|Exam Name||:||Oracle Database 10g: New Features for Oracle8i OCPs|
|Questions and Answers||:||200 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 15, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure 1Z0-045 Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure 1Z0-045 Full Version|
1Z0-045 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Database 10g: New Features for Oracle8i OCPs
Test Code : 1Z0-045
Test Name : Oracle Database 10g: New Features for Oracle8i OCPs
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 200 Real Questions
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as a result of its independent performance, most early adopters have not handiest all started realizing company benefits directly, like faster transaction processing, extra accurate earnings forecasts and more advantageous client experiences; it’s additionally helped them support their company’s protection textile to support intuitively thwart cyber-threats and facts thefts. corporations the usage of Oracle self sufficient Database come from different industries such as banking, consulting, digital commerce, IT and skilled features, and unconventional sectors like footwear and spices.
“Performing ATM Analytics on Oracle self reliant records Warehouse, we uploaded only aggregate facts referring to ATM performance metrics, in accordance with our compliance instructions round records privacy and safety. in exactly below four weeks, we had an intuitive, person-friendly answer with full drill-down and roll-up capabilities. This empowered our senior leaders with actionable intelligence for sooner resolution making. We’re now looking to bettering the scope with social media content for more suitable sentiment analysis and a greater holistic understanding of our valued clientele”, noted Shalini Warrier, COO, Federal financial institution.
beyond gigantic businesses, SMBs, and born-in-the-cloud startups are optimizing their materials, boosting their aggressive edge and crafting hyper-personalised purchaser engagement concepts with Oracle autonomous Database. Codeinks, a Bangalore based ecommerce software product business, is one such startup.“Our purchasers are worrying sooner, deeper, extra correct insights from us, however most database applied sciences aren’t fast adequate to tackle such heavy obligation analytics workloads for actual-time reporting. We used Oracle self reliant statistics Warehouse out of the field, and we realized a typical performance growth within the range of 30%-50% for our defined situations. We were capable of immediately create dashboards in near-precise time to catch the results of what-if evaluation around quite a number factors together with session facts looking at person interactions in a particular timeframe or round particular projects”, stated Manish Verma, Cofounder & CEO, Codeinks
With Oracle self reliant Database, CIOs are empowered to force their businesses out of upkeep mode and speed up innovation. Oracle purchasers get the liberty of the use of the identical database in the cloud, on premises or with Cloud at customer, easing the transition of current, mission-crucial applications.
“in the remaining three hundred and sixty five days, our consumers have rewired their organizational DNA to transform into a digital-first, data-pushed company. they are liberating up elements to focal point extra on innovation. to position their records capital to greater use and enhance their core advantage, we’re helping them upgrade to the know-how of day after today, nowadays. self sufficient application might be the next massive boom lever for groups”, pointed out Shailender Kumar, Regional Managing Director, Oracle India.
corporations the usage of Oracle self sufficient Database come from diverse industries reminiscent of banking, consulting, digital commerce, and unconventional sectors like shoes and spices.
Oracle India introduced that a few Indian agencies are realizing big company value from their records, by using leveraging the Oracle self sufficient Database - the trade’s first ‘self-using, self-securing and self-repairing’ database. Armed with deeper and extra meaningful insights, these shoppers have been able to greatly increase and quickly-tune business selections, introduce new items/capabilities to market sooner and create a wiser body of workers.
as a result of its self sustaining functionality, most early adopters haven't best all started realizing company advantages instantly, like faster transaction processing, greater accurate earnings forecasts and better customer experiences; it’s additionally helped them enhance their firm’s safety material to support intuitively thwart cyber-threats and records thefts. businesses using Oracle independent Database come from diverse industries similar to banking, consulting, digital commerce, IT and expert services, and unconventional sectors like footwear and spices.
“Performing ATM Analytics on Oracle self reliant records Warehouse, we uploaded simplest combination data touching on ATM performance metrics, according to our compliance guidelines round data privacy and protection. in only beneath four weeks, we had an intuitive, person-pleasant solution with full drill-down and roll-up capabilities. This empowered our senior leaders with actionable intelligence for quicker decision making. We’re now trying to bettering the scope with social media content material for more desirable sentiment evaluation and a greater holistic figuring out of our valued clientele”, said Shalini Warrier, COO, Federal bank.
beyond enormous enterprises, SMBs, and born-in-the-cloud startups are optimizing their substances, boosting their competitive edge and crafting hyper-personalised buyer engagement concepts with Oracle self reliant Database. Codeinks, a Bangalore based ecommerce utility product enterprise, is one such startup.
