rationale to consider the Mountaineers could fall back to the solar Belt pack a little bit in 2019. however they’re projected thirty first in S&P+ ... and the subsequent choicest crew in the conference is projected 69th. Plus, that No. 69 group (Troy) is additionally dealing with a head teaching change. S&P+’s next crew (No. 70 Arkansas State) returns its head coach but simply misplaced most of its assistants.

primarily based in basic terms on that hole, I’m giving the Mountaineers their personal tier. query marks? a great deal. but they birth out forward of the pack.

Tier 2

2. Troy3. Georgia Southern4. Arkansas State5. UL-Lafayette

As a pure “get an additional video game on television in an exquisite decent ESPN slot” gambit, I don’t intellect the solar Belt instituting a convention title game despite having simply 10 teams. It’s semi-pointless from a contest standpoint — with five-crew divisions, you already play everybody to your division and nearly every person from the other — however some thing. Get your money.

am i able to lobby for a rearranging of divisions, although? I know Troy is a few hours east of mobile, but for competitors functions, can we flip Troy and South Alabama?

as a result of as things stand, it’s feasible that the three top of the line groups within the convention are in the solar Belt East. ultimate yr, per S&P+, it became three of the right four, and because of an upset, the inaugural title game was No. 1 vs. No. 5. That’s not a very good show off.

Tier 3

6. ULM

I simply don’t know what to do with ULM. It wouldn’t shock me in any respect if any of the Tier 2 groups gained the convention, but ULM successful it would shock me. however I additionally like the Warhawks quite a little more than any of the teams below them. So I wager they get a tier to themselves.

Tier 4

7. Texas State8. Coastal Carolina9. Georgia State10. South Alabama

One of these 4 teams will make an excellent run at bowl eligibility. last year, Coastal came up just short. This 12 months, Texas State brings back one of the most greater skilled two-deeps in the nation, and if new coach Jake Spavital can figure out how to ranking some facets while holding last yr’s defensive prowess, the Bobcats may have the most effective shot.

right here’s how my statistical system has the solar Belt laid out for 2019, with zero equating to a standard FBS team. (you can discover full 2019 S&P+ projections right here.)

Scott Satterfield leaves behind an experienced, pleasant two-deep. And once more, the crew closest to App State has the identical coaching change considerations and less adventure.

both teams projected to improve the most, incidentally: Texas State and Georgia State. both return most of last 12 months’s construction.

Projected conference wins, with standard wins in parentheses.

West Division
  • Arkansas State 5.7 (7.9)
  • ULM 3.eight (5.1)
  • UL 3.7 (5.8)
  • Texas State three.7 (5.3)
  • South Alabama 1.4 (2.6)
  • the first two conferences I previewed (the MAC and convention united states of america) may have the tightest title races in FBS. The solar Belt likely won’t. Arkansas State has an almost two-game cushion in the West ...

    East Division
  • Appalachian State 6.9 (9.3)
  • Troy 5.four (7.9)
  • Georgia Southern four.9 (6.9)
  • Georgia State 2.4 (three.5)
  • Coastal Carolina 2.2 (four.4)
  • ... and only one team is within two games of App within the East.

    coaching changes, surprising attrition, upsets, etc., may make both division race unique. Plus, in these conferences, the race to 6 wins is commonly as or extra exciting. but the favorites are obvious, and that’s as a minimum in part on account of the unbalanced divisions. Troy vs. Arkansas State in the West? that might be a very good race!

    No offense in fact stood out remaining yr as more efficient than the pack, however only just a few were capable of making big performs.

    The spread on protection, although, became dramatic. You had some downright amazing devices in App State, Troy, and Texas State, you had some successful bend-don’t-break attacks like Georgia Southern’s ... and you had three actually, really unhealthy defenses dragging down the averages.

    I’m going to exit on a limb with this one. Technically, we gained’t even comprehend that Barker is going to be Troy’s starter in 2019 — after his injury final 12 months, Sawyer Smith took over and confirmed bouts of competence, too. but Barker become beginning to hit a stage you hardly ever see.

    towards ULM, Coastal Carolina, and Georgia State, Barker completed forty four of 53 passes (83 percent!) for 552 yards, 5 touchdowns, no picks, and a ridiculous 201.6 passer rating.

    expecting a full-season 200-plus score is likely too an awful lot, but his upside is the optimum in the convention, even greater than that of Evans or App State’s Zac Thomas.

    Troy v Nebraska Kaleb Barker image by Steven Branscombe/Getty photographs

    This choice was lots less difficult: pick essentially the most energetic participant from the most fulfilling protection. growth, finished.

    Appalachian State v Penn State Akeem Davis-Gaither (24) photo by using Justin okay. Aller/Getty photos

    Wi solar Alliance Drives start of Open cozy and Interoperable solutions with Availability of | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    SAN RAMON, Calif., Feb. four, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-solar Alliance, a worldwide ecosystem of member businesses looking for to accelerate the implementation of open requisites-based field area Networks (FAN) and the internet of things (IoT), these days announced that the primary wave of members have efficaciously completed interoperability checking out to become the primary solutions to obtain Wi-solar FAN certification.

    "necessities and interoperability are key to persevered growth for the IoT business," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance. "the provision of licensed Wi-solar FAN options promises on our mission to present utilities, cities and service providers adaptable multi-carrier networks if you want to support make sure interoperability nowadays and for future generations."

