|Exam Name||:||Certified Programmer for J2SE 5.0 Upgrade|
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These quizzes had been written in keeping with the sun Java certification tests. that you can find extra Java questions within the Oracle quizzes part - the Java certifications prior to now offered by solar Microsystems, such as sun licensed Java Programmer (SCJP), are actually a part of the Oracle certification software.
The solar certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform exam changed into firstly step one towards many advanced Java certifications and accredited as evidence of primary Java expertise through sun, apoplectic Hewlett-Packard, site IBM, Oracle, and Sybase. seeing that then Oracle got solar certifications, however these questions might also nevertheless prove advantageous for getting ready for Java certification tests.
Thirty questions in response to the objectives for the solar licensed Programmer for the J2SE 1.4 Platform examination.
This series of questions was created to aid candidates prepare for the solar Microsystems certified enterprise Architect for Java expertise exam. sun certifications have due to the fact that been rolled into the Oracle certification application, ed but these questions may nonetheless show valuable.
This introductory path familiarizes college students with the Java interface and programming language as well as the levels in a product existence cycle. college students additionally find out how to design and test an utility working on Java know-how.Java Programming Language, Java SE 6
college students during this classification find out how to use the Java programming language to design graphical user interfaces (GUIs), execute applications with Java expertise and installation network connections. issues of guide consist of circulate handle, array forms, command-line arguments and threads. This route, along with the basics of Java programming classification, prepares college students for OCP Java SE 6 Programmer certification exams.Java SE 7 Programming
students get guidance for writing successful programs and dealing with Java's integrated building environment (IDE). further course subject matters encompass Java class design, inheritance, StringBuilder and StringBuffer, textual content parsing and that i/O with Java, amongst many others. college students who finished the path may be organized to use Java to design object-oriented purposes. here's one of the vital lessons designed to put together individuals for OCP Java SE 7 Programmer certification.Java SE eight Programming
This practicing route familiarizes students with Java ordinary version (SE) 8 Programming. instruction covers fundamental language elements and application Programming Interfaces (API). students will learn how to make use of Java SE eight to create object-oriented purposes, with direction topics including particular object-oriented ability development, Lambda expressions, and the latest JDK updates.
I already passed the check for “sun licensed Java Programmer (SCJP 6)” with 83 p.c after lots of time-consuming guidance. here are my experiences about doing the certification and the tips I can give you. youngsters now, the identify has modified to Oracle licensed professional, Java SE 6/SE 5 Programmer, i am certain the following counsel will assist you.What if you happen to keep in mind earlier than beginning Your training for the examination?
I contacted Prometric, and that i acquired the following answer: “Please be advised that Prometric does not send out invoices in an organization name. The file is within the candidate identify and therefore the receipt is at all times addressed to the candidate.”
Which elements when you Use to prepare for the exam?
individually, here three elements are enough (and also there is not any respectable alternative):
I propose each Java developer to do the exam, but if you have time to prepare most effective after work or at the weekend, plan as a minimum six months for it.
In 2011 or 2012 I plan to make the SCEA, to be able to doubtless be much more work.
when you have any comments about my experiences, let me know…
premier regards,Kai Wähner (Twitter: @KaiWaehner)
[Content from my Blog: Hints on how to pass the Sun (now Oracle) Certified Java Programmer (SCJP 6) - Kai Wähner's IT-Blog]
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Introduction to Java Programming Language
Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language designed for the development of software for consumer electronic devices, such as TVs, VCRs, toasters, etc.
Java is a platform neutral language, which means that it is not tied to any particular hardware or operating system. It guarantees users to ‘write once, run anywhere.' The Java language is supported by almost every operating system, such as Sun Solaris, RedHat, Windows, etc.
The Java programming language was developed by Sun Microsystems of the USA in 1991, it was originally called Oak by James Gosling, who was one of the inventors of the language. The main goal for the developers was to make the language highly reliable, portable and simple.
The team for the development of Java language included Patrick Naughton, who discovered that the existing languages such as C and C++ had some major drawbacks in terms of reliability and portability. They modeled the new language Java on C and C++, while removing some features that they considered constraints. This made Java a really simple, portable, and powerful language. To learn Java basics, let’s revise the Java syntax.The History of Java
There is a chronicle of events that occurred during the course of development of the Java language.
The main goal was to design a language that could offer solutions to problems encountered in modern programming. The goal was for the language to be reliable, portable, and distributed, and at the same time, it needed to be simple, compact, and interactive.Compiled and Interpreted
Java language combines both of these approaches, thus making Java a two-stage system. This approach was never offered before, as any language before was either compiled or interpreted.
Firstly, the Java compiler translates source code into bytecode instructions; bytecodes are not machine instructions.
Secondly, the Java interpreter generates machine code that can be directly executed by the machine that is running the Java program.Independent and Portable
Java programs can be easily moved from one system to another, anywhere and anytime. With changes or an upgrade in the operating system, processors and system resources will not force any changes in Java programs.
