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250-700 - Implementation of HA Solutions for Windows using VCS 4.1 - Dump Information

Vendor : Symantec
Exam Code : 250-700
Exam Name : Implementation of HA Solutions for Windows using VCS 4.1
Questions and Answers : 73 Q & A
Updated On : April 19, 2019
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250-700 Implementation of HA Solutions for Windows using VCS 4.1

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250-700 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of HA Solutions for Windows using VCS 4.1

Test Code : 250-700
Test Name : Implementation of HA Solutions for Windows using VCS 4.1
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 73 Real Questions

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Symantec Implementation of HA Solutions

Symantec announces customer management answer To assist hold instruments comfortable, purchasable And Compliant With company requirements | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

CUPERTINO, Calif. – can also 2, 2005 – Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC), the global chief in advice security, announced the Symantec LiveState customer management Suite, a comprehensive configuration and lifecycle management answer for client gadgets in enormously dispensed, heterogeneous commercial enterprise environments. The suite gives companies with a group of options designed to obtain client resilience by using enabling IT administrators to profit control of the IT ambiance and assist make sure customer devices are relaxed, obtainable and compliant with established company necessities. additionally, the suite reduces the complexity and cost of managing the lifecycle of client contraptions, and automates guide initiatives, reminiscent of deploying and configuring client firewall and anti-adware software, rolling out new gadgets, managing utility patches, and retiring client gadgets.

The Symantec LiveState customer administration Suite is the latest free up in Symantec’s LiveState family of assistance availability solutions. it is a important component of Symantec’s advice Integrity initiative, which helps organizations construct a resilient infrastructure through taking a holistic approach to protection, techniques and storage management. Symantec’s LiveState family of options is in response to the LiveState architecture, a single unified and extensible platform for Symantec’s customer and server management and healing solutions. The LiveState platform is designed to cut back complexity and make it more straightforward for agencies to installation further modular LiveState options in the future via leveraging a common console seem-and-think, management database and automatic agent deployment infrastructure.

“protection concerns, altering compliance requirements and lengthening pressure to establish a powerful ROI case for IT purchases are on properly of each IT manager’s mind,” spoke of Fred Broussard, analysis manager for workstation and device administration utility, IDC. “items like Symantec’s LiveState customer management Suite can add value via converging security and techniques management necessities to enable automated and at ease options for administration and device recovery.”

“we are joyful that Symantec continues to offer a comprehensive client configuration management solution with the new edition of LiveState beginning and the LiveState client management Suite,” observed Stefan Butter, IT carrier administration, TUI Infotech. “For TUI AG we at present manipulate more than 5,000 computers. The automatic solution makes it possible for us the centralized management of computing devices in our headquarters, branches in airports and our trip companies all across Europe. We perform up to 15.000 automated software distribution jobs per thirty days and the skills discount rates due to the brand new answer are huge.”

“because it challenges turn into more complex, companies are increasingly aware about the need for a balanced interplay between safety, availability and company compliance in constructing a neatly-managed, resilient infrastructure. nowadays, IT issues are crucial past comfort as they could have an impact on corporate efficiency, shareholder self assurance and even criminal legal responsibility,” said Thom Bailey, director of product administration, commercial enterprise administration, Symantec business enterprise. “The Symantec LiveState client management Suite helps corporations obtain client resilience by way of providing a single unified answer designed to control a client’s lifecycle from acquisition to retirement. The suite combines trade-leading technologies to support IT companies boost effectivity, reduce complexity, downtime and cost, and comply with established company or regulatory requisites.”

The Symantec LiveState customer administration Suite readily interoperates with present lifecycle administration approaches and equipment, such as frameworks, databases and directories, minimizing the full can charge of owning and holding customer gadgets. The suite combines here modular components:

· Symantec LiveState dressmaker – contains trade-main Symantec Ghost and Symantec DeployCenter imaging applied sciences, Symantec LiveState kit supervisor for the introduction of custom deployment programs, Symantec client Migration for performing cozy client migration initiatives, and Gdisk for at ease retirement of client devices. Symantec LiveState dressmaker simplifies the system of growing applications by means of providing handy-to-use, automatic wizards and graphical tools for command-line enter, and the means to leverage present third-party applications. IT directors can check configuration management projects by using deploying them to a look at various machine or virtual environment using Symantec LiveState delivery earlier than deploying them throughout the firm and into the creation ambiance.

· Symantec LiveState start – an impressive open and scalable application start and configuration management answer. Symantec LiveState delivery permits IT administrators to instantly installation programs for practically any management assignment throughout heterogeneous environments, together with cell and faraway customer instruments, cyber web kiosks and POS instruments. Symantec LiveState birth’s extensible structure allows for companies to leverage latest IT investments. It allows IT directors to comprise and set up initiatives and packages from other Symantec LiveState items or third-party equipment, corresponding to hardware/application auditing, software installing, patch deployment, troubleshooting and remediation, gadget/information healing and gadget retirement. Symantec LiveState beginning additionally contains a library of pre-built configuration applications to deploy and configure applications and updates equivalent to Symantec client protection to enable virus protection, client firewall, anti-adware, intrusion prevention and VPN coverage compliance.

· Symantec LiveState Patch manager – A scalable patch management solution that gives IT directors with the equipment needed to proactively and automatically execute a firm’s patch administration technique. This includes scanning for and identifying put in, missing and purchasable Microsoft safety patches, packaging and deploying appropriate patches using flexible and dynamic grouping and targeting capabilities, and constructed-in reporting alternatives. Symantec LiveState Patch supervisor is interoperable with Symantec LiveState start and shares a common database offering IT directors with sooner reporting capabilities and enhanced scalability.

· Symantec pcAnywhere for Symantec LiveState – Combines comfy and feature-wealthy faraway handle with effective file switch capabilities. Symantec pcAnywhere for Symantec LiveState is in keeping with Symantec’s business-leading remote control answer. go-platform aid enables IT administrators to handle each home windows and Linux shoppers. potent protection facets provide companies with the entry handle and encryption alternatives they require to keep away from unauthorized entry and to promote compliance with company and regulatory standards. security points encompass default encryption of login suggestions, mandatory passwords, host tackle blocking, 13 degrees of authentication and AES encryption (as much as 256-bit cipher energy) via a FIPS 140-2 (degree 1)-validated cryptographic module.

· Symantec Discovery – an answer to all of a sudden, silently and normally perform asset administration tasks for finished and correct audits throughout allotted heterogeneous environments. Symantec Discovery presents effective tools for agentless discovery of community gadgets, agent-primarily based hardware/software stock administration, utility utilization and license administration with alerting, complete information analysis, reporting and graphing, as neatly as the entertaining capability to determine the actual region of contraptions.

· Symantec LiveState beginning business supervisor – An not obligatory add-on element that's available with an expert capabilities providing to enhance the scalability and manageability of Symantec LiveState birth. Symantec LiveState delivery enterprise supervisor gives each policy-based and conventional assignment-primarily based administration capabilities in a single unified solution. it is used along with Symantec LiveState beginning to assign configuration rules to goal groups of contraptions and automate deployments. Symantec LiveState beginning enterprise manager makes use of true-time queries from inventory information, SQL databases and listing capabilities (similar to Microsoft active listing) to deliver gadgets to their desired state.

· Symantec LiveState recovery computing device – An not obligatory add-on component that gives swift and reputable healing of vital counsel and complete methods in the adventure of a system failure or statistics loss. The Symantec LiveState customer management Suite includes a limited version of Symantec LiveState healing computing device.

moreover the Symantec LiveState client administration Suite, Symantec offers standalone models of Symantec LiveState birth, Symantec LiveState Patch manager and Symantec Discovery, as well as standalone types of Symantec Ghost solution Suite and Symantec pcAnywhere. For suggestions on gadget requirements or additional Symantec LiveState household of suggestions availability options, including Symantec LiveState recuperation and Symantec LiveState restoration supervisor, talk over with http://sea.symantec.com.

expert ServicesSymantec presents a wide array of Consulting and training capabilities to assist in the implementation of the Symantec LiveState client administration Suite, its individual components and add-on options, including other Symantec LiveState purposes. furthermore, Symantec gives professional capabilities to establish a greater resilient infrastructure through Symantec techniques Continuity provider. For extra assistance, seek advice from http://sea.symantec.com.

AvailabilityThe Symantec LiveState customer administration Suite and Symantec LiveState start are currently accessible through licensed Symantec business administration partners worldwide or at once from Symantec. For more advice on Symantec’s companion program or to find a companion, seek advice from http://www.symantec.com/companions/channelpartners/index.html. Symantec LiveState Patch supervisor, Symantec Discovery, Symantec Ghost solution Suite and Symantec pcAnywhere are available through Symantec’s worldwide community of distributors and resellers. To gain licensing information or to locate a reseller, visit http://enterprisesecurity.symantec.com/license/ on the all over the world internet. For extra product tips, name (800) 745-6054 or discuss with http://sea.symantec.com.

About SymantecSymantec is the world leader in suggestions safety proposing a broad range of application, home equipment and capabilities designed to help people, small and mid-sized businesses, and large businesses cozy and manipulate their IT infrastructure. Symantec’s Norton brand of products is the global leader in buyer protection and difficulty-solving solutions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in additional than 35 countries. extra assistance is attainable at http://www.symantec.com.

note TO EDITORS: if you'd like additional information on Symantec agency and its products, please view the Symantec Press center at http://www.symantec.com/PressCenter/ on Symantec’s web site. All costs referred to are the company’s recommended retail expenses in US dollars and are valid most effective in the u.s..

Symantec and the Symantec logo are trademarks or registered logos of Symantec supplier in the united states and sure different countries. extra business and product names could be emblems or registered trademarks of the individual organizations and are respectfully stated.


Symantec big records answer Makes Apache Hadoop business equipped | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA--(Marketwire -08/13/12)- Symantec Corp. (SYMC) today introduced an add-on solution for Symantec's Cluster File gadget that makes it possible for customers to run huge records analytics on their present infrastructure by using making it enormously obtainable and manageable. Apache Hadoop presents customers colossal cost to force salary with the aid of assisting analyze records for enterprise insights, besides the fact that children many existing statistics solutions lack the records management capabilities and constructed-in resilience to beat the cost and complexity of expanding storage and server sprawl. by using working closely with Hortonworks, the new Symantec enterprise answer for Hadoop offering provides a scalable, resilient data administration answer for dealing with big facts workloads to help make Apache Hadoop in a position for enterprise deployment.

click to Tweet: Symantec big data solution and @Hortonworks partnership make Apache Hadoop enterprise competent: http://bit.ly/QRNPUi

Symantec's Cluster File equipment is a confirmed commercial enterprise answer to address big records workloads. With Symantec commercial enterprise solution for Hadoop, agencies can:

  • Leverage their latest infrastructure by scaling as much as sixteen PB of facts together with structured and unstructured statistics
  • keep away from over provisioning on both storage and compute means
  • Run analytics anywhere the data sits, casting off high priced information strikes
  • Make Hadoop incredibly accessible devoid of a potential single point of failure or a efficiency bottleneck
  • examine extra designated blog posts: http://bit.ly/P3dtSA

    Leveraging current Infrastructure and keeping off Over ProvisioningIT directors have spent considerable time and substances consolidating their records centers and decreasing their footprint through virtualization and cloud computing. Taking potential of large facts analytics should still leverage this consolidation of storage and compute elements. Symantec commercial enterprise solution for Hadoop makes it possible for shoppers to run Hadoop whereas minimizing investments in a parallel infrastructure -- significantly decreasing the storage footprint to cut back can charge and complexity.

    analyzing statistics where it Resides and casting off high priced facts MovesThe first step in making the Hadoop infrastructure work is to funnel information for evaluation. via enabling integration of latest storage property into the Hadoop processing framework, companies can avoid time consuming and costly records move actions. Symantec business answer for Hadoop enables directors to leave the facts where it resides and run analytics on it with no need to extract, radically change and cargo it to a separate cluster -- keeping off costly and painful statistics migrations.

    guaranteeing Hadoop is particularly AvailableIn an Apache Hadoop environment, statistics is distributed throughout nodes with just one metadata server that knows the statistics place -- doubtlessly resulting in a efficiency bottleneck and single factor of failure that could lead to utility downtime. to satisfy the need for timely insights, Symantec commercial enterprise answer for Hadoop provides file device high availability to the metadata server whereas additionally making certain analytics applications continue to run as long as there is at least one working node in the cluster. given that the Hadoop file system is changed with Symantec's Cluster File equipment, each node in the cluster can additionally access records concurrently, eliminating each the efficiency bottleneck and single element of failure.

