|Exam Name||:||TCP/IP Network Analysis and Troubleshooting|
|Questions and Answers||:||150 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 23, 2019|
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TCP is the de-facto transport protocol on the internet. It makes sure to ship, and acquire assistance throughout the information superhighway for every type of content. It’s in all places. in case you load a website or ship an e-mail or watch a movie on YouTube. today, it is one of the core protocols of the information superhighway Protocol (IP). it's additionally responsible to be certain to manage statistics despatched in a method, that there is not any congestion anywhere. That talked about, TCP/IP will also be optimized even further. in this submit, we're sharing how to analyze and optimize TCP/IP with TCP Optimizer. It’s a software that may optimize TCP/IP.
There are two ingredients. First is analysis, and the 2nd is Optimization. that you could analyze by way of visiting this hyperlink on their site. The analysis shows a bunch of messages which you might no longer totally be aware other than bits, and items. The basic conception you'll conveniently bear in mind is there are a few settings for TCP which may also be changed so extra data may also be sent throughout. The default settings restrict the amount of records. you'll get details about MTU, MSS, RWIN, and so on. What make sure to appear is if there's anything which suggests you alternate values, and optimizes TCP.
I acquired the following messages:
preserve this page open, as you are going to need it for optimizing the TCP in your computing device using their utility.how to optimize TCP/IP
TCP Optimizer is a conveyable utility which changes few things on the community stage, and few on registry settings. The better part is that its a portable software of a very small measurement. imply you preserve a duplicate to your Inbox. once you down load it from here, launch it with admin privileges.
people that are questioning the way it chooses the most beneficial settings, then its because of the advanced algorithm in the software. depending on computing device to laptop, and network, it finds the finest TCP Settings on your particular connection velocity.
for those that consider technical particulars, it tunes TCP/IP parameters, reminiscent of MTU, RWIN, and even advanced ones like QoS and ToS/Diffserv prioritization. while the software is more often than not for broadband uses, you can apply it to virtually any connection.
aspects of TCP Optimizer:
After it applies new settings, it is going to ask you to reboot the computing device for highest quality outcomes. i will always suggest to hold an eye fixed on your cyber web looking performance and ensure it has both remained the same or has stronger. In case there's an issue, choose to roll returned to default windows Settings.
fun reality – windows comes with an Auto Tuning feature which turned into first released with home windows Vista. it's accessible in home windows 10, and a lot of disable it because of some concerns. The basic reason to disable it is if you happen to use an historic router and auto-tuning doesn’t go well with it.
SAN JOSE, Calif.--(business WIRE)--network popular™ employer, the main company of IT carrier Assurance options, today introduced the free up of three new fashions of its business-leading community analysis answer, the Sniffer® InfiniStream™ platform and the provision of 24x7 subsequent business day restoration or guide for the brand new platform.
the brand new Sniffer InfiniStream models – i430, i530 and i1730 – be part of the business’s portfolio of network and application efficiency management solutions, with superior gadget throughput for prime performance facts seize and multiplied storage capability. moreover, the enterprise introduced it is going to present onsite, subsequent company day assist for the brand new models featuring a more convenient and useful system for troubleshooting and difficulty decision, minimizing machine downtime.
The Sniffer InfiniStream product allows for network personnel to perform in-depth, retrospective analysis to determine community performance, look at traffic tendencies, isolate anomalies, operate deep packet analysis, and generate designated and customized summary experiences. the brand new structures are architected to meet the ever starting to be storage necessities of stressful business high velocity networks, now and sooner or later.
“network universal continues to distinguish itself available in the market with the introduction of imaginative new know-how to its business main Sniffer systems,” pointed out Rick Fitz, vice president of product administration for community prevalent. “the brand new platforms permit our shoppers to power down the cost per managed network phase while concurrently embracing the challenges of supplying IT features from a business-centric aspect of view.”
The solutions present seamless integration with Administrator and Visualizer, featuring users with true time health fame, better trend analysis and skill planning-primarily based reporting.