“Our clients are disturbing sooner, deeper, more accurate insights from us, however most database applied sciences aren’t speedy adequate to tackle such heavy duty analytics workloads for actual-time reporting. We used Oracle self sufficient records Warehouse out of the box, and we realized a standard performance improvement in the range of 30%-50% for our defined eventualities. We had been in a position to rapidly create dashboards in near-real time to trap the outcomes of what-if evaluation round various components including session records taking a look at consumer interactions in a particular timeframe or around certain projects”, observed Manish Verma, co-founder and CEO, Codeinks
With Oracle autonomous Database, CIOs are empowered to power their agencies out of protection mode and speed up innovation. Oracle customers get the freedom of the use of the equal database in the cloud, on premises or with Cloud at customer, easing the transition of current, mission-important purposes.
“within the remaining 365 days, our customers have rewired their organizational DNA to seriously change into a digital-first, information-driven business. they're releasing up materials to center of attention more on innovation. to place their information capital to greater use and beef up their core skills, we’re assisting them improve to the know-how of the following day, today. self sufficient application might be the subsequent large increase lever for companies”, observed Shailender Kumar, regional managing director, Oracle India.
Is the Oracle-DBA relationship breaking down?
the area of the Database Administrator (DBA) has modified in view that the technology went mainstream in the Seventies, writes Bruce Momjian, co-founding father of the PostgreSQL world construction group. Over the last forty years three or four providers have sought to dominate the market and have invested heavily in constructing the “Rolls Royce” of databases for mission-important on premises purposes. When the Oracle database marked its thirtieth birthday in 2007, it felt basically like a cult gathering as everyone in the Moscone middle gave Larry Ellison a standing ovation as he arrived for his keynote.
It became an comprehensible reaction, because the DBAs within the viewers had additionally invested closely in becoming Oracle experts. That thirtieth birthday celebration become symbolic of the unstated contract between DBAs and Oracle at the moment. both have been heavily dependent on one one more. speedy forward to today, even though, and the relationship is changing. further and further DBAs are questioning their on-going reliance on Oracle. when I meet Oracle customers, I ask them one intentionally provocative query: assuming that you are chuffed with Oracle nowadays, will you still be happy in five years time?Bruce Momjian, co-founding father of the PostgreSQL international development group
Given how shut the connection between DBAs and Oracle has been historically, it is enjoyable to be aware how people reply. at first there is some entertainment or dismissive snorts of “Of direction i'll!”
however once we start to unpack how market dynamics have changed and trust the new opportunities that exist as a result of open supply, the mood alterations.
more basically as we discover what these DBAs need from their database platforms it prompts reflection and acceptance that whereas Oracle has been the defacto database general on premises it could possibly not be the optimal alternative relocating forward, principally as corporations are looking for superior flexibility and agility from their database infrastructure. via the end of those periods we commonly have a really energised audience eager to go out and discover the potential of open source-based databases corresponding to PostgreSQL.today’s truth: Oracle and the DBA neighborhood Drifting apart?
since the database is so critical to Oracle’s Cloud approach, you would suppose Oracle would do every little thing viable to maintain its traditionally potent bond with the DBA community. besides the fact that children, as with all relationship, instances exchange and sometimes those involved waft aside. So what has led to this relationship to smash down?F1 On-Premises Database
Oracle has developed an on premises database that has so tons performance it could be described as the components One equal of a database. i might stick my neck out and say that ninety five% of the configuration data for the big majority of databases have not been modified due to the fact that deployment. that suggests DBAs do not have the entire performance Oracle offers. Gartner has spoke of that open source databases might tackle 95% of all current database requirements, so it is going to be no shock that builders are turning to open source alternate options for quicker, extra agile databases that carry what they need, no longer what the vendor thinks they want.Barebones Cloud Database
while DBAs are used to characteristic-rich on premises Oracle databases the same cannot be spoke of for the Oracle Cloud. Gartner has counseled that Oracle Cloud is a minimal workable product and that is infrequently spectacular, as a result of Larry Ellison has admitted that era 2 of the Oracle Cloud has required an entire re-architecture of its expertise. This should function a warning that DBAs should still no longer expect like-for-like equivalency in the Cloud!The self sufficient Database
Oracle sales executives place it as a means to unencumber DBAs to do extra; although, their bosses are greater interested in appealing to business decision makers, explicitly asserting it should be an opportunity to cut costs…the most costly of which is the DBA operating the database! despite this blunt probability the reality is that autonomous applied sciences will, within the lengthy-term, develop into a feature of database technology. This impending trade is encouraging DBAs to re-consider their database innovations; here is not always a reevaluation in Oracle’s favour.The Cloud alterations Market Dynamics
In these days’s digital world, where agility and value are the leading drivers, the company case for Oracle is fitting tougher to justify. As automotive producers talk a couple of future with mobility as a service instead of buyers owning vehicles, in a similar fashion DBAs are being advised they don’t should “personal” databases on premises. rather they may still switch to Cloud-based mostly functions, but the danger is that whereas these “all that you would be able to devour” contracts seem to be appealing, consumers can quickly rack up massive expenses for databases that don't seem to be fit for the challenges they face. developers want to spin up situations far more hastily and at much less cost than ordinary on-premise databases. The Cloud offers them the capability to movement far from the likes of Oracle to cloud-native alternatives that offer better flexibility and are more fit for his or her specific functions.The alternative: A Time for Pragmatic Reflection
I realize that for Oracle diehards what i'm asserting is nothing short of heresy, but there are many pragmatic DBAs obtainable who realize that a schism is occurring. The combination of the on-going fallout from the financial disaster (which has suppressed IT budgets for decades) and the urgency of responding to the digital period is forcing cool-headed, pragmatic reflection.