    The options from Cisco, Itron, Nissin techniques, Kyoto school, Landis+Gyr, Renesas and ROHM tackle the needs of utilities, metropolis developers and different service suppliers to simplify and support gigantic-scale, outside networks for wise cities, sensible utilities and different IoT rollouts.

    Wi-sun FAN is a communications infrastructure for very huge-scale networks, enabling many instruments to interconnect on one standard community. All Wi-solar certified items were rigorously confirmed with the aid of Allion test Labs in Taiwan, the primary verify lab to achieve Wi-solar FAN 1.0 validation, to make certain the contraptions worked collectively simply and securely to make certain swift time to market. Upon successful check completion, authorised products are authorised to monitor the Wi-solar certified FAN brand, which indicates to users that these items are compliant with open specifications, interoperable, comfy and scalable and will also be deployed with self assurance. To be trained greater about Wi-solar product certification, please visit

    Wi-sun FAN certified items:

    Cisco:  accomplished the very first Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification with its IR509 WPAN Industrial Router, which may be deployed into a various set of cyber web of issues purposes including: wise metering, smart grids, distribution automation, supervisory control and information acquisition, and street lights.  committed to the Wi-sun application, Cisco has contributed numerous look at various bed devices for the Wi-sun FAN certification program.

    Itron: The Wi-sun FAN licensed Itron Bridge5-WS is a key component of the Itron community platform that allows for cities and utilities to charge-effectively integrate industrial IoT and utility handle and monitoring instruments onto a cozy, legitimate and open specifications-based Wi-sun FAN. With this certification, Itron continues its lengthy-time management within the Wi-solar Alliance leading as much as this milestone, together with significant contributions to the construction of the FAN Technical Profile, Compliance examine Plan and check bed. 

    Nissin methods, Kyoto institution, and ROHM: Collaborated on the development of the EW-WSN BP35C4, which has executed Wi-sun FAN certification. The EW-WSN BP35C4 is a multi-goal module compliant with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 router with a UART interface. it is convenient to integrate in wise utilities and numerous IoT contraptions.

    Landis+Gyr: The N550 community Node is an essential component of Gridstream® join, the trade main utility IoT answer that can provide flexibility for applications reminiscent of AMI, distribution automation, customer engagement, sensible cities, DER integration and more. For greater information please visit:

    ProCubed: supplied look at various equipment for the certification checking out atmosphere including: 1) ProShark Plus (Wi-solar FAN 1.0 Protocol Analyzer), 2) check bed Controller (pro-Si-solar FAN1.0-915-TBC

    Renesas: selected to give one of the interoperability look at various mattress gadgets for the Wi-solar FAN certification program and completed Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification with its RF (RAA604S00)+ MCU (RX651) instant solution.

    make certain to seek advice from us at DistribuTECH 2019The Wi-solar Alliance will showcase Wi-sun FAN certified options from Cisco, Itron, Landis+Gyr, Nissin programs and Renesas at DistribuTECH 2019 in sales space 11225.

    be a part of the Wi-sun Alliance and utilities Hawaiian electric, Xcel energy and Avangrid for the sensible metropolis/IoT panel session: container area Networks assist Utility and sensible city Initiatives on Wednesday, February sixth, 2019, from 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. in rooms 280-282. Panelists will discuss how fanatics are becoming a a must have element within the creation of wise cities.

    also don't omit the expanding the Grid abilities Hub on the reveal flooring sales space 12031 scheduled for Thursday, February 7th from 10:00 AM -eleven:00 AM. Iker Urrutia from Iberdrola will talk about interoperability applied to wise metering and how Wi-solar expertise is the verbal exchange protocol chosen to tackle the problem for an upcoming assignment in the state of ny. Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance will provide an outline of the Wi-sun Alliance organization, the specification for container area Networks, and an replace on certification reputation, technical collaborations with different organizations, and plans for the future.

    concerning the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-sun Alliance is a worldwide non-income member-primarily based affiliation made up of industry main businesses. Its mission is to force the world proliferation of interoperable instant options for use in smart cities, smart grids and different internet of things (IoT) functions the use of open world necessities from companies, corresponding to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than 200 individuals international, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to all industry stakeholders and includes silicon providers, product companies, services providers, utilities, universities, firms and municipalities and native govt agencies. For extra guidance, please talk over with:

    Wi-solar Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance emblem are trademarks of the Wi-sun Alliance.

    source Wi-sun Alliance

    linked links

    How an 83-yr-ancient found a brand new lease on life constructing cellular apps | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    For one of the crucial oldest app builders in the world, being a “dokkyo roujin” — an aged adult who lives by myself — grew to become out to be a advantage in the long run.

    “It turned into handy as a result of I don't have any one to care for me, even if it’s first rate or unhealthy,” eighty three-12 months-historic Masako Wakamiya referred to of building her first cellular app. In 2017, she launched Hinadan, a game aimed toward elderly clients.

    the shortcoming of distractions let her center of attention purely on programming, and overcoming the steep getting to know curve, now not best in application construction however also an unexpected language barrier.

    “every thing become in English,” Wakamiya talked about. Error messages, on-line courses, and emails and other verbal exchange with Apple about getting her game into the App keep, changed into all in a foreign language. “individuals from my technology have main issue with English, and it become tough.”

