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250-722 - Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0 - Dump Information

Vendor : Symantec
Exam Code : 250-722
Exam Name : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Questions and Answers : 114 Q & A
Updated On : December 14, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : Pass4sure 250-722 Dump
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250-722 Questions and Answers

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250-722 Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

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250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Test Code : 250-722
Test Name : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 114 Real Questions

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Symantec Symantec Implementation of DP

Lazarus 'FASTCash' financial institution Hackers Wield AIX Trojan | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Anti-Malware , ATM Fraud , Cybercrime as-a-service

Hackers make the most outdated Unix to deploy cash-Out Malware, Symantec stories Mathew J. Schwartz (euroinfosec) • November 12, 2018     Lazarus 'FASTCash' Bank Hackers Wield AIX Trojan FASTCash assaults in opposition t banks had been tied to tens of tens of millions of greenbacks in losses.

safety researchers say they've identified a vital piece of the ATM cash-out assault puzzle linked with the so-called FASTCash assaults perpetrated through North Korean hackers.

See also: are living Webinar | Fraud Prevention for Banks: excellent 10 Tech requirements to consider

The U.S. government says the FASTCash assaults are the work of the Lazarus hacking group, tied to the Pyongyang-primarily based executive of North Korea. Authorities say that due to the fact that 2016, the assaults have enabled hackers - and their cash mules - to empty tens of millions of dollars in cash from ATMs in Africa and Asia.

Now, security researchers at Symantec say they've recovered a on no account-earlier than-seen Trojan used within the assaults, which Lazarus operators drop onto compromised financial institution networks.

"To make the fraudulent withdrawals, Lazarus first breaches targeted banks' networks and compromises the switch utility servers managing ATM transactions," the Symantec researchers say in a Thursday blog submit.

"once these servers are compromised, in the past unknown malware - Trojan.Fastcash - is deployed," they are saying. "This malware in flip intercepts fraudulent Lazarus cash withdrawal requests and sends fake approval responses, enabling the attackers to steal cash from ATMs."

FASTCash Alert

In October, the U.S. computing device Emergency Readiness group issued an alert about "malicious cyber pastime by the North Korean govt" - which it refers to as Hidden Cobra - perpetrating an ATM cash-out scheme, which the U.S. executive refers to as "FASTCash."

US-CERT's alert - collectively issued with the branch of native land safety, Treasury branch and FBI - notes that because 2016, the attack crusade has been focused on associations in Asia and Africa with malware designed to "remotely compromise charge swap utility servers inside banks to facilitate fraudulent transactions."

Authorities say the assaults have ended in tens of millions of bucks in suspected losses. One 2017 assault on my own resulted in attackers concurrently hitting ATMs in additional than 30 countries, while a 2018 assault hit ATMs in 23 nations, the alert stated.

"The initial an infection vector used to compromise victim networks is unknown; despite the fact, analysts surmise Hidden Cobra actors used spear-phishing emails in centered assaults against bank personnel," US-CERT observed in its alert. "Hidden Cobra actors likely used home windows-based malware to discover a financial institution's community to determine the charge change utility server."

ATM money-Out attacks

Symantec says that or not it's recovered varied models of the Fastcash Trojan, each and every of which looks to have been customized for diverse transaction processing networks. The samples also tie to authentic fundamental account numbers, or PANs - the 14 or 16-digit numerical strings discovered on financial institution and credit cards that establish a card issuer and account number.

US-CERT noted in its alert that after reviewing log data recovered from an establishment that had been attacked with the aid of Hidden Cobra, "analysts trust that the [hackers'] scripts ... inspected inbound monetary request messages for selected [PANs]. The scripts generated fraudulent financial response messages simplest for the request messages that matched the expected PANs. Most debts used to initiate the transactions had minimal account undertaking or zero balances."

In different words, malicious code inserted by way of Hidden Cobra attackers watched for references tied to attacker-controlled debts, then returned fraudulent information about these accounts in keeping with queries. as an example, the code may faux that bills with a 0 steadiness as an alternative had cash accessible for withdrawal.

"How the attackers profit control of these bills remains unclear," Symantec says. "it is viable the attackers are opening the accounts themselves and making withdrawal requests with cards issued to those bills. one other possibility is the attackers are the use of stolen playing cards to function the attacks."

Hackers exploit old-fashioned AIX

what is now clear, however, is that the attacks have been completed by means of hackers exploiting outdated types of IBM's AIX - for superior Interactive govt - implementation of the Unix working gadget, Symantec says.

"In all stated FASTCash assaults so far, the attackers have compromised banking software servers operating unsupported models of the AIX operating gadget, beyond the conclusion of their service pack aid dates," Symantec says.

One evident defense is for banks to make sure that they are keeping all systems and application up so far.

"with a view to allow their fraudulent withdrawals from ATMs, the attackers inject a malicious [AIX] executable right into a operating, official process on the change application server of a economic transaction network, in this case a community managing ATM transactions," Symantec says. "The malicious executable consists of logic to construct fraudulent ISO 8583 messages," which is the overseas general for economic transaction messaging.

"The intention of this executable has now not been up to now documented," Symantec says. "It was up to now believed that the attackers used scripts to govern authentic application on the server into enabling the fraudulent exercise."

How Fastcash Trojan enables ATM cash-Out assaults source: Symantec

In other words, attackers don't appear to were subverting official financial institution utility by means of scripts, as last month's US-CERT alert counseled. as an alternative, the attackers have been deploying their personal AIX malware, personalized for the target environment.

"FASTCash illustrates that Lazarus possesses an in-depth potential of banking systems and transaction processing protocols and has the potential to leverage that capabilities as a way to steal gigantic sums from prone banks," Symantec says. "Lazarus continues to pose a major threat to the fiscal sector and organizations should take all critical steps to make certain that their fee systems are thoroughly up to this point and secured."

North Korea Hacks

safety specialists say the executive of North Korea continues to invest in hacking to help it raise cash to offset crippling international sanctions imposed over its weapons construction and checking out classes (see: record: North Korea Seeks Bitcoins to bypass Sanctions).

"Lazarus continues to pose a major hazard to the fiscal sector."

Lazarus has been in the past tied to a couple of cybercrime and cyber espionage assaults, together with the wiper malware assault in opposition t Sony pictures enjoyment in 2014; the tried theft of pretty much $1 billion from the vital bank of Bangladesh's new york Federal Reserve account, resulting in $eighty one million being stolen; the WannaCry ransomware outbreak in may additionally 2017, as smartly because the use of cryptocurrency mining malware named Adylkuzz to assault the same flaw in home windows server block messaging that WannaCry also focused.

Lazarus has also continued to steal cryptocurrency via phishing assaults as well as without delay hacking cryptocurrency exchanges, according to Moscow-based protection firm group-IB.

Lazarus group features prominently on group-IB's tally of cyberattacks against cryptocurrency exchanges.

however Lazarus is just one of what seem like a couple of different North Korea-sponsored hacking agencies, all of which share malware construction materials (see: Cybercrime agencies and Nation-State Attackers Blur collectively).

ultimate month, cybersecurity enterprise FireEye spoke of that it had tracked a couple of assaults perpetrated via APT38, a North Korean hacking group separate to Lazarus (see: North Korean Hackers Tied to $a hundred Million in SWIFT Fraud).

"seeing that at the least 2014, APT38 has carried out operations in more than sixteen groups in at least eleven international locations, on occasion concurrently, indicating that the community is a huge, prolific operation with extensive elements," FireEye researchers noted.


consumers File category motion Lawsuit towards Symantec for defective AntiVirus software | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Schubert law firm Investigating Claims in opposition t safety software business regarding Vulnerabilities in network protection software items

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- buyers have filed a class motion lawsuit towards Symantec supplier (SYMC), alleging that from 2005 to 2016, the security utility company bought antivirus items containing serious defects that uncovered total laptop operating techniques to a considerable number of protection vulnerabilities and made them extra prone to cyberattacks, in response to Schubert Jonckheer & Kolbe, which represents the buyers.

