|Exam Name||:||Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator(R) Certified Expert|
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|Updated On||:||April 24, 2019|
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1Z0-881 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Test Code : 1Z0-881
Test Name : Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 293 Real Questions
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As Oracle continues to prepare for a last unlock of Solaris 11, the Solaris 10 Unix operating device is getting another update.
Oracle released Solaris 10 8/eleven this week proposing efficiency improvements and new hardware assist. The Solaris 10 working device first debuted in 2004 and has been updated on an everyday basis ever since.
given that its inception, some of the large aspects in Solaris 10 has been ZFS (Zettabyte File device) which has additionally enhanced over the years. the new Solaris 10 8/11 allows enterprises to run ZFS as a root filesystem across their Solaris 10 deployments. ZFS is a 128-bit file gadget that offers superior information scalability and healing alternate options, together with "snapshotting" -- developing a space-efficient list of a old gadget.
It has been possible to use ZFS because the root file system seeing that Solaris 10 10/08 liberate in 2008. youngsters, some Solaris clients overlooked the skill to be able to construct and set up "flash archive" photos -- which they could do with united statesand not ZFS What Oracle is announcing now could be that the remaining barrier to the usage of ZFS in its place of united statesas the root file gadget has long gone away.
"Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 includes features designed to simplify the transition from united states of americabased mostly system disks to Oracle Solaris ZFS," Oracle's liberate notes state. "by using making bound that all primary installation capabilities available with united statesare additionally attainable with ZFS, Oracle Solaris eight/11 makes a brilliant ZFS transition element to take advantage of the convenience of management, records integrity, and built-in data services provided by means of Oracle Solaris ZFS."
New Solaris 10 methods can now even be installed from a Solaris ZFS Flash Archive, which is intended to make it less complicated and faster for clients to install the operating equipment.
ZFS has additionally benefitted from assorted efficiency advancements as well. according to Oracle, in interior trying out of Oracle Solaris 10 eight/11 versus the outdated unlock, Oracle Solaris 10 9/10, ZFS enhancements ended in a study performance development of between 9 % and 23 %, and write efficiency enhanced 11 p.c to 17 percent.
With the brand new Solaris replace, Oracle is additionally continuing to enhance the way that Oracle purposes run on the Unix working equipment. in line with Oracle, the Solaris 10 eight/11 replace comprises improvement in startup and shutdown time for Oracle 11g database users. Startup time is now 26 % of what it took prior to this replace on the reference SPARC system Oracle proven internally, and about 36 % of what it took on a reference x86 system.
"This update takes the most fulfilling UNIX for SPARC and x86 and makes it even better,” pointed out John Fowler, executive vp, systems, Oracle in a statement. "With Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 and the upcoming Oracle Solaris 11 unencumber, we are continuing to reveal our ongoing dedication to Oracle Solaris, proposing the least difficult, most low cost course to leading-area innovation for both new and present consumers."
Oracle bought Solaris as part of its acquisition of solar in 2010. at the conclusion of 2010, Oracle released Solaris 11 categorical as a preview for the next generation of Solaris aspects. checking out and building on Solaris 11 has been ongoing this yr.
Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com, the news provider of cyber web.com, the network for expertise authorities.
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Oracle has pushed out a checklist-breaking 299 fixes for vulnerabilities in its many, many products, and amongst them is a Solaris 10 malicious program whose existence has been published via Shadow Brokers’ latest records dump.
The Oracle vital Patch update for April 2017, specified during this advisory, addresses vulnerabilities in Oracle Database Server, Fusion Middleware, PeopleSoft business, fiscal services purposes, MySQL Product Suite, Java, and a lot of different choices.
“The patch replace consists of 40 vulnerabilities assessed critical (CVSS base score 9.0-10.0), together with 25 rated 10.0,” ERPScan researchers have cited.
amongst these is CVE-2017-3623, the Solaris kernel RPC vulnerability it truly is targeted in the EBBISLAND (aka EBBSHAVE) exploit purportedly created by the NSA, and which has been leaked final Friday.
As explained via Oracle: “Solaris 10 techniques which have had any Kernel patch installed after, or up to date by means of patching equipment for the reason that 2012-01-26 aren't impacted. also, any Solaris 10 equipment put in with Solaris 10 1/13 (Solaris 10 update 11) are not susceptible. Solaris 11 isn't impacted via this problem.” Older, unsupported models of the OS gained’t be receiving a patch.