    Wakamiya purchased her first desktop when she become drawing near 60 — commonly to sustain with friends while she took care of her elderly mother.

    “I felt like my view elevated. i used to be excited to grasp that the realm became plenty better, with a various range of people,” she talked about.

    In Japan, a “tremendous-aged” nation where one in 4 people are over 65 years old, Wakamiya said she hoped other aged individuals would gain knowledge of concerning the talents advantages of technology, peculiarly when it involves constructing new connections and combating the loneliness and isolation many seniors in Japan battle with.

    “As I discovered how exceptional it is, i assumed I should inform that to people from my era. Then I opened a form of computer salon in my tiny residence and began educating individuals of my technology,” she said.

    As time went on, Wakamiya begun to trip the realm to share her story — speakme at TEDxTokyo, assembly Apple CEO Tim cook and speaking on the United nations.

    “I puzzled if the opinions of such an historic grownup like me may well be approved by using people, on the whole younger adult males at TED, however they welcomed me with heat applause”, she stated. “They showed sympathy despite era, nationality or intercourse — i was moved.”

    Wakamiya uses what she calls “Excel paintings” to unfold her message of hope, the use of the Microsoft spreadsheets software to create designs she has even became into clothing and crafts.

    “Excel can be meaningless for seniors like me but then i thought of a enjoyable concept which these in my era, in Japan and remote places, can do — like knitting or arts and crafts,” she explains. “The knitting pattern, for example, will also be expressed and simulated by Excel and enables people to believe well-known.”

    For Wakamiya, the use of know-how is set bringing new capability of creativity throughout generations. via her outreach, she also wants to encourage young people to find their own voice.

    “I are looking to dwell inventive, and that i need babies to be creative. I all the time tell them to create whatever thing and believe innovatively … you should definitely all the time have your own opinions and techniques,” she talked about. “I trust seniors in Japan … are eager to enhance. they are the top-rated as a result of they earnestly consider about their own historical age.”

    Wakamiya now says for her lifestyles all started once again at 60, and she or he’s excited for what’s nevertheless to return.

    “I’ve been regarded a good grownup and were doing what i love even after I’ve aged,” she referred to. “Some people deny the reality of growing older, but it surely’s like competing towards a surroundings sun, and that i locate it tiring.”

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    Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

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    Java 2 Certifications: An Introduction | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Sun Microsystems' Java 2 Platform is a familiar set of tools known to most in the development world. The Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (known as J2SE) offers the tools, compilers, APIs, and runtimes for creating and deploying Java applets and applications. The Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (known as J2EE) offers the tools and infrastructure to manage and support Web services that come together to make secure, interoperable business applications. Finally, the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (known as J2ME) is for consumer and embedded devices. These devices can include cell phones, PDAs, and vehicle telematic devices.

    Along with a robust development platform, Sun offers a robust education and certification program that Java developers can use to grow and certify their Java skills. Sun notes that each certification is developed to test on a certain job role for a Java developer.

    In the coming set of articles, you will dive deeper into the different Java certifications you can attain. Depending on your current job role or a job role you would like to hold, you will choose one or more certification paths that Sun has developed. The first Java 2 certification that one must attain to move forward in other Java certification paths is the Sun Certified Java Programmer Certification. The Sun Certified Java Programmer Certification

    As I just mentioned, all of the Java 2 certification programs are built from the Sun Certified Programmer Certification (SCJP). The following graphic from details the different certification paths that Java 2 programmers can follow, upon earning their SCJP credential.

    Click here for a larger image.

    Sun wants all Sun Certified Professionals to pass this first certification because it demonstrates proficiency with the Java programming language. This is based on the J2SE platform.

    To achieve this credential, only one exam has to be passed. At the time of this writing, interested candidates can choose from one of five exams. Three of these exams are general exams for those who have not previously achieved a Java certification whereas two of these exams are upgrade exams. If you already have a previous Java certification, these upgrade exams allow you an efficient way to port your current skills to a different Java platform. Granted, just because you have passed one Java certification doesn't guarantee success on an upgrade exam. You will still need to brush up on old skills as well as learn the new features of the next Java version.

    The exams you can choose from include:

  • Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 5.0 (CX-310-055)
  • Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 5.0 Upgrade Exam (CX-310-056)
  • Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 1.4 (CX-310-035)
  • Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 1.2 (CX-310-025)
  • Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 1.4 Upgrade Exam (CX-310-036)
  • Note: The exams for J2SE 5.0 are new offerings. As you can see, platforms 1.2, 1.4, and 5.0 are tested platforms. Choose the platform that best fits your needs or aspirations and pursue the individual exam that will help you achieve the SCJP certification.

    For the remainder of this article, you can delve further into one of these exams, the J2SE Platform 5.0 exam. In coming articles, I will cover the 1.4 and 1.2 platform exams.

    Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 5.0 (CX-310-055)

    As mentioned, this is a new Java exam. Just like the other exams one can pass to attain the SCJP credential, this exam is intended to examine the candidate on his abilities with fundamental Java tools and language syntax.