Java programming ensures portability in two ways. Firstly, Java compiler generates bytecode instructions that can be implemented on any machine, and secondly, the size of the primitive data types are machine independent.Object-Oriented
Almost everything in Java language is an object, which makes it a true object-oriented language. All program code and data reside within objects and classes. Java comes with an extensive set of classes that are arranged in packages, which can be used in program inheritance.Robust and Secure
Java provides many safeguards to ensure reliable code. It has strict run-time, checking for data types. It is designed like a garbage collected language, i.e., it captures series errors and eliminates any risk of crashing the system.
Java systems verify all the memory access and, thus, ensure that no virus is communicated with an applet.Distributed
Java programming facilitates both the sharing of data and programs. Java applications can open and access remote objects on the Internet as easily as on any local system.Simple, Small, and Familiar
Java is a simplified version of C++, which is why it is familiar and yet different as it eliminates all the redundant and unreliable code. For example, Java does not use pointers, preprocessor header files, and many others. It also eliminates operator overloading and multiple inheritances in Java.Multithreaded and Interactive
Multithreaded means handling different tasks simultaneously. Java language supports multithreaded programs, which means that we need not have to wait for one task to finish for another to start. This feature of Java greatly improves the interactive performance of graphical applications.High Performance
Java programming performance is very impressive, considering the fact that is an interpreted language, mainly because of the bytecodes. Java architecture is designed to reduce overheads.Dynamic and Extensible
Java is a dynamic language; it is capable of dynamically linking in new class libraries, methods, and objects. It can also determine the type of class through a query.Ease of Development
Java 2 standard edition (J2SE) 5.0 supports features such as Generics, Enhanced for loop, Autoboxing or unboxing, Typesafe enums, varargs, Static import, and Annotation. These Java features make it easy for Java programmers by shifting the responsibility of creating the reusable code to the compiler, and also, the resulting code is free from bugs.Scalability and Performance
J2SE 5.0 improves the startup time and reduces the amount of memory used in the Java 2 runtime environment. Learn more features of Java here.Comparison: C Vs. Java Vs. C++
C Vs. Java
The major difference between C and Java is that Java is an object-oriented language and has a mechanism to define classes and objects in Java. The features of C that are not included in Java are:
The main difference between C++ and Java is that Java is a true object-oriented language while C++ just adds an object-oriented extension to C. The increment operator in C++ indicates the same thing.
The features listed below are intentionally omitted from Java to make it better.
Let’s discuss Java Regular Expression and Java Array here.Java Language and the Internet
Java is often called the "Internet language" because the first application program written in Java was HotJava, a web browser used to run applets on the Internet. Internet users can use Java to create applets and run them locally using HotJava. A Java-enabled browser to download an applet located anywhere on the Internet can also be used.
Java applets have made the Internet a true extension of the storage system on local computers. Internet users can also set up their websites containing Java applets that could be used by remote users.Java Programming and World Wide Web
World Wide Web (www) is an information retrieval system where any information or file is identified as Uniform source Locators (URLs) and are interlinked via hypertext links. WWW can be accessed with the help of internet.
Internet and Java programming both had the same philosophy, and thus, they were incorporated with each other easily. Java made it possible for the World Wide Web to support animation, graphics, games, and a wide range of special effects.
To communicate with any web page, Java uses APPLETs. The steps involved are:
The operations of Java and Java-enabled browsers on the Internet require a variety of support systems, namely:
The Java environment includes a large number of Java development tools and Java classes and methods.
The Java development tools are part of the system known as the Java Development Kit (JDK), and the classes and the methods in Java are a part of the Java Standard Library (JSL), also known as the Application Programming Interface (API).Java Development Kit (JDK)
The Java Development Kit includes:
The Java Standard Library includes classes and packages, some most commonly used packages are the Language Support Packages. This is a collection of Java classes and methods required for implementing basic features of Java.
The java Runtime Environment facilitates the execution of Java programs, comprising the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM interprets the intermediate Java bytecode and generates the desired output.
1) Java plugin — This enables the execution of a Java applet.
2) Java Web start — This enables an application to directly launch from the web browser without installing. Learn more about Java Datatypes and Java Modifiers here.Java Constructs
Constructs are basically reserved keywords in any language, which cannot be used in rest of the programs, i.e., a name of variables in Java, class, or method. Java has around 50 such words, they include:abstract for new enum super assert goto package extends switch boolean if private final synchronized break implements protected finally this byte import public float throw case instance of continue while throws catch int default return transient char interface do short try class long double static void const native else strictfp volatile Conclusion
Finally, In this Java guide, we learned about the history of Java programming language, important Java features, how Java is different from C and C++, how it is incorporated in World Wide Web with help of Web browsers, and the environment required for running Java applications. Hope this helps. Let us know what you think in the coments below!
Language and Runtime Support
Java. Developed in 1995 by Sun. All code is compiled into bytecode and interpreted by a virtual machine (JVM). May also be selectively JIT compiled, depending on the JVM, or fully natively compiled with ancillary products (such as JOVE). Can run on any platform that supports a JVM. IBM supports v1.3 of the J2SE SDK.