For extra tips, please consult with: www.networkgeneral.com
About network typical organisation
network prevalent™ is a number one company of IT administration options designed to integrate and simplify IT management and troubleshooting throughout IT domains, assuring the start of IT functions. The network universal portfolio carries creative software solutions and clever home equipment that display screen and manipulate all features of the IT infrastructure together with community instruments, applications, and servers, whereas simultaneously providing a correlated view of the fitness of the business carrier. community typical’s solutions supply IT gurus with an end-to-conclusion correlated view of the efficiency and availability of crucial company services and the underlying community infrastructure. For greater assistance on community common, a privately-held business primarily based in San Jose, California, dial +1-408-571-5000 or go to: www.networkgeneral.com.
community widespread, enterprise Container, networkDNA, and the network commonplace logo are registered trademarks or logos of network conventional employer and/or its associates within the u.s. and/or different countries. only community widespread employer makes Sniffer® company items. All different registered and unregistered emblems herein are the sole property of their respective owners. ©2006 network regularly occurring service provider. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
EUC with HCI: Why It concerns
NetScout techniques, Inc., headquartered in Westford, Massachusetts has huge adventure in network performance monitoring and analysis, courting back to its founding in 1984. The enterprise became one of the earliest innovators in faraway monitoring (RMON) applied sciences, establishing probes for a couple of LAN and WAN applied sciences, together with quickly Ethernet, FDDI, T3 and ATM.
In early 2000, the company brought the first conclusion-to-conclusion efficiency management gadget for e-enterprise, the nGenius performance management equipment, and also prolonged its know-how into software monitoring, including the first real-time monitoring answer featuring simultaneous visibility into converged voice, video and records traffic. In 2002, the company turned into the first to integrate actual-time monitoring, troubleshooting, protocol evaluation and historic reporting tasks and information within a single tool that managed performance of all common, proprietary, web and voice functions. In 2007, the business doubled its business by acquiring network regularly occurring, and its neatly common Sniffer, Infinistream and network Intelligence product strains, considered through many to be the business regular for protocol evaluation. with the aid of including the evaluation vigor of the Sniffer technologies to the precise-time monitoring of the nGenius, NetScout has positioned itself as a corporation that can provide each community evaluation and utility performance solutions. NetScout (NASDAQ: NTCT) has over 800 personnel and places of work everywhere, serving the international 5000 enterprise neighborhood in addition to executive businesses and telecommunications carrier providers.The NetScout Product Line
NetScout programs' product line is split into two leading areas: Instrumentation, with options that display screen and listing the packet/flow information from strategic areas presenting community visibility; and evaluation, which contains software products for clever management, analysis and reporting of community and software performance throughout complex networks.
The flagship analysis solution is the Sniffer international, which supports each wired and instant enterprise community links including 10/100/a thousand Ethernet and 802.11 a/b/g/n networks. The Sniffer global gadget runs under windows XP or Vista, and is typically loaded onto a high-end computing device that can be readily connected to a community vicinity the place more advantageous network evaluation and management functions are required. developed from the trade-main Sniffer moveable and incorporating Sniffer professional analysis capabilities and advanced protocol decodes, this gadget is able to assist clients pinpoint and analyze the toughest efficiency problems with fantastic deployment flexibility. The device is in particular desirable to wireless environments, as it integrates with the Cisco programs 3000 sequence Mobility functions Engine. This pleasing mixture permits the web manager to handle the challenge of effortlessly troubleshooting performance issues in a wireless network, in which add-ons and problems are consistently in action and complicated to pinpoint directly without diverse analyzers and technicians concerned.
Sniffer international was developed contemplating that equipment applied in ultra-modern community ambiance deserve to adhere to definite protection and compliance policies to be sure that essential corporate statistics is included. The system uses a principal management and administration server which controls deployment and distribution of the product, in addition to controls improve activities and license management. The product offers user authentication and controlled entry to utility performance akin to catch entry, seize slice sizing and other elements on a per consumer foundation. additionally, it contains endeavor and audit log capabilities, proposing a robust device for monitoring and controlling utilization. It also facets industry-main packet-degree professional analysis and decodes, together with those for a wide array of databases, VoIP, and cell technologies. accessible in multi-user and commercial enterprise-huge licenses, these server-based mostly controls take care of interior corporate compliance and governance requirements with the aid of limiting use to approved team of workers only and providing visibility into users of the expertise, when they're the use of it and how it's getting used.