    The exam objectives for this exam include seven sections that break down the different features and structures of the J2SE 5.0 platform. These include:

  • Section 1: Declarations, Initialization, and Scoping—Some of the topics this section covers include developing code that declares classes, an interface, enums, primitives, arrays, and declares both static and non-static methods. You should also be able to determine whether a method is overriding/overloading another method correctly, and identify legal return values.
  • Section 2: Flow Control—This section contains topics where one must be able to develop code for an if or switch statement, that implements all forms of loops and iterators, that makes use of assertions, and situational recognitions of events within Java code.
  • Section 3: API Contents—The required topics from this section include being able to develop code that uses the primitive wrapper classes, serializes and/or de-serializes objects using APIs from, uses standard J2SE APIs in the java.util and java.util.regex packages to format or parse strings or streams, and uses standard J2SE APIs in the java.text package to correctly format or parse dates, numbers, and currency values for a specific locale.
  • Section 4: Concurrency—For Section 4, you will need to be able to develop code to define, instantiate, and start new threads using both java.lang.Thread and java.lang.Runnable. Also, you will be given scenarios in which you will need to be able to write code that makes appropriate use of wait, notify, or notifyAll and that makes appropriate use of object locking.
  • Section 5: OO Concepts—This section focuses on object-oriented abilities where you will have to demonstrate how to develop code that implements tight encapsulation, loose coupling, and high cohesion in classes and that implements "is-a" and/or "has-a" relationships. You will also have scenarios given to you where the exam will expect you to be able to develop code that demonstrates the use of polymorphism and develop code that declares and/or invokes overridden or overloaded methods and code that declares and/or invokes superclass, overridden, or overloaded constructors.
  • Section 6: Collections/Generics—In this content section, you will need to understand how to develop code that makes proper use of type parameters in class/interface declarations, instance variables, method arguments, and return types, that uses the generic versions of the Collections API, and to manipulate a list by sorting, performing a binary search, or converting the list to an array using the java.util package. Also, you are likely to be given a scenario where you'll need to determine which collection classes and/or interfaces should be used to properly implement that design.
  • Section 7: Fundamentals—This section will potentially require you to write code that correctly applies the appropriate operators including assignment operators, arithmetic operators, relational operators, the instance of operator, logical operators, and the conditional operator ( ? : ). Also, in this section expect to be given examples of code where you will determine the expected runtime behavior, write code that uses the appropriate access modifiers, package declarations, and import statements, recognize the point at which an object becomes eligible for garbage collection, and determine what is and is not guaranteed by the garbage collection system, to name a few.
  • Note: The coverage above is only a quick look at the topics you will have to master. Be sure to check out the full list of exam objectives at

    Some important facts to note about this exam include:
  • Exams are delivered at any authorized Prometric testing center. To sign up for this exam through Prometric, simply visit Once at the testing center, you will be required to show photo ID.
  • Note that, because this is a fundamental certification, there are no prerequisites for taking this exam, nor are there any other assignments that must be completed before taking the exam.
  • The format of the exam questions includes multiple choice and drag and drop.
  • There are 72 questions and you must attain a passing score of 59% (43 out of 72 questions correctly answered) to achieve this certification.
  • You are allowed 175 minutes to complete the exam.
  • This exam costs $150 to take.
  • Studying for Certifications

    Whether it is the J2SE Platform 5.0 SCJP certification or an A+ certification, much time and effort must be expended to prepare for the exam. For Sun Certification, Sun offers a deep training system that can help you prepare for you exams. The certification Web site at recommends several training classes for each exam they offer. Also, many computer book companies offer exam prep guides and general Java programming books one can use to prepare.

    The important thing to know is how you best learn, though. Do you learn best with a hands-on approach? Maybe you learn best by reading and taking notes. Possibly you prefer a classroom setting. Whichever method works best for you is the path you should follow. Set aside time and any other resource to give yourself 100% ability to pay attention to your study and preparation. After all, your career is being shaped by these efforts! Also, be sure to spend plenty of time taking practice exams. There are many vendors who offer questions. Also, the Sun Web site has links to practice questions as well. Spend plenty of time doing these practice exams to better gauge your learning progression and to build confidence for exam day.

    Developing a study plan, practicing diligently, and experiencing the Java 2, 5.0 Platform are key ingredients to successfully catching your SCJP certification.

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    Java 2 Platform Security | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter explains the Java 2 platform architecture and its security features as they apply to building Java applications. In particular, it describes the various Java platforms and the core security features that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based applications running on various systems—from servers to stand-alone computers, computers to devices, and devices to smart cards.

    This chapter is from the book 

    Topics in This Chapter

  • Java Security Architecture
  • Java Applet Security
  • Java Web Start Security
  • Java Security Management Tools
  • J2ME Security Architecture
  • Java Card Security Architecture
  • Securing the Java Code
  • Sun's Java philosophy of "Write Once, Run Anywhere" has been an evolving success story since its inception, and it has revolutionized the computing industry by delivering to us the most capable platform for building and running a wide range of applications and services. In general, the Java platform provides a general-purpose object-oriented programming language and a standard runtime environment for developing and delivering secure, cross-platform application solutions that can be accessed and dynamically loaded over the network or run locally.

    With the release of the Java 2 Platform, Sun categorized the Java technologies under three key major editions in order to simplify software development and deployment. The Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for developing and executing basic Java applications, and it also serves as the secure foundation for running Java enterprise applications. The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE), or the J2EE Platform, is a set of standards and API technologies for developing and deploying multi-tier business applications. To support Java on microdevices and embedded systems, Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for addressing the needs of consumer electronics and devices. With its widespread adoption, today Java technology is enabled and executed from smart cards to microdevices, handhelds to desktops, workstations to enterprise servers, mainframes to supercomputers, and so on.