VBScript and JScript for Web pages and any COM-based language for server components (typically VB or VC++). Scripts are interpreted, while components are natively compiled. VB code also requires a runtime DLL (MSVBMxx.DLL). VBScript and JScript came into use in 1997, while COM grew out of OLE in 1993.
Any language that supports the Common Language Runtime (20-plus in development). Initially compiled to an intermediate language (MSIL) and then JIT compiled to native code by the CLR at runtime or natively compiled (PreJit) at install time. Code written for the CLR is referred to as managed code. Support for the CLR will be shipped with future OSes starting with Windows XP Server released by the end of 2001.
Standard Java classes found in the J2SE, plus the APIs (JDBC, JSP, EJB, JMS, JAXP, JCA, JFC, JNDI, and so on, as defined in the J2EE specification). In addition, vendors include their own extensions to J2EE for integration and differentiation in the marketplace.
Win32, COM, MFC, ATL, and ASP. Five primary programming models that contain APIs that developers use in building solutions.
Services Framework. A hierarchical set of managed classes arranged in namespaces. Provides a consistent programming model and unifies the APIs needed to build solutions.
Java Package. Collection of Java classes assembled as a unit and arranged hierarchically. Weak versioning. Server-based deployment uses XML-based deployment descriptors, which are read and handled differently by each vendor's implementation. WebSphere includes an application assembly tool to handle this process.
DLL, EXE. DLLs contain a collection of functions with weak versioning. EXEs represent an executable program with weak versioning. COM components are housed in DLLs, rely on the registry, and support immutable interfaces but no runtime version checking. Server-based installation accomplished through third-party utilities such as InstallShield.
Assembly. Unit of deployment, security, and versioning. Includes built-in PKI support and metadata to tightly control binding of assemblies at runtime. Support exists in the class loader of the CLR for consistency and version checking. Server-based deployment can be done in a no-impact fashion by simply copying the relative paths that contain the application. Applications also can explicitly share components. Support for the Windows Installer included in VS.NET.
Active Server Pages (ASP 2.0). Technology introduced by MSFT in 1997 in which pages containing server-side code are interpreted by an ISAPI server extension and can use simple HTTP caching through headers. No native support exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. ASP runs primarily on IIS 4.0/5.0 but has been ported to other platforms (see Chili!Soft, purchased by Sun). Performance of JSP and ASP is similar on similar hardware platforms.
ASP.NET. ASP.NET pages are compiled into MSIL either statically or on the fly when a request is made. Server control architecture allows abstraction for different devices and state storage across HTTP POST events. Server controls allow developers to create "adaptive controls" to render HTML, WML, and so on as appropriate for the client platform. Runs on IIS 4.0/5.0. Beta performance tests indicate a 200–300% improvement over JSP and ASP.
Web Server Processing
HttpServlets provide a request/response model available to Java classes in addition to session-state services keyed with a client cookie. JSPs often call servlets as the controller that acts as the broker between presentation and business service layers to provide separation between the HTML and Java code. Because of the complexity of writing servlets many "two-tier Web apps" simply have the servlets make direct calls to the underlying database via JDBC. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain. The servlet engine is included in WAS and includes a JDBC connection manager that handles database connection pooling. WAS 4.0 is v2.2–compliant.
The ASP runtime implemented in the ISAPI server extension provides a request/response model in addition to session- (keyed with a client cookie) and application-state services. ASP pages often call business services directly implemented as COM components, although many "two-tier Web apps" simply have the ASP pages make direct calls to the database via ADO. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain.
The HTTP Runtime in ASP.NET provides an extensible mechanism by which developers can hook into the processing of resources on the Web server through HTTP Modules. Provides very tight integration with the Web server. Also supports a request/response model and application- and session-state services. Session-state services can be deployed on a separate server to increase scalability. Provides a sophisticated caching mechanism for pages and programming code. Provides complete separation of HTML code and programming logic through code behind.
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). Part of the original J2EE specification in 1998. Java classes that are deployed in component-oriented middleware (a container) that provides interception and adds services such as distributed transactions (using the Java Transaction Service [JTS] based on the OMG and using IIOP), security, and database connectivity. The container can run on the same server or remotely. EJBs come in two flavors: entity beans and session beans. Entity beans map to the state of an object as represented by a row in a database. Entity beans provide the mapping to the database and caching of the entity. Entity beans come in two styles: Container Managed Persistence (CMP) and Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). CMP beans allow the container to manage loading and saving the database information, whereas BMP beans provide methods for the developer to insert JDBC code directly. Session beans come in two flavors: stateful and stateless. Stateful beans maintain a conversation with a single client, whereas stateless beans can be reused by multiple clients, with the container handling the allocation. WAS 4.0 is EJB 1.1–compliant.
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). Provides component-oriented middleware for COM components introduced in 1996. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions through the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator service (MSDTC), security, and object activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Programmers take advantage of MTS services through the use of an API. Only components built in VC++ are free-threaded and thus perform better. No support for automatically mapping database rows to object instances exists.