    Pricing, Availability and SupportThe Symantec business solution for Hadoop is purchasable now to latest Cluster File gadget clients at no extra charge. Symantec enterprise answer for Hadoop helps Hortonworks information Platform (HDP) 1.0 and Apache Hadoop 1.0.2. consumers working HDP 1.0 should be capable of get Hadoop aid and practising from Symantec's Hadoop partner Hortonworks, a leading business dealer advertising the innovation, development and guide of Apache Hadoop.

    assisting fees"consumers can't have enough money to let the challenges of enforcing big records translate into management challenges in the infrastructure they've worked so tough to build," observed Don Angspatt, vice chairman of product administration, Storage and Availability administration community, Symantec Corp. "Our enterprise answer for Hadoop helps join Hadoop's company analytics to the existing storage environment while addressing key challenges of server sprawl and high availability for vital purposes. it's now absolutely viable to get the massive information answer you desire from the infrastructure you've got got."

    "Hortonworks is excited to companion with Symantec to provide shoppers effective enterprise analytics with no need to rebuild their IT infrastructure," mentioned Mitch Ferguson, vp of enterprise development, Hortonworks. "The Hortonworks records Platform is constructed upon the most strong edition of Apache Hadoop and Symantec offers the market leading storage administration and excessive availability application with their Cluster File device to enable seamless implementation. We seem ahead to offering most fulfilling-in-class guide and training to aid consumers run Hadoop in their latest environment and drive their businesses ahead to the subsequent degree."

    Story continues

    "enterprises wish to leverage the power of Hadoop analytics to peer if Hadoop-supported purposes can pressure crucial enterprise decisions. for this reason, IT management will want the self belief that their Hadoop-linked infrastructure is prepared to arise to the calls for of a creation data core environment," mentioned John Webster, Senior associate of Evaluator neighborhood. "Symantec business solution for Hadoop is one instance of a device designed to clean the transition from pilot project to creation by addressing key data core challenges including excessive availability, safety, data insurance policy, and records governance."

    connected

    join with Symantec

    About Symantec Symantec protects the world's tips, and is the global chief in security, backup and availability options. Our ingenious products and features protect people and advice in any atmosphere -- from the smallest cellular equipment, to the business records center, to cloud-primarily based systems. Our business-main knowledge in protecting information, identities and interactions offers our valued clientele self belief in a related world. more tips is attainable at www.symantec.com or by using connecting with Symantec at: go.symantec.com/socialmedia.

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    Iran, The european, And the US: the eu seek (Some diploma Of) Autonomy – analysis | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    by using Hajnalka Vincze*

    (FPRI) — The fresh effort by means of France, the UK, and Germany to create a monetary mechanism designed to skip U.S. extraterritorial sanctions on Iran reveals an expanding want for self-statement vis-à-vis the united states. For months, Europeans were in search of the way to retain the nuclear deal despite President Donald Trump’s choice to withdraw from it. Their efforts have less to do with policy against Tehran than with positioning the ecu Union in terms of the U.S., and with visions of Europe itself as a global player.

    now not that the Europeans believe the Iran problem unimportant—rather the opposite. it is exactly because the Iranian nuclear agreement is the main, if no longer the handiest, success of the european’s barely existent foreign policy that Europeans could not have enough money to sacrifice it to their habitual alignment with the USA—at least not with out a fight—for concern of losing the little international credibility they might still salvage.

    A Snub 2nd to None

    true to the saying that the ecu Union is an economic big however a political dwarf, the achievements of the eu’s usual international policy may also be counted on the fingers of one hand—and essentially the most favourite among them is, devoid of query, the nuclear contend with Iran. So a lot in order that the normal replica of the settlement is on monitor within the office of the eu’s chief diplomat. This symbolic price introduced to financial and geopolitical pursuits explains why the Europeans could not effectively ignore what they consider a blatant humiliation by using the U.S..

    The ecu used to be Iran’s accurate buying and selling associate, a position it lost when sanctions escalated in 2010 and its share of Iran’s international change shrank from 25% to 8%. due to the fact that the signing of the Joint finished Plan of motion (JCPOA) in 2015, which lifted most sanctions in trade for strict limitations on Iran’s nuclear software, exports to Iran have extended by way of 70%, and several large European groups have announced big investments in the power, computer, and automobile fields. besides the fact that children, the change in scale between the $20 trillion U.S. and the $330 billion Iranian markets puts in standpoint the burden of the economic element within the Europeans’ resolution to arise to President Trump.

    As for geopolitics, Europe is worried that a resumption of the Iranian nuclear application may result in widespread destabilization in a location from which, unlike the us, it isn't separated via an ocean. as a result of simple geography, Europe is the one on the frontline. It finds worrisome the specter of an Israeli armed forces intervention, which might irritate the chaos, as smartly as the prospect of an palms race where Saudi Arabia (and Egypt) would are trying to find their personal nuclear bombs. extra greatly, Europeans have the impact that via dismantling the settlement with Iran, it's their nearby that the us hazards to ignite.

    additionally, Europeans see the JCPOA as a validation of their multilateral method, offered because the fruit of long years of international diplomacy beneath certainly European management. certainly, the european excessive consultant chairs the talks between Iran, and the P5+1 (the five permanent contributors of the UN safety Council, plus Germany). For all these explanations—economic, geopolitical, diplomatic—Europe spared no effort to are trying to convince the American president not to give up the agreement, or—in case of U.S. exit—to at least let the other signatories recognize their end of the deal.

    For months, French, British and German diplomats made notion after concept to harden the standard coverage against Iran, without touching the JCPOA. In a latest desperate effort, the French president, on a state consult with to Washington, used all his charm and tried to accommodate President Trump’s calls for, even going so far as to float the possibility of a “new deal” (really the identical, but re-packaged in order to go away room for negotiation on other areas of subject). Nothing helped. This sort of European subtlety would not dissuade President Trump from quitting a deal he considered “horrible.” As if to curve the knife, he no longer simplest withdrew america from the JCPOA, however did it in a means which made it just about impossible for the other signatories to preserve it alive.

    In asserting the U.S. exit from of the contract, President Trump opted for the “highest stage of financial sanctions,” including those with an extraterritorial scope. These so-known as secondary sanctions would penalize any European business that, based on the commitments of its personal government however in violation of U.S. legal guidelines, continued to alternate with Iran. so as to add insult to damage, U.S. officials have also made diverse public warnings to their European colleagues. country wide security advisor John Bolton noted that “the Europeans will see that it’s of their interests to come along with us.” When the first circular of sanctions turned into set to take effect, the President defined in a tweet: “any one doing enterprise with Iran will not do enterprise with the us.” A month later he remarked: “I consider the Europeans will behave very properly. Very properly. simply watch.”

    now not tremendously, this unilateralist approach became deemed unacceptable with the aid of Paris, and additionally deplored through the other parties. For Europeans, the extraterritoriality of U.S. laws amounts to denying them the appropriate to pursue their personal policies on an issue that has turn into emblematic of their diplomacy. A joint letter signed through France, the united kingdom, Germany, and the european excessive representative called on the U.S. now not to undermine the Europeans’ means to preserve an settlement they consider standard for their safety. They “expect that the extraterritorial results of U.S. secondary sanctions are not enforced on european entities and people, and the us will hence appreciate our political determination.” without a reply from Washington, the handiest query left to the Europeans changed into to come to a decision no matter if they'd have the means and the desire to implement their personal policy choices.

    The art of Half-Measures

    in accordance with the U.S. decision, Europeans have at the start presented an strangely united entrance. All 28 european international locations agreed to reinstate a common law to protect their businesses that could proceed to change with Iran, and the biggest Member States—with the blessing of the european commission—determined to set up a special monetary mechanism designed to sidestep U.S. sanctions. on the other hand, the scope of those measures continues to be limited, both since the availability of sovereign European skill is proscribed by means of systemic vulnerabilities or since the use of current skill is still impeded by way of Europeans’ stubborn refusal to comply with through their personal good judgment.

    the first step taken with the aid of the eu became the reactivation of a blocking off statute from the mid-Nineties that forbids European agencies to comply with extraterritorial, non-ecu legal guidelines—if they do, they possibility sanctions in Europe. In theory, here's meant to supply a criminal defend in case they're prosecuted through the us. best it has under no circumstances labored, as attested by the record fines inflicted through the U.S. on French banks BNP Paribas and Société Générale for violating secondary sanctions on Sudan, Cuba, and Iran. subsequently, the companies that the blockading statute is supposed to protect have rather the sensation of being trapped between two sanctions programs. Granted, the european measure also comprises a correct to compensation for damages as a result of U.S. sanctions, however does so in an absurd form: because the U.S., as a state entity, benefits from immunity, the losses generated by Washington’s choice may need to be financed from European taxpayers’ money.

    useful options do exist, however they might indicate assuming a greater confrontational posture towards the U.S.. As stated through an analyst at the European Council on foreign relations (ECFR, a semi-respectable feel tank, with many popular European leaders on its board), “european officers have to tell Trump: if you quality our businesses’ assets in the united states, we are able to reclaim those expenses through penalizing U.S. belongings in Europe.” Uneasy with this type of stream, Europeans prefer in its place to stick to an ambivalent version of the blocking off rules, with out accountability of the U.S. companion and with out the threat of that type of “mirror sanctions.” No ask yourself these measures sound unconvincing to European businesses that choose to reside on the protected facet and conform to U.S. law.

    indeed, when an organization has belongings in the united states, has americans on their board, or conveniently makes greenback-based overseas transactions, it routinely falls under the scope of U.S. secondary sanctions. for the reason that European governments did not take reciprocity-driven political measures—such as the chance of counter-sanctions against U.S. property—with the intention to acquire an exemption for their agencies from extraterritorial U.S. legal guidelines, deepest operators rather understandably do not need to soar into the unknown. They regularly play over-compliance, rather than risking exorbitant penalties or exclusion from the profitable American market.