    To facilitate end-to-end security of the Java platform-based application solutions, the Java runtime environment (JRE) and the Java language provide a solid security foundation from the ground up by imposing strong format and structural constraints on the code and its execution environment. This distinguishes the Java platform from other application programming languages—it has a well-defined security architectural model for programming Java-based solutions and their secure execution.

    In this chapter, we will explore the various Java platforms and the intricate details of their security architecture that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based application solutions. In particular, we will study Java security and the inherent features of the following technologies:

  • J2SE security
  • Java applet security
  • Java Web start security
  • Java security management tools
  • J2ME security
  • Java Card security
  • Java Code obfuscation
  • Security has been an integral part of Java technology from day one. Security is also an evolving design goal of the Java community—building and running secure and robust Java-based network applications. The primary reason for Java's success today as a secure execution environment is the intrinsic security of its architectural foundation—the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Java language. This foundation achieves the basic Java security goal and its definitive ways for extending security capabilities to ensure features such as confidentiality, integrity, trust, and so forth. A second reason for its success is its ability to deliver an interoperable and platform-neutral security infrastructure that can be integrated with the security of the underlying operating system and services.

    The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

    The JVM is an abstract computing engine that resides on a host computer. It is the execution environment for the Java programming language and has the primary responsibility for executing the compiled code by interpreting it in a machine-independent and cross-platform fashion. The JVM is often referred to as the Java runtime environment. While executing a Java program running on top of the JVM, the JVM insulates the application from the underlying differences of the operating systems, networks, and system hardware, thus ensuring cross-platform compatibility among all of the implementations of the Java platform.

    The Java language allows creation of general-purpose programs called Java classes that represent a Java program or an application. The Java classes compile into a format called Java's executable bytecodes, which are quite similar to the machine language that can run on top of a JVM. The JVM also allows users to download and execute untrusted programs and applications from remote resources or over a network. To support delivery of Java components over the network, the JVM controls the primary security layer by protecting users and the environment from malicious programs. To enable security, the JVM enforces stringent measures ensuring systems security on the host client machine and its target server environments.

    Distributing the executable Java bytecode over a network or running automatically inside a Web browser or a client's machine leads to different security risks and attacks, such as disclosure of the target environment to the untrusted applications and damage or modification of the client's private information and data. For example, Java applets downloaded from a network are not allowed to have access to, read from, or write to a local file system. They are also not allowed to create network connections to any host system except the one where they are deployed. On the other hand, stand-alone Java applications that reside and run locally as trusted applications are not subjected to these security features. The key issue is that allowing untrusted applications such as Java applets to be downloaded from a network via a Web browser and letting them access certain resources on the host computer paves the way for security breaches and becomes a potential avenue for the spread of viruses. To prevent known security breaches and threats, the JVM provides a built-in Java security architecture model, configurable security policies, access control mechanisms, and security extensions. Because of the built-in JVM safety features, Java programs can run safely and are more securely protected from known vulnerabilities.

    The Java Language

    Java is a general-purpose object-oriented programming language similar to C++. It delivers platform-neutral compiled code that can be executed using a JVM and is intended for use in distributed application environments, heterogeneous systems, and diverse network environments. The Java language is also designed to provide for the security and integrity of the application and its underlying systems at all levels—from the Java language constructs to the JVM runtime and from the class library to the complete application.

    The several inherent features of the Java language that provide for the secure Java platform are as follows:

  • The language defines all primitives with a specific size and all operations are defined to be in a specific order of execution. Thus, the code executed in different JVMs will not differ from the specified order of execution.
  • The language provides access-control functionality on variables and methods in the object by defining name space management for type and procedure names. This secures the program by restricting access to its critical objects from untrusted code. For example, access is restricted by qualifying the type members as public, protected, private, package, etc.
  • The Java language does not allow defining or dereferencing pointers, which means that programmers cannot forge a pointer to the memory or create code defining offset points to memory. All references to methods and instance variables in the class file are done via symbolic names. The elimination of pointers helps to prevent malicious programs like computer viruses and misuse of pointers such as accessing private methods directly by using a pointer starting from the object's pointer, or running off the end of an array.
  • The Java object encapsulation supports "programming by contract," which allows the reuse of code that has already been tested.
  • The Java language is a strongly typed language. During compile time, the Java compiler does extensive type checking for type mismatches. This mechanism guarantees that the runtime data type variables are compatible and consistent with the compile time information.
  • The language allows declaring classes or methods as final. Any classes or methods that are declared as final cannot be overridden. This helps to protect the code from malicious attacks such as creating a subclass and substituting it for the original class and override methods.
  • The Java Garbage Collection mechanism contributes to secure Java programs by providing a transparent storage allocation and recovering unused memory instead of deallocating the memory using manual intervention. This ensures program integrity during execution and prevents programmatic access to accidental and incorrect freeing of memory resulting in a JVM crash.
  • With these features, Java fulfills the promise of providing a secure programming language that gives the programmer the freedom to write and execute code locally or distribute it over a network.

    Java Built-in Security Model

    In the previous two sections, we briefly looked at the basic security features provided by the JVM and the Java language. As part of its security architecture, Java has a built-in policy-driven, domain-based security model. This allows implementing security policies, protecting/controlling access to resources, rule-based class loading, signing code and assigning levels of capability, and maintaining content privacy.