Component Services (COM+ 1.0). Released with Windows 2000 in 2000 and provides component-oriented middleware for COM components. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions, security, object construction, object pooling, queued components (for asynchronous integration with MSMQ), loosely coupled events for publishing and subscribing to components, and activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Although built for COM, .NET programmers create serviced components in .NET by deriving their class from a system class and decorate it with attributes to describe the services that it uses. The system class then communicates with COM+ via Win32 and COM APIs. No support for automatically mapping database rows to object instances exists. (The IMDB product that was removed from prerelease versions of COM+ would have served a similar purpose as entity beans, although the ADO.NET DataSet object serves a similar purpose.)
JDBC. Data Access API that allows SQL access to a tabular data source via drivers (there are currently 159 listed on Sun's site under 4 different types, ranging from JDBC to ODBC bridges to fully native-protocol Java implementations). Various drivers support connection pooling, distributed transactions, and rowsets, and some are J2EE-certified. The API is similar to the Win32 implementation of ODBC. JDBC 2.0 is the spec under J2EE 1.2, but 3.0 has been defined. Note that when using entity beans with CMP, the container provides the mapping to the database tables through a vendor-specific mechanism. WAS 4.0 supports JDBC core v2.1 and Extensions 2.0. WAS includes providers for DB2, MSSQL, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.
ADO/OLE DB. OLE DB is both a specification for COM interfaces that database vendors implement (OLE Providers) and a set of services (such as cursor processing and connection pooling) implemented in Windows to provide data access to a variety of data sources. ADO is a simplified automation layer that sits on top of OLE DB to provide data access to scripting languages and COM-based languages such as VB. Although typically used for tabular data access, both ADO and OLE DB can be used to access nonstructured data such as email and XML. OLE DB also can be used to access data through the plethora of available ODBC drivers.
ADO.NET. A set of managed classes that provides access to data sources through what are called managed providers. These include TDS (SQL Server), OLE DB providers, and ODBC drivers. Each managed provider implements connections and connection pooling, commands/parameters, forward-only cursor processing, transaction processing, and error handling. ADO.NET also includes a middle-tier data cache object called a DataSet that provides an XML-based cache of data that can be used to bind to controls and synchronize changes to a data source through an adapter object implemented by the managed provider. Designed to support a loosely connected model with built-in XML representation of the data and XSD representation of the schema. Developers can work with relational data as XML data, and vice versa through the XMLDataDocument class.
Java Messaging Services (JMS). JMS is a set of client interfaces to message-oriented middleware (MOM) products that supports both message queues and publish-and-subscribe metaphors. MOM vendors implement JMS providers. JMS includes a specification for a new type of EJB, message beans. WAS includes the (WebSphere MQ) MQSeries JMS provider. WAS 4.0 is compliant with the 1.0.2 specification and includes support for JMS-XA distributed transactions across MQSeries-enabled systems and databases. Need to obtain WebSphere MQ separately.
Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ). A MOM server product running on NT 4 and W2K that supports message queues but does not include a publish-and-subscribe feature built into the product. The product includes a COM-based API for sending and receiving messages and administering queues. Supports distributed transactions through MSDTC. MSMQ is built into Windows NT 4.0 Server.
System.Messaging. A set of managed classes that provide the administrative and client APIs for working with MSMQ servers. MSMQ is built into Windows 2000 Server. It should be noted that developers can access MSMQ through queued components (QC) supported by COM+ 1.0. QC acts as an abstraction layer to allow clients to asynchronously make method calls on components that are backed by MSMQ.
Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC includes the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) and Swing as Java APIs for building GUII applications. Swing is a more abstract API and includes a "look and feel" for developing the same GUI on multiple platforms or adhering to a platform standard. Advanced graphics can be created with the Java2D and 3D APIs. GUI apps run as standalone applications or applets running in a browser.
Win32/ActiveX. Applications written in VB, VC++, or other Windows development tools. Ultimately these tools make calls to the Win32 API for the underlying window management. ActiveX is a COM-based technology for building reusable binary visual components (.ocx) across development environments. Applications run as standalone applications or as ActiveX controls hosted in MSIE. Advanced graphics are available through the DirectX set of COM-based APIs.
Windows Forms. Set of managed classes that allow for the creation of forms-based applications. Takes advantage of new Windows 2000 features such as nonrectangular forms. Includes a managed control architecture to build reusable visual controls. Third parties will provide wrappers for DirectX functionality. Windows Forms–based applications can run as standalone applications or can be hosted in MSIE on clients with the CLR installed.
J2EE Connector (JCA). JCA is a specification based on the IBM Common Connector Framework (CCF). WAS contains WAS adapters used to connect to packaged applications such as JDEdwards, SAP, Peoplesoft, and so on. These are JCA-compliant and are shipped with VisualAge for Java. You can also build new adapters using the MQSeries adapter offerings. WAS AE multiserver version only.