Take, for instance, Oracle true software Clusters (RAC). It became in the beginning developed as AWS changed into most effective getting off the ground and Larry concept the future turned into Grid Computing (he famously referred to as Cloud “finished gibberish” returned then!) It took a long time to superb, but it become located because the solution to the tremendously performant, respectable databases that all and sundry envisioned we would need for information superhighway 2.0.
these days, we hear commentators speakme about data lakes, which in conception may still be ideal to RAC. definitely, RAC is incredibly advanced, costly and never scalable ample for such initiatives. it is why Oracle has struggled to profit traction with the cyber web unicorns which are dominating business nowadays. they have turned to a large choice of open supply-primarily based options that may give the more immediate and acceptable functionality obligatory to scale their corporations.
Even the neatly-established web giants – folks that you can predict would need the total could of Oracle database performance – are looking for to break away. ultimate yr there were rumours about Salesforce trying to circulation off Oracle and greater these days, Amazon web features (AWS) has been frank about its want to move off Oracle. Of path, this makes for wonderful media headlines, however the underlying message is clear – Oracle is expensive, the performance isn’t best to the digital era and there are many credible alternate options accessible.the longer term: Do you've got a five-12 months Database Plan?
We shouldn’t be shocked that many DBAs view Oracle as a legacy database platform that is not healthy for the demands of digital enterprise. more and more, I expect we are able to see DBAs answering my fashioned query through relocating far from Oracle, because it can not offer the stage of innovation they're going to require in the future. And for those that are nonetheless unsure or evaluating their alternate options then i'd suggest some elementary checks:
no matter if you're for the reason that alternatives to Oracle or agree with Oracle is the appropriate alternative, the most critical element is that you must beginning planning as early as feasible.
there are lots of factors to believe from the technical necessities to the licensing implications of your database choice – both at time of implementation and into the longer term. chiefly it's vital to opt for the database that matches your enterprise wants. If the route for the IT branch is particular and clear, then it may well be sensible to use a closed supply database comparable to Oracle. besides the fact that children, in this day and age it is uncommon that a enterprise has such simple task. if your business is disturbing more desirable flexibility from IT, since the strategic direction is fluid, then it makes feel to accept as true with open source-based alternatives. this can supply DBAs the opportunity to alter the database method as the path of trip for the enterprise alterations, allowing for the exploration of different markets and customer demand.
Bruce Momjian is co-founder and core group member of the PostgreSQL world building community, and has worked on PostgreSQL due to the fact that 1996. He has been employed by way of EnterpriseDB, the database platform business, on account that 2006
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Mark Rittman is a SearchOracle.com guest contributor. He is an OCP DBA and works as a consulting manager at Plus Consultancy in England, where he specializes in developing business intelligence and data warehousing applications using the Oracle Database, Application Server, Discoverer, Warehouse Builder and Oracle OLAP.
You can find more of Mark's work at www.rittman.net/.
Plus Consultancy's Mark Rittman shares what he believes are the top 10 new data warehousing features in Oracle Database 10g. Use the following list to navigate to each feature.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. The SQL Model Clause 2. The SQLAccess Adviser 3. Improvements to the Multidimensional OLAP Engine 4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite 5. Data Pump, The replacement for import and export 6. Improvements to storage management 7. Faster full table scans 8. Automatic tuning and maintenance 9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture 10. Improvements to Oracle data mining
1. The SQL Model clause[ Return to Table of Contents ]
The new data warehousing feature in Oracle Database 10g that has probably received the most attention is the SQL Model clause. The SQL Model clause allows users to embed spreadsheet-like models in a SELECT statement, in a way that was previously the domain of dedicated multidimensional OLAP servers such as Oracle Express and Oracle9i OLAP. The SQL Model clause brings an entirely new dimension to Oracle analytical queries and addresses a number of traditional shortcomings with the way SQL normally works.
The SQL Model clause has been designed to address the sort of situation where, in the past, clients have taken data out of relational databases and imported it into a model held in a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. Often, these models involve a series of macros that aggregate data over a number of business dimensions, over varying time periods, and following a set of complex business rules that would be difficult to express as normal SQL. I've worked on many a client engagement where the limitations of SQL meant that a number of standalone Excel spreadsheets had to be used, and while these gave the client the analytical capabilities they required, the usual issues of scalability and reliability of replicated data, and lack of overall control often became apparent after a while.