Solaris eleven is also now not vulnerable to NSA’s EXTREMEPARR tool, additionally leaked on Friday, which takes skills of a local privilege escalation gap within the common desktop ambiance on Solaris (CVE-2017-3622).
CVE-2017-5638, a crucial vulnerability within the Apache Struts framework, which is included in many of Oracle’s items, has additionally been plugged.
but when you aspect that the vulnerabilities with a much less excessive score don't existing a major chance to security, you’re wrong.
“as an instance, a remotely exploitable vulnerability in Oracle E-company Suite rated 9.1 (the leading business functions from the seller) allows for an attacker to read all key company data from the database with out authorization,” ERPScan researchers cited.
at last, the Java updates plug eight vulnerabilities, seven of which may well be remotely exploitable devoid of authentication. All of them are affect customer deployments of Java (i.e. individual end-users who still have it installed).
The next Oracle critical Patch update is scheduled for July 18, 2017.
Oracle has announced plans for an specific edition of the next main unencumber of the Solaris working device at the Oracle OpenWorld consumer conference in San Francisco.
The company noted it is making ready to launch Oracle Solaris eleven in 2011 with the aid of releasing Solaris 11 categorical to supply consumers access to the newest Solaris know-how.
Oracle talked about the newest edition of the operating device, got from solar Microsystems, represents an funding of greater than 20 million hours of building and over 60 million hours of testing.
"Solaris 10 set the bar for working system reliability, scalability and safety, and Oracle Solaris 11 is now raising that bar," observed John Fowler, govt vice-president of systems at Oracle.
Oracle Solaris eleven is anticipated to raise utility throughput, improve platform efficiency, and maximise reliability and safety through joint engineering and integration testing with the Oracle utility stack, the business mentioned.
Oracle Solaris 11 is additionally being engineered to make it less complicated for groups to build, set up and hold cloud-based systems, Oracle talked about.
the first Oracle Solaris 11 specific unlock is planned for the end of 2010 to aid users of earlier types of Solaris put together for the subsequent essential free up.
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SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Sun Microsystems, Inc. (NASDAQ:JAVA) today announced the availability of the Solaris(TM) 10 10/09 Operating System (OS). The Solaris 10 OS has been extended with new performance and power efficiency enhancements, more streamlined management of system installations, updates and fixes, new updates for Solaris(TM) ZFS and advancements to further leverage the functionality of the latest SPARC(R) and x86 based systems. For more information and to download this update visit: http://sun.com/solaris/get.
Solaris 10 10/09 provides new features, fixes and hardware support in an easy-to-install manner, preserving full compatibility with over 11,000 third-party products and customer applications, including Oracle database and application software. With over two decades of Sun/Oracle collaboration, there are more Oracle database deployments on the SPARC/Solaris combination than any other OS and Sun is leading the way to bring high-performance solutions for the entire range of Oracle products.
Solaris 10 10/09 also leverages the innovation and contributions of the OpenSolaris(TM) community, including investments by third-party companies such as Intel and AMD, to add more capabilities to Solaris 10's award-winning portfolio of enterprise features. This release also builds on Solaris' proven track record as a highly secure deployment platform, including enterprise-grade security features such as Solaris Trusted Extensions, and support for the built-in cryptographic acceleration features of Sun's UltraSPARC(R) CMT processors.
“Sun continues to add significant capabilities to the Solaris OS, delivering sophisticated power management and performance for the datacenter and helping our customers protect their business continuity,” said Jim McHugh, vice president, Datacenter Marketing, Sun Microsystems. “With Solaris 10 10/09, installation, update and patch features have been enhanced to simplify system administration and reduce cost. In addition, Solaris ZFS has been updated to integrate Flash technology, the next revolution in storage hardware, into the operating system. Solaris provides customers with a greater degree of flexibility, while its new features deliver the best performance and power efficiency on systems using the latest SPARC, Intel and AMD processors.”
Streamlined Management of System Installations, Updates and Fixes
Solaris 10 10/09 helps to increase business efficiency by simplifying the management of consolidated systems and provides several new features to help streamline the upgrade and patching process, especially on systems deploying large numbers of Solaris Containers. Solaris Containers gives customers built-in virtualization at no additional cost with low overhead. Solaris 10 now provides a new automated framework for installing patches in single user mode, parallel patch installation of virtualized Solaris Containers, and significant speedups for SVR4 package installation, allowing system installations or upgrades to be up to four times faster than before.