SNA Server 4.0. Server product that includes OLE DB and ODBC support for AS/400 and DB2. Also includes COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) for working with CICS and IMS transactions as if they were COM objects. Includes MSMQ-MQSeries bridge and host printing services, among others. Basically, this is COM-based integration, and there are also connectors to packaged products such as the SAP DCOM Connector.
Host Integration Server 2000. Update of SNA Server. Also includes integration with Commerce Server, BizTalk, Active Directory, and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). BizTalk also supports application-integration components (AIC) that can be built to integrate with packaged applications; for example, there is a SAP R/3 AIC available.
Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP). An API and abstraction layer to deal with various XML parsers. Not included in the J2EE 1.2, but 1.0 is in 1.3. v1.1 supports XSLT and DOM Level 2 and SAX v2.0. IBM has a 100% Java validating XML parser with JAXP support available on its Web site. WAS includes support for DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0, and XSLT 1.0.
MSXML. Microsoft's COM-based XML parser, included as a standalone addition to the OS and in products such as MSIE. Version 3.0 sp1 is the current version, with v4.0 as a technology preview on the MSDN Web site. V3.0 supports XSLT, XPath, and SAX2. Implements much of the DOM functionality specified by the WS3C, in addition to SAX support for event-based processing of large XML documents.
System.Xml. A set of managed classes that implement the DOM, XSLT, and XPath specifications by the W3C. Supports both a tree-based model (DOM) and an innovative stream-based approach for parsing XML documents. Also contains a class that maps XML documents to the ADO.NET DataSet class to provide XML-based access to relational data.
WAS ships with the Apache SOAP 2.2 tool support. The toolkit is SOAP 1.1–compliant. Can expose Java classes, EJBs, BSF scripts, or DB2-stored procs as a Web Service. Includes a command-line utility to publish EJBs as SOAP services. Development tools contain wizards to create WSDL from an existing Java application or read WSDL to create a server stub or client proxy. UUDI4J support is also included for client-side interaction with UDDI registries.
SOAP Toolkit 2.0. Downloadable. Current release is sp2. Provides a COM wrapper for implementing Web Services. Wizard exposes COM objects as a Web Service using ASP or IIS ISAPI extensions. Support for WSDL 1.1. A separate UDDI SDK is available for download, and provides a COM API for building and querying a UDDI registry. The toolkit integrates into VS 6.0 so that creating Web Services from COM components is straightforward.
.NET Framework. SOAP 1.1 is implemented in a variety of the base class libraries and, therefore, is very tightly integrated from both consumer and implementer perspectives. Allows individual methods in managed classes to be exposed as Web Services through an attribute of the framework. Automatic creation of WSDL from XSD schemas and managed classes. Automatic creation of managed client proxies from WSDL through the command line and UI in VS.NET with full Intellisense. A separate UDDI SDK is available for download that provides managed classes for building and querying a UDDI registry.
Remote Method Invocation (RMI)-Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP). Provides the programming model (RMI) and the protocol layer for (CORBA IIOP) Java-to-Java communication. Servlets and applets communicate with EJBs via RMI. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
DCOM. Extension of COM for component communication across the network using any of the Windows NT network protocols. Includes remote activation and security features. Remoting of object instances must be specifically programmed into the COM objects themselves. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
.NET Remoting. Implemented in a set of managed classes. Allows managed code to communicate across app domain boundaries. Can communicate via HTTP or TCP channels. Supports remoting of object instances via binary or SOAP protocols. Supports singletons and client activation. The use of HTTP and SOAP promotes a loosely coupled architecture that does not incur firewall problems.
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Programming interface that provides access to directory services such as DNS, LDAP, Novell (NDS), and CORBA COS through vendor-specific providers.
WAS 4.0 is JNDI 1.2–compliant for EJB lookup. The IBM SecureWay Directory 3.2.1 product is included in WAS for access to Active Directory, Lotus Domino, and NDS.
Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI). COM programming interface that supports access to NT, LDAP, and Novell (NDS) directory services through vendor-specific providers.
Active Directory and System.DirectoryServices namespace. Windows 2000 Server includes the distributed directory used in a Windows 2000 domain while the managed classes, in DirectoryServices provide a wrapper around the ADSI interfaces to programmatically access a directory.
WebSphere Studio, Visual Age for Java. Both ship with WAS. Studio is used to build the visual representation of Web pages and JSPs, while Visual Age is used for Java coding of servlets, beans, and EJBs.
Visual Studio 6.0, released in 1998 (three IDEs). Separate IDEs exist for VC++/Visual Interdev for ASP development, and VB for form and component development. Graphical Web development.
Visual Studio.NET. Single IDE that supports unified debugging, project management, Intellisense, Server Explorer, graphical editor for the Web and forms, class view, dynamic help, add-ins, and scripting. Can be used to build console applications, Windows Forms, Web Forms, Web Services, Windows Services, and components. Third-party compiler vendors can plug into VS.NET.
ebXML. An industry specification (not a shipping product) for performing business-to-business transactions using XML and the Web. Includes some support for SOAP. Not implemented in WAS. Would need to roll your own infrastructure perhaps using Web Services.