The lawsuit, filed on April 2, 2018 within the U.S. District courtroom for the Northern District of California, alleges that consumers who purchased Symantec's security products below the Norton company, in addition to organizations that purchased products beneath the Symantec brand, suffered from exposure to reminiscence corruption, faraway assaults, and other with ease exploitable security vulnerabilities. Symantec only released patches for these defects in June 2016, with the assist of venture Zero, a team of knowledgeable cybersecurity analysts who first discovered the important defects within the core engine that supported Symantec's complete product line.

according to the lawsuit, Symantec had failed to patch third-birthday party supply code in its items over a a number of-12 months duration spanning at least seven years, contrary to cybersecurity most beneficial practices, which require well timed implementation of protection updates to utility. in addition, Symantec didn't design its products to limit the have an impact on of a vulnerability on a pc's working system through violating the primary principle of least privilege, another simple cybersecurity most reliable follow. It changed into now not until 2017 that Symantec up to date its product line to conform to the precept of least privilege through together with a sandbox that directs the core engine to run and analyze unknown files in an isolated, protected atmosphere.

in case you purchased a Norton or Symantec manufacturer security product between 2005 and 2016, you can be entitled to a reimbursement of the purchase rate. if you believe you had been plagued by these antivirus utility defects, please contact us these days to be trained greater.

About Schubert Jonckheer & KolbeSchubert Jonckheer & Kolbe represents shareholders, employees, and patrons in type movements in opposition t corporate defendants, as well as shareholders in by-product actions in opposition t their officers and directors. The enterprise is primarily based in San Francisco, and with the support of co-assistance, litigates circumstances nationwide. lawyer promoting. Prior effects don't guarantee similar outcomes.

ContactCassidy KimSchubert Jonckheer & Kolbe LLPckim@sjk.lawTel: 415-788-4220

 

View customary content:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/patrons-file-class-motion-lawsuit-against-symantec-for-defective-antivirus-utility-300746568.html


Symantec (SYMC) q4 2018 consequences - earnings name Transcript | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No influence found, try new keyword!Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ:SYMC ... We plan to give you contract duration on a quarterly basis going forward. We are expecting that the implementation of the brand new income recognition common will affect our metr...

250-722 Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com Symantec Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 250-722 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Test Code : 250-722
Test Name : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 114 Real Questions

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Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

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Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Dutch adolescents often start drinking alcohol at an early age. The life-time prevalence for drinking alcohol is 56% for twelve year olds and 93% for sixteen year olds. Also, 16% of twelve year olds and 78% of sixteen year olds drink alcohol regularly. In comparison with other young people in Europe, Dutch adolescents drink more frequently and are more likely to be binge drinkers (episodic excessive alcohol consumption, defined as drinking 5 glasses or more on a single occasion in the last four weeks) [1].

Despite a sharp decline in the excessive consumption of alcohol (6 or more glasses at least once a week for the last 6 months) among adolescents in the Netherlands, the alcohol consumption is still high [2]. Data from the Regional Health Services (RHS) in the province of North Brabant [3] also show this. Although the number of young people who regularly consume alcohol (at least once in the past 4 weeks) declined from 54% in 2003 to 44% in 2007, 28% of the 12 to 17 year olds in the area of the RHS “Hart voor Brabant” can be identified as binge drinkers. Moreover, 25% of the under 16s are regular drinkers, and 13% are even binge drinkers.

Alcohol consumption by adolescents under 16 causes severe health risks. Firstly, young people's brains are particularly vulnerable because the brain is still developing during their teenage years. Alcohol can damage parts of the brain, affecting behavior and the ability to learn and remember [4]. Secondly, there is a link between alcohol consumption and violent and aggressive behavior [5–7] and violence-related injuries. Thirdly, young people run a greater risk of alcohol poisoning when they drink a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time [8]. Finally, the earlier the onset of drinking, the greater is the chance of excessive consumption and addiction in later life [9–11].

The policy of the Dutch Ministry of Health is aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among adolescents younger than 16, and at reducing harmful and excessive drinking among 16–24 years old young adults [12]. Local Authorities are responsible for the implementation of national alcohol policy at a local level. RHSs and regional organizations for the care and treatment of addicts carry out prevention activities at a regional and local level, often commissioned by Local Authorities.

Current policies and interventions are mainly directed at settings such as schools and sports clubs. However, it is unlikely that this approach will have sufficient impact on adolescents, because the groups in these settings are heterogeneous. Adolescents differ in their drinking habits and have different attitudes towards alcohol. This means that one intervention reaches only a part of all adolescents, and doesn’t reach other adolescents, with a different drinking habit or a different attitude.

Market research has revealed the importance and effectiveness of tailoring messages and incentives to meet the needs of different population segments. Not every individual is a potential consumer of a given product, idea, or service; so tailoring messages to specific groups will be more effective than broadcasting the same message to everyone [13, 14].

Audience segmentation is a method for dividing a large and heterogeneous population into separate, relatively homogeneous segments on the basis of shared characteristics known or presumed to be associated with a given outcome of interest [15].

Audience segmentation is fairly common in the field of public health. However, such segmentation is usually based on socioeconomic and demographic variables, such as age, ethnicity, gender, education and income. Unfortunately, demographic segmentation alone may be of limited use for constructing meaningful messages [16]. While psychographic and lifestyle analyses have long been standard practice in business marketing, their use in public health communication efforts is still much less common [16]. Since health messages can be fine-tuned to the differences in lifestyle such as attitudes and values, segments based on aspects of lifestyle are expected to be more useful for health communication strategies [14, 16]. We assume that attitudes, values, and motives in relation to alcohol consumption among adolescents will vary, and may therefore offer a better starting point for segmentation than socio-demographic characteristics alone. For example, previous research has shown that motives for drinking give rise to a substantial part of the variance in alcohol consumption [17, 18]. Moreover, personality traits, such as sensation seeking, are associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol use [19].

Despite the promising characteristics of audience segmentation based on lifestyle aspects, it has never been used in the Netherlands in relation to the prevention of alcohol consumption. That is why the RHS “Hart voor Brabant”, in cooperation with market research office Motivaction®, conducted a study to find out whether it is possible to identify different segments on the basis of the motives, attitudes, and values of adolescents towards alcohol. The first results of this study were already published in a Dutch article [20].


CURL Comes to N1QL: Querying External JSON Data | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

N1QL has many functions that allow you to perform a specific operation. One such function that has been added into the new Couchbase 5.0 DP is CURL.

CURL allows you to use N1QL to interact with external JSON endpoints; namely, Rest API’s that return results and data in JSON format. This function will allow N1QL to have a conservative set of curl functionality built into the language. Interaction primarily consists of data transfer to and from a server using the http and https protocols. In short, the CURL function in N1QL provides you, the user, a subset of standard curl functionality (https://curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html) within a query language.

In order to retrieve data from different servers (such as Google Maps, Yahoo Finance etc), we can issue either GET or HTTP POST requests using the CURL function. This is seen in the diagram below.

Function Definition

CURL (URL, [options])

The first argument is the URL, which represents any URL that points to a JSON endpoint. Only URLs with the http:// or the https:// protocol are supported. Redirection is disabled. The input arguments to the CURL() function can be both static values and N1QL expressions that can be evaluated. 

Later in the article we shall see examples that query from the Google Geocode API, the Yahoo Finance API, Couchbase full text search and the Github API. The second argument is a list of options. This is a JSON object that contains a list of curl options and their corresponding values.

We support a variety of options that allow you to interact with any endpoint effectively. In general these can be categorized into security related options and general options. A table of the supported options is given at the end of the article.

Security features/enhancements for CURL

With the addition of the CURL function, to avoid security vulnerabilities and control and minimize the risks associated with it, multiple security measures have been implemented.

Using CA certificates with N1QL's CURL function

Certificates used by the N1QL CURL function should be stored on every query node within the cluster in the n1qlcerts directory. The location where this directory needs to be created by the user depends upon the location of the couchbase installation. (It is OS specific). The following assume default installation location and show where the n1qlcerts directory has been created. 

Linux                       

 /opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts                                                         

Mac OSX

/Users/couchbase/Library/Application\ Support/Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts

Windows

C:\Program Files\Couchbase\Server\var\lib\couchbase\n1qlcerts

For non-default installation locations, the relative path - "../var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts directory" from the bin directory where cbq-engine is run from needs to be created.

This directory must be created for every query node.

Once this directory has been created, add the certificate for CURL to use in here. In order to use this certificate, we use the option cacert and pass in the name of the certificate. 