    It isn't any twist of fate that, from the outset, the focal point of European efforts turned into the creation of a price mechanism detached from the U.S.-managed monetary device. European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that aren't without delay uncovered to sanctions (as a result of they do not have belongings in the united states, or American shareholders, nor do they do dollar-based mostly transactions) could, in precept, for this reason continue to change with Iran. apart from that, with the intention to achieve this, they must move through banks—and banks are likely to block transactions for concern of viable U.S. retaliation. The seek a comfy economic channel became an eye fixed-opening manner for European governments. critical vulnerabilities emerged, as the European critical bank, the ecu funding bank, and the significant banks of distinctive international locations have declined to participate, for concern of damaging their ties with the U.S. and/or losing their capability to operate on the global market.

    therefore, the recourse to a selected economic mechanism, referred to as INSTEX (Instrument for helping alternate Exchanges) currently install by means of France, the UK, and Germany. Domiciled in Paris, INSTEX is run by a German director and receives funding from the three countries—to current a united front in opposition t feasible threats from Washington. The mechanism is a form of funds coordinator for transactions to and from Iran—a closed circuit, designed to protect every one in all its points from U.S. extraterritorial sanctions. Given European propensity to easily yield to U.S. demands, INSTEX is a real success. although, true to their habitual ambivalence, Europeans have managed to both irritate the us and never satisfy Iran.

    For the second, the Euro-American clash is theoretical instead of functional, notwithstanding no longer any less gigantic. The remark that, after operationalization, INSTEX should be “focusing originally on the sectors most essential to the Iranian population – corresponding to pharmaceutical, scientific instruments and agri-food goods” ability that, as a former U.S. sanctions authentic at the Treasury department stated, “It’s not a ‘circumvention’ of U.S. sanctions, on the grounds that all this trade is authorised.” This did not avoid vp Pence from announcing, “It’s an ill-suggested step so that you can best fortify Iran, weaken the european and create nevertheless more distance between Europe and the united states.” on the identical time, the Iranian foreign Minister reminded the Europeans that INSTEX, during this preliminary kind, fell wanting commitments made by means of the E3 (France, the uk, and Germany): “Europe needs to be inclined to get wet if it desires to swim in opposition t the bad tide of U.S. unilateralism.” The difficulty is that “getting moist” goes in opposition t Europe’s deeply-anchored reflexes.

    The Sovereignty challenge: A Bridge Too far

    despite the fact there changed into firstly a mind-blowing unanimity among the many 28 to “deeply be apologetic about” the U.S. withdrawal from the JCPOA and to “continue to be dedicated to the persisted full and valuable implementation of the nuclear deal,” reservations emerge, as we now have seen, on the way to translate this into exact measures. Admittedly, each person concurs that when you consider that the european’s credibility is on the line, “some thing must be achieved.” Yet, when it comes to whether this “something” may still have a true influence—to be able to assert European sovereignty—or, conversely, continue to be on the symbolic degree in order no longer to offend the U.S., Europe’s internal divisions come to the floor.

    Whereas the French Minister of economic climate proclaims that “it is time for Europe to stream from phrases to motion in regards to financial sovereignty, it's time for us to undertake the same devices as those attainable to the U.S. for defending its economic pastimes,” Chancellor Merkel, like all self-respecting German chief, remains ambiguous on the field. at some point, she says that “Europe must take its destiny in its own fingers.” On different occasions, she strikes a more cautious tone: “here's a serious experience, but it surely isn't a intent to name into query the whole trans-Atlantic partnership.” eastern Member States are unwaveringly on this 2nd line. For the Lithuanian Minister of overseas Affairs Linas Linkevičius, “Let’s take into account what’s greater crucial” – “We shouldn’t do that on the cost of Euro-Atlantic members of the family.” in keeping with him, “It’s really not a single voice” within the ecu, to which his Polish counterpart brought, “Many nations are towards a confrontation with the U.S.”

    Warsaw’s resolution to host an anti-Iran summit initiated by the U.S. (and later renamed “on the center East”) did not at all help to beat intra-eu divergences. particularly when you consider that leaders of ecu institutions are, for his or her part, unequivocal: the respect of JCPOA commitments is deemed strategically crucial neatly beyond the specific Iranian case. in the words of the eu’s chief diplomat, “We Europeans can't accept that a overseas vigor – even our closest buddy and ally – makes choices over our reputable trade with a different country. this is a primary aspect of sovereignty.” in a similar fashion, the President of the fee titled his newest speech on the state of the Union, “The hour of European sovereignty.”

    no longer unrelated to the vulnerabilities published right through efforts to retain the Iran deal, Jean-Claude Juncker proposed to make the euro “the instrument of a brand new, extra sovereign Europe.” He went on to assert, “it is absurd that Europe can pay for 80% of its energy import invoice – price 300 billion euro a 12 months – in U.S. dollar when handiest roughly 2% of our power imports come from the united states. it's absurd that European companies purchase European planes in dollars in its place of euro.” here is an odd, (well-nigh) “de Gaullian” stance from eu officers. in the equal spirit, existing French President Emmanuel Macron speaks of a “sovereignty look at various” for Europe, and his Minister of the economy warns his European companions in opposition t behaving “like vassals.”

    Former German ambassador to Washington and the latest Director of the Munich safety convention Wolfgang Ischinger considers that the U.S. determination on Iran is a chance for Europe: “it's yet another dramatic wake-up call for the european Union to at last get a grip on itself. For the eu project, I can't imagine a much better motivation than this shock from Trump.” After his failed attempts to affect the American president, Emmanuel Macron additionally drew a clear lesson: “The query is not whether we can persuade the united states of america, it is a superb americans and a very good country, the question is whether or not the us of america appears at us as a power with strategic autonomy, that’s the real question this is posed for Europe these days.” except that, as we have seen, European partners do not necessarily desire an answer within the affirmative.

    other Horizons…

    regardless of the ongoing controversies among European companions, there is consensus on two aspects: first, the stakes go a long way past the question of Iran; 2d, the commitment to keep the nuclear agreement in no way implies complacency or naivety vis-à-vis Tehran. For Europeans, honoring their commitments below the JCPOA raises one essential issue: their means to claim their own interests and coverage selections, even when they don't coincide with these of their closest ally. seen from this angle, the (half)-measures taken to outwit U.S. extraterritoriality could mark a big first step. They could be accelerated and tailored for other situations, when and if there might be a coverage gap between Europe and the us.

    at last, the dispute over the nuclear deal is just one, and doubtless no longer essentially the most vital, element in a context of expanding transatlantic coverage divergences. even if on exchange tariffs, NATO, European defense, the INF (Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty) or arms purchases, Europeans are confronted with simple transatlantic imbalances. furthermore, the inner fragilities of eu Member States add a “democracy aspect” to the quest for sovereignty. President Macron underscored this commonly not noted link: “If we accept that other incredible powers, together with allies, including pals, are competent to decide for us, our diplomacy, our security, then we are not any longer sovereign and we can no longer credibly study our public opinions, our people with the aid of announcing to them: we can decide for you, come and vote and decide.” On the Iran subject, Europe has evidently didn't anticipate full autonomy. but it has at the least realized, jointly and publicly, that the problem exists. it's protected to claim that there may be different opportunities.

    *in regards to the writer: Hajnalka Vincze, a Senior Fellow in the center for the look at of the united states and the West on the overseas policy research Institute, contributes to FPRI on French, ecu, and transatlantic politics and guidelines. Vincze is a eu foreign and safety policy analyst, previously in charge of European Union and transatlantic issues at the Hungarian Ministry of protection’s analysis Institute.

    supply: this text turned into posted by way of FPRI


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    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Cluster Suite | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    When mission-critical applications fail, so does your business. This often is a true statement in today's environments, where most organizations spend millions of dollars making their services available 24/7, 365 days a year. Organizations, regardless of whether they are serving external customers or internal customers, are deploying highly available solutions to make their applications highly available.

    In view of this growing demand, almost every IT vendor currently is providing high-availability solutions for its specific platform. Famous commercial high-availability solutions include IBM's HACMP, Veritas' Cluster Server and HP's Serviceguard.

    If you're looking for a commercial high-availability solution on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the best choice probably is the Red Hat Cluster Suite.

    In early 2002, Red Hat introduced the first member of its Red Hat Enterprise Linux family of products, Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS (originally called Red Hat Linux Advanced Server). Since then, the family of products has grown steadily, and it now includes Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (for entry- and mid-range servers) and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS (for desktops/workstations). These products are designed specifically for use in enterprise environments to deliver superior application support, performance, availability and scalability.

    The original release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS version 2.1 included a high-availability clustering feature as part of the base product. This feature was not included in the smaller Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES product. However, with the success of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family, it became clear that high-availability clustering was a feature that should be made available for both AS and ES server products. Consequently, with the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 3 in October 2003, the high-availability clustering feature was packaged into an optional layered product called the Red Hat Cluster Suite, and it was certified for use on both the Enterprise Linux AS and Enterprise Linux ES products.

    The RHEL cluster suite is a separately licensed product and can be purchased from Red Hat on top of Red Hat's base ES Linux license.

    Red Hat Cluster Suite Overview

    The Red Hat Cluster Suite has two major features. One is the Cluster Manager that provides high availability, and the other feature is called IP load balancing (originally called Piranha). The Cluster Manager and IP load balancing are complementary high-availability technologies that can be used separately or in combination, depending on application requirements. Both of these technologies are integrated in Red Hat's Cluster Suite. In this article, I focus on the Cluster Manager.

    Table 1 shows the major components of the RHEL Cluster Manager.

    Table 1. RHEL Cluster Manager Components

    Software Subsystem Component Purpose Fence fenced Provides fencing infrastructure for specific hardware platforms. DLM libdlm, dlm-kernel Contains distributed lock management (DLM) library. CMAN cman Contains the Cluster Manager (CMAN), which is used for managing cluster membership, messaging and notification. GFS and related locks Lock_NoLock Contains shared filesystem support that can be mounted on multiple nodes concurrently. GULM gulm Contains the GULM lock management user-space tools and libraries (an alternative to using CMAN and DLM). Rgmanager clurgmgrd, clustat Manages cluster services and resources. CCS ccsd, ccs_test and ccs_tool Contains the cluster configuration services dæmon (ccsd) and associated files. Cluster Configuration Tool System-config-cluster Contains the Cluster Configuration Tool, used to configure the cluster and display the current status of the nodes, resources, fencing agents and cluster services graphically. Magma magma and magma-plugins Contains an interface library for cluster lock management and required plugins. IDDEV iddev Contains the libraries used to identify the filesystem (or volume manager) in which a device is formatted.

    Shared Storage and Data Integrity

    Lock management is a common cluster infrastructure service that provides a mechanism for other cluster infrastructure components to synchronize their access to shared resources. In a Red Hat cluster, DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) or, alternatively, GULM (Grand Unified Lock Manager) are possible lock manager choices. GULM is a server-based unified cluster/lock manager for GFS, GNBD and CLVM. It can be used in place of CMAN and DLM. A single GULM server can be run in standalone mode but introduces a single point of failure for GFS. Three or five GULM servers also can be run together, in which case the failure of one or two servers can be tolerated, respectively. GULM servers usually are run on dedicated machines, although this is not a strict requirement.

    In my cluster implementation, I used DLM, and it runs in each cluster node. DLM is good choice for small clusters (up to two nodes), because it removes quorum requirements as imposed by the GULM mechanism).