No support on NT 4. Would need to roll your own infrastructure using the SOAP Toolkit and Windows services.
BizTalk Server 2000, released in 2000. A separate server product that provides a messaging/scheduling engine and business process orchestration facilities. Messaging includes support for EDI, SOAP, and Rosettanet grammars, in addition to others.
For organizations that must have platform neutrality, J2EE is the only alternative. The Java language is becoming more widely accepted. Vendors such as IBM offer a single-vendor solution when dealing with legacy applications. Separation of application logic and presentation exists, although, in practice, this is underutilized. EJB model includes automatic database-mapping facilities through CMP.
Large base of VB/ASP developers, resulting in reduced costs. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Software costs are low. Multiple language support through COM. Tight integration with the dominant client platform (Windows).
Multiple languages supported with a common set of class libraries. Unified programming model with the Services Framework. High productivity development environment. Web application performance. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Separation of application logic and presentation exists. Greater integration with XML and Web Services protocols. Tight integration with the dominant client platform (Windows).
Single-language solution. Smaller base of developers. EJBs are complex and not widely used. Thus, JSPs are overused, resulting in spaghetti code. Varying levels of J2EE conformance across vendors. The need to use vendor-specific features leads to vendor lock-in. Performance varies due to vendor-specific implementations. Software cost is generally higher, developer costs are higher, and deployment time is increased.
Highly fragmented programming model. COM infrastructure is unwieldy, leading to DLL hell and versioning problems. ASP pages that do not utilize COM for business and data-access services lead to spaghetti code. Single-vendor solution.
Not a shipping product. OO nature of CLR makes development initially more complicated for VB/ASP developers. Single-vendor solution. Does not support an automatic mapping of database rows to objects as with CMP, although there is widespread disagreement within the industry as to whether entity beans are desirable because they do not promote transactional consistency and are questionable in terms of performance. For more information, see Roger Session's Web site.
The holidays are nearly upon us, and iterative hardware updates abound.
The new $50 Fire TV Stick 4K, which Amazon announced somewhat unceremoniously earlier this month, isn’t so much a revelation as a natural progression. It’s the first in the Fire TV Stick lineup to support 4K high dynamic range (HDR) content, and the first to pack in a new remote control — the somewhat clunkily dubbed Alexa Voice Remote with Device Control — that lets you control devices with a flick of the wrist.
It’s quite a comeback for a dongle the Seattle company let languish for the better part of two years and a shot across the bow at Roku, which in September took the wraps off the 4K-compatible, IR remote-touting Premiere+. The good news? It was well worth the wait.4K everywhere
Amazon launched the Fire TV (2017) — a diminutive flat cube of a thing — at a September hardware event last year. It supports 4K (up to 60 frames per second) in HDR10, which covers 100 percent of DCI-P3 and Rec. 2020 color spaces for a total of 1.07 billion colors (1,024 shades of each primary color), plus Dolby Atmos, a premium audio format for multichannel surround sound setups.Gallery: Amazon Fire TV Stick 4K
At the time, the company pitched it as a replacement for the discontinued Fire TV set-top box, and the Fire TV Stick 4K appears to be positioned to replace it. The Fire TV Stick 4K similarly supports 4K and HDR at 60 frames per second — specifically HDR10, HDR10+, Dolby Vision, Hybrid-Log Gamma (HLG), and Dolby Atmos.
Judging by the spec sheets, you’d think they were the same — right down to their quad-core processors. But first impressions can be deceiving.
Take the design, for instance. The Fire TV (2017) plugs into the back of a television or receiver and dangles off the end of a flexible cord, while the Fire TV Stick 4K is a self-contained affair. An HDMI plug juts out from the 3.9 x 1.8 x 0.5-inch housing, which measures slightly wider and longer than the second-generation Fire TV Stick (3.4 x 1.2 x 0.5 inches). It’s ever-so-slightly heavier, too, at 1.8 ounces (versus 1.1 ounces).
Just like Fire TV Sticks before it, the Fire TV Stick 4K draws power via MicroUSB — both a cable and wall adapter are included in the box. The port is positioned at a right angle to the HDMI plug, off to the side, which works just fine on my living room setup. But it’s not particularly amenable to multiple devices — if you’ve already got a jigsaw puzzle of set-top boxes to contend with, you might have a tough time making room.Alexa Voice Remote with Device Control
Once the Fire TV Stick 4K is plugged in and powered on, it’s on to the remote. You could argue it’s the star of the show, in fact.
It provides a means of navigating Fire OS, the Fire TV Stick 4K’s operating system, of course, but it also doubles as a universal remote control for the tens of thousands of sound bars, TVs, cable and satellite boxes, and AV equipment that accepts IR signals. Just like Amazon’s Fire TV Cube, it uses a potent combo of HDMI CEC — a feature of HDMI designed to allow users to command and control devices connected through HDMI — and a cloud database of device profiles to control the volume, change the channel, and power toggle target devices.Gallery: Amazon Alexa Voice Remote with Device Control
They’re carryover features from the Fire TV Cube, which Amazon launched in June.