The aim of the SQL Model clause is to give normal SQL statements the ability to create a multidimensional array from the results of a normal SELECT statement, carry out any number of interdependent inter-row and inter-array calculations on this array, and then update the base tables with the results of the model. An example SQL statement using the MODEL clause would look like;SELECT SUBSTR(country,1,20) country, SUBSTR(prod,1,15) prod, year, sales FROM sales_view WHERE country IN ('Italy','Japan') MODEL RETURN UPDATED ROWS PARTITION BY (country) DIMENSION BY (prod, year) MEASURES (sale sales) RULES ( sales['Bounce', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2001] + sales['Bounce', 2000], sales['Y Box', 2002] = sales['Y Box', 2001], sales['2_Products', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2002] + sales['Y Box', 2002]) ORDER BY country, prod, year;
More details on the SQL Model clause can be found in "The new Oracle10g SQL Model Clause", the OracleWorld white paper "SQL Model clause of Oracle Database 10g", the OTN article "Announcing the new Model" by Jonathan Gennick and OTN's documentation.
2. The SQLAccess Adviser[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Part of the Oracle Database 10g Server Manageability feature, the SQLAccess Adviser recommends the best combination of indexes and materialized views for a given database workload. Available either at the command line (via the DBMS_ADVISOR package) or through the Advisor Central element of the new Web-based Oracle Enterprise Manager, the SQLAccess Adviser is based on the index and summary advisors previously bundled with Oracle9i and provides a one-stop-shop for tuning and summarizing your warehouse data.
More details on the SQLAccess Adviser can be found in this OracleWorld white paper, ""Turbocharge your database: Use the Oracle Database 10g SQLAccess Advisor" by Lillian Hobbs, the OTN documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.
3. Improvements to the multidimensional OLAP engine[ Return to Table of Contents ]
With Oracle9i, the previously standalone Express multidimensional engine is now incorporated into the Oracle database, and with Oracle Database 10g, benefits of integration with the traditional relational Oracle engine are starting to become apparent.
First up is improvements to the way large analytic workspaces can be partitioned, introducing into the Oracle OLAP world some of the advanced partitioning options currently enjoyed by Oracle database users. Currently, analytic workspaces, stored as AW$ tables within an Oracle schema, can be partitioned across multiple rows in the AW$ table by specifying a maximum segment size, allowing you to split an individual analytic workspace into (say) 10 GB segments, one in each table row. This table could then be partitioned just like any other Oracle table, allowing you to put one row in one tablespace, another in another, and each of these tablespaces could of course be stored in datafiles on different physical disk units. Although this was of some benefit, splitting by segment size was the only way of partitioning the data, and you couldn't specify what objects within the analytic workspace went in to each partition. Oracle10g OLAP will now include an enhancement where you can specify exactly which objects within the analytic workspace go in to each partition, and you can further subdivide this by segment size if objects are particularly large.
In a similar fashion, variables within the analytic workspace can now be partitioned, either by range of dimension members, a list of dimension members, or by reference to a CONCAT dimension. The 10g multidimensional engine then stores each variable partition as a separate physical object, which can be directed to separate rows in the AW$ table (allowing you to partition these across different tablespaces and physical disk drives); the variable, however, appears as just one object to the application, simplifying the data model and allowing Oracle to do all the hard work in the background.
Another excellent new feature, and a real improvement over what was available with Express, is support for multi-user read-write access to individual analytic workspaces. In the past, one drawback with Express was that only one user could attach to an Express database in read-write mode, leading Express developers to develop a whole range of alternative solutions to allow ad-hoc write access to Express databases. In Oracle 10g OLAP, analytic workspaces can be attached in MULTI mode, whereafter applications then ACQUIRE individual variables in the analytic workspace for read-write access. Once an object has been acquired (and locked by the Oracle multidimensional engine), updates can then take place and the application can make whatever modifications are necessary. After all changes have been made, the UPDATE command is issued against the variable, followed by a COMMIT, and then a RELEASE command is issued against the variable to make it available for other applications to write to. It'll be interesting to see how the multidimensional engine handles multi-write access; in the past with Express databases could balloon in size when one user had read-write access to a database, and others were accessing it in read mode, as Express had to clone the database for each user to ensure that they had a consistent view of the data. I wouldn't be surprised if individual variables were copied out of a 10g analytic workspace into a temporary workspace while updates happened, with updates being propagated back (as with the old Express Excel Add-In) when the changes are finally COMMITted -- the key thing here is how database size is dealt with as the old Express way of doing it was less than optimal.