    Based on DLM or GLM locking functionality, there are two basic techniques that can be used by the RHEL cluster for ensuring data integrity in concurrent access environments. The traditional way is the use of CLVM, which works well in most RHEL cluster implementations with LVM-based logical volumes.

    Another technique is GFS. GFS is a cluster filesystem that allows a cluster of nodes to access simultaneously a block device that is shared among the nodes. It employs distributed metadata and multiple journals for optimal operation in a cluster. To maintain filesystem integrity, GFS uses a lock manager (DLM or GULM) to coordinate I/O. When one node changes data on a GFS filesystem, that change is visible immediately to the other cluster nodes using that filesystem.

    Hence, when you are implementing a RHEL cluster with concurrent data access requirements (such as, in the case of an Oracle RAC implementation), you can use either GFS or CLVM. In most Red Hat cluster implementations, GFS is used with a direct access configuration to shared SAN from all cluster nodes. However, for the same purpose, you also can deploy GFS in a cluster that is connected to a LAN with servers that use GNBD (Global Network Block Device) or two iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) devices.

    Both GFS and CLVM use locks from the lock manager. However, GFS uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize access to filesystem metadata (on shared storage), while CLVM uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize updates to LVM volumes and volume groups (also on shared storage).

    For nonconcurrent RHEL cluster implementations, you can rely on CLVM, or you can use native RHEL journaling-based techniques (such as ext2 and ext3). For nonconcurrent access clusters, data integrity issues are minimal; I tried to keep my cluster implementations simple by using native RHEL OS techniques.

    Fencing Infrastructure

    Fencing also is an important component of every RHEL-based cluster implementation. The main purpose of the fencing implementation is to ensure data integrity in a clustered environment.

    In fact, to ensure data integrity, only one node can run a cluster service and access cluster service data at a time. The use of power switches in the cluster hardware configuration enables a node to power-cycle another node before restarting that node's cluster services during the failover process. This prevents any two systems from simultaneously accessing the same data and corrupting it. It is strongly recommended that fence devices (hardware or software solutions that remotely power, shut down and reboot cluster nodes) are used to guarantee data integrity under all failure conditions. Software-based watchdog timers are an alternative used to ensure correct operation of cluster service failover; however, in most RHEL cluster implementations, hardware fence devices are used, such as HP ILO, APC power switches, IBM BladeCenter devices and the Bull NovaScale Platform Administration Processor (PAP) Interface.

    Note that for RHEL cluster solutions with shared storage, an implementation of the fence infrastructure is a mandatory requirement.

    Step-by-Step Implementation of a RHEL Cluster

    Implementation of RHEL clusters starts with the selection of proper hardware and connectivity. In most implementations (without IP load balancing), shared storage is used with two, or more than two, servers running the RHEL operating system and RHEL cluster suite.

    A properly designed cluster, whether you are building a RHEL-based cluster or an IBM HACMP-based cluster, should not contain any single point of failure. Keeping this in mind, you have to remove any single point of failure from your cluster design. For this purpose, you can place your servers physically in two separate racks with redundant power supplies. You also have to remove any single point of failure from the network infrastructure used for the cluster. Ideally, you should have at least two network adapters on each cluster node, and two network switches should be used for building the network infrastructure for the cluster implementation.

    Software Installation

    Building a RHEL cluster starts with the installation of RHEL on two cluster nodes. My setup has two HP Proliant servers (DL740) with shared fiber storage (HP MSA1000 storage). I started with a RHEL v4 installation on both nodes. It's best to install the latest available operating system version and its updates. I selected v4 update 4 (which was the latest version of RHEL when I was building that cluster). If you have a valid software subscription from Red Hat, you can log in to the Red Hat network, and go to software channels to download the latest update available. Later, once you download the ISO images, you can burn it to CDs using any appropriate software. During the RHEL OS installation, you will go through various configuration selections, the most important of which are the date and time-zone configuration, the root user password setting, firewall settings and OS security level selection. Another important configuration option is network settings. Configuration of these settings can be left for a later stage, especially in building a high-availability solution with Ether-channel (or Ethernet bonding configuration).

    You may need to install additional drivers after you install the OS. In my case, I downloaded the RHEL support package for the DL740 servers (the HP Proliant support pack, which is available from h18004.www1.hp.com/products/servers/linux/dl740-drivers-cert.html).

    The next step is installing the cluster software package itself. This package, again, is available from the RHEL network, and you definitely have to select the latest available cluster package. I selected rhel-cluster-2.4.0.1 for my setup, which was the latest cluster suite available at the time.

    Once downloaded, the package will be in tar format. Extract it, and then install at least the following RPMs, so that the RHEL cluster with DLM can be installed and configured:

  • Magma and magma-plugins

  • Perl-net-telnet

  • Rgmanager

  • System-config-cluster

  • DLM and dlm-kernel

  • DLM-kernel-hugemem and SMP support for DLM

  • Iddev and ipvsadm

  • Cman, cman-smp, cman-hugemem and cman-kernelheaders

  • Ccs

  • Restart both RHEL cluster nodes after installing vendor-related hardware support drivers and the RHEL cluster suite.

    Network Configuration

    For network configuration, the best way to proceed is to use the network configuration GUI. However, if you plan to use Ethernet channel bonding, the configuration steps are slightly different.

    Ethernet channel bonding allows for a fault-tolerant network connection by combining two Ethernet devices into one virtual device. The resulting channel-bonded interface ensures that if one Ethernet device fails, the other device will become active. Ideally, connections from these Ethernet devices should go to separate Ethernet switches or hubs, so that the single point of failure is eliminated, even on the Ethernet switch and hub level.

    To configure two network devices for channel bonding, perform the following on node 1:

    1) Create bonding devices in /etc/modules.conf. For example, I used the following commands on each cluster node:

    alias bond0 bonding options bonding miimon=100 mode=1

    Doing this loads the bonding device with the bond0 interface name and passes options to the bonding driver to configure it as an active-backup master device for the enslaved network interfaces.

    2) Edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 configuration file for eth0 and the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 file for the eth1 interface, so that these files show identical contents, as shown below:

    DEVICE=ethx USERCTL= no ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes BOOTPROTO=none

    This enslaves ethX (replace X with the assigned number of the Ethernet devices) to the bond0 master device.

    3) Create a network script for the bonding device (for example, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0), which would appear like the following example:

    DEVICE=bond0 USERCTL=no ONBOOT=yes BROADCAST=172.16.2.255 NETWORK=172.16.2.0 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 GATEWAY=172.16.2.1 IPADDR=172.16.2.182

    4) Reboot the system for the changes to take effect.

    5) Similarly, on node 2, repeat the same steps with the only difference being that the file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 should contain an IPADDR entry with the value of 172.16.2.183.

    As a result of these configuration steps, you will end up with two RHEL cluster nodes with IP addresses of 172.16.2.182 and 172.16.2.183, which have been assigned to virtual Ethernet channels (the underlying two physical Ethernet adapters for each Ethernet channel).

    Now, you easily can use the network configuration GUI on the cluster nodes to set other network configuration details, such as hostname and primary/secondary DNS server configuration. I set Commsvr1 and Commsvr2 as the hostnames for the cluster nodes and also ensured that name resolution in both long names and short names would work fine from both the DNS server and the /etc/hosts file.

    A RHEL cluster, by default, uses /etc/hosts for node name resolution. The cluster node name needs to match the output of uname -n or the value of HOSTNAME in /etc/sysconfig/network.

    Listing 1. Contents of the /etc/hosts File on Each Server

    # Do not remove the following line, or various programs # that require network functionality will fail. 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 172.16.2.182 Commsvr1 Commsvr1.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.2.183 Commsvr2 172.16.1.186 Commilo1 Commilo1.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.1.187 Commilo2 Commilo2.kmefic.com.kw 172.16.2.188 Commserver 192.168.10.1 node1 192.168.10.2 node2 172.16.2.4 KMETSM

    If you have an additional Ethernet interface in each cluster node, it is always a good idea to configure a separate IP network as an additional network for heartbeats between cluster nodes. It is important that the RHEL cluster uses, by default, eth0 on the cluster nodes for heartbeats. However, it is still possible to use other interfaces for additional heartbeat exchanges.

    For this type of configuration, you simply can use the network configuration GUI to assign IP addresses—for example, 192.168.10.1 and 192.168.10.2 on eth2, and get it resolved from the /etc/hosts file.

    Setup of the Fencing Device

    As I was using HP hardware, I relied on the configuration of the HP ILO devices as a fencing device for my cluster. However, you may consider configuring other fencing devices, depending on the hardware type used for your cluster configuration.

    To configure HP ILO, you have to reboot your servers and press the F8 key to enter into the ILO configuration menus. Basic configuration is relatively simple; you have to assign IP addresses to ILO devices with the name of the ILO device. I assigned 172.16.1.100 with Commilo1 as the name of ILO device on node1, and 172.16.1.101 with Commilo2 as the ILO device name on node2. Be sure, however, to connect Ethernet cables to the ILO adapters, which usually are marked clearly on the back side of HP servers.

    Once rebooted, you can use the browsers on your Linux servers to access ILO devices. The default user name is Administrator, with a password that usually is available on the hard-copy tag associated with the HP servers. Later, you can change the Administrator password to a password of your choice, using the same Web-based ILO administration interface.

    Setup of the Shared Storage Drive and Quorum Partitions

    In my cluster setup environment, I used an HP fiber-based shared storage MSA1000. I configured a RAID-1 of 73.5GB using the HP smart array utility, and then assigned it to both of my cluster nodes using the selective host presentation feature.

    After rebooting both nodes, I used HP fiber utilities, such as hp_scan, so that both servers should be able to see this array physically.

    To verify the physical availability of shared storage for both cluster nodes, look in the /dev/proc/proc file for an entry like /dev/sda or /dev/sdb, depending upon your environment.

    Once you find your shared storage on the OS level, partition it according to your cluster storage requirements. I used the parted tool on one of my cluster nodes to partition the shared storage. I created two small primary partitions to hold raw devices, and a third primary partition was created to hold the shared data filesystem:

    Parted> select /dev/sda Parted > mklabel /dev/sda msdos Parted > mkpart primary ext3 0 20 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 20 40 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 40 40000

    I rebooted both cluster nodes and created the /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file with the following contents:

    /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sda1 /dev/raw/raw2 /dev/sda2

    A restart of rawdevices services on both nodes will configure raw devices as quorum partitions:

    /home/root> services rawdevices restart

    I then created a JFS2 filesystem on the third primary partition using the mke2jfs command; however, its related entry should not be put in the /etc/fstab file on either cluster node, as this shared filesystem will be under the control of the Rgmanager of the cluster suite:

    /home/root> mke2jfs -j -b 4096 /dev/sda3

    Now, you can create a directory structure called /shared/data on both nodes and verify the accessibility of the shared filesystem from both cluster nodes by mounting that filesystem one by one at each cluster node (mount /dev/sda3 /shared/data). However, never try to mount this filesystem on both cluster nodes simultaneously, as it might corrupt the filesystem itself.

    Cluster Configuration

    Almost everything required for cluster infrastructure has been done, so the next step is configuring the cluster itself.