The Fire TV Stick 4K had no trouble detecting the Samsung TV in my relatively spartan setup — during the onboarding process, the dongle instructed me to try increasing and decreasing the volume, which worked without a hitch. However, your mileage may vary. I can’t speak to more complicated home theaters, and Amazon notes that some categories of devices — namely projectors, HDMI switches/hubs, and universal remotes (like Logitech Harmony) — aren’t compatible yet.
The new Alexa Voice Remote’s button layout is slightly different from the model it replaces, mostly to make way for the volume controls. The mute button sits nearest the bottom below the volume rocker, and six playback and navigation controls — back, home, settings, rewind, pause/play, and fast forward — occupy the middle. Above the buttons is a circular, clickable directional pad (the center serves as a selection button), and almost adjacent to it near the top is a microphone button. Pressing and holding it triggers Amazon’s Alexa assistant on-screen.
The build quality is measurably improved from the Voice Remote that ships with the Fire TV. The buttons feel tighter and more responsive. That’s true of the directional pad, too — it’s stiffer (in a good way) and much less likely to register false positives if, like me, you lose your grip on the matte plastic rear cover.
Just make sure you have two AAAs handy, as it’s battery-powered.Performance
Amazon claims the Fire TV Stick 4K is 80 percent faster than the Fire TV Stick, and it certainly feels that way.
The little dongle handles menus and animations like a pro, launching apps and shows nearly instantaneously — excepting the occasional bout of stuttering on menus with image-rich carousels. And when it needs to reboot — say, after an update — it’s up and running in 30 seconds or less.
It delivers the sort of glass-smooth, ultra-slick experience I’ve come to expect from pricier set-top boxes, like the Apple TV and Nvidia Shield TV, and it’s far and away the best Fire TV Stick I’ve tested.
That’s strictly subjective, of course. In an attempt to quantify the improvements, I launched GFXBench — a popular cross-platform benchmarking tool — and fired off a round of tests on the Fire TV Stick 4K and the Fire TV (2017).
Amazon lists the Fire TV Stick as sporting a nondescript quad-core ARM processor clocked at 1.5GHz with a Mali450 MP4 GPU; Geekbench reports an Amlogic Cortex A53 ARMv8 system-on-chip and roughly 1.5GB of usable RAM. And Fire TV Stick 4K has a MediaTek MT8695 Cortex A53 ARMv8 chip paired with about the same amount of RAM — 1.5GB.
In GFXBench’s T-Rex offscreen test at 1080p, the Fire TV (2017) averages around 10 frames per second. The Fire TV Stick 4K fares slightly better, hitting around 14 frames per second.
Its advantages aren’t confined to raw processing speed. It has a dual-band, dual-antenna Wi-Fi chip for “faster streaming” and “fewer dropped connections,” according to Amazon, and Bluetooth 5.0 (compared to the Fire TV Stick’s Bluetooth 4.2).4K HDR
The Fire TV Stick 4K’s spotlight feature is 4K HDR, and it doesn’t disappoint on that front.
4K is easy enough to wrap your head around — it’s 3840 x 2160 pixels, or twice the resolution of 1080p (1920 x 1080 pixels) and 4 times the resolution of 720p (1280 x 720 pixels). And the Fire TV Stick 4K supports it at up to 60 frames per second. But the benefits of HDR are a bit harder to convey in writing.Gallery: Amazon Fire TV Stick 4K
Suffice it to say that HDR takes advantage of the greatly expanded color depth and brightness supported by newer, premium TVs to produce more natural, vibrant pictures. Whereas the average flatscreen produces about 300 to 700 nits (one nit is equivalent to a candela, or the intensity of a candle), HDR-capable displays can drive up to 4,000. And they max out at 12-bit color instead of the traditional 8-bit — the difference between 68.7 billion colors and 16 million.
HDR comes in several different flavors, all supported by the Fire TV Stick 4K: the aforementioned HDR10, HDR10+, Dolby Vision, and HLG. Let’s break down each in turn.
So what does all that mean in plain English? The Fire TV Stick 4K offers the widest support for HDR of any HDMI dongle on the market, even rivaling set-top boxes like the Apple TV. And as production houses draw lines in the sand, that’s becoming increasingly important.
HLG is already in use in BBC iPlayer, the BBC’s on-demand streaming portal, and can be used for HDR videos on YouTube. Studios like 20th Century Fox and Universal have thrown their weight behind HDR10, while Paramount, Warner Bros., Sony, and Lionsgate continue to full-throatedly endorse Dolby Vision.
The nice thing about having a device that supports them all is there’s no FOMO — even the Firefox and Amazon Silk web browsers on the Fire TV Stick 4K can play back HDR content. As long as you’ve got a compliant TV, projector, or monitor, you’ll always be good to go.