Sun's innovative Solaris 8 and Solaris 9 Containers also make it easy for customers running older Sun systems to take advantage of new hardware upgrades, with a “P2V” (Physical to Virtual) method of moving intact environments into virtual containers on Solaris 10. As a result, customers can quickly and easily move existing physical environments to virtual containers on Solaris 10 and take advantage of the performance, scale and cost savings of new SPARC-based servers.
These improvements in consolidation management add to Sun's platform leadership and the built-in virtualization features of the Solaris OS, which include: Logical Domains for running multiple Solaris guests on Solaris SPARC CMT systems; Solaris Containers, which allow up to thousands of isolated application guests in a single Solaris instance; and a comprehensive approach to networking and storage virtualization for easy deployment in real world environments. Solaris Containers are also the foundation of Solaris Trusted Extensions, part of the comprehensive enterprise-grade integrated security features of the Solaris OS.
New Updates to Solaris ZFS
Solaris ZFS, included with the Solaris OS, eliminates the need for customers to purchase and maintain a separate file system or volume manager to obtain enterprise-class data features. The latest release of Solaris ZFS in Solaris 10 10/09 integrates the ability to use solid-state Flash drive technology for data caching and high volume transactional applications, delivering an optimized combination of performance and cost effectiveness. In addition, Solaris ZFS now allows administrators greater flexibility in setting usage limits in several ways, including by individual file system, user or group.
Support for Next Generation Processors
The combination of the Solaris OS and the latest SPARC, Intel, and AMD processor generations deliver the scalability, performance, power efficiency and reliability demanded in today's enterprise datacenter Solaris is designed to take advantage of large memory and multi-core/processor/thread systems and enables industry-leading performance and scalability on the latest CPUs.
Sun and Intel have also enhanced Solaris power management capabilities to leverage the advanced power states of the Intel Xeon processor 5500 series, boosting energy efficiency by adjusting processor power on-demand in response to system utilization. The Solaris Power Aware Dispatcher automatically monitors and optimizes a company's system to maximize performance while minimizing power consumption and can utilize Intel's Deep C-States technology to dramatically reduce power consumed by idle cores.
For detailed information and a complete list of all benchmarks on Sun systems visit: http://sun.com/benchmarks.
About Solaris 10
The Solaris 10 Operating System (OS) is a proven, industry-leading operating system designed to help customers maximize asset usage and systems performance, manage datacenter complexity, preserve business continuity and reduce costs. The Solaris 10 OS includes key components such as: Solaris DTrace, Solaris Containers, the Solaris ZFS file system and Solaris Predictive Self Healing, along with advanced security features. The Solaris OS is supported on over 1,000 x86 and SPARC(R)-based platforms and runs over 11,000 unique applications – more than any other open operating system. The Solaris 10 OS is used by customers around the world in industries such as: financial services, government, web infrastructure and manufacturing. In addition, Solaris Subscriptions provides expert technical support, interoperability assistance, and online resources to help customers optimize performance and improve availability for the Solaris OS on x86 or SPARC systems. For more information visit: http://sun.com/solaris.
Sun at Oracle OpenWorld
Sun will be at the upcoming Oracle OpenWorld conference October 11-15, 2009, at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. At the show, Sun will present demos of the latest innovations in the Solaris OS, virtualization, and advanced data services and security for Oracle applications. For the latest information about Sun at Oracle OpenWorld, including presentations, visit http://sun.com/solaris/oow.
About Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Sun Microsystems develops the technologies that power the global marketplace. Guided by a singular vision -- "The Network Is The Computer"(TM) -- Sun drives network participation through shared innovation, community development and open source leadership. Sun can be found in more than 100 countries and on the Web at http://sun.com.
Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, Solaris, OpenSolaris and The Network Is The Computer are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks of SPARC international, Inc. in the US and other countries. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
The first problem with this structure is that it depends on the ability of the new regulatory system to establish sound regulations. As written, this definition will require greater elaboration, since it is unclear if systems such as agriculture will be covered.
Stewart Baker, former General Counsel of the National Security Agency, and former Assistant Secretary for Policy at DHS, noted in his 2012 testimony before the Senate that limiting coverage to systems whose failure will cause an “extraordinary number” of fatalities is strange. What constitutes an “extraordinary” number? Understandably, the drafters of this bill want to avoid the charge that they are expanding cybersecurity regulation to cover every last cyber system in America, but it remains a disconcerting point.
A greater concern is the great “carve-out” that gives a direct waiver from coverage to a particular subset of the economy. The bill text reads:
The following commercial items shall not be designated as covered critical infrastructure: (a) a commercial information technology product, including hardware and software; and (b) any service provided in support of a product specified in subparagraph (a), including installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and any other services provided in support of the product.