    A RHEL cluster can be configured in many ways. However, the easiest way to configure a RHEL cluster is to use the RHEL GUI and go to System Management→Cluster Management→Create a cluster.

    I created a cluster with the cluster name of Commcluster, and with node names of Commsvr1 and Commsvr2. I added fencing to both nodes—fencing devices Commilo1 and Commilo2, respectively—so that each node would have one fence level with one fence device. If you have multiple fence devices in your environment, you can add another fence level with more fence devices to each node.

    I also added a shared IP address of 172.16.2.188, which will be used as the service IP address for this cluster. This is the IP address that also should be used as the service IP address for applications or databases (like for listener configuration, if you are going to use an Oracle database in the cluster).

    I added a failover domain, namely Kmeficfailover, with priorities given in the following sequence:

    Commsvr1 Commsvr2

    I added a service called CommSvc and then put that service in the above-defined failover domain. The next step is adding resources to this service. I added a private resource of the filesystem type, which has the characteristic of device=/dev/sd3, mountpoint of /shared/data and mount type of ext3.

    I also added a private resource of the script type (/root/CommS.sh) to service CommSvc. This script will start my C-based application, and therefore, it has to be present in the /root directory on both cluster nodes. It is very important to have correct ownership of root and security; otherwise, you can expect unpredictable behavior during cluster startup and shutdown.

    Application or database startup and shutdown scripts are very important for a RHEL-based cluster to function properly. RHEL clusters use the same scripts for providing application/database monitoring and high availability, so every application script used in a RHEL cluster should have a specific format.

    All such scripts should at least have start and stop subsections, along with a status subsection. When an application or database is available and running, the status subsection of the script should return a value of 0, and when an application is not running or available, it should return a value of 1. The script also should contain a restart subsection, which tries to restart services if the application is found to be dead.

    A RHEL cluster always tries to restart the application on the same node that was the previous owner of the application, before trying to move that application to the other cluster node. A sample application script, which was used in my RHEL cluster implementation (to provide high availability to a legacy C-based application) is shown in Listing 2.

    Listing 2. Sample Application Script

    #Script Name: CommS.sh #Script Purpose: To provide application #start/stop/status under Cluster #Script Author: Khurram Shiraz #!/bin/sh basedir=/home/kmefic/KMEFIC/CommunicationServer case $1 in 'start') cd $basedir su kmefic -c "./CommunicationServer -f Dev-CommunicationServer.conf" exit 0 ;; 'stop') z=`ps -ef | grep Dev-CommunicationServer | grep -v "grep"| ↪awk ' { print $2 } ' ` if [[ $? -eq 0 ]] then kill -9 $z fuser -mk /home/kmefic exit 0 fi ;; 'restart') /root/CommunicationS.sh stop sleep 2 echo Now starting...... /root/CommunicationS.sh start echo "restarted" ;; 'status') ps -U kmefic | grep CommunicationSe 1>/dev/null if [[ $? = 0 ]] then exit 0 else exit 1 fi ;; esac

    Finally, you have to add a shared IP address (172.16.2.188) to the service present in your failover domain, so that the service should contain three resources: two private resources (one filesystem and one script) and one shared resource, which is the service IP address for the cluster.

    The last step is synchronizing the cluster configuration across the cluster nodes. The RHEL cluster administration and configuration tool provides a “save configuration to cluster” option, which will appear once you start the cluster services. Hence, for the first synchronization, it is better to send the cluster configuration file manually to all cluster nodes. You easily can use the scp command to synchronize the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file across the cluster nodes:

    /home/root> scp /etc/cluster/cluster.conf Commsvr2:/etc/cluster/cluster.conf

    Once synchronized, you can start cluster services on both cluster nodes. You should start and stop RHEL-related cluster services, in sequence.

    To start:

    service ccsd start service cman start service fenced start service rgmanager start

    To stop:

    service rgmanager stop service fenced stop service cman stop service ccsd stop

    If you use GFS, startup/shutdown of the gfs and clvmd services have to be included in this sequence.

    Additional Considerations

    In my environment, I decided not to start cluster services at RHEL boot time and not to shut down these services automatically when shutting down the RHEL box. However, if your business requires 24/7 service availability, you can do this easily by using the chkconfig command.

    Another consideration is logging cluster messages in a different log file. By default, all cluster messages go into the RHEL log messages file (/var/log/messages), which makes cluster troubleshooting somewhat difficult in some scenarios. For this purpose, I edited the /etc/syslog.conf file to enable the cluster to log events to a file that is different from the default log file and added the following line:

    daemon.* /var/log/cluster

    To apply this change, I restarted syslogd with the service syslog restart command. Another important step is to specify the time period for rotating cluster log files. This can be done by specifying the name of the cluster log file in the /etc/logrotate.conf file (the default is a weekly rotation):

    /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron /var/log/cluster { sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript }

    You also have to pay special attention to keeping UIDs and GIDs synchronized across cluster nodes. This is important in making sure proper permissions are maintained, especially with reference to the shared data filesystem.

    GRUB also needs to conform to the suite environment's specific needs. For instance, many system administrators, in a RHEL cluster environment, reduce the GRUB selection timeout to some lower values, such as two seconds, to accelerate system restart time.

    Database Integration with a RHEL Cluster

    The same RHEL cluster infrastructure can be used for providing high availability to databases, such as Oracle, MySQL and IBM DB2.

    The most important thing to remember is to base your database-related services on a shared IP address—for example, you have to configure Oracle listener based on the shared service IP address.

    Next, I explain, in simple steps, how to use an already-configured RHEL cluster to provide high availability to a MySQL database server, which is, no doubt, one of the most commonly used databases on RHEL.

    I assume that the MySQL-related RPMs are installed on both cluster nodes and that the RHEL cluster already is configured with a service IP address of 172.16.2.188.

    Now, you simply need to define a failover domain using the cluster configuration tool (with the cluster node of your choice having a higher priority). This failover domain will have the MySQL service, which, in turn, will have two private resources and one shared resource (the service IP address).

    One of the private resources should be of the filesystem type (in my configuration, it has a mountpoint of /shared/mysqld), and the other private resource should be of the script type, pointing toward the /etc/init.d/mysql.server script. The contents of this script, which should be available on both cluster nodes, is shown in Listing 3 on the LJ FTP site at ftp.linuxjournal.com/pub/lj/listings/issue163/9759.tgz.

    This script sets the data directory to /shared/mysqld/data, which is available on our shared RAID array and should be available from both cluster nodes.

    Testing for high availability of the MySQL database can be done easily with the help of any MySQL client. I used SQLyog, which is a Windows-based MySQL client. I connected to the MySQL database on Commsvr1 and then crashed this cluster node using the halt command. As a result of this system crash, the RHEL cluster events were triggered, and the MySQL database automatically restarted on Commsvr2. This whole failover process took one to two minutes and happened quite seamlessly.

    Summary

    RHEL clustering technology provides a reliable high-available infrastructure that can be used for meeting 24/7 business requirements for databases as well as legacy applications. The most important thing to remember is that it is best to plan carefully before the actual implementation and test your cluster and all possible failover scenarios thoroughly before going live with a RHEL cluster. A well-documented cluster test plan also can be helpful in this regard.


    Impact of Computerized Physician Order Entry on Clinical Practice in a Newborn Intensive Care Unit | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    At The Ohio State University Medical Center, CPOE was introduced to selective services in February 20007,12 and it was first implemented at the NICU in March 2002. We use a vendor-based system (Invision 24 with graphical use interface, Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp., Malvern, PA) that has been extensively modified with vendor-provided tools to meet the needs of this pediatric population. The NICU-specific physician order sets were developed on evidence provided by best practices by a subcommittee that met regularly and is composed of information system specialists, neonatal pharmacist, staff nurses, nurse managers, attending neonatologists, and pediatric chief residents. After development, six admission or procedural-type order sets and 12 medication decision support sets designed specifically for neonatal use were approved by a hospital-wide multidisciplinary committee that oversees CPOE activities of different units.

    Formalized training for all NICU staff and physicians began 4 weeks prior to implementation. Nursing leaders identified to provide support for clinicians received 16 hours of classroom training, while all other nursing and clerical staff received 8 hours of training. Every physician received 2 to 4 hours of individualized instruction prior to the initiation of his or her monthly rotation. In addition, during the implementation of CPOE, there was 24-hour support provided by information systems staff.

    The CPOE system supports the ability of the clinician to write any order, consult, or requisition electronically. Orders are interfaced bidirectionally with our laboratory and radiology systems and unidirectionally with our dietary system. Orders are printed directly to pharmacy and other ancillary areas. Numerous clinical decision support tools are integrated into the ordering pathways. These include, but are not limited to, drug allergy, drug-drug interactions, order duplication, corollary orders, weight-based dosage, maximum dosage, and drug route restriction. In addition, simultaneously the order is evaluated through a clinical rules engine and appropriate alerts are triggered.

    Pre-CPOE data were obtained retrospectively from medical records, while post-CPOE data were obtained electronically from the computerized lifetime patient record. Our NICU admits about 850 sick full-term and premature infants every year, but we chose for the study only very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight ≤1500 g) born consecutively 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of CPOE. These infants were selected due to their high morbidity and mortality and because timely radiology and pharmacy responses as well as accurate drug dosages are critical for their survival. It should be noted that since 1987 we have had a full-time perinatal clinical pharmacist dedicated to the NICU.

    Medication Turn-Around Times

    A medication event was defined as the completion of the entire cycle, from physician order (manual or electronic) through medication administration by the nurse. In this investigation, time when orders were received and entered into the system by the pharmacist and times for the preparation of the medication were not separately identified.

    Since 1990, most medications given to neonates are stored at the NICU in a decentralized pharmacy dispensing system (Pyxis Consulting, Inc., Wellesley, MA). Thus, for the purpose of this investigation, we selected a medication that is dispensed by central pharmacy (caffeine citrate) and that is routinely administered with a loading dose.

    Before March 2002, all physician orders were entered manually in the chart kept at the patient bedside. The nurse was notified of new orders via physician communication or flagging of the chart. Then, the nurse transcribed the order onto the medication administration record and placed a duplicate copy in a special bin for the pharmacy hourly collection. Since March 2002 (post-implementation of CPOE) the NICU physician enters orders directly into a computer available at the bedside that generates an immediate printout at the pharmacy. Whether in the pre- or post-CPOE period, once the pharmacists complete processing, medications are delivered to the unit on an hourly basis. Since the implementation of CPOE, new orders are presented to nursing electronically for documentation of drug administration. In addition, at the end of each nursing shift there is a computer-generated summary of all current pharmacy orders and their stage of completion.

    Time from prescription to administration of caffeine loading dose to the patient was determined from hospital records. It was arbitrarily determined that the acceptable time for caffeine administration would be 2 to 3 hours; therefore, a percentage of patients who received the medication within that period was determined.

    Prescription Medication Error

    Common types of medication errors involve incorrect drug choice, incorrect dosage, route of administration, frequency, order illegibility, and nonstandard terminology. Among pediatric patients, especially newborns, the most common error is in dosage.11 Thus, we studied dosages of gentamicin given empirically on admission to the NICU and later at the time of a suspected late-onset sepsis. On admission to the NICU, gentamicin is dosed according to birth weight at 5 mg/kg, but later, especially in VLBW infants where there are significant daily weight changes, it must be adjusted to actual weight and to postconceptional age. Upon selection of each medication, CPOE presents the prescribing physician with the weight verification screen, the recommended dose per kilogram of body weight, frequency of administration, and dose calculations.