For example if n1qlcerts/user1.pem is the name of the certificate, use the cacert option -

"cacert":"user1.pem"

Only names are valid, paths are invalid and passing one will cause an error. CURL() throws an error in the case of invalid and expired certificates.

NOTE : The n1qlcerts directory and its contents need to be replicated for each query node within the cluster.

Custom headers and user-agent

CURL() runs on the query node within a cluster. This enables the function to gain access to all REST endpoints that are accessible through the Query service (since that is where the function is executed). In order to avoid access to such insecure endpoints, a custom header, that cannot be changed by the user, is added to all requests sent using the N1QL curl function. This is of the format "X-N1QL-User-Agent: couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL". 

A user-agent is also always set by default. This can be reset using the -user-agent option. The value set by default is "couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

Both these values are designed to allow both internal and external endpoints to check for the header/user-agent and disallow access in their code and deny access to the function. The one caveat when using this however, is that we still cannot protect against any software that doesnt check for this header and the existing versions of locally installed software (both Couchbase and non-Couchbase software). For such cases, the curl whitelist feature has been added (see below).

Creating a Whitelist to restrict CURL access.

A whitelist is a JSON document, that lists out the permitted REST endpoints and URLs for the CURL() function to access. The URL's themselves, need to be a prefix match. The whitelist document is created within the n1qlcerts directory (for the location see above), and is named curl_whitelist.json (this name is fixed and cannot be changed by the user). The file (curl_whitelist.json) needs to be created by the administrator (or a user with access to the machine where couchbase is installed). 

If the whitelist is not setup (..../n1qlcerts/curl_whitelist.json doesnt exist) or if it exists but is empty then the CURL function cannot be used. 

Any whitelist needs to have the following fields - 

Field

Type

Description

Default value

all_access

boolean

This will decide whether the user has access to all urls or only the urls specified in the allowed_urls array.

false

allowed_urls

array

List of prefixes for urls that we wish to allow.

empty

disallowed_urls

array

List of prefixes for urls that will be restricted no matter what

empty

If the all_access field is false, then the usage for the CURL function has been fully restricted. In order to be able to use CURL() with any endpoint in N1QL, the administrator needs to set allowed_urls and disallowed_urls accordingly. In order to allow access to all urls, we can set all_access to true. This essentially gives us full CURL access.

Curl_whitelist.json { "all_access":false, "allowed_urls":["https://maps.googleapis.com"] }

Any url in CURL() prefixed by https://maps.googleapis.com/ will be allowed. 

NOTE : The whitelist needs to be replicated for each query node within the cluster.

Role based access to the CURL function

An important thing worth mentioning here is that CURL is designed so that it cannot be arbitrarily invoked. In order to avoid injection of data from an external source using the UPDATE statement, a new role QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS has been added. Only a user assigned this role has access to the CURL function. By default this role membership is empty. The CURL function can only be accessed by a FULL_ADMIN or any user that has been granted the QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS role by the FULL_ADMIN. For previous versions of couchbase that dont support role-based access control, a password protected bucket can be used. Also for the CURL() functionality, internally a specific set of SSL ciphers (MEDIUM or HIGH) are supported. This is dependent on the COUCHBASE_SSL_CIPHER_LIST.

Restricting the result size for CURL()

An important concern with using the CURL() function is when a user crafts a really long file -  greater than 64 MB, and tries to read from it. Since the data is loaded into memory, if the result size is not capped the query service could crash. Due to this possibility, the maximum result size for data that can be returned by CURL() is 64MB (67 108 864 bytes). The user can restrict the amount of memory for CURL results by using the result-cap option.The minimum (default)value for the result-cap option is 20MB ( 20 971 520 bytes).

Interaction With Different Endpoints

Let us see how to query different endpoints using the CURL function in N1QL.

Google Maps Geocoding API

The Geocoding API from Google Maps allows you to convert static addresses into coordinates and vice versa using HTTP request. (For more information refer to https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/intro )

Say you want to search for Santa Cruz in Spain using your Google Dev API key. In order to do this, you can use the following query:

Curl Request curl https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=santa+cruz&components=country:ES&key=<Your Developer API key> Corresponding Query SELECT CURL("https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json", {"get":true,"data":"address=santa+cruz&components=country:ES&key=<Your Developer API key>"}) GEO; "results": [ { "GEO": { "results": [ { "address_components": [ { "long_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "short_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "short_name": "TF", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_2", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Canary Islands", "short_name": "CN", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_1", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Spain", "short_name": "ES", "types": [ "country", "political" ] } ], "formatted_address": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain", "geometry": { "bounds": { "northeast": { "lat": 28.487616, "lng": -16.2356646 }, "southwest": { "lat": 28.4280248, "lng": -16.3370045 } }, "location": { "lat": 28.4636296, "lng": -16.2518467 }, "location_type": "APPROXIMATE", "viewport": { "northeast": { "lat": 28.487616, "lng": -16.2356646 }, "southwest": { "lat": 28.4280248, "lng": -16.3370045 } } }, "place_id": "ChIJcUElzOzMQQwRLuV30nMUEUM", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] } ], "status": "OK" } } ]

This query retrieves the address and geographic location bounds of the address, Santa Cruz, ES. We use the address, components and key parameters from the Google Maps Geocoding REST API. The "data" option represents the curl data option that represents HTTP POST data.  However, because this is a get request we set the "get" option to true. You can provide values to all the REST parameters within the data option. 

Now lets search for Half Moon Bay in CA.

Query with curl request SELECT CURL("https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json", {"data":"address=Half+Moon+Bay", "get":true}) GEO; "results": [ { "GEO": { "results": [ { "address_components": [ { "long_name": "Half Moon Bay", "short_name": "Half Moon Bay", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "San Mateo County", "short_name": "San Mateo County", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_2", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "California", "short_name": "CA", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_1", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "United States", "short_name": "US", "types": [ "country", "political" ] } ], "formatted_address": "Half Moon Bay, CA, USA", "geometry": { "bounds": { "northeast": { "lat": 37.5226389, "lng": -122.4165183 }, "southwest": { "lat": 37.4249286, "lng": -122.4778879 } }, "location": { "lat": 37.4635519, "lng": -122.4285862 }, "location_type": "APPROXIMATE", "viewport": { "northeast": { "lat": 37.5226389, "lng": -122.4165183 }, "southwest": { "lat": 37.4249286, "lng": -122.4778879 } } }, "place_id": "ChIJC8sZCqULj4ARVJvnNcic_V4", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] } ], "status": "OK" } } ] Yahoo Finance API

The Yahoo Finance API allows you to use the Yahoo Query Language (YQL) to fetch stock quotes (as seen in http://meumobi.github.io/stocks%20apis/2016/03/13/get-realtime-stock-quotes-yahoo-finance-api.html ). Below is the YQL SELECT statement to access the stock of Hortonworks Inc (HDP).

select * from yahoo.finance.quotes where symbol in ("HDP")

In order to get the results in JSON you can use the following URL:

https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback=

Curl Request curl https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql --data 'q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback=' Corresponding Query SELECT temp.query.results from CURL("https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql", {"data":"q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback="})temp; "results": [ { "results": { "quote": { "AfterHoursChangeRealtime": null, "AnnualizedGain": null, "Ask": "16.950", "AskRealtime": null, "AverageDailyVolume": "952135", "Bid": "16.940", "BidRealtime": null, "BookValue": "-0.654", "Change": "+0.075", "ChangeFromFiftydayMovingAverage": "0.377", "ChangeFromTwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "3.625", "ChangeFromYearHigh": "-0.755", "ChangeFromYearLow": "10.525", "ChangePercentRealtime": null, "ChangeRealtime": null, "Change_PercentChange": "+0.075 - +0.445%", "ChangeinPercent": "+0.445%", "Commission": null, "Currency": "USD", "DaysHigh": "17.010", "DaysLow": "16.780", "DaysRange": "16.780 - 17.010", "DaysRangeRealtime": null, "DaysValueChange": null, "DaysValueChangeRealtime": null, "DividendPayDate": null, "DividendShare": null, "DividendYield": null, "EBITDA": "-223.00M", "EPSEstimateCurrentYear": "-1.720", "EPSEstimateNextQuarter": "-0.380", "EPSEstimateNextYear": "-1.190", "EarningsShare": "-3.737", "ErrorIndicationreturnedforsymbolchangedinvalid": null, "ExDividendDate": null, "FiftydayMovingAverage": "16.568", "HighLimit": null, "HoldingsGain": null, "HoldingsGainPercent": null, "HoldingsGainPercentRealtime": null, "HoldingsGainRealtime": null, "HoldingsValue": null, "HoldingsValueRealtime": null, "LastTradeDate": "10/5/2017", "LastTradePriceOnly": "16.945", "LastTradeRealtimeWithTime": null, "LastTradeTime": "12:50pm", "LastTradeWithTime": "12:50pm - <b>16.945</b>", "LowLimit": null, "MarketCapRealtime": null, "MarketCapitalization": "700.96M", "MoreInfo": null, "Name": "Hortonworks, Inc.", "Notes": null, "OneyrTargetPrice": "18.930", "Open": "17.010", "OrderBookRealtime": null, "PEGRatio": "-0.400", "PERatio": null, "PERatioRealtime": null, "PercebtChangeFromYearHigh": "-4.266%", "PercentChange": "+0.445%", "PercentChangeFromFiftydayMovingAverage": "+2.275%", "PercentChangeFromTwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "+27.214%", "PercentChangeFromYearLow": "+163.941%", "PreviousClose": "16.870", "PriceBook": null, "PriceEPSEstimateCurrentYear": null, "PriceEPSEstimateNextYear": null, "PricePaid": null, "PriceSales": "3.212", "SharesOwned": null, "ShortRatio": "3.640", "StockExchange": "NMS", "Symbol": "HDP", "TickerTrend": null, "TradeDate": null, "TwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "13.320", "Volume": "217430", "YearHigh": "17.700", "YearLow": "6.420", "YearRange": "6.420 - 17.700", "symbol": "HDP" } } } ]

For this query, the value of the data option contains the Yahoo REST parameters, q (for the YQL query), format (to return data in JSON) and some other parameters.

Couchbase Full Text Search

Couchbase’s Full Text Search allows you to apply fuzzy search to data stored in Couchbase. For more information see https://blog.couchbase.com/2016/february/couchbase-4.5-developer-preview-couchbase-fts .

Suppose you create a FTS index called beers on the beer-sample bucket in Couchbase. You can now search for beer type pale ale using this index, using the CURL function in N1QL. It is important to note that FTS currently accepts HTTP POST instead of GET. To explicitely specify the POST request method, use the request option. 

Curl Request curl –u beer-sample:pass -XPOST -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://127.0.0.1:8094/api/index/beers/query -d '{ "explain": true, "fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}' Corresponding Query SELECT result.total_hits, array_length(result.hits) hits_per_page FROM CURL("http://localhost:8094/api/index/beers/query", {"request":"POST","header":"Content-Type: application/json", "data":'{"explain":false,"fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}', "user":"Administrator:password"}) result; "results": [ { "hits_per_page": 10, "total_hits": 3815 } ]

We give multiple options in this query. The header option allows you to pass a custom header to server. Content-Type : application/json tells the server that the data is provided in JSON format. If we have a password protected bucket in Couchbase, then we need to pass its credentials with the query. The user option can be used to pass in a colon-separated username and password. The request option specifies that POST request method is used.

If you want to retrieve only those documents from beer-sample that are returned by the search above, you can write a N1QL JOIN query as follows.

SELECT ARRAY x.id for x in b1.result.hits END as hits, b1.result.total_hits as total, array_length(b1.result.hits), b FROM (SELECT CURL("http://localhost:8094/api/index/beers/query", {"request":"POST","header":"Content-Type: application/json", "data":'{"explain":false,"fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}', "user":"Administrator:password"}) result) b1 INNER JOIN `beer-sample` b ON KEYS b1.result.hits[*].id LIMIT 1; "results": [ { "$1": 10, "b": { "abv": 5.4, "brewery_id": "stone_brewing_co", "category": "North American Ale", "description": "Our flagship ale, Stone Pale Ale is our Southern California interpretation of the classic British pale ale style. Deep amber in color, Stone Pale Ale is robust and full flavored. A delicate hop aroma is complemented by a rich maltiness. This is an ale for those who have learned to appreciate distinctive flavor. Stone Pale Ale is great by itself, or with food that requires a beer of character.", "ibu": 0, "name": "Stone Pale Ale", "srm": 0, "style": "American-Style Pale Ale", "type": "beer", "upc": 0, "updated": "2010-07-22 20:00:20" }, "hits": [ "stone_brewing_co-stone_pale_ale", "flying_dog_brewery-classic_pale_ale", "yards_brewing-yards_philadelphia_pale_ale", "bell_s_brewery_inc-pale_ale", "sierra_nevada_brewing_co-sierra_nevada_pale_ale", "cooper_s_cave_ale_company-cooper_s_cave_pale_ale", "appalachian_brewing_company-hoppy_trails_india_pale_ale", "cooperstown_brewing_company-backyard_india_pale_ale", "mogollon_brewing_company-superstition_pale_ale", "troegs_brewing-troegs_pale_ale" ], "total": 3815 } ]

This will retrieve the ids of the documents returned by the FTS query that searches for pale ale, along with the total hits and all the details from the corresponding document in beer-sample.

Github API 

Github’s API is a bit different from the previous API’s, in that it returns multiple results in the form of a JSON array of result values. This can be treated as multiple documents.Refer to the Github API docs in https://developer.github.com/v3/ for more details on what can be queried.

Say you want to find out all the repositories linked to a Github account. The following query does this

Curl request curl -H "User-Agent: ikandaswamy" https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos Corresponding query SELECT RAW list FROM CURL("https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos")list LIMIT 1; "results": [ { "archive_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/{archive_format}{/ref}", "assignees_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/assignees{/user}", "blobs_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/blobs{/sha}", "branches_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/branches{/branch}", "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "collaborators_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/collaborators{/collaborator}", "comments_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/comments{/number}", "commits_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/commits{/sha}", "compare_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/compare/{base}...{head}", "contents_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/contents/{+path}", "contributors_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/contributors", "created_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:03Z", "default_branch": "master", "deployments_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/deployments", "description": "Use this to implement various fun problems while relearning Data Structures and Algorithms", "downloads_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/downloads", "events_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/events", "fork": false, "forks": 0, "forks_count": 0, "forks_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/forks", "full_name": "ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "git_commits_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/commits{/sha}", "git_refs_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/refs{/sha}", "git_tags_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/tags{/sha}", "git_url": "git://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "has_downloads": true, "has_issues": true, "has_pages": false, "has_projects": true, "has_wiki": true, "homepage": null, "hooks_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/hooks", "html_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "id": 102792479, "issue_comment_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues/comments{/number}", "issue_events_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues/events{/number}", "issues_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues{/number}", "keys_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/keys{/key_id}", "labels_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/labels{/name}", "language": null, "languages_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/languages", "merges_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/merges", "milestones_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/milestones{/number}", "mirror_url": null, "name": "ds-algo", "notifications_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/notifications{?since,all,participating}", "open_issues": 0, "open_issues_count": 0, "owner": { "avatar_url": "https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/9203396?v=4", "events_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/events{/privacy}", "followers_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/followers", "following_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/following{/other_user}", "gists_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/gists{/gist_id}", "gravatar_id": "", "html_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy", "id": 9203396, "login": "ikandaswamy", "organizations_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/orgs", "received_events_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/received_events", "repos_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos", "site_admin": false, "starred_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/starred{/owner}{/repo}", "subscriptions_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/subscriptions", "type": "User", "url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy" }, "private": false, "pulls_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/pulls{/number}", "pushed_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:04Z", "releases_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/releases{/id}", "size": 0, "ssh_url": "git@github.com:ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "stargazers_count": 0, "stargazers_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/stargazers", "statuses_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/statuses/{sha}", "subscribers_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/subscribers", "subscription_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/subscription", "svn_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "tags_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/tags", "teams_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/teams", "trees_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/trees{/sha}", "updated_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:03Z", "url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "watchers": 0, "watchers_count": 0 } ]

If the account has three repositories, the query gives three results (here I have added limit 1). The RAW keyword is used  to return the array of documents that the query returns, without a wrapper object. One point you will notice is that the header option contains the User-Agent with a github username. This is now mandatory for all Github API requests.