In other words, the entire architecture of the Internet is excluded from regulation. Companies and products such as Oracle, Cisco, Intel, Hewlett-Packard, and Facebook are, or at least seem to be, “commercial information technology” products that are exempt from regulation. The bill seems to put the entire regulatory burden on the end users—people in the financial industry, the electric utility industry, and such—rather than on any of the Internet service providers (ISPs).
Supporters of the bill claim that this exclusion for commercial information technology is not really an “exclusion,” but a point of emphasis that reflects the philosophy of the bill—that government should not be in the business of regulating software and hardware performance. Instead of mandating that Microsoft fix a bug in Internet Explorer (IE), for instance, the bill’s supporters want to set performance security standards for industry and then let industry and the marketplace figure out the best way to meet those standards.
Thus, if the most cost-effective measure is for industry to demand a debugged IE program, industry will do so, and Microsoft, presumably, will provide a debugged IE or lose the business. But if the best way is simply to start disconnecting critical systems from the Internet, known as “air gapping,” then that is what the private sector will do. So, the point of the exclusion is to make clear that particular solutions are not mandated, but particular results are mandated. While this is a reasonable explanation, it still leaves two points of uncertainty.
First, the argument for not managing software or hardware development ignores the reality of cyber vulnerability. A large amount of the malicious activity that takes place in cyberspace occurs because of gaps in underlying coding. Indeed, one cyber expert recently stated that the single most effective “bang for the buck” measure that the U.S. could do to improve cybersecurity is simply exile all of the old, security-gap laden programs, such as Windows ME and early versions of Internet Explorer. Ignoring an effective answer does not appear to be a good approach.
On the other hand, it would also be unwise to empower government bureaucrats to tell Microsoft and Apple how to upgrade their operating systems. This aspect of the exclusion seems debatable, but certainly plausible.
Second, it is unclear whether the carve-out would also exempt the major ISPs, which operate the large backbone services of the Internet, from the definition of covered infrastructure. It would be wrong to say that Verizon, Comcast, Sprint, and the other major backbone operators were not critical to the American economy. Indeed, the bill’s supporters are confident that the definition includes the backbone operators, and that using the procedures outlined in the bill they would be eligible for designation. The carve-out for “commercial information technology products” seems to include Internet backbone services, which are sold wholesale and commercially to a host of purchasers.
The definitions in the bill do not provide additional clarity. Under section 2(1) of the bill, a commercial information technology product is defined as “a commercial item that organizes or communicates information electronically.” ISPs do that.
Then, a commercial item is defined by cross-reference to 41 USC 103 as “an item, that—(1)(A) is of a type customarily used by the general public or by nongovernmental entities for purposes other than governmental purposes.” That is where the ambiguity creeps in—the ISP backbone is “used” by the general public (people use it to read articles online, for instance). But “used” in this context might mean “marketed to”—a requirement that might not include the ISP backbone.
To add to the confusion subsection 103(6) states that “commercial items” include “services offered and sold competitively, in substantial quantities, in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog or market prices for specific tasks performed or specific outcomes to be achieved and under standard commercial terms and conditions.” This strongly appears to include the transmission services that ISP backbone companies provide.
The bill’s supporters are quite confident that the ISP backbone can be a critical piece of infrastructure. This is a good idea, but an idea that does not match the bill text. If the intent of the bill is to include Internet transmission service providers as covered critical infrastructure, the language likely requires some tweaking. Either way, the uncertainty of the language makes it clear why a comprehensive approach is so fraught with peril—the unintended consequences are never fully known.
Finally, the bill attempts to further limit the scope of its regulations by specifying that the new performance standards will not apply if the critical infrastructure system or asset is already adequately regulated by another federal agency. If the Homeland Security Secretary believes that the cybersecurity regulations for the electric grid put in place by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) are adequate, the Secretary will not override them. Likewise, performance standards will not apply if the owner of the critical infrastructure has already taken the necessary steps to protect his critical system or asset from a cyber attack.
These two exclusions, for adequate regulation by another body and for taking voluntary steps to protect one’s system, are not clear exclusions. For one thing, it is evident that critical systems will have to meet some standard of protection, and whether or not they have done so adequately will, ultimately, be judged by the Homeland Security Secretary. Thus, the “adequacy” of alternatives will, inevitably, converge to whatever standards DHS sets, and DHS will have the final word in defining them.