Aggregation has been improved with Oracle10g OLAP, with formulas now allowed as sources of data for the AGGREGATE command, eliminating the need to calculate and store data at the detail level. Aggregation, particularly dynamic aggregation, is another area where Oracle9i and now 10g OLAP are a distinct improvement over Express and it's well worth looking at this area in more detail if this is an issue with an existing Express system.
More details on Oracle10g OLAP's new features can be found in the OLAP Application Developer's Guide, the OLAP DML Reference and a white paper by Bud Endress, "OLAP Option to the Oracle10g Database."
4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Query Rewrite (the ability for Oracle to transparently redirect queries from detail level to summary tables) is one of the best data warehousing features in Oracle8i and 9i, but it's sometimes a bit temperamental and you can often find that queries don't actually get rewritten. Sometimes this is because you've broken one of the Query Rewrite restrictions, sometimes it's because your materialized view doesn't contain the correct columns and aggregates. Oracle 10g has a number of improvements to Query Rewrite and the materialized view tuning process that should make this process a bit more productive. With Oracle Database 10g, query rewrite is now possible when your SELECT statement contains analytic functions, full outer joins and set operations such as UNION, MINUS and INTERSECT. In addition, you can now use a hint, /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */, which will stop the execution of a SQL statement if query rewrite cannot occur.SQL> SELECT /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */ 2 s.prod_id, 3 sum(s.quantity_sold) 4 FROM sales s 5 GROUP BY s.prod_id; FROM sales s * ERROR at line 4: ORA-30393: a query block in the statement did not rewrite
Oracle9i came with two packages, DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW and DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_REWRITE that could be used to diagnose why a materialized view wasn't being used for query rewrite. However, although these packages told you why rewrite hadn't happened, they left it down to you to work out how to alter your CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement to ensure that rewrite happened correctly. Oracle Database 10g comes with a new advisor package, DBMS_ADVISOR.TUNE_MVIEW, that takes as its input a CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW DML statement, and outputs a corrected version that supports query rewrite and features such as fast refresh.
More details on Query Rewrite improvements and the Tune MView Adviser can be found in the TUNE_MVIEW online documentation, the Query Rewrite online documents and this Oracle Database 10g Oracle-by-Example tutorial.
5. Data Pump: The replacement for import and export[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Data Pump is a replacement for the venerable IMP and EXP applications used for creating logical backups of Oracle tables, schemas or databases. Data Pump is a server application (as opposed to IMP and EXP, which were client applications), which in beta testing was twice as fast as the old EXP for exporting data, and 10 times as fast as the old IMP for importing data. Data Pump is callable either through the DBMS_DATAPUMP package, through the replacements for IMP and EXP, known as IMPDB and EXPDB, or through a wizard delivered as part of Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
Data Pump (and the new IMPDB and EXPDB applications) offers a number of improvements over the old IMPORT and EXPORT, including resumable/restartable jobs, automatic two-level parallelism, a network mode that uses DBLINKs/listener service names instead of pipes, fine-grained object selection (so you can select individual tables, view, packages, indexes and so on for import or export, not just tables or schemas as with IMPORT and EXPORT), and a fully callable API that allows Data Pump functionality to be embedded in third-party ETL packages.
More details on Data Pump can be found in this OracleWorld white paper by George Claborn, "Data Pump in Oracle Database 10g: Foundation for ultra-high-speed data movement utilities,", OTN's online documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.
6. Improvements to storage management[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is one of the 'cool new features' in Oracle10g that is meant to reduce the workload for Oracle DBAs. ASM completely automates the process of creating logical volumes, file systems and filenames, with the DBA only specifying the location of raw disks and ASM doing the rest. Disk I/O is managed by evenly distributing the data across blocks within a disk group, with ASM in addition handling disk mirroring and the creation of mirror groups and failure groups.
ASM deals with the problems caused by rapidly expanding data warehouses, where administators can no longer deal with the sheer number of disk units, nodes and logical groupings, and is a key feature of the Oracle 10g Grid Architecture, which aims to 'virtualize' computing power and present database features like processing and storage as utilities that effectively manage themselves.
More details on Automatic Storage Management can be found in this OTN article by Lannes Morris-Murphy, this Oracle-by-example tutorial (which comes with a number of demonstration viewlets) and OTN's online documentation.
7. Faster full table scans[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Full table scans are common in data warehousing environments, and with this in mind, table scan performance has been improved in Oracle10g. Code optimization in Oracle Database 10g has decreased CPU consumption and this leads to faster table scan execution (when queries are CPU bound, rather than I/O bound), and gives the potential for greater query concurrency, offering up to 30-40% speed improvements when comparing CPU-bound queries.
8. Automatic tuning and maintenance[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Automatic maintenance and tuning has always been one of the key product differentiators for Microsoft SQL Server and with Oracle10g, features that meet and match those found in competitor products are being introduced to the server technology stack.