yet another evaluation product is the nGenius equipment, which makes use of information from strategically deployed probes and collectors to provide visibility into complicated networks for application monitoring, packet/flow analysis and troubleshooting, response time evaluation, skill planning and convergence management of voice, video and information traffic. in the course of the mixture of Sniffer and nGenius applied sciences, NetScout allows for shoppers to maximise the efficiency and effectivity of applications and content material delivered across globally allotted networks.
The nGenius gadget is based mostly upon distributed monitoring devices, known as the intelligent records Sources, which compile key community metrics. The data sources include the nGenius InfiniStream home equipment, deep packet catch appliance that are strategically placed all over the community to bring together packet-stream facts; the nGenius Probes which are allotted monitoring devices that collect key efficiency metrics; the nGenius digital Agent, a software-based intelligent information supply designed to extend the attain of community management internal virtual computing environments; and the nGenius Collector, which offers NetFlow and IP provider stage contract (SLA)-based mostly data to the equipment. These data sources are positioned at strategic aggregation points inside the community, to bring together key performance metrics, help the monitoring of load-balancing or redundant links, and provide software cognizance with the aid of monitoring complex, net-based and peer-to-peer purposes.
The nGenius analysis and reporting solution comprises four modules. The performance manager is a complete solution for application and community efficiency administration, together with service and policy validation, plus planning and optimization tools. The K2 service start supervisor leverages software-degree information from the performance manager to provide a brief popularity of the fitness of vital company services, together with early warnings of alterations in application and community circumstances. The efficiency manager for Flows analyzes and maps the NetFlow data and IP SLA results that are gathered from the nGenius Collectors and shows that tips on actual-time displays and historic stories, together with VoIP nice metrics and device utilization facts. The Analytics for Flows device immediately information information from the nGenius Collectors, hunting for utilization anomalies, proposing managers with an early warning of capabilities gadget or application concerns.
additional particulars on the NetScout community administration solutions may also be found at http://netscout.com/. Our subsequent tutorial will continue our examination of companies' network management architectures.
Copyright Acknowledgement: ©2009 DigiNet organisation, All Rights Reserved
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNet organisation, a Denver-based consulting engineering enterprise. he is the creator of many books on networking technologies, together with Voice over IP technologies, and information superhighway applied sciences handbook, each posted by means of John Wiley & Sons.
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNetB. company, a Denver-based mostly consulting engineering company. he's the creator of many books on networking technologies, together with Voice over IP technologies, and web technologies guide, both posted through John Wiley & Sons.
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Over the last two years, the Lightning Network has been touted as the scaling solution for the Bitcoin Core (BTC) network. However, the solution has been heavily criticized for its lack of security, and on March 28, Bitcoin Unlimited’s chief scientist Peter Rizun wrote an interesting evaluation of the Lightning Network’s “dirty little secret.”
Also read: Mempool ‘Spam’ and Rising Fees: The Consequences of Veriblock’s Mainnet LaunchVisualizing the Lightning Network from a Different Perspective
This week, Bitcoin Unlimited’s Peter Rizun wrote a critique concerning the often controversial Lightning Network (LN). In delving into the project, Rizun asks the reader to visualize the LN as a string of beads (Fig. 1) extended between two individuals, Alice and Bob. In essence, Alice can send Bob funds by pushing one of her beads to Bob, utilizing the string which represents an LN channel.Fig. 1. Alice can send a payment to Carol by routing it through Bob. Because beads cannot leave the string they are on, Bob ends up with one more bead on his string with Alice, and one fewer bead on his string with Carol.
Rizun’s essay notes that the foundation of the network is the reason for LN liquidity problems because “the beads can move from side to side but cannot leave the string they’re on.” From there, Rizun discusses the LN security model which depends on Hash and Time-Lock Contracts (HTLCs).Fig. 2. The hash-lock opens when a password is entered that hashes to the specified value (45f8 in this case). The time-lock opens after the specified time has elapsed (48 hours in this case).