Unfortunately, I don’t — my roommate’s aging Samsung Smart TV makes do with HDR10. But be that as it may, I can still appreciate the wealth of 4K HDR content on tap. There’s a much larger selection than there was just a few years ago, as evidenced by the new 4K TV Prime Original Series in 4K Ultra HDR Row on the home screen. Amazon Video’s Tom Clancy’s Jack Ryan supports Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos, and every recent Amazon Original — including The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, Bosch, Sneaky Pete, and The Man in the High Castle — is available in 4K and HDR. And on Netflix, titles like Ozark, Lost in Space, Godless, Stranger Things, Marvel’s Daredevil, and Chasing Coral are available in HDR.
A good chunk of HDR content supports Dolby Atmos, a standard that expands on 5.1 and 7.1 surround sound setups to create more “immersive” experiences and which is present and accounted for on the Fire TV Stick 4K. Atmos can technically take advantage of up to 34 speakers (the recommended maximum is 12), but specially designed Dolby Atmos systems like Onkyo’s SKH-410 and Sony’s SSCSE (and aftermarket modules) mimic its multidirectional effects by directing sound upward, which rebounds it off the ceiling.Fire OS
The Fire TV Stick 4K runs Amazon’s in-house Fire OS, a custom software layer atop Android 7.1.2. In addition to one-tap access to the retailer’s Alexa voice assistant (and more than 50,000 third-party Alexa skills), tens of thousands of channels, apps, and games are available through the Amazon Appstore. They’re too numerous to list here, but the catalog includes Prime Video, Hulu, Starz, Showtime, ESPN, CBS, Spotify, and iHeartRadio.
Collectively, they serve up more than 500,000 movies and TV shows.Gallery: Fire OS on the Fire TV Stick 4K
If none of those strike your fancy, there’s the On Now row, an auto-populated row of live television content from a mix of internet and over-the-air sources. This draws from channels like Hulu, PlayStation View, and Amazon’s a la carte Prime Video Channels, in addition to programming from a Fire TV Recast and HDTV antenna. (The Fire TV Recast, which was announced in September, can record two to four shows at a time from channels like ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS, and The CW, and starts at $229 for two tuners and 500GB of storage space; the four-tuner, 1TB version costs $279.)
TV show and movie searches will always favor free services, and in some cases, surface trials or limited-time offers for premium channels like Shudder. It never feels like an upsell, though — whenever possible, the Fire TV Stick plays the role of an impartial mediator, making a good faith effort to avoid biasing its recommendations toward Amazon’s services.
That’s not true of the home screen, however, which serves no fewer than three carousel’s worth of Amazon movies, original series, and featured TV shows.
Worse, Fire OS lacks a proper YouTube client, a result of an ongoing feud between Google and Amazon. And Walmart’s Vudu isn’t here, either, which is a bit of a disappointment — it supports HDR for a number of Hollywood releases you won’t find on Amazon Prime or Netflix.
New capabilities landing alongside the Fire TV Stick 4K include enhanced voice controls. In apps from A&E, AMC, Sony Crackle, Hallmark, HBO Now, History, IFC, Lifetime, and VH1, you can use Alexa to play, fast-forward, and navigate through content. And if you have an Amazon Echo speaker, you’ll benefit from hands-free control with far-field voice recognition; nearby Echo devices pair automatically as soon as you ask Alexa a question that includes the Fire TV (“Alexa, show me comedies on Fire TV”).
Rounding out the new features are Alexa voice controls — you can launch apps (“Alexa, launch Starz”); search for movies by actor, director, and genre (“Alexa, find drama”); control playback (“Alexa, pause the movie”); or even ask about the weather (“Alexa, what’s this week’s forecast”) with voice command — which includes support for routines. “Alexa, good morning,” for example, can be programmed to trigger multiple devices in a sequence, like the TV, speaker system, and other Alexa-compatible smart appliances.
Voice controls extend to live TV and input controls. You can switch channels by saying commands like, “Alexa, switch to channel 15,” and “Alexa, switch to ESPN”; adjust the volume of a TV or soundbar when you’re viewing content on a different HDMI port; or switch to another device by saying “Switch to PlayStation” or “Switch to HDMI.”Conclusion
The Fire TV Stick 4K doesn’t look like much from the outside, but I’d go so far as to say it’s one of the best HDMI streaming dongles for the money right now.
Its unrivaled support for 4K Ultra HDR formats is almost worth the price of admission alone — it’s the only player that has 4K, HDR10, Dolby Vision, HDR10+, and HLG on tap, and it significantly undercuts set-top boxes such as the Apple TV 4K ($180) and the Roku Ultra ($100), neither of which can play back HDR10+ content. In this respect, it even bests Roku’s competitively priced Premiere and Premiere+.
I’m equally impressed with the Alexa Voice Remote with Device Control. While it doesn’t go toe-to-toe with universal remote systems like Logitech’s Harmony, the convenience of an IR remote with voice controls can’t be overstated.
This is all to say that the Fire TV Stick 4K is the cream of the crop when it comes to set-top devices — lack of YouTube client and Vudu aside, of course. It’s fast, smooth, and chock-full of features that’ll delight not just cinephiles, but folks looking to fire up Netflix at the end of a long workday.
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Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
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The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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