Now from this list, say you would like to know, what is the clone url for each of these repos. The following query accomplishes this

SELECT clone_url FROM (SELECT RAW list FROM CURL("https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos", {"header":"User-Agent: ikandaswamy"}) list) s; "results": [ { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git" }, { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/github-cheat-sheet.git" }, { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/jsapp.git" } ] Summary

As you can see with the above examples, using the CURL function, N1QL users can now interact with any external API’s that return results in JSON format. This opens up many possibilities. For example, if Couchbase contains data corresponding to different hotels, then you can use the Google Maps API to find nearby locations to each of the corresponding hotels.

In order to have a secure environment with the addition of CURL() multiple security enhancements have been added. The following is a short list

  • CURL runs on the query node within a cluster.
  • CURL function is disabled by default.

  • CURL supports HTTP and HTTPS only. All other protocols are disabled.

  • Redirection of URLs is not allowed. 

  • Custom header for N1QL CURL is "X-N1QL-User-Agent: couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

  • User-Agent is  "couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

  • Restrict amount of memory for CURL results using result-cap. Min result cap will be 20MB, max result-cap is 64MB.

  • FULL_ADMIN role will allow access to CURL. QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS role can be assigned to a user by the FULL ADMIN. This will enable the user to use the CURL functionality. 

  • Certificates should be stored on the local machine - each query node within a cluster. Use …./Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts to store certificates.Use cacert to pass in the “name” of the certificate to use. Only names are valid, paths are invalid. (passing in a path will cause an error.)

  • CURL throws an error in case of invalid/expired certificates.

  • User has the ability to “Whitelist” endpoints.

  • The N1QL implementation of CURL uses the golang libcurl API  - https://github.com/andelf/go-curl

    List of Available Options Security Options

    Option

    Description

    value

    user

    Server user and password

    When password is empty it is treated as an empty password string.

    USERNAME[:PASSWORD]

    basic

    Use HTTP Basic Authentication

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    insecure  

    Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    anyauth

    curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use the most secure one

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    cacert

    Specify CA signed certificate filename

    Certificates should be stored on the local machine - each query node within a cluster.

    /Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts to store certificates. This is not visible to the user.

    The Filename cannot contain a path. If it is not a match to the existing contents of n1qlcerts directory, the function throws an error.

    For expired and invalid certificates throw an error.

    FILENAME (This is the certificate, pem file for aws for example)

    result-cap

    Set capacity for buffer that stores result of CURL operation

    Number of MB. (Minimum is 20MB)

    Other Transfer-Related Options

    Option

    Description

    Value

    get, G

    Get request for CURL

    BOOLEAN (true/false)

    X, request

    Set the request method. This only accepts GET or POST and is case sensitive.

    For all other cases it errors out.

    {“request”:”POST”}

    connect-timeout

    Maximum time allowed for connection. It should contain the maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection phase to the server to take. This only limits the connection phase, it has no impact once it has connected. Set to zero to switch to the default built-in connection timeout - 300 seconds.

    If float value, we truncate it to the integer value.

    For all other types (not a number) throw error.

    SECONDS

    max-time

    Maximum time allowed for the transfer operation.

    Default timeout is 0 (zero) which means it never times out during transfer.

    If float value, we truncate it to the integer value.

    For all other types (not a number) throw error.

    SECONDS

    data     

    HTTP POST data (H)

    Allows us to set all the rest api parameters for the given endpoint.

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]

    header   

    Pass custom header string to server (H)

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]

    show-error

    Show error.

    When true show errors when they occur.

    When false suppress the errors

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    silent

    Silent mode (don't output anything)

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    keepalive-time

    Wait SECONDS between keepalive probes for low level TCP connectivity. (Does not affect HTTP level keep-alive)

    SECONDS

    user-agent

    Value for the User-Agent to send to the server.

    STRING

    data-urlencode

    Encode the data, and send to server.

    This is a test => this%20is%20a%20test  

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]


    Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural development | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural development

    Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

    Niels Röling and Jules N. Pretty

    Niels Röling is Extra-ordinary Professor of agricultural knowledge systems, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. Jules N. Pretty is the Director of Sustainable Agriculture Programmes, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

    Emerging challenges for sustainable agricultureSustainability and levels of actionResource-conserving technology development and transferIncorporating farmer experimentationFrom teaching to learning and a whole new professionalismFrom directive to participatory extensionChallenges for supportive policy processesReferences

    During the past fifty years, agricultural development policies have been remarkably successful at emphasizing external inputs as the means to increase food production. This has led to growth in global consumption of pesticides, inorganic fertilizer, animal feed-stuffs, and tractors and other machinery.

    These external inputs have, however, substituted for natural processes and resources, rendering them less powerful. Pesticides have replaced biological, cultural, and mechanical methods for controlling pests, weeds, and diseases; inorganic fertilizers have substituted for livestock manures, composts, and nitrogen-fixing crops; information for management decisions comes from input suppliers, researchers, and extensionists rather than from local sources; and fossil fuels have substituted for locally generated energy sources. The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to make better use of these internal resources. This can be done by minimizing the external inputs used, by regenerating internal resources more effectively, or by combinations of both.

    Evidence is now emerging that regenerative and resource-conserving technologies and practices can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities, and nations. The best evidence comes from countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the concern is to increase food production in the areas where fanning has been largely untouched by the modem packages of externally supplied technologies. In these complex and remote lands, some farmers and communities adopting regenerative technologies have substantially improved agricultural yields, often using only few or no external inputs (Bunch, 1991; GTZ, 1992; UNDP, 1992; Lobo & Kochendörfer-Lucius, 1992; Krishna, 1993; Shah, 1994; SWCB, 1994; Pretty, 1995).

    But these are not the only sites for successful sustainable agriculture. In the high-input and generally irrigated lands, farmers adopting regenerative technologies have maintained yields whilst substantially reducing their use of inputs (Kamp, Gregory, & Chowhan, 1993; UNDP, 1992; Kenmore, 1991; van der Werf & de Jager, 1992; Bagadion & Korten, 1991). And in the very high-input lands of the industrialized countries, farmers have been able to maintain profitability even though input use has been cut dramatically, such as in Europe (Vereijken, 1992; Vereijken, Wijnands, Stol, & Visser, 1994; Van Weeperen, Röling, Van Bon, & Mur, 1995; Pretty & Howes, 1993; Jordan, Hutcheon, & Glen, 1993; El Titi & Landes, 1990) and in the United States (Liebhart et al., 1989; NRC, 1989; Hanson, Johnson, Peters, & Janke, 1990; Dobbs, Becker, & Taylor, 1991; Faeth, 1993).

    All of these successes have three elements in common. They have made use of resource-conserving technologies such as integrated pest management, soil and water conservation, nutrient recycling, multiple cropping, water harvesting, and waste recycling. In all, there has been action by groups and communities at the local level, with farmers becoming experts at managing farms as ecosystems and at collectively managing the watersheds or other resource units of which their farms form a part. And there have also been supportive and enabling external government and nongovernment institutions, which have reoriented their activities to focus on local needs and capabilities.

    Most successes, though, are still localized. They are simply islands of success. This is because an overarching element, a favourable policy environment, is missing. Most policies still actively encourage fanning that is dependent on external inputs and technologies. It is these policy frameworks that are one of the principal barriers to a more sustainable agriculture (Pretty, 1994a). Figure 1 illustrates this chapter's area of discourse and its focus on the interfaces between natural resources, local stakeholders, supportive institutions, and the policy context.

    A necessary condition for sustainable agriculture is that large numbers of farming households must be motivated to use coordinated resource management. This could be for pest and predator management, nutrient management, controlling the contamination of aquifers and surface water courses, coordinated livestock management, conserving soil and water resources, and seed stock management. The problem is that, in most places, platforms for collective decision making have not been established to manage such resources (Röling, 1994a, 1994b). The success of sustainable agriculture therefore depends not just on the motivations, skills, and knowledge of individual farmers, but on action taken by groups or communities as a whole. This makes the task more challenging. Simple extension of the message that sustainable agriculture can match conventional agriculture for profits, as well as produce extra benefits for society as a whole, will not suffice.