    Radiology Procedure Completion Time

    At The Ohio State University Health Systems, since October 1997 a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS Rev. 4.1, AGFA Corporation, Ridgefield Park, NJ) has been used. This system allows for the acquisition and storage of digital images from a variety of radiological modalities that can be displayed promptly after processing. We selected as the study-radiology procedure the first chest and abdominal X-ray taken of VLBW infants born consecutively before and after the implementation of CPOE. We focused on these infants because they often present with respiratory distress syndrome that requires endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and placement of umbilical arterial catheters for blood gas monitoring. Urgent radiological evaluations of these placements are critical for management.

    Procedure time sequence starts when the physician enters the order (manual or electronic), followed by the arrival of the radiology technician to the NICU. After the portable X-rays are taken, they are processed in the department of radiology (located on a different floor) and then entered in the computer for display on the twin screens at the NICU. At the time when the films are available for viewing, the radiology procedure is considered completed. In the pre-CPOE period, once the order was written the nurse or the unit secretary phoned radiology to request the X-rays. In the post-CPOE period, once the order is entered in the computer it is immediately relayed through an interface to the radiology computer system.

    Statistical Analysis

    Subgroups were formed for specific analysis. Descriptive summary of the data consisted of frequency counts, percentages, and mean and standard deviations (±SD). Unpaired t-tests were used for comparison of means, and χ2 tests of proportion were used for categorical variables. SAS statistical package (for Windows 6.12) was used (SAS Institute, Inc., Research Triangle, NC).


    Development Platforms for Mobile Applications: Status and Trends | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine and is brought to you by InfoQ & IEEE Computer Society.

    Mobile devices have steadily gained acceptance as a multimedia platform. Current tools offer application developers options to use various technologies - for example, Java, Open C, Python, Flash Lite, XHTML/CSS, JavaScript, and Mobile Ajax - to implement highly functional mobile applications. Content developers can work with audio, video, multimedia messaging, and Flash to create rich and compelling mobile content. Although the choice of development platform is largely market-driven, it also depends on the characteristics of available platforms and the requirements of particular applications. To illuminate the status and trends in current development platforms, we re - viewed and compared four popular mobile - application runtime environments with respect to various quantitative and qualitative criteria. We based the comparisons on data from earlier research[1], technical specifications, white papers, and an informal survey of 32 mobile - application developers with hands - on experience using the plat - forms we reviewed. Most importantly, we developed a simple game application and implemented it on all four platforms as a case study for highlighting the main characteristics and relative merits and shortcomings of the four platforms. We describe the general results of this comparison as well as details from the game application’s development. We summarize the results from all sources in a table and conclude with our assessment of how appropriate the different platforms are with respect to critical application - development requirements.

    Four Mobile - Application Platforms

    Numerous development platforms are available for handheld devices, including native environments such as the Symbian, OpenC, iPhone, and Palm operating systems; Web runtimes such as widgets; and runtime environments such as Python, Lazarus, Brew, and the four we review here—Java Mobile Edition (ME), .NET Compact Framework (CF), Flash Lite, and Android—which currently enjoy the largest developer and deployment bases. Figure 1 summarizes the software stacks for these four platforms.

    FIGURE 1. Software stacks for the reviewed mobile-application development platforms. Comparison of operating systems, runtimes, application frameworks, and development languages.

    Java ME

    This subset of the Java platform provides a certified collection of Java APIs for developing software for resource - constrained devices such as cell phones, PDAs, and set - top boxes.

    Features

    Java ME runs on top of a kernel-based virtual machine (KVM), which allows reasonable, but not complete, access to the underlying device’s functionality. Java ME supports cross-platform development through configurations and profiles:

  • A configuration defines the minimum Java VM features and library set for a horizontal family of devices - that is, devices with similar processing and memory limitations, user interface requirements, and connection capabilities.
  • A profile comprises libraries specialized in the unique characteristics of a particular device class.
  • All Java ME-enabled mobile devices currently support the following configuration and profile specifications:

  • Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), a framework for Java ME applications targeting resource-constrained devices. CLDC contains a strict subset of the Java class libraries needed for mobile-application development.
  • Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP), a specification for using Java on embedded devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. MIDP is part of the Java ME platform and sits on top of CLDC.
  • Java applications developed over CLDC/MIDP are referred to as MIDlets and are typically packaged in Java archive (JAR) files.

    Java ME is designed to be cross-platform, so specification and implementation are two separate processes. The Java Community Process (JCP) refers to a formalized specification process that lets interested parties get involved in defining Java platform versions. JCP uses Java Specification Requests (JSRs) to document proposed additions to the Java platform. A committee of mobile- solution providers specifies a new Java ME standard API as a final JSR that includes source code for a reference implementation of the technology. Vendors are then free to develop their own implementations.

    Review

    Java ME is the dominant mobile-software platform with respect to its installation and developer base. However, the Java language’s “write once, run anywhere” axiom doesn’t apply to Java ME[2]. Developers must provide slightly different application versions to address variations in JSR sets and implementations across a wide range of device capabilities and choice of profiles, configurations, and APIs. This requirement often results in dozens of executables for a given title - a phenomenon referred to as device fragmentation, which considerably increases operational costs over a product’s life cycle. Fragmentation restricts the devices that Java ME applications can reach and suggests that it’s more suitable in vertical applications that target devices with similar capabilities and Java API support.

    Nevertheless, by targeting individual operating systems, developers using Java ME have access to a large set of well-defined and mature JSRs. Java applications targeting the Symbian platform, for example, can reach about 70 percent of the world’s smartphones. More than 80 JSRs provide MIDlet developers a rich set of additional technologies, although MIDlet programming isn’t straightforward and requires serious Java development skills.

    Commonly available JSRs that extend MIDP 2.0 on the Symbian platform include the Bluetooth API (JSR 82), the Wireless Messaging API (JSR 205), and the Mobile 3D Graphics API (JSR 184).

    .NET CF

    Designed for applications on Windows Mobile, .NET CF is a subset of Microsoft’s full .NET platform[3].NET CF preloads the Common Language Runtime (CLR) engine in the device’s memory to facilitate mobile-application deployment. CLR provides interoperability with the underlying device’s op­erating system, allowing the integra­tion of native components into mobile applications.

    Features

    In principle, the .NET CF runtime is analogous to the Java virtual machine (JVM). Instead of writing na­tive code for the underlying operating system, .NET developers write man­aged code, which targets a managed ex­ecution environment. Microsoft origi­nally designed and developed the .NET platform with support for multiple lan­guages and operating systems, aiming to reach an extended developer base and to reuse existing libraries. However, the .NET CF development tool, Visual Stu­dio (VS.NET), currently supports only two major .NET languages: C# and Visual Basic (VB.NET). Furthermore, it restricts operating system support to Windows platforms, which repre­sent only a small part of today’s mobile-device products.

    The core components are a subset of the full .NET framework - roughly 30 percent of its classes and function­ality. Some classes exist in both .NET and .NET CF, but the .NET CF ver­sion doesn’t necessarily support all the full version’s class members (proper­ties, methods, or events). Many classes aren’t implemented at all, and others are only partially implemented. Unique .NET CF classes address device-specific and third-party extensions.

    The .NET CF user interface design is based on a rich subset of .NET Win­dows Forms.

    Review

    .NET CF is comparable to Java ME with respect to providing a managed runtime environment, rich li­braries and components for reuse (ad­vanced user interface components, net­work connectivity, data management, XML Web services, and so on), and familiar APIs from the full .NET frame­work, such as the Windows Forms controls. These features ease the tran­sition for desktop developers to mobile applications.

    Using a runtime system for intermedi­ate (managed) code implies relatively low execution performance. However, unlike Java ME, .NET CF is language-agnostic and simply specifies Common Intermedi­ate Language (CIL) instructions. .NET-supported languages compile to the same CIL, so the .NET CF runtime can exe­cute them.

    .NET CF demonstrates API-level consistency and compatibility with the full .NET platform. This design ap­proach has had unforeseen memory footprint costs, but .NET CF neverthe­less represents a fast-paced implemen­tation driven by a powerful vendor. Developers know the hardware speci­fications to program against and can assume the availability of certain na­tive software, such as Windows Media Player. It therefore offers satisfactory integration with device-specific func­tionality - telephony, short-message service, subscriber-identity-module card access, Bluetooth, and so on - and doesn’t exhibit Java ME’s fragmenta­tion problem. On the other hand, .NET CF targets a limited set of Windows end devices, and the VS.NET develop­ment tools include license costs.

    Adobe Flash Lite

    Flash Lite is a proprietary technology, popular as a multimedia and game pro­gramming platform. Adobe created it specifically to help vendors rapidly de­ploy rich content and interactive inter­faces to mobile devices.

    Features

    A Flash Lite application stores its contents and GUI descrip­tion in the vector-based SWF graphics and animation format. It implements its application and presentation logic in ActionScript.

    The number of original equipment manufacturer (OEM), operator, and developer adopters of Flash Lite is in­creasing rapidly worldwide. Flash Lite 1.1 supports Flash 4 and ActionScript 1.0. Flash Lite 2.0 and 3.1 - based on Flash Player 7 and 9, respectively - sup­port ActionScript 2.0. No support is yet available for Flash Player 9-compat­ible content based on ActionScript 3.0.

    All versions support the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Tiny stan­dard[4], a mobile profile of W3C’s scalable vector graphics (SVG) recommendation.

    Review

    The Flash Lite platform is a reasonable choice for graphics-intensive phone and PDA applications. Industry adoption has increased because devel­opers skilled in Flash for desktop appli­cations can easily switch to Flash Lite for mobile applications. Rapid develop­ment is a primary benefit of Flash Lite. It’s easy to learn and easy to migrate Flash applications, and it includes a rich set of designer/developer tools. Ad­ditionally, it offers rich media support (images, video, sound, and animation), a relatively broad runtime installation base, and small deployment files based on vector graphics. As of Flash Lite 2.x, it supports compressed SWF, and Flash Lite 3.0 adds support for the popular native Flash video (FLV).

    Currently, Flash Lite is mostly suit­able for creating animations, casual games, mobile Web-based Flash applications, front-end interfaces, and device-specific content (wallpapers, screen savers, and so on). However, it isn’t suitable for developing full-fledged stand-alone applications, mainly because it lacks the powerful mobile-oriented APIs of the Java ME platform. Flash Lite exhibits relatively poor graphics performance, partly because of the complex processing required for vector graphics. It ships with an extensive toolset (Adobe CS5, Adobe Device Central), but the toolset requires a license fee. Although Flash Lite’s low-level device integration might seem to be a limitation, third parties offer low-level device APIs that support the development of innovative applications. For example, the KuneriLite toolkit extends Flash Lite capabilities in the Symbian platform. The cost, of course, is greater because of fragmentation issues and memory footprint.

    Android

    Google launched Android in 2007, to advance open standards for mobile devices. Android is an Apache free-soft- ware platform with an open source license for mobile devices based on Linux. Its software stack for mobile devices includes an operating system, middleware, and key applications.