    In the first release of the Sun Java Platform, the Java Development Kit 1.0.x (JDK) introduced the notion of a sandbox-based security model. This primarily supports downloading and running Java applets securely and avoids any potential risks to the user's resources. With the JDK 1.0 sandbox security model, all Java applications (excluding Java applets) executed locally can have full access to the resources available to the JVM. Application code downloaded from remote resources, such as Java applets, will have access only to the restricted resources provided within its sandbox. This sandbox security protects the Java applet user from potential risks because the downloaded applet cannot access or alter the user's resources beyond the sandbox.

    The release of JDK 1.1.x introduced the notion of signed applets, which allowed downloading and executing applets as trusted code after verifying the applet signer's information. To facilitate signed applets, JDK 1.1.x added support for cryptographic algorithms that provide digital signature capabilities. With this support, a Java applet class could be signed with digital signatures in the Java archive format (JAR file). The JDK runtime will use the trusted public keys to verify the signers of the downloaded applet and then treat it as a trusted local application, granting access to its resources. Figure 3-1 shows the representation of a sandbox in the JDK 1.1 security model.

    Java 2 Security Model

    The release of J2SE [J2SE] introduced a number of significant enhancements to JDK 1.1 and added such features as security extensions providing cryptographic services, digital certificate management, PKI management, and related tools. Some of the major changes in the Java 2 security architecture are as follows:

  • Policy-driven restricted access control to JVM resources.
  • Rules-based class loading and verification of byte code.
  • System for signing code and assigning levels of capability.
  • Policy-driven access to Java applets downloaded by a Web browser.
  • In the Java 2 security architecture, all code—regardless of whether it is run locally or downloaded remotely—can be subjected to a security policy configured by a JVM user or administrator. All code is configured to use a particular domain (equivalent to a sandbox) and a security policy that dictates whether the code can be run on a particular domain or not. Figure 3-2 illustrates the J2SE security architecture and its basic elements.


    Figure 3-2 Java 2 Security architecture and basic elements

    Let's take a more detailed look at those core elements of the Java 2 security architecture.

    Protection Domains ( ): In J2SE, all local Java applications run unrestricted as trusted applications by default, but they can also be configured with access-control policies similar to what is defined in applets and remote applications. This is done by configuring a ProtectionDomain, which allows grouping of classes and instances and then associating them with a set of permissions between the resources. Protection domains are generally categorized as two domains: "system domain" and "application domain." All protected external resources, such as the file systems, networks, and so forth, are accessible only via system domains. The resources that are part of the single execution thread are considered an application domain. So in reality, an application that requires access to an external resource may have an application domain as well as a system domain. While executing code, the Java runtime maintains a mapping from code to protection domain and then to its permissions.

    Protection domains are determined by the current security policy defined for a Java runtime environment. The domains are characterized using a set of permissions associated with a code source and location. The class encapsulates the characteristics of a protected domain, which encloses a set of classes and its granted set of permissions when being executed on behalf of a user.

    Permissions ( ): In essence, permissions determine whether access to a resource of the JVM is granted or denied. To be more precise, they give specified resources or classes running in that instance of the JVM the ability to permit or deny certain runtime operations. An applet or an application using a security manager can obtain access to a system resource only if it has permission. The Java Security API defines a hierarchy for Permission classes that can be used to configure a security policy. At the root, is the abstract class, which represents access to a target resource; it can also include a set of operations to construct access on a particular resource. The Permission class contains several subclasses that represent access to different types of resources. The subclasses belong to their own packages that represent the APIs for the particular resource. Some of the commonly used Permission classes are as follows:

    For wildcard permissions

    For named permissions

    For file system

    For network

    For properties


    For runtime resources


    For authentication

    For graphical resources


    Example 3-1 shows how to protect access to an object using permissions. The code shows the caller application with the required permission to access an object.

    Example 3-1. Using Java permissions to protect access to an object // Create the object that requires protection String protectedObj = "For trusted eyes only"; // create the required permission that will // protect the object. // Guard, represents an object that is used to protect // access to another object. Guard myGuard = new PropertyPermission ("java.home", "read"); // Create the guard GuardedObject gobj = new GuardedObject(protectedObj, myGuard); // Get the guarded object try { Object o = gobj.getObject(); } catch (AccessControlException e) { // Cannot access the object }

    Permissions can also be defined using security policy configuration files (java.policy). For example, to grant access to read a file in "c:\temp\" (on Windows), the FilePermission can be defined in a security policy file (see Example 3-2).

    Example 3-2. Setting Java permissions in policy configuration file grant{ permission "c:\\temp\\testFile", "read"; };

    Policy: The Java 2 security policy defines the protection domains for all running Java code with access privileges and a set of permissions such as read and write access or making a connection to a host. The policy for a Java application is represented by a Policy object, which provides a way to declare permissions for granting access to its required resources. In general, all JVMs have security mechanisms built in that allow you to define permissions through a Java security policy file. A JVM makes use of a policy-driven access-control mechanism by dynamically mapping a static set of permissions defined in one or more policy configuration files. These entries are often referred to as grant entries. A user or an administrator externally configures the policy file for a J2SE runtime environment using an ASCII text file or a serialized binary file representing a Policy class. In a J2SE environment, the default system-wide security policy file java.policy is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/ directory. The policy file location is defined in the security properties file with a setting, which is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/

    Example 3-3 is a policy configuration file that specifies the permission for a signed JAR file loaded from "*" and signed by "javaguy," and then grants read/write access to all files in /export/home/test.