    Sustainability is commonly seen as a property of an ecosystem. But Sustainability can be seen from other perspectives, which are more relevant for extension. Environmental issues emerge from the human use of natural resources. Sustainability can therefore be defined in terms of human reasons, activities, and agreements. The definition of Sustainability then becomes part of the problem because people need to agree on how they define Sustainability and what priority they will give it (Pretty, 1994b).

    In this approach, Sustainability is not a scientific, "hard" property which can be measured according to some objective scale, or a set of practices to be fixed in time and space. Rather, Sustainability is a quality that emerges when people individually or collectively apply their intelligence to maintain the long-term productivity of the natural resources on which they depend (Sriskandarajah, Bawden, & Packham, 1989). In other words, Sustainability emerges out of shared human experiences, objectives, knowledge, decisions, technology, and organization. Agriculture becomes sustainable only when people have reason to make it so. They can learn and negotiate their way towards Sustainability. In any discussions of Sustainability, it is important to clarify what is being sustained, for how long, for whose benefit and at whose cost, over what area, and measured by what criteria. Answering these questions is difficult, because it means assessing and trading off values and beliefs. Campbell (1994) has put it this way: "[Attempts to define Sustainability miss the point that, like beauty, sustain ability is in the eye of the beholder.... It is inevitable that assessments of relative Sustainability are socially constructed, which is why there are so many definitions."

    It is therefore crucial to focus on more than one system level (Fresco, Stroosnijder, Bouma, & van Keulen, 1994). At the farm level, there is the farm household. At the above-farm level, there are the collective stakeholders, who might or might not be organized for sustainable use of the whole resource unit. In an irrigation scheme, it is common for an irrigators' association collectively to manage water use at the scheme level. But when it comes to watersheds or other vulnerable resource units, it is usually impossible to identify an appropriate "platform" for decision making (Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

    A key example is the Indonesian programme for integrated pest management (IPM) in irrigated rice (FAO, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Röling & Van de Fliert, 1994; Kenmore, 1991). At the farm level, this programme involves farmer field schools teaching individual farmers to manage their rice plots as ecosystems, carefully maintaining the balance between pests and their natural predators and only reverting to pesticides when observation shows that the situation is running out of hand. But IPM also needs collective management of resources comprising several farms. Thus nematodes can effectively be controlled by interrupting the cultivation of wet rice by a dryland crop such as soybeans. This requires decision making at the irrigation block level. The population dynamics of rats, the most important pest in irrigated rice, cannot be controlled at the farm level. Integrated rat management requires collective action at the village level (Van de Fliert, van Elsen, & Nangsir Soenanto, 1993).

    Although many resource-conserving technologies and practices have been widely proven on research stations to be both productive and sustainable, the total number of farmers using them is still small. This is because these technologies involve the substitution of management skills, knowledge, and labour for external inputs. The modern approach to agricultural research and extension, however, has been to emphasize comprehensive packages of technologies. Few farmers are able to adopt the whole modem packages of production or conservation technologies without considerable adjustments. Part of the problem is that most agricultural research still occurs on the research station, where scientists experience conditions quite different from those experienced by farmers.

    This is true of many sustainability-enhancing innovations. Even though resource-conserving technologies are productive and sustainable, if they are imposed on farmers, then they will not be adopted widely. Alley cropping, an agroforestry system comprising rows of nitrogen-fixing trees or bushes separated by rows of cereals, has long been the focus of research (Kang, Wilson, & Lawson, 1984; Attah-Krah & Francis, 1987; Young, 1989; Lal, 1989). Many productive and sustainable systems, needing few or no external inputs, have been developed. They stop erosion, produce food and wood, and can be cropped over long periods. But the problem is that very few, if any, farmers have adopted these alley cropping systems as designed. Despite millions of dollars of research expenditure over many years, systems that have been produced are suitable only for research stations.

    Where these systems have had some success, however, farmers have taken one or two components of alley cropping and adapted them to their own farms. In Kenya, for example, farmers planted rows of leguminous trees next to field boundaries, or single rows through their fields; and in Rwanda, alleys planted by extension workers soon became dispersed through fields (Kerkhof, 1990). But the prevailing view tends to be that farmers should adapt to the technology. Of the Agroforestry Outreach Project in Haiti, it was said:

    Farmer management of hedgerows does not conform to the extension program.... Some farmers prune the hedgerows too early, others too late. Some hedges are not yet pruned by two years of age, when they have already reached heights of 4-5 metres. Other hedges are pruned too early, mainly because animals are let in or the tops are cut and carried to animals.... Finally, it is very common for farmers to allow some of the trees in the hedgerow to grow to pole size. These trees are not pruned but are harvested when needed for house construction or other activities requiring poles. (Bannister & Nair, 1990)

    Farmers were clearly making their own adaptations according to their own needs.

    Just occasionally, however, an environmentally beneficial technology is developed that appears to require no knowledge of farmers' conditions. The IPM programme to control cassava mealybug (CMB) (Phenacoccus manihoti) in west and central Africa is one example. CMB was first recorded in Africa in 1973, and an effective natural enemy, the wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi, was found in 1981. Since releases began, it has become established in twenty-five countries, providing good control of CMB. It is to some extent a "perfect technology" for scientists, because it is released from the air without the knowledge of farmers. It is, however, not necessarily a perfect technology for farmers. The contrast with another IPM programme in Togo is significant when it comes to issues of sustainability (Box 1).

    The problem with agricultural science and extension is that it has poorly understood the nature of "indigenous" and rural people's knowledge. For many, what rural people know is assumed to be "primitive," "unscientific," or overtaken by development, and so formal research and extension must "transform" what they know so as to "develop" them. An alternative view is that local knowledge is a valuable and underused resource, which can be studied, collected, and incorporated into development activities. Neither of these views, though, is entirely satisfactory because of the static view of knowledge implied (Chambers, Pacey, & Thrupp, 1989; Röling & Engel, 1989; Warren, 1991; Long & Long, 1992; Scoones & Thompson, 1994). It is more important to recognize that local people are always involved in active learning, in (re)inventing technologies, in adapting their farming systems and livelihood strategies. Understanding and supporting these processes of agricultural innovation and experimentation have become an important focus in facilitating more sustainable agriculture with its strong locality-specific nature.

    The problem with modem agricultural science is that technologies are finalized before farmers get to see them. If new technologies are appropriate and fit a particular farmer's conditions or needs, then they stand a good chance of being adopted. But if they do not fit and if farmers are unable to make changes, then they have only the one choice. They have to adapt to the technology, or reject it entirely.

    Box 1. Comparison of Farmers' Involvement in Two IPM Programmes.

    A: Cassava mealybug (CMB) control with Epidinocarsis lopezi

    The programme has involved close collaboration between IITA and NARSs, involving training of local technicians to participate in releases. Now mass rearing of the wasp E. lopezi is done in Benin; from there they are transported by air for air release. According to IITA, an important component of success has been that farmers and extension agents have not had to be involved. Farmers do not, therefore, know anything about the releases. One survey of farmers in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire found that they recognized CMB and how it was a devastating pest. All those where E. lopezi had been introduced at least six months before had observed a significant decline in CMB. But because none of them knew about the programme, they attributed the decline to recent heavy rains and other climatic factors.

    B: Mango mealybug control in Togo

    The CMB programme is in contrast to the successful introduction of the parasitoid Gyranusoides tebyii to Togo in 1987 to control the mango mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens). The parasitoid was found in India, and following testing, rearing, and release, it rapidly spread over the whole of Togo. By 1989, no mango trees could be found on which mango mealybug was present without being parasitized. But success would be threatened without public interest, as any use of chemical control methods would kill the parasites. A great deal of publicity was given through radio, TV, and advisory leaflets. Considerable economic losses are now being prevented by the biological control system.

    Source: Kiss and Meerman (1991).