    Features

    Android applications are primarily written in Java and compiled into Dalvik executable (DEX) format, a custom byte code. Each application executes on its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik runs DEX files, which are converted at compile time from standard class and JAR files. DEX files are more compact and efficient than class files. Developers have full access to all the frameworks and APIs that the core applications use and to Google-developed software libraries. Android’s software architecture is designed to simplify component reuse. Any application can publish its capabilities, and any other application can then use those capabilities, subject to security constraints enforced by the framework. The Android software development kit (SDK) supports authoring applications with rich functionality. Like the iPhone, it can handle touch screens, accelerometers, 3D graphics, and GPS as well as collaboration among applications like email, messaging, calendars, social networking, and location-based services.

    Review

    Android supports a relatively large subset of the Java Standard Edition (SE) 5.0 library, implying reduced migration cost from Java desktop applications. It also supports several third-party libraries. Similarly to Java ME, application development is powered by popular Java integrated development environments (IDEs) such as NetBeans and Eclipse. Android provides inherent support for modular service-oriented applications and inter-application communication. Java ME’s MIDP 3.0 similarly supports inter-MIDlet communication. New platform releases introduce many new user and developer features - for example, account synchronization, improved media-playing performance, and database and geolocation API support - but also raise fragmentation concerns. Phones running Android 1.0, 1.5, 1.6, and 2.0 as applications might have trouble working smoothly across all the operating system versions. The platform’s openness in the targeted device stacks aggravates the fragmentation problem.

    A Mobile-Game Case Study

    We implemented four identical versions of a toy application, a game called Snake (see Figure 2).

    FIGURE 2. Screenshots related to the Snake game implementation developed in (a) Java ME, (b) .NET CF, (c) Flash Lite, and (d) Android. See Table 1 for comparison data on the game implementation.

    The implementations let us compare the platforms with respect to development effort and time as well as several technical issues, such as sound reproduction, still image display, menu and application interface design, key events handling, memory use, deployment file size, and reusability of code authored for equivalent desktop applications (see Table 1).

    TABLE 1: Technical issues related to the Snake game implementation

    Technical issue

    Java ME

    .NET CF

    Flash Lite

    Android

    Development effort (desktop to mobile porting)

    Port GUI from Swing to liquid-crystal display user interface (LCDUI) classes; convert the main() method of the base class to the MIDlet’s startApp(); convert Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)-based persistent storage to Record management system (RMS)

    Adapt GUI to use Windows Forms controls, and switch the database to SQL Server Mobile Edition

    Adapt GUI to screen size

    Make changes to interfaces implemented and parent classes extended; switch the database to SQL Lite; specify the GUI in an XML fi le, using the DroidDraw GUI designer

    Lines of code

    ~1,100

    ~800

    ~600

    ~900

    Lines of code modified to port the desktop application

    ~400

    ~150

    ~50

    ~200

    Deployment application size

    29 Kbytes

    63 Kbytes

    12.6 Kbytes

    23 Kbytes

    To ensure fair comparisons, we focused on evaluating the particularities of mobile-application development rather than the different programming language characteristics. Along this line, we first implemented the desktop game application and then migrated the applications to the mobile platforms, reusing source code wherever possible - that is, we ported Java SE code to Java ME and Android, C#.NET code to .NET CF, and Flash (ActionScript) code to Flash Lite. The game used relatively simple graphics to convey snake body movements in response to key-pressing events. The implementation included a short sound file that played when the snake ate food. It also offered pause, resume, and change functions to adapt the snake’s speed, and it kept high scores and game state in the device’s persistent storage.

    The smoothness and expressiveness of the snake’s movement largely depends on the device’s characteristics (screen resolution, screen frame rate, and processor frequency). We weren’t able to quantitatively assess these characteristics on the available platform emulators.

    Mobile gaming has been a major driving force for the mobile-application market. Java ME is currently the de facto standard for downloadable cell phone games[5], particularly because it has a game API. Furthermore, Java ME is the only framework providing a low-level 3D graphics API. Flash Lite is a popular gaming platform, mainly because of its development speed and suitability to graphics-intensive applications. Flash Lite 3.0 focuses more on video and multimedia support than game development. However, Flash Lite is ideal for integrating games in webpages - similar to developing Flash movies for desktops. .NET CF and Android haven’t yet gained significant market share in game development.

    Desktop-to-mobile application porting was more labored in Java ME. Tools like JDiet (a Java SE 1.4-to-Java ME CLDC converter) can be useful but don’t support GUI conversion. We designed the MIDlet’s menu templates using the Java ME Polish tool collection, which includes build tools for creating application bundles for multiple devices and locales; a device database that helps adjust applications to different handsets; tools for designing GUIs using simple CSS text files; and utility classes. We had to port JDBC-based storage - for example, to store game state or scores - to RMS, which isn’t a full-fledged database system but is similar to the shared-objects approach taken in Flash Lite. However, the TiledLayer and GameCanvas classes of the Java ME Game API were extremely useful for painting the game’s landscape and conveying the snake’s movement.

    .NET CF and Android applications were easier to develop because of their improved compatibility with the full .NET and Java SE frameworks, respectively. The use of SQL databases in both these platforms was also straight-forward. We adapted a few C# method invocations for .NET CF because it didn’t support the corresponding libraries. Android didn’t require such modifications. Furthermore, sound support was poor in .NET CF, handling only uncompressed sound playing, which increases the application size. The Flash-to-Flash Lite migration was relatively effortless because we used the same ActionScript code in both cases.

    We had to translate desktop application key events to the respective mobile phone’s keyboard events in all platforms. The GUI design was relatively easy using available Visual GUI builders; for Android, we had to get this tool through the third-party Droid-Draw builder. Notably, the separation of the program logic from the GUI design proved useful for all platforms, letting us use the same game logic classes for both the desktop and mobile applications.

    Platform Comparison

    Table 2 evaluates the reviewed platforms in five qualitative and quantitative ar­eas: software architecture and techni­cal issues, application development, capabilities and constraints, developer communities and market success, and development tools.

    TABLE 2: Comparison of programming platforms in five areas

    Issue description

    Java ME

    .NET CF

    Flash Lite

    Android

    Software architecture and technical issues

           

    Footprint

    ~128 Kbytes for storage of kernel-based virtual machine and associated libraries

    1.55 Mbytes on Windows Mobile-based Pocket PC 2000/2002; 1.35 Mbytes on Windows Mobile for Pocket PC 2003 or Windows CE .NET devices

    450 Kbytes for the core library of Flash Lite 2.1; 374 Kbytes for Flash Lite 3.1

    3 Mbytes

    Runtime memory requirement

    < 0.5 Mbytes

    ~ 0.5 Mbytes

    2–4 Mbytes

    Minimum 32 Mbytes of RAM

    Memory management

    Automatic memory management provided by the traditional garbage collector, which de-allocates memory occupied by objects that the program no longer uses

    Automatic memory management provided by Common Language Runtime (CLR); the CLR garbage collector manages the allocation and release of memory for an application

    Garbage collection executed automatically every minute or whenever an application’s memory use increases by 20 percent or more

    Automatic memory management handled by Dalvik’s garbage collector; garbage collections might noticeably decrease performance

    Device support

    All devices support Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), Mobile Information Dance Profile (MIDP) (practically, lacks support only for Windows Mobile-based Pocket PCs)

    All devices support Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), Mobile Information Dance Profile (MIDP) (practically, lacks support only for Windows Mobile-based Pocket PCs)

    Pocket PC 2000, Pocket PC 2002, Windows Mobile 2003-based Pocket PCs and smartphones, embedded systems running Windows CE .NET 4.1 and later

    Mobile phones and PDAs from major manufacturers such as Fujitsu, Hitachi, LG, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Nokia, Panasonic, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, and Sony Ericsson

    User interface (UI) components

    High-level LCDUI components, such as Form or List; low-level LCDUI for controlling every UI pixel; support for SVG (defined in JSR 287); J2ME Polish allows design along with animations and effects specified in external CSS-like files

    Windows Forms controls (vary for Pocket PCs and smartphones)

    Nokia Flash Lite Feather Framework (FL 2.x), Sony Ericsson Adobe XD UI components (FL 1.1/2.x)

    View and ViewGroup objects; DroidDraw tool serves for rapid UI design; J2ME Polish enables conversion of Java ME MIDlets’ UI to Android- compatible UI

    Development languages

    Java (CLDC/MIDP)

    C#, Visual Basic .NET

    ActionScript 1.0, ActionScript 2.0

    Java (Android SDK)

    Packaging

    Java Application Description (JAD) and Java archive (JAR) files

    Cabinet (CAB) file installers

    SWF files

    Android package (APK) files

    Deployment methods

    Over the air (OTA), Bluetooth/ IR, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) push

    OTA, Bluetooth

    Bluetooth, physical cable, OTA

    OTA, Bluetooth

    Server-side technologies*

    Java servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP)

    ASP.NET Mobile Controls

    Flash Media Server (uses ActionScript 1 for server-side logic

    Java servlets, JSP

    Persistent storage and database support

    RMS and Perst Lite from mObject

    Local database support for SQL Server Mobile Edition; on the server side, support for SQL Server

    Persistent storage through shared objects; on the server side, support for interaction with PHP scripts and use of MySQL database

    Android APIs contain support for SQLite database

    Sound handling and supported formats

    MP3 and whatever format the device supports Uncompressed pulse

    code modulation (PCM) files only; support for well

    known formats (WAV, MP3, and so on) offered by third parties (such as Resco Audio for .NET CF) Sound files embedded within the SWF file; supports MP3, AIFF, AU, WAV, and so on; no support for simultaneous playback of multiple sounds

    3GP, MP3, MP4

    2D/3D graphics handling and supported formats

    All MIDP versions support the display of rasterized images (in PNG format only); MIDP added support for SVG (JSR 226); MIDP 3.0 adds support for GIF images; support for mobile 3D graphics on Mobile 3D Graphics (M3G) format: M3G 1.0 (JSR 184) or M3G 2.0 (JSR 297)

    Support for BMP, JPG, GIF, and PNG formats; doesn’t support SVG; Direct3D mobile applications available for Windows Mobile 5.0

    Vector-based graphics includes support for bitmap; doesn’t provide low- level 3D graphics API, but it’s possible to use a sequence of images exported from a 3D tool

    Supports PNG, JPG, and GIF; doesn’t support SVG; supports 3D graphics via the OpenGL API

    Application development

    Learning curve*

    Moderate (developers need to be familiar with several APIs that aren’t part of the Java SE platform)

    Average (significant overlap with the .NET platform APIs)

    Steep (reuse of the same ActionScript code)

    Average (significant overlap with the Java SE platform APIs)

    Developer community base*

    Large community

    Relatively large community

    Relatively large community

    Fair-sized and fast-growing community

    Debugger availability

    Excellent

    Excellent

    Good

    Integrated in Eclipse; stand-alone debugging monitor also available

    Cross-platform deployment

    Execution on any device supporting CLDC/MIDP, but inconsistent implementations across vendors necessitates separate builds

    Windows Mobile, Symbian-based devices (via third-party tools)

    Excellent (supported by top five mobile manufacturers; best Web compatibility)

    Android only, because of Dalvik VM

    Deployment speed (packaging, installing, testing)*

    Slow (fragmentation problem)

    Relatively fast

    Relatively fast

    Relatively fast

    Capabilities and constraints

           