    Example 3-3. Setting codebase and permissions in policy configuration file grant signedBy "javaguy", codebase "*" { permission "/export/home/test/*", "read,write"; };

    The J2SE environment also provides a GUI-based tool called "policytool" for editing a security policy file, which is located at "<JAVA_HOME>/bin/policytool."

    By default, the Java runtime uses the policy files located in:

    ${java.home}/jre/lib/security/java.policy ${user.home}/.java.policy

    These policy files are specified in the default security file:


    The effective policy of the JVM runtime environment will be the union of all permissions in all policy files. To specify an additional policy file, you can set the system property at the command line:

    java MyClass

    To ignore the policies in the file and only use the custom policy, use '==' instead of '=':

    java MyClass

    SecurityManager ( java.lang.SecurityManager ): Each Java application can have its own security manager that acts as its primary security guard against malicious attacks. The security manager enforces the required security policy of an application by performing runtime checks and authorizing access, thereby protecting resources from malicious operations. Under the hood, it uses the Java security policy file to decide which set of permissions are granted to the classes. However, when untrusted classes and third-party applications use the JVM, the Java security manager applies the security policy associated with the JVM to identify malicious operations. In many cases, where the threat model does not include malicious code being run in the JVM, the Java security manager is unnecessary. In cases where the SecurityManager detects a security policy violation, the JVM will throw an AccessControlException or a SecurityException.

    In a Java application, the security manager is set by the setSecurityManager method in class System. And the current security manager is obtained via the getSecurityManager method (see Example 3-4).

    Example 3-4. Using SecurityManager SecurityManager mySecurityMgr = System.getSecurityManager(); if (mySecurityMgr != null) { mySecurityMgr.checkWrite(name); }

    The class java.lang.SecurityManager consists of a number of checkXXXX methods like checkRead (String file) to determine access privileges to a file. The check methods call the SecurityManager.checkPermission method to find whether the calling application has permissions to perform the requested operation, based on the security policy file. If not, it throws a SecurityException.

    If you wish to have your applications use a SecurityManager and security policy, start up the JVM with the option and you can also specify a security policy file using the policies in the option as JVM arguments. If you enable the Java Security Manager in your application but do not specify a security policy file, then the Java Security Manager uses the default security policies defined in the java.policy file in the $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security directory. Example 3-5 programmatically enables the security manager.

    Example 3-5. Using SecurityManager for restricting access control // Before the security manager is enabled, // this call is possible System.setProperty("java.version","Malicious: Delete"); try { // Enable the security manager SecurityManager sm = new SecurityManager(); System.setSecurityManager(sm); } catch (SecurityException se) { // SecurityManager already set } // After the security manager is enabled: // This call is no longer possible; // an AccessControlException is thrown System.setProperty ("java.version", "Malicious: Delete");

    The security manager can also be installed from the command-line interface:

    java <ClassName>

    AccessController ( ): The access controller mechanism performs a dynamic inspection and decides whether the access to a particular resource can be allowed or denied. From a programmer's standpoint, the Java access controller encapsulates the location, code source, and permissions to perform the particular operation. In a typical process, when a program executes an operation, it calls through the security manager, which delegates the request to the access controller, and then finally it gets access or denial to the resources. In the class, the checkPermission method is used to determine whether the access to the required resource is granted or denied. If a requested access is granted, the checkPermission method returns true; otherwise, the method throws an AccessControlException.

    For example, to check read and write permission for a directory in the file system, you would use the code shown in Example 3-6.

    Example 3-6. Using AccessController try { AccessController.checkPermission (new FilePermission("/var/temp/*", "read,write")); } catch (SecurityException e) { // Does not have permission to access the directory }

    Codebase: A URL location of class or JAR files are specified using codebase. The URL may refer to a location of a directory in the local file system or on the Internet. Example 3-7 retrieves all the permissions granted to a particular class that's been loaded from a code base. The permissions are effective only if the security manager is installed. The loaded class uses those permissions by executing Class.getProtectionDomain() and Policy.getPermissions().

    Example 3-7. Using codebase class URL codebase = null; try { // Get permissions for a URL codebase = new URL(""); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { } catch (IOException e) { } // Construct a code source with the code base CodeSource cs = new CodeSource(codebase, null); // Get all granted permissions PermissionCollection pcoll = Policy.getPolicy().getPermissions(cs); // View each permission in the permission collection Enumeration enum = pcoll.elements(); for (; enum.hasMoreElements(); ) { Permission p = (Permission)enum.nextElement(); System.out.println("Permission " + p); }

    To test Example 3-7, Example 3-8 is the policy file (test.policy), which provides permission to read all system properties.

