|Exam Name||:||Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade|
|Questions and Answers||:||74 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 19, 2019|
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310-013 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Test Code : 310-013
Test Name : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Vendor Name : SUN
Q&A : 74 Real Questions
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certified Solaris gadget administrators are suggestions technology (IT) experts who deploy and retain community servers running one of the vital Solaris operating gadget at present purchasable in the course of the Oracle business enterprise. they're usually employed via organizations and different organizations with laptop networks that use the enterprise's open source utility products. As systems administrators, they may additionally additionally supervise other IT group of workers and reply to questions and upkeep requests from office people.education Bachelor's degree in assistance know-how or computing device science informed Job knowledge Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange profits range (2019)* $sixty nine,810 to $127,000 with sun certified gadget Administrator credentials Job growth (2016-2026)** 6% for community and desktop techniques directors
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statisticsRequired schooling
Most techniques directors have accomplished a Bachelor of Science in advice technology, desktop Science or a related container. Core coursework typically comprises themes in programming languages and techniques, networking and programs design. Solaris certifications can be found in the course of the Oracle organisation in community, security and methods administration. requirements include a passing ranking on an examination, which candidates can put together for via enrolling in lessons on the Oracle Academy or an authorised training core, reviewing seminar applications and taking apply tests.abilities Required
methods administrators are analytical thinkers who're able to troubleshoot considerations for massive organizations of network system users. traumatic instances require clear, speedy considering, and may contain working long hours unless the issue is fixed. The capacity to multitask can be positive when managing multiple venture at a time. verbal exchange expertise are key when working with nontechnical workforce contributors.career and earnings Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor data (BLS) anticipated that jobs for system administrators in generic will raise by using a normal pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. licensed equipment directors will relish brilliant job possibilities, as businesses more and more depend on full-time authorities to keep their laptop operating systems. according to Payscale.com, certified techniques directors for Solaris operating systems earned between $69,810 and $127,000 in April 2019.
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Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that use the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may also supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary Range (2019)* $69,810 to $127,000 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2016-2026)** 6% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators have completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements include a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking practice exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for large groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, fast thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The ability to multitask can be helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in general will increase by an average pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. Certified system administrators will enjoy excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $69,810 and $127,000 in April 2019.
Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the book
After completing this chapter, you'll be able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the name that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this field signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. Like the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's real name (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this field is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can be read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must be kept secret in this file. A sample password file looks like this:root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account name field for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the last character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is also used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is possible and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the same UID. Each username will have its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will display the first username found in the password file matching the UID.
When a new account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the same username found in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this field contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of last password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was last changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can be changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a field reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could perform a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks like this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
Note that some of the accounts in the example shadow file have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could put other text in the password field to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This also occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords found in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must be world readable. Prior to the use of /etc/shadow, all users' encrypted password strings were also publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an opportunity to discover other users' passwords. By moving the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can be read only by root), the ability to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was found in the password file, in the second field that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file also had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the old shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it support password aging.The Group File
The group file contains a listing of all of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-list
These fields are:
groupname—this is the name of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
Note the password field in the group "staff." Groups can be password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to put the group password in for you.
Hint: You can take a password string from the shadow file and use the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will be the same as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will be challenged for the group's password when they have entered the newgrp command.Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account also has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that include the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can be in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you need to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same name and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would be the effect if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would have no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and permission settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can perform administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would be the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What advantage might there be of putting root's entry at the end of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One advantage of putting root at the end of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would show that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
Bigger is not necessarily better, but it's beginning to look like Oracle will release a monster Critical Patch Update (CPU) every quarter. These security updates affect databases, networking components, operating systems, applications server, Java, and ERP systems, leaving IT administrators to wrestle with the task of testing, verifying, and deploying several dozen patches in a timely manner.
The CPU is getting bigger -- the average number of vulnerabilities patched in 2014 and 2015 was 128 and 161, respectively, compared to this year's average of 228 vulnerabilities -- but most of the focus remains on the company's middleware products. Of the 253 security flaws fixed in the October Critical Patch Update (CPU), Oracle Database, MySQL, Java, Linux and virtualization products, and the Sun Systems suite accounted for only one-third of the patches. Oracle addressed 12 vulnerabilities in its core Oracle Database Server, 31 in the MySQL database, seven in Java SE, 13 in Oracle Linux and virtualization products, and 16 in the Sun Systems suite, which includes Solaris and Sparc Enterprise.
Several vulnerabilities are considered critical and could be remotely exploited without requiring authentication.Database is important again
The last several updates from Oracle addressed few database flaws, but this latest CPU showed the flagship product a little bit of love. Oracle Database Server has nine new security fixes, of which only one was rated critical with a CVSS v3 base score of 9.1. However, that vulnerability in OJVM (CVE 2016-5555), which affects Oracle Database Server 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168, cannot be remotely exploited over a network without requiring user credentials. In contrast, the six-year-old vulnerability in the Application Express component (CVE-2010-5312) has a CVSS v3 score of 6.1 but can be exploited over the network without authentication.