Surveys show that over 50% of a DBAs time is spend tuning and monitoring the database server, a task that while important is often complex and difficult to get exactly right. With Oracle Database 10g, Oracle has introduced a number of components that together make it possible for the database server to monitor itself, make intelligent changes to configuration, and alert DBAs when situations arise that need manual intervention.
The first component in this framework is the Automatic Workload Repository, which uses an enhanced version of Statspack to collect instance statistics every 30 minutes and stores these for a rolling seven day period. This enhanced version of Statspack now collects a broader range of statistics and has a number of optimizations to streamline the way high-cost SQL statements are captured, ensuring that only SQL activity that has significantly affected performance since the last snapshot are collected. The usage information stored in the Automatic Workload Repository is then used as the basis for all the self-management functionality in Oracle Database 10g.
Next up is the Automatic Maintenance Tasks feature, which acts on the statistics gathered by the Automatic Workload Repository, and carries out tasks such as index rebuilding, refreshing statistics and so on, where such tasks don't require any manual intervention by the DBA. A new scheduling feature known as Unified Scheduler runs these tasks during a predefined maintenance window, set by default to be between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am the next day, although these times can be customized to reduce impact on other tasks (such as batch loads) that might be taking place.
The third component of the self-managing framework is Server Generated Alerts, a method where the database server sends notifications via e-mail to the DBA -- including a recommendation as to how best to deal with the situation. Alerts will normally be raised where the database itself cannot deal with the situation that has arisen, such as when there is insufficient space on a disk unit to extend a datafile.
Lastly, and perhaps the most exiting of all the self-managing component frameworks, is the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor. This component analyzes the data captured in the Automatic Workload Repository and uses an artificial intelligence algorithm, similar to that found in Oracle Expert, to analyze areas such as lock contention, CPU bottlenecks, I/O usage and contention, issues with checkpointing and so on, in much the same way that a DBA would currently do by analyzing statspack reports.
More details on the self-tuning and maintenance features in Oracle 10g can be found in this OracleWorld white paper, "Oracle Database 10g: The self-managing database," by Sushil Kumar.
9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Oracle Change Data Capture was introduced with Oracle9i, and provided the ability to track changes to tables and store them in a change table, for further consumption by an ETL process. Oracle9i Change Data Capture worked by creating triggers on the source tables, transferring data synchronously but creating a processing overhead and requiring access to the structure of the source tables. Because of the effect that the triggers had on the underlying tables, many warehouse projects did without change data capture and used other methods to capture changes.
Oracle10g introduces Asynchronous Change Data Capture, which instead of using triggers uses the database log files to capture changes and apply them to collection tables. Asynchronous Change Data Capture therefore doesn't require changes to the table structure and doesn't impact on database performance.
More details on Asynchronous Change Data Capture can be found in this OTN white paper, "On-time data warehousing with Oracle 10g -- Information at the speed of your business," which also details improvements to the transportable tablespaces feature in Oracle Database 10g (tablespaces no longer need to be sourced from the same O/S platform).
10. Improvements to Oracle data mining[ Return to Table of Contents ]
Alongside the inclusion of the Oracle Express multidimensional OLAP engine, Oracle9i also embedded data mining functionality in the database together, and this data mining functionality has been enhanced with Oracle Database 10g. Oracle Database 10g adds support for two new classification routines, Support Vector Machine (used for top-down rather than a bottom-up calculations, assuming the best possible fit and then working backwards to what can be achieved) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation, together with support for Frequent Itemsets, used for such functions as market basket analysis and propensity analysis.
More details on what's new with Oracle10g Data Mining can be found in the OTN online documentation.
About the author:Mark Rittman works for Plus Consultancy, an Oracle Partner specializing in business intelligence and data warehousing solutions, based in Brighton, England. He manages their data warehousing practice and spends most time designing and building BI&W systems based on the Oracle9i platform. Away from Plus, he's also the chair of the UKOUG Business Intelligence & Reporting Tools SIG, working as a liason between the Oracle BI tools community and Oracle. Check out Mark's Web site at www.rittman.net.
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Change is a fact of life, and each of the major DBMS products changes quite rapidly. A typical release cycle for DBMS software is 18 to 24 months for major releases, with constant bug fixes and maintenance updates delivered between major releases. Indeed, keeping DBMS software up-to-date can be a full-time job.
The DBA must develop an approach to upgrading DBMS software that conforms to the organization’s needs and minimizes business disruptions due to outages and database unavailability.
You may have noticed that I use the terms version and release somewhat interchangeably. That is fine for a broad discussion of DBMS upgrades, but a more precise definition is warranted. For a better discussion of the differences between a version and a release, please refer to the sidebar.