    The alternative is to seek and encourage the involvement of farmers in adapting technologies to their conditions. This constitutes a radical reversal of the normal modes of research and technology generation, because it requires interactive participation between professionals and farmers. Participatory technology development (PTD) is the process in which the knowledge and research capacities of farmers are joined with those of scientific institutions, whilst at the same time strengthening local capacities to experiment and innovate (Jiggins & De Zeeuw, 1992; Reijntjes, Haverkort, & Waters-Bayer, 1992; Haverkort, van der Kamp, & Waters-Bayer, 1991). Farmers are encouraged to generate and evaluate indigenous technologies and to choose and adapt external ones on the basis of their own knowledge and value systems.

    But, of course, researchers and farmers participate in different ways, depending on the degree of control each actor has over the research process. The most common form of "participatory" research is researcher designed and implemented, even though it might be conducted on farmers' fields. Many on-farm trials and demonstration plots represent nothing better than passive participation (Pretty, 1994b). Less commonly, farmers may implement trials designed by researchers. But greater roles for farmers are even rarer. Fujisaka (1991) describes researcher-designed experiments on new cropping patterns in the Philippines. Even though farmers "participated" in implementing the trials, there was widespread uncertainty about what researchers were actually trying to achieve. Farmers misunderstood experiments and rejected the new technologies. The reason, as Fujisaka explains, was that "cooperation between farmers and researchers implies two groups continually listening carefully to one another. Claveria farmers are avid listeners to... researchers. The challenge is for all on-farm researchers to complete the circle."

    Although this means that technology development must involve farmers, it does not mean that scientific research has no place. Research will have to contribute on many fronts, such as in the development of resistant cultivars, knowledge about the life cycles of pests, biological control methods, suitable crops for erosion control, and processes in nitrogen fixation. Such research also gives insight into complex processes such as the movement of nutrients in the soil and their accessibility for plants. But all these contributions must be seen as providing choices for farmers as they make farm-specific decisions and move the whole farm towards greater sustainability.

    The central principle of sustainable agriculture is that it must enshrine new ways of learning about the world. But learning should not be confused with teaching.

    Teaching implies the transfer of knowledge from someone who knows to someone who does not know. Teaching is the normal mode of educational curricula and is also central to many organizational structures (Ison, 1990; Argyris, Putnam, & Smith, 1985; Russell & Ison, 1991; Bawden, 1992, 1994; Pretty & Chambers, 1993). Universities and other professional institutions reinforce the teaching paradigm by giving the impression that they are custodians of knowledge which can be dispensed or given (usually by lecture) to a recipient (a student). Where these institutions do not include a focus on self-development and on enhancing the ability to learn, they do not allow students to grasp an essential skill in the sustainable management of a complex agroecosystem. In that case, "teaching threatens sustainable agriculture" (Ison, 1990).

    The problem for farmers is that they cannot rely on routine, calendar-based activities if they engage in sustainable farming. Their interventions must be based on observation and anticipation. They require instruments and indicators which make more visible the ecological relationships on and among farms. Technology for sustainable farming must emphasize measurement and observation equipment or services that help individual farmers assess their situations, such as soil analysis, manure analysis, and pest identification (Röling, 1993). It also has to focus on higher system levels. Predators and parasitoids to control pests often require a larger biotope than that of a small farm. Erosion control, water harvesting, biodiversity, access to biomass, recycling waste between town and countryside and between animal and crop production, all require local cooperation and coordination.

    What becomes important is the social transition, or new learning path, that farmers and communities must take to support sustainable agriculture. This is much less obvious and often remains unrecognized by extensionists. Learning for sustainable agriculture involves a transformation in the fundamental objectives, strategies, theories, risk perceptions, skills, labour organization, and professionalism of farming. This learning path has four key elements:

    1. The information system. Sustainable agriculture must be responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers need to invest in observation, observation equipment, record keeping, and monitoring procedures.

    2. Conceptual framework. Sustainable agriculture is knowledge intensive, and so farmers must know about life cycles of pests and disease organisms and their recognition, biological controls, ecological principles, soil life processes, nutrient cycles.

    3. Skills. Sustainable farming requires a whole set of new skills, including observation and monitoring, compost making, mechanical weed control, spot application of pesticides, and risk assessment.

    4. Higher system-level management. Generally, sustainable management of the farm is not enough, and it is necessary to think at system levels higher than the farm and take part in the collective management of natural resources at those levels.

    In educational systems, therefore, the fundamental requirement for sustainable agriculture is for universities to evolve into communities of participatory learners. Such changes are very rare, an exception being Hawkesbury College, which is now part of the University of Western Sydney, Australia (Bawden, 1992, 1994). However, a regional consortium of NGOs in Latin America concerned with agroecology and low-input agriculture recently signed an agreement with eleven colleges of agriculture from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay to help in the joint reorientation of curriculum and research agendas towards sustainability and poverty concerns (Altieri & Yuryevic, 1992; Yuryevic, 1994). The agreement defines collaboration to develop more systemic and integrated curricula, professional training and internship programmes, collaborative research efforts, and the development of training materials.

    Box 2. The Key Principles of Farmer Field Schools.

    1. What is relevant and meaningful is decided by the learner and must be discovered by the learner. Learning flourishes in a situation where teaching is seen as a facilitating process that assists people to explore and discover the personal meaning of events for themselves.

    2. Learning is a consequence of experience. People become responsible when they have assumed responsibility and experienced success.

    3. Cooperative approaches are enabling. As people invest in collaborative group approaches, they develop a better sense of their own worth.

    4. Learning is an evolutionary process, and is characterized by free and open communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect, and the right to make mistakes.

    5. Each person's experience of reality is unique. As people become more aware of how they learn and solve problems, they can refine and modify their own styles of learning and action.

    Sources: Adapted from Kingsley and Musante, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; Stock, 1994.

    A move from a teaching to a learning style has profound implications for agricultural development institutions. The focus is less on what we learn, and more on how we learn and with whom (see Box 2 for principles of farmer field schools used in the FAO IPM programme in Southeast Asia). This implies new roles for development professionals, leading to a whole new professionalism with new concepts, values, methods, and behaviour. Typically, normal professionals are single-disciplinary, work largely or only in agencies remote from people, are insensitive to diversity of context, and are concerned with themselves generating and transferring technologies. Their beliefs about people's conditions and priorities often differ from people's own views. The new professionals, by contrast, are either multidisciplinary or work in close connection with other disciplines, are not intimidated by the complexities of close dialogue with rural and urban people, and are continually aware of the context of interaction and development.

    Extension has long been grounded in the diffusion model of agricultural development, in which technologies are passed from research scientists via extensionists to farmers (Rogers, 1962, 1983). This approach is exemplified by the training and visit (T&V) system. It was first implemented in Turkey in 1967 and later widely adopted by governments (Benor, 1987; Roberts, 1989). It was designed to be a management system for energizing extension staff, turning desk-bound, poorly motivated field staff into effective extension agents. Extension agents receive regular training to enhance their technical skills, which they then hope will pass to all farmers through regular communication with small numbers of selected contact farmers.

    But the contact farmers are usually selected on the basis of literacy, wealth, readiness to change, and "progressiveness," and so this sets them apart from the rest of the community. The secondary transfer of the technical messages, from contact farmers to community, has been much less successful than predicted, and adoption rates are commonly very low among noncontact farmers. Without a doubt, T&V is now widely considered as ineffective (Axinn, 1988; Howell, 1988; Moris, 1990; Antholt, 1992, 1994; Hussain, Byerlee, & Heisey, 1994).

    Important lessons have been learned from the problems associated with T&V, and there is clearly a need to address the systemic issues facing extension (Zijp, 1993; Antholt, 1994). Extension will need to build on traditional communication systems and involve farmers themselves in the process of extension. Incentive systems will have to be developed to reward staff for being in the field and working closely with farmers. There must be a "well-defined link between the well-being of field officers and the extension system, based on the clients' view of the value of extension's and field workers' performance" (Antholt, 1992, P.). Participation, if it is to become part of extension, must clearly be interactive and empowering. Any pretence to participation will result in little change. Allowing farmers just to come to meetings or letting a few representatives sit on committees will be insufficient.

    There have been some recent innovations in introducing elements of farmer participation and group approaches into extension. Differences in impact between individual and group approaches have been well documented in both Nepal and Kenya. In western Nepal, Sen (1993) compared the rate of adoption of new technologies when extension worked with individuals or with groups. With groups, better communication between farmers and extensionists led to more adoption. When the individual approach was resumed after the experiment, adoption rates fell rapidly in succeeding years.