An issue with the DBA-level privileged accounts (CVE 2016-3562) applies to client-only installations and doesn't need to have Oracle Database Server installed.
Two vulnerabilities in Oracle Secure Backup may be remotely exploitable without authentication, but were rated 5.8 on the CVSS v3 scale, making them of medium severity. The last security flaw, in Oracle Big Data Graph, is related to the Apache Commons Collections and is not remotely exploitable without authentication.
For Oracle MySQL, the most serious security flaws are in the Server:Security:Encryption component (CVE-2016-6304) and in the Python Connector (CVE-2016-5598) because they may be remotely exploited without authentication. Even so, Oracle did not consider these issues critical, assigning them CVSS v3 scores of 7.5 and 5.6, respectively. There were three fixes for the Encryption component and six for InnoDB.
Databases are typically not exposed to the internet, but administrators should plan on patching the vulnerabilities in MySQL Connector and Application Express as they are remotely exploitable and attackers can use them after compromising another system on the network.Keep that Java patched
Administrators who support Java applications should pay close attention to the Java patches, as Oracle released seven important security updates that affect every version of Java Platforms 6, 7, and 8, and eight critical security updates for Oracle's Java-powered WebLogic and GlassFish application platforms. Nearly all of the disclosed vulnerabilities are remotely exploitable without authentication, meaning any application running on the current or earlier versions of these Java products could be susceptible to remote attacks and exploitation.
Two of the Java Platform vulnerabilities affect the Java Management Extensions (JMXs) and Networking APIs built into the Java Platform. Critical Java applications are likely operating with these flawed APIs and should be prioritized for patching as quickly as possible.
"These two APIs are present and loaded in all but the most trivial Java applications," said Waratek CTO John Matthew Holt.
The CVSS scores for the Java security flaws assume that the user running the Java applet or Java Web Start application has administrator privileges. This is a common user scenario in Windows, which is why the scores are so high. In environments where users do not have administrator privileges -- a typical situation for Solaris and Linux users, and also for some Windows users -- the impact scores drop significantly. A CVSS v3 base score of 9.6 for a Java SE flaw drops to 7.1 in those deployments, Oracle said in the advisory.
Java on Windows machines should have priority. This advisory also shows why it pays off for Windows administrators to not give higher privileges by default to their users.
"Users should only use the default Java Plug-in and Java Web Start from the latest JDK or JRE 8 releases," Oracle said.
Even though Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle Glassfish Server are grouped into Oracle Fusion Middleware, Holt highlighted the five vulnerabilities in WebLogic and two in GlassFish that are remotely exploitable over HTTP and HTTPS protocols without authentication. A successful exploit against critical business applications on Java-powered WebLogic and GlassFish applications could hijack the application stack and expose confidential application data.
Remote exploits over HTTP/HTTPS pose serious risks due to the "ubiquity of HTTP/HTTPS access to Java-powered applications," Holt warned.Fixes in for Oracle Linux and Sun Systems, too
Oracle also fixed 13 flaws in Oracle Virtualization, four of which are remotely exploitable without authentication. Eight flaws affected Oracle VM VirtualBox, and the most critical one, affecting the VirtualBox Remote Desktop Extension (CVE-2016-5605), applies to every single version of VirtualBox prior to 5.1.4.
Much like the database issues, the flaw in VirtualBox's OpenSSL component (CVE-2016-6304) should be prioritized and patched immediately because attackers can use this flaw as they move laterally through the network.
On the operating system, Oracle fixed 16 vulnerabilities in the Oracle Sun Systems Products Suite, which includes Solaris and the Sun ZFS Storage Appliance Kit. The CVSS v3 scores range from 2.8 to 8.2, but three issues that can be exploited over a network without requiring user credentials are all of low severity. Even so, administrators should pay attention to the fixes for ZFS Storage appliance's DNS, the IKE component in Solaris, and HTTP in Solaris because of the risk of a remote attack.Set the priority list
Organizations prioritize patches differently. One with a lot of Java users on Windows would bump up the patches' priority higher than one that's a pure-Linux shop. Critical business applications on WebLogic will need some attention, as will those organizations that use VirtualBox throughout their virtualized infrastructure.
Researchers at ERPScan sorted the fixed vulnerabilities by their CVSS v3 scores and noted that the flaw in Oracle WebLogic Server (CVE-2016-5535), which affects versions 10.3.6.0, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52, was third on the list. A successful attack can result in a takeover of Oracle WebLogic Server. The vulnerability in JavaSE's Hotspot subcomponent (CVE-2016-5582) was fifth. While easily exploitable, a successful attack using this vulnerability would require human interaction from a person other than the attacker.
Oracle didn't indicate whether any of these flaws have been exploited in the wild, but warned against skipping the patches in favor of workarounds. While it's possible to reduce the risk of successful attack by blocking network protocols or removing certain privileges or access to certain packages, they do not correct the underlying problem.
"Due to the threat posed by a successful attack, Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply CPU fixes as soon as possible," the company wrote in the advisory accompanying the CPU release.
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