A DBMS version upgrade can be thought of as a special case of a new installation. All the procedures required of a new installation apply to an upgrade: You must plan for appropriate resources, reconsider all system parameters, and ensure that all supporting software is appropriately connected. However, another serious issue must be planned for: existing users and applications. An upgrade needs to be planned to cause as little disruption to the existing users as possible. Furthermore, any additional software that works with the DBMS (such as purchased applications, DBA tools, utilities, and so on) must be verified to be compatible with the new DBMS version. Therefore, upgrading can be a tricky and difficult task.
In a complex, heterogeneous, distributed database environment, a coherent upgrade strategy is essential. Truthfully, even organizations with only a single DBMS should approach DBMS upgrades cautiously and plan accordingly. Failure to plan a DBMS upgrade can result in improper and inefficient adoption of new features, performance degradation of new and existing applications, and downtime.
Upgrading to a new DBMS release offers both rewards and risks. The following are some of the benefits of moving to a new release:
However, an effective DBMS upgrade strategy must balance the benefits against the risks of upgrading to arrive at the best timeline for migrating to a new DBMS version or release. The risks of upgrading to a new DBMS release include the following:
After weighing the benefits of upgrading against the risks of a new DBMS release, the DBA group must create an upgrade plan that works for the organization. Sometimes the decision will be to upgrade immediately upon availability, but often there is a lag between the general availability of a new release and its widespread adoption.
When the risks of a new release outweigh the benefits, some organizations may decide to skip an interim release if doing so does not impact a future upgrade. For example, a good number of Oracle customers migrated directly from Oracle7 to Oracle8i, skipping Oracle8. If the DBMS vendor does not allow users to bypass a version or release, it is still possible to “skip” a release by waiting to implement that release until the next release is available. For example, consider the following scenario:
Although a multiple-release upgrade takes more time, it allows customers to effectively control when and how they will migrate to new releases of a DBMS instead of being held hostage by the DBMS vendor. When attempting a multiple-release upgrade of this type, be sure to fully understand the features and functionality added by the DBMS vendor for each interim release. In the case of the hypothetical ABC Corporation, the DBAs would need to research and prepare for the new features of not just Version 10 but also Version 9.
An appropriate DBMS upgrade strategy depends on many things. The following sections outline the issues that must be factored into an effective DBMS release upgrade strategy.Features and Complexity
Perhaps the biggest factor in determining when and how to upgrade to a new DBMS release is the functionality supported by the new release. Tightly coupled to functionality is the inherent complexity involved in supporting and administering new features.
It is more difficult to delay an upgrade if application developers are clamoring for new DBMS features. If DBMS functionality can minimize the cost and effort of application development, the DBA group will feel pressure to migrate swiftly to the new release. An additional factor that will coerce rapid adoption of a new release is when DBMS problems are fixed in the new release (instead of through regular maintenance fixes).
Regardless of a new release’s “bells and whistles,” certain administration and implementation details must be addressed before upgrading. The DBA group must ensure that standards are modified to include the new features, educate developers and users as to how new features work and should be used, and prepare the infrastructure to support the new DBMS functionality.
The types of changes required to support the new functionality must be factored into the upgrade strategy. When the DBMS vendor makes changes to internal structures, data page layouts, or address spaces, the risks of upgrading are greater. Additional testing is warranted in these situations to ensure that database utilities, DBA tools, and data extraction and movement tools still work with the revised internal structures.Complexity of the DBMS Environment
The more complex your database environment is, the more difficult it will be to upgrade to a new DBMS release. The first complexity issue is the size of the environment. The greater the number of database servers, instances, applications, and users, the greater the complexity. Additional concerns include the types of applications being supported. A DBMS upgrade is easier to implement if only simple, batch-oriented applications are involved. As the complexity and availability requirements of the applications increase, the difficulty of upgrading also increases.
Location of the database servers also affects the release upgrade strategy. Effectively planning and deploying a DBMS upgrade across multiple database servers at various locations supporting different lines of business is difficult. It is likely that an upgrade strategy will involve periods of supporting multiple versions of the DBMS at different locations and for different applications. Supporting different versions in production should be avoided, but that is not always possible.
Finally, the complexity of the applications that access your databases must be considered. The more complex your applications are, the more difficult it will be to ensure their continuing uninterrupted functionality when the DBMS is modified. Complexity issues include the following:
DBMS vendors have different reputations for technical support, fixing bugs, and responding to problems, which is why customer references are so important when choosing a database.
The better the reputation of the vendor, the greater the likelihood of organizations rapidly adopting a new release. If the DBMS vendor is good at responding to problems and supporting its customers as they migrate to new releases, those customers will more actively engage in migration activities.Support Policies of the DBMS
As new releases are introduced, DBMS vendors will retire older releases and no longer support them. The length of time that the DBMS vendor will support an old release must be factored into the DBMS release migration strategy. You should never run a DBMS release in production that is no longer supported by the vendor. If problems occur, the DBMS vendor will not be able to resolve them for you.