    Example 3-8. Policy file for testing permissions to a codebase grant codebase "" { // Give permission to read all system properties permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read"; };

    To ignore the default policies in the file, and only use the specified policy, use '==' instead of '='. With the policy just presented, you may run the following:

    java TestClass

    CodeSource: The CodeSource allows representation of a URL from which a class was loaded and the certificate keys that were used to sign that class. It provides the same notion as codebase, but it encapsulates the codebase (URL) of the code where it is loaded and also the certificate keys that were used to verify the signed code. The CodeSource class and its two arguments to specify the code location and its associated certificate keys are as follows:

    CodeSource(URL url, certs[]);

    To construct a code source with the code base and without using certificates, you would use the following:

    CodeSource cs = new CodeSource(codebase, null);

    Bytecode verifier: The Java bytecode verifier is an integral part of the JVM that plays the important role of verifying the code prior to execution. It ensures that the code was produced consistent with specifications by a trustworthy compiler, confirms the format of the class file, and proves that the series of Java byte codes are legal. With bytecode verification, the code is proved to be internally consistent following many of the rules and constraints defined by the Java language compiler. The bytecode verifier may also detect inconsistencies related to certain cases of array bound-checking and object-casting through runtime enforcement.

    To manually control the level of bytecode verification, the options to the Java command with the V1.2 JRE are as follows:

  • -Xverify:remote runs verification process on classes loaded over network (default)
  • -Xverify:all verifies all classes loaded
  • -Xverify:none does no verification
  • ClassLoader: The ClassLoader plays a distinct role in Java security, because it is primarily responsible for loading the Java classes into the JVM and then converting the raw data of a class into an internal data structure representing the class. From a security standpoint, class loaders can be used to establish security policies before executing untrusted code, to verify digital signatures, and so on. To enforce security, the class loader coordinates with the security manager and access controller of the JVM to determine the security policies of a Java application. The class loader further enforces security by defining the namespace separation between classes that are loaded from different locations, including networks. This ensures that classes loaded from multiple hosts will not communicate within the same JVM space, thus making it impossible for untrusted code to get information from trusted code. The class loader finds out the Java application's access privileges using the security manager, which applies the required security policy based on the requesting context of the caller application.

    With the Java 2 platform, all Java applications have the capability of loading bootstrap classes, system classes, and application classes initially using an internal class loader (also referred to as primordial class loader). The primordial class loader uses a special class loader SecureClassLoader to protect the JVM from loading malicious classes. This class has a protected constructor that associates a loaded class to a protection domain. The SecureClassLoader also makes use of permissions set for the codebase. For instance, URLClassLoader is a subclass of the SecureClassLoader. URLClassLoader allows loading a class or location specified with a URL.

    Refer to Example 3-9, which shows how a URLClassLoader can be used to load classes from a directory.

    Example 3-9. Using URLClassLoader // Create a File object on the root of the // directory containing the class file File file = new File("c:\\myclasses\\"); try { // Convert File to a URL URL url = file.toURL(); URL[] urls = new URL[]{url}; // Create a new class loader with the directory ClassLoader myclassloader = new URLClassLoader(urls); // Load in the class; // MyClass.class should be located in // the directory file:/c:/myclasses/com/security Class myclass = myclassloader.loadClass(""); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) { }

    Keystore and Keytool: The Java 2 platform provides a password-protected database facility for storing trusted certificate entries and key entries. The keytool allows the users to create, manage, and administer their own public/private key pairs and associated certificates that are intended for use in authentication services and in representing digital signatures.

    We will take a look in greater detail at the usage of the Java keystore and keytool and how these tools help Java security in the section entitled "Java Security Management Tools," later in this chapter.

    Sun teams with mobile phone firms for Java apps | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Java's creator and four mobile phone makers have developed a process for testing and certifying Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) applications for wireless handheld devices.

    The Java Verified Process was spearheaded by Sun Microsystems, Motorola, Nokia, Siemens and Sony Ericsson in an effort to facilitate creation and dissemination of J2ME applications and to spur the adoption of standards for J2ME development.

    "This programme was set up to help developers have a single means of testing their Java content and ensuring compatibility across devices from Motorola, Nokia, Siemens and Sony Ericsson," said Craig Miller, group marketing manager, consumer and mobile solutions group at Sun.

    There are about 250 million Java technology-enabled wireless devices from 31 manufacturers deployed in more than 75 carrier networks around the world, so this market presents a tremendous opportunity for J2ME developers, Miller said.

    There are also about 10,000 J2ME applications worldwide, he added.

    Once an application has been certified by the Java Verified Process it will receive the Java Powered Logo and each version of the application shipped will be signed digitally to guarantee the user it has not been tampered with.

    Adam Zawel, an analyst at the Yankee Group, said there now can be numerous versions of the same J2ME application to accommodate the different ways suppliers have implemented Java.

    "There needs to be a standard process though which application developers can certify their products and have the ability to write it once and publish it anywhere," he said, adding that this sort of simplification is necessary to get more developers writing, distributing and profiting from J2ME applications.

    Zawel said the Java community could look to Qualcomm and what it has done with its Brew platform as a guide.

    Brew is a development platform for mobile devices for Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) phones. Qualcomm has used its website to create a one-stop shop for Brew developers to get their applications tested, certified and distributed to any Brew carriers.

    While the Java Verified Process provides a means for developers to get their applications tested, it does not provide a standard means for distribution.

    However, Sun has announced it will aggregate a list of J2ME content from developers on its website and provide this list to operators.

    This way they can, potentially, deliver these applications over their own networks, which will benefit the end user, because their operators will be able to offer them more products.

    Testing for the Java Verified process has been outsourced to four different companies that each have offices around the world.

    These include Babel Media, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, the National Software Testing Labs and RELQ Software.

    The cost to have an application verified will range between $200 and $400 depending on location.

    Rebecca Reid writes for

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    SUN 310-110 Exam (Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0) Detailed Information


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