James Lewis of the Center for Strategic and International Studies testified that, by definition, the entire process of creating a protected list creates an unprotected list and is a “bit like writing a targeting list of our opponents.” There is no way to avoid that problem unless, again, one expands this regulatory structure to be the structure for everything. The reality is that it is not possible to protect all systems all the time.No Strategy for Setting Standards
The bill tasks the Homeland Security Secretary with developing cybersecurity performance requirements. In doing so, the Secretary will consider existing regulations, performance requirements developed by the private sector, and any other industry standards and guidelines identified through a review of existing practices. Once that review of the practices, regulations, and performance requirements is completed, the Secretary will next consider whether they are “adequate.” If they are not, the Secretary, in consultation with the private sector, will develop, on a sector-by-sector basis, risk-based cybersecurity performance requirements for owners of “covered” critical infrastructure.
Finally, section 104(g) of the act provides that the Secretary, “in developing performance requirements shall take into consideration available resources and anticipated consequences of a cyber attack.” This sounds like a cost-benefit-analysis requirement—which would be a good idea. But it might also be merely a watered-down risk assessment with a predetermined conclusion. The main criticism of this section is likely to be that implementation will simply cost too much. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce believes as much, though Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano disagrees. The truth is that nobody has any real idea.
Though superior to a command-and-control system of rules, the problem with the novel performance standards approach is that the legislation is merely an agreement to agree. It is a command to begin a process that identifies standards of cybersecurity protection. No one knows what those standards might be in the end, and until the standards are defined, it is impossible to know how owners will achieve them. Thus, no estimates can reasonably predict what the costs of compliance will be. They might be cheap and easy to implement if all it takes is to “air gap” some critical systems. On the other hand, they might be extremely expensive and complex if the only way to achieve compliance is to deploy a suite of sophisticated intrusion-detection systems.
The mandate to create a performance requirement has a number of caveats that are intended to moderate their stringency, such as consultation with industry, deferral to existing best practices, and consideration of cost. But, ultimately, the commitment to a performance standard is a great unknown.
Finally, since cyberspace is currently an offense-dominated space, it is likely that the most effective method of dealing with cyber vulnerabilities is to prepare for failure, that is, to establish plans for continuity of operations. It is fair to characterize the bill as focused far more on attack prevention than it is on recovery from attack, since the only real mention of resilience is in section 105(b)(1)(C). There, the bill briefly mentions that the performance requirements are to include rules requiring owners to “develop or update continuity of operations and incident response plans.”
Enforcement. Section 105(c) contains the enforcement provisions of the bill. They require owners of covered critical infrastructure to annually prove that they have taken adequate steps to satisfy the cybersecurity performance requirements.  Either self-certification or third-party assessments will be accepted; though, since the third-party assessment industry is virtually non-existent at the moment, self-certification is likely to be the norm at least initially.
This section also states that the DHS regulations are to allow civil enforcement action and monetary penalties against operators of covered infrastructure who do not comply with the regulations and “remediate the violation within an appropriate time.” What an “appropriate time” means is still unknown, since the legislation is essentially a command to DHS to start crafting rules.
The Regulatory Time Line. Stewart Baker testified that “a company that simply exercises rights conferred by the title could delay any cybersecurity measures for eight to ten years after enactment.”
There are two ways to think about that sort of time line. One is to suggest that it is too long and that, therefore, government needs authority to act more quickly. The other, conservative view is to realize that the regulatory process is too slow for this cyber environment and that the process and possible results are not worth the time, money, and effort spent trying to implement them. Either way, the regulatory reality is daunting.First: Do No Harm
The proposed Cybersecurity Act of 2012 attempts to craft a sound solution to a critical problem, but fails to fully achieve that goal. As is, it may also cause more harm than good. A better method would be to approach cybersecurity step by step. Congress should:
The authors of the Cybersecurity Act of 2012 are to be commended for wisely promoting information sharing and even attempting to avoid the usual pitfalls of regulation by using a novel, outcome-oriented process. This attempt, however, falls short, and the regulatory program will be the main field of conflict in the next few weeks.
There seems to be an emerging consensus that information sharing is important, but not that a regulatory program is needed. As Senator John McCain (R–AZ) said, the Republican alternative bill will “aim to enter into a cooperative relationship with the entire private sector through information sharing, rather than an adversarial one with prescriptive regulations.” It remains to be seen whether the disagreement over a regulatory structure means that the Senate will also be unable to agree on the much-needed information-sharing provisions.
—Paul Rosenzweig is a Visiting Fellow in the Center for Legal & Judicial Studies and in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies, a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies, at The Heritage Foundation.
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