    In Kenya, the Ministry of Agriculture is increasingly adopting a community-oriented approach to soil and water conservation. This is steadily replacing the former individual approach of the T&V system. Where extension staff interact closely with communities in developing joint action plans, and local people freely elect members to a local catchment committee, then the impact on agricultural growth is immediate and sustained. Strong local groups mobilize the interest of the wider community and sustain action well beyond the period of direct contact with external agents. Recent studies comparing the impact of the catchment approach with the individual T&V approach have shown that, for a wide range of indicators, farmers' livelihoods were more improved where the community approach was implemented (SWCB, 1994; Pretty, Thompson, & Kiara, 1994; MALDM, 1988-1994; Eckbom, 1992).

    There have been similar successes in IPM, which requires a level of analytical skill and certain basic training in crop monitoring and ecological principles. Where farmers have been trained as experts, such as in Honduras (Bentley, Rodriguez, & Gonzalez, 1993) and in the rice-IPM programmes of Southeast Asia (Kenmore, 1991), then the impacts are substantial. Ordinary farmers are capable of rapidly acquiring and applying the principles and approaches. Fewer programmes are now teaching farmers new technologies and knowledge; rather, they are concerned with developing farmers' own capacity to think for themselves and develop their own solutions. These are producing substantial reductions in insecticide use, whilst maintaining yields and increasing profits (Table 1). But where extension continues to use the conventional top-down approach, then few farmers adopt, let alone learn, the principles. As Matteson (1992) put it: "[F]ew IPM programmes have made a lasting impact on farmer knowledge, attitudes or practice."

    There are three major lessons for extension. First, it is important to make new things visible. An important role of extension is to make visible the state of the environment and the extent to which present farming practices are untenable. In addition, extension can demonstrate the feasibility of sustainable practices. Even more important is to give farmers the tools for observation and to train them to monitor the situation on their own farms.

    The second lesson is the use of farmers' knowledge. The location-specific nature of sustainable agriculture implies that extension must make use of farmers' knowledge and work together with farmers. Often, indigenous practices which have been ignored under the impact of chemical farming can be fruitfully revived. Indigenous technology development practices and farmer experimentation can be an important "entry point" for introducing sustainable farming practices (Brouwers & Röling, in press).

    The third lesson is an emphasis on facilitating learning. Instead of "transferring" technology, extension workers must help farming "walk the learning path" (Box 3). Extension workers should seek to understand the learning process, provide expert advice where required, convene and create learning groups, and help farmers overcome major hurdles in adapting their farms.

    Policy making is commonly considered the prerogative of some central authority that formulates a policy, which is then decreed, imposed, and implemented regardless of conflicting knowledge and concerns. But policy is, in practice, often the net result of the actions of different interest groups pulling in complementary and opposing directions. This is particularly true with environmental problems because they are marked by uncertainty, complexity, and high stakes complexity, and high stakes (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). There is therefore a growing tendency to see policy as a negotiated agreement resulting from interaction among citizens, in which central authorities play a facilitating role (Van der Poel & Van Woerkum, 1994). Policy is only effective if it is based on a widely shared consensus. From this perspective, it is easy to see why so many environmental policies which rely on coercion, control, and transfer have failed (Pretty & Shah, 1994; Pimbert & Pretty, 1994).

    Box 3. The First Steps on the Learning Path in the Netherlands.

    Predator mites were introduced into Dutch fruit orchards to control the red spider mite, which had become resistant to chemical controls. The use of this biological control meant that growers had to learn how to manage their orchards as biotopes for the predator mite. Soon they were carrying magnifying glasses to study the progress of their little helpers. This made them much more observant and accustomed to investing in regular observation. Furthermore, the health of the predator mites precluded use of broad-spectrum pesticides against other pests. As a result, growers also had to learn alternative controls for those pests.

    Table 1. Impact of IPM Programmes Involving New Participatory Approaches to Farmer Learning on Pesticide Use and Crop Yields

    Country and crop

    Average changes in pesticide use (as % of conventional treatments)

    Changes in yields (as % of conventional treatments)

    Togo, cotton1

    50%

    90-108%

    Burkina Faso, rice1

    50%

    103%

    Thailand, rice2

    50%

    no data

    Philippines, rice2

    62%

    110%

    Indonesia, rice2

    34-42%

    105%

    Nicaragua, maize3

    25%

    93%'1

    USA, nine commodities4

    no. of applications up volume applied down

    110-130%

    Bangladesh, rice5

    0-25%

    113-124%

    India, groundnuts6

    0%

    100%

    China, rice2

    46-80%

    110%

    Vietnam, rice2

    57%

    107%

    India,rice2

    33%

    108%

    Sri Lanka, rice2

    26%

    135%

    a Even though yields are lower, net returns are much higher.

    Sources: (1) Kiss and Meerman, 1991; (2) Kenmore, 1991: Winarto, 1993; van der Fliert, 1993; Matteson et at, 1992; FAO, 1994; (3) Hruska, 1993; (4) NRC, 1989; (5) Kamp et al, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; (6) ICRISAT, 1993

    For sustainable agriculture to succeed, policy formulation must arise in a new way. Policy processes must be enabling and participatory, creating the conditions for sustainable development based more on locally available resources and on local skills and knowledge. Effective policy processes will have to bring together a range of actors and institutions for creative interaction and address multiple realities and unpredictability. What is required is the development of approaches that put participation, negotiation, and mediation at the centre of policy formulation so as to create a much wider common ownership in the practices. This is a central challenge for sustainable agriculture. The management of higher level systems, whether common grazing lands, coastal fisheries resources, communal forests, national parks, polders, or watersheds, requires social organization comprising the key stakeholders. All successful moves to more sustainable agriculture have in common coordinated action by groups or communities at the local level (Pretty, 1995). But the problem is that platforms for resource use negotiation generally do not exist, and so need to be created and facilitated (Brinkman, 1994; Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

    Different methodologies are emerging to help stake-holders achieve collective resource management capacity. Well known are participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) and related methodologies (see chapter 6). In addition, the soft system methodology (SSM) developed for corporate environments is highly promising for resource use negotiation (Checkland, 1981; Checkland & Scholes, 1990). For stakeholders who have come to appreciate the fact that they share a problem, SSM takes them through a number of steps which allows them to create a "rich picture" on the basis of their multiple perspectives, reach some accommodation with respect to major causes of the problem, and hence decide on collective action. "Rapid appraisal of agricultural knowledge systems" (RAAKS) (Engel, 1995) is a related methodology for facilitating innovation as an emergent property of a knowledge network, comprising such actors as farmers, extension workers, researchers, NGO workers, and policy makers. This system provides stakeholders with different "windows" (such as mission, task differentiation, integration, articulation, coordination, performance) on their own collective practices which allow them to capture the potential synergy of their contributions to innovative performance.

    A fundamental requirement if such approaches are to work is that stakeholders in a particular natural resource learn to appreciate that they have a common problem (Box 4). Extension has an important role to play here by making visible the interdependence between stakeholders and the extent to which the resource unit on which they depend has been destroyed by their uncoordinated action and the collective impact of their individual activities. It is within policy contexts thus made conducive for sustainable agriculture that technology development and extension can be especially effective.

    Box 4. Resource Mapping by Farmers in Landcare Programme, Australia.

    Landcare in Australia provides examples of learning to care for natural resources at higher system levels. Consider resource mapping. Farmers from a subcatchment (usually a subgroup of a Lancare group) are convened by the facilitator of the group to discuss the soils and their susceptibility to erosion. First, a soil typology is established by the farmers through field visits, digging soil pits, and so forth. After a suitable classification (which might deviate considerably from the official scientific one) has been agreed upon, farmers receive an air photo mosaic of the entire subcatchment with their property drawn in. They are also provided with a transparent overlay on which to map the soils and main features of their own properties.

    These farmer maps are digitized and fed into GIS software, which allows the property resource maps to be combined into one consolidated subcatchment map. Following meetings to discuss the results, farmers agree on the resource map of the subcatchment and now have a firm grasp of the interaction between their property and the subcatchment. They also realize that vulnerable soils span several properties and that measures to prevent further soil erosion and solination require alignment of fences, roads, vegetation belts, and other features.

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