Sometimes a DBMS vendor will provide support for a retired release on a special basis and at an increased maintenance charge. If you absolutely must continue using a retired DBMS release (for business or application issues), be sure to investigate the DBMS vendor’s policies regarding support for retired releases of its software.Organization Style
Every organization displays characteristics that reveal its style when it comes to adopting new products and technologies. Industry analysts at Gartner, Inc., have ranked organizations into three distinct groups labeled types A, B, and C. A type-A enterprise is technology driven and, as such, is more likely to risk using new and unproven technologies to try to gain a competitive advantage. A type-B organization is less willing to take risks but will adopt new technologies once others have shaken out the bugs. Finally, a type-C enterprise, very conscious of cost and averse to risk, will lag behind the majority when it comes to migrating to new technology.
Only type-A organizations should plan on moving aggressively to new DBMS releases immediately upon availability and only if the new features of the release will deliver advantages to the company. Type-C enterprises should adopt a very conservative strategy to ensure that the DBMS release is stable and well tested by type-A and type-B companies first. Type-B organizations will fall somewhere between types A and C: Almost never upgrading immediately, the type-B company will adopt the new release after the earliest users have shaken out the biggest problems, but well before type-C enterprises.DBA Staff Skill Set
Upgrading the DBMS is easier if your DBA staff is highly skilled and/or experienced. The risk of an upgrade increases as the skills of the DBA staff decrease. If your DBAs are not highly skilled, or have never migrated a DBMS to a new release, consider augmenting your DBA staff with consultants for the upgrade. Deploying an integrated team of internal DBAs and consultants will ensure that your upgrade goes as smoothly as possible. Furthermore, the DBA staff will be better prepared to handle the future upgrades alone.
If consultants will be required, be sure to include their contracting cost in the DBMS release upgrade budget. The budget should allow you to retain the consultants until all production database environments are stable.Platform Support
When a DBMS vendor unleashes a new release of its product, not all platforms and operating systems are immediately supported. The DBMS vendor usually first supports the platforms and operating systems for which it has the most licensed customers. The order in which platforms are supported for a new release is likely to differ for each DBMS vendor. For example, Linux for System z is more strategic to IBM than to Oracle, so a new DB2 release will most likely support Linux for System z very quickly, whereas this may not be true of Oracle. The issue is even thornier for UNIX platforms because of the sheer number of UNIX variants in the marketplace. The most popular variants are Oracle’s Solaris, IBM’s AIX, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, and Linux, the open-source version of UNIX (the Red Hat and Suse distributions are supported more frequently and rapidly than others). Most DBMS vendors will support these UNIX platforms quickly upon general availability. Other less popular varieties of UNIX will take longer for the DBMS vendors to support.
When planning your DBMS upgrade, be sure to consider the DBMS platforms you use and try to gauge the priority of your platform to your vendor. Be sure to build some lag time into your release migration strategy to accommodate the vendor’s delivery schedule for your specific platforms.Supporting Software
Carefully consider the impact of a DBMS upgrade on any supporting software. Supporting software includes purchased applications, DBA tools, reporting and analysis tools, and query tools. Each software vendor will have a different time frame for supporting and exploiting a new DBMS release. Review the sidebar to understand the difference between support and exploitation of a new DBMS release.
Some third-party tool vendors follow guidelines for supporting and exploiting new DBMS releases. Whenever possible, ask your vendors to state their policies for DBMS upgrade support. Your vendors will probably not commit to any firm date or date range to support new versions and releases—some DBMS versions are larger and more complicated and therefore take longer to fully exploit.Fallback Planning
Each new DBMS version or release should come with a manual that outlines the new features of the release and describes the fallback procedures to return to a prior release of the DBMS. Be sure to review the fallback procedures provided by the DBMS vendor in its release guide. You may need to return to a previous DBMS release if the upgrade contains a bug, performance problems ensue, or other problems arise during or immediately after migration. Keep in mind that fallback is not always an option for every new DBMS release.
If fallback is possible, follow the DBMS vendor’s recommended procedures to enable it. You may need to delay the implementation of certain new features for fallback to remain an option. Understand fully the limitations imposed by the DBMS vendor on fallback, and exploit new features only when fallback is no longer an option for your organization.Migration Verification
The DBA should implement procedures—similar to those for a new installation—to verify that the DBMS release upgrade is satisfactory. Perform the same steps as with a brand-new DBMS install, but also test a representative sampling of your in-house applications to verify that the DBMS upgrade is working correctly and performing satisfactorily.The DBMS Upgrade Strategy
In general, design your DBMS release upgrade policy according to the guidelines discussed in the preceding sections. Each specific DBMS upgrade will be unique, but the strategies we’ve discussed will help you to achieve success more readily. A well-thought-out DBMS upgrade strategy will prepare you to support new DBMS releases with minimum impact on your organization and in a style best suited to your company.
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