    Functionality

    Varies by handset, depending on available JSRs; no high- resolution pictures, no cell ID, limited file access

    Limited audio support

    No support for accessing native components

    Touch screen, accelerometer, GPS, cell ID, interapplication communication

    Event model

    Event-handling mechanism based on command objects

    GUI events bound to methods through multicast delegates

    Uses the powerful ActionScript’s event model (movie clip and object events)

    Inherits the Java event model; uses a special class (intent) that enables application responses to external events, such as a phone call

    Phone data access

    Varies by handset, depending on available JSR 75, the PDA Optional Packages

    Full

    None

    Full

    Runtime speed

    Average (because of Java bytecode)

    Average (because of CLR managed code)

    Below average (interpreted language)

    Average because of Java bytecode

    Developer communities and market success

           

    Developer community and support*

    Extensive

    MSDN

    Extensive

    Recent, growing

    Market penetration*

    Extensive (also the basis of the Danger Sidekick Platform)

    Average

    Average

    Potential to gain wide acceptance, based on the support of 34 major software, hardware, and telecom companies

    Distribution and licensing

    None (Signed Java)

    None (third parties can provide licensing)

    None

    None

    Development tools

           

    Integrated development environment (IDE) availability

    Eclipse, NetBeans

    Visual Studio .NET 2008, 2010

    Adobe Flash CS4, Adobe Device Central

    Eclipse, NetBeans (with Android plug-in)

    Emulator availability

    Free emulator, Sun Java Wireless Toolkit

    Bundled with IDE

    Bundled with IDE

    Free emulator

    Development tool cost

    Free

    Free (but only basic tools)

    Varies: free but limited with Motion-Twin ActionScript 2 Compiler IDE

    Free

    * Information derived mainly from compilation of online survey reports.

    The data reflects our product re­views and development experience, both prior to and after the Snake game implementation. It also factors in re­sults generalized from an informal on­line survey we conducted of 32 mobile-application developers. These results are indicated by an asterisk in the is­sue description.

    For each platform, at least seven developers participated in the survey, which included 16 ques­tions regarding their experience with the platform. The survey is available here. Some quantitative information derived from a compilation of the surveys and not discussed here is available on this link.  

    Platform Status and Trends

    In current practice, devices vary along so many axes that it’s almost impos­sible to write a single version of a mo­bile application to run on a broad range of devices. Fragmentation increases the production effort in almost the en­tire software life cycle - driving up the cost, lengthening the time to market, and narrowing the target market. Bet­ter standardization (for example, fewer optional APIs and more detailed speci­fications) and stricter enforcement of standards (for example, using API veri­fication initiatives and technology com­patibility kits) could help in this regard. Major players in the mobile-application industry (such as platform vendors, de­vice manufacturers, and operators) can play a critical role in the war against fragmentation.

    Java ME is undoubtedly the plat­form with the broadest deployment base and still maintains the largest market share, yet it’s the platform most affected by fragmentation and so might be displaced by alternative platforms. Sun Microsystems has published a set of guidelines to reduce the practice of generating distinct executables for each phone[6]. Some tools for resolving Java ME device fragmentation are already available (for example, NetBeans Mo­bility Pack 5.5 for CLDC), but there is still a long way to go.

    Along the same line, the Mobile Ser­vices Architecture (MSA) has emerged as an industry standard to reduce frag­mentation and give developers a con­sistent Java ME platform. In addition to specifying what component JSRs a compliant device must include, the MSA also clarifies behavioral require­ments to improve JSR predictability and interoperability. The MSA defines two stacks: a full stack that comprises 16 JSRs (JSR 249), and a subset of eight JSRs (JSR 248). JSR 248 is being pushed ahead of JSR 249 to help devel­opers get an earlier start on MSA-compliant applications. JCP has recently approved JSR 248, but its adoption by OEMs remains to be seen.

    Java ME’s competitiveness against platforms that target graphics-heavy applications, such as Flash Lite, will also depend on technologies that en­able expressive, feature-rich content on mobile devices. Along this line, Sun Microsystems has recently released JavaFX Mobile, a new platform and language with Rich Internet Applications (RIA)-friendly features, including a declarative syntax of the JavaFX Script language for GUI development. JavaFX Mobile lets devel­opers build expressive interfaces while reusing existing back-end Java code. It also lets development team members with no programming experience, such as designers and graphic artists, create graphics-intensive front ends for mo­bile applications. However, OEMs will decide JavaFX Mobile’s success by the support they offer, for example, by in­tegration of its binaries and runtime on mobile handsets.

    .NET CF will probably maintain its developer base as long as Windows handhelds remain in the picture. It’s a powerful platform for programming and accessing native components of Windows-compatible PDAs and smart­phones. However, its market share isn’t likely to increase because porting it to popular phone operating systems is cumbersome. Specifically, it requires implementing a platform-adaptation engine to interface between the CLR and the operating system[7].

    The release history of Flash Lite in­dicates that Adobe has concentrated more on supporting multimedia than defining a powerful API for develop­ing applications with rich functional­ity. Despite the effort to establish Flash Lite as a gaming platform, it lacks APIs or classes specifically targeting game development. For example, Flash Lite 3.0 doesn’t support the BitmapData object that’s part of Flash 8 and use­ful for game development. It also needs to improve its sound handling. Fur­thermore, comparative studies indicate that Flash Lite exhibits lower perfor­mance and frame rate while consum­ing more memory than Java ME. On the other hand, Flash Lite appears a natural choice for designing user inter­faces and graphically rich applications. In that sense, it lets designers into the mobile-development space. A promis­ing evolution path for Flash Lite seems to lie in its synergy with different ap­plication platforms, bringing together the best of diverse worlds. Recently, the Capuchin Project defined a Java ME API as a bridge between Java ME and Flash Lite. It en­ables use of the latter as the front end and the former as the back end of ap­plications, allowing developers to use Flash tools for GUI design while still having access to all the phone services available to Java ME.

    Android initially received an en­thusiastic welcome from manufactur­ers and developers, but some handset manufacturers are taking longer than expected to integrate it. Hence, its mar­ket share isn’t growing as rapidly as an­ticipated. Still, the Android developer community seems to be growing - mainly in comparison to Java ME. Its future will largely depend on providing technologies for simplifying the design of multimedia-rich applications. Sun Microsystems announced that JavaFX Mobile will be available on the An­droid OS. Most important will be how well Android handles fragmentation problems. It’s too early to answer this question now, given Android’s rela­tively narrow installation base.

    Because Android is a relatively young software platform, it’s strug­gling with a small number of available applications. Google has invested in attracting developers and preparing a critical mass of applications prior to the first Android phone release. Running a large number of existing Java ME ap­plications could also add value to An­droid. Along this line, some vendors are providing porting services to con­vert existing Java ME titles to the An­droid platform. Examples include Tira Wireless and J2ME Polish.

    Assessments

    On the basis of our review, we’ve as­sessed the appropriateness of each plat­form with respect to four critical appli­cation development requirements:

    Portability

    The diverse hardware and software represented in today’s handheld devices inevitably make portability a puzzle for mobile-application developers. Porta­bility primarily depends on runtime support and the feasibility of achieving identical look-and-feel and functional­ity across platforms. In terms of run­time support, Java ME is undoubtedly the winner, followed by Flash Lite. An­droid is likely to extend its deployment base, and .NET CF will probably re­main a Windows-only platform.

    On the other hand, Java ME ex­hibits fragmentation in cross-platform application development. Flash Lite is a better choice in this regard because of Adobe’s strict control over its runtime environment. Android’s handling of fragmentation remains unclear given its slow adoption pace and its alternative business model, which is open source yet tightly controlled by Google. Fragmentation isn’t an issue for .NET CF, given its narrow range of supporting devices.

    Functionality

    Java ME best serves the aim of implementing multimedia-rich full-fledged applications, such as games, through the numerous APIs (JSRs) implemented by OEMs to exploit handset capabilities. .NET CF and Android applications also use rather powerful APIs. Flash Lite is most suitable to graphics - heavy applications.

    Development Speed

    Rapid time-to-market is a critical requirement in mobile applications. Taking advantage of developers’ programming experience on desktop applications is the safest way to ease the learning curve and shorten the development time. For instance, Java developers will find a natural fit with Java ME and Android, Flash developers with Flash Lite, and so on. Developers not familiar with any of the platform foundation languages will feel more comfortable and productive with Flash Lite’s ActionScript. Nevertheless, the development process in traditional platforms such as Java ME and .NET CF is accelerated because the documentation and developer community bases are extensive.

    Performance

    As mobile applications become more computationally intense and require faster runtime speeds and storage I/O, performance also becomes a critical issue. Metrics such as processing over-head, memory consumption, frame rate, and deployment file size all depend on the particular development platform toolset. For example, does it support SVG Tiny, graphics buffering, compressed sound files, and so on? Java ME, .NET CF, and Android achieve comparable performance, whereas Flash Lite has lagged in various benchmarks[8].

    Even though market and application requirements largely determine the platform for mobile development, our review offers some specific and general guidance into the assets and deficiencies of available tools as developers face the increasing demand for applications on resource- constrained devices.

    About the Authors

    DAMIANOS GAVALAS is an assistant professor in the University of the Aegean’s Department of Cultural Informatics. His research interests include mobile computing, mobile ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, and optimization algorithms. Gavalas has a PhD in electronic engineering from the University of Essex, UK. Contact him at dgava-las@aegean.gr .

    DAPHNE ECONOMOU is a lecturer in interactive multimedia and hypermedia at the University of the Aegean’s Department of Cultural Technology and Communication. Her research interests include collaborative virtual reality environments for learning and archaeology, human-computer interaction, and multimedia application design for mobile devices. Economou has a PhD in computer science from Manchester Metropolitan University. Contact her at daphne@ct.aegean.gr .

    [1] M. Kenteris, D. Gavalas, and D. Economou, “An Innovative Mobile Electronic Tourist Guide Application,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 13, no. 2, 2009, pp. 103–118.

    [2] S. Blom et al., “Write Once, Run Anywhere A Survey of Mobile Runtime Environments,” Proc. 3rd Int’l Conf. Grid and Pervasive Computing (GPC 08), IEEE CS Press, 2008, pp. 132–137.

    [3] C. Neable, “The .NET Compact Framework,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 1, no. 4, 2002, pp. 84–87.

    [4] O. Anderson et al., Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation, 22 Dec. 2008 on this link .

    [5] J. Soh and B. Tan, “Mobile Gaming,” Comm. ACM, vol. 51, no. 3, 2008, pp. 35–39

    [6] Sun Developer Network, “Java ME: Defragmentation,” 2006; on this link.

    [7] A. Geffl aut et al., “Porting the .NET Compact Framework to Symbian Phones-A Feasibility Assessment,” J. Object Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, 2006, pp. 83–106.

    [8] A. Koller, G. Foster, and M. Wright, “Java Micro Edition and Adobe Flash Lite for Ar- cade-Style Mobile Phone Game Development: A Comparative Study,” Proc. ACM Ann. Conf. South African Inst. Computer Scientists and Information Technologists (SAICSIT 08), ACM Press, 2008, pp. 131–138

      This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine issue Jan/Feb 2011. IEEE Software magazine offers pioneering ideas, expert analyses, and thoughtful insights for software professionals who need to keep up with rapid technology change.



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