Essentially, HTLCs explain how the system prevents Bob from keeping the bead from Alice without sending one on to Carol. In order to bypass this issue, the LN project uses locks in the channel and in Rizun’s the locks are placed in the string in order to constrain the beads’ movements until the agreement’s conditions are met. “The hash and time-lock contracts (HTLCs) used in Lightning payments involve two types of locks (Fig. 2): the first is a lock that opens if presented with the correct password (we’ll call this a “hash-lock”), and the second is a lock that opens automatically after a time delay (we’ll call this a “time-lock”),” Rizun’s blog post details. The developer then returns to the example of a payment between Alice to Carol through Bob, and Rizun notes that in order to make the process “trustless,” Alice, Bob, and Carol need to be online simultaneously in order to settle the agreement.
“First, Alice asks Carol to think up a secret password and tell her the password’s hash. Let’s pretend the password Carol thought up was ‘boondoggle’ and its hash was ‘45f8’ — Next, Alice places a hash-lock between her and Bob, set to open when presented with a password that hashes to ‘45f8,’” runs Rizun’s critique. “At this point in time, neither Alice nor Bob can open the lock because neither knows the password — Alice then pushes a bead against the hash-lock. Lastly, she places a time-lock on the left side of the bead, set to automatically open after 48 hours (Fig. 3).”Lightning Network Micropayments Are Not Trustless at All
The study further explains why Bob would bother to participate in this settlement in the first place if Carol had not been cooperative. Basically, the theory assumed is that Alice will send Bob a fraction more than what she asks Bob to send to Carol, as a fee to compensate for risks. It also reveals the purpose the time-locks serve in order to protect someone’s funds if a payment fails. An example of this situation would be if Bob becomes uncooperative after Alice shifts her bead over and adds the two locks, Rizun adds, and remarks that time-locks give Alice the ability to retrieve the funds. His essay says that even though this is possible, the Lightning Network has a dirty little secret which can be seen when the channel state involves three outputs: Alice’s coins, Bob’s coins, and the coin “in flight.” The problem occurs if the value-in-flight is below the BTC dust threshold, in which case it can’t be used as a third output in the channel-state transaction.
“It is thus not possible to use hash- and time-locks to protect the payment if the payment is too small,” Rizun paper emphasizes. “It is not exactly true that the number of beads on a string is constant. There is actually a bucket beside each string labeled “Miner’s Fee” that contains small fractions of beads. The value in this bucket gets claimed by the miner who confirms the channel-state transaction, should the channel state be pushed to the blockchain. Fractions of beads can move from the string to the bucket, or from the bucket back to the string, but only if the persons on both sides of the channel agree.”
The paper continues:
Rather than locking the value in-flight with hash- and time-locks, for small payments Alice and Bob just move the value-in-flight into the fee bucket (Fig. 8). Bob trusts that Alice will cooperate with him to take the value-in-flight out of the fee bucket when he reveals Carol’s secret password.
Bob can then dump the value-in-flight into another bucket he shares with Carol and manipulate the situation by asking Carol to tell Bob the secret password. Carol tells Bob the secret, and Bob and Carol together move the payment from the fee bucket to Carol’s side, Rizun states. Bob then goes back to Alice, tells her Carol’s secret, and if all goes well, Alice cooperates with him to take the value-in-flight out of the fee bucket and place it on Bob’s side of the string. The paper adds:
Unlike the HTLC scheme described earlier, this scheme relies on trust. For example, Carol could reveal the password to Bob, who could then leave the payment in the fee bucket yet still go to Alice and deliver the password in exchange for his payment.
According to a few individuals on social media and cryptocurrency forums, the problems associated with the trust issue and micropayments are well known. At the time of writing, the dust threshold is less than 600 satoshis which means if fees were to spike considerably again, the Lightning Network wouldn’t be a feasible option. Rizun’s paper notes that the issue adds unneeded friction from layer one to layer two by “forcing complex and poorly-understood work-arounds to the L2 protocol.” Moreover, those who have been cheering for higher network fees in order to bolster more Segwit use (were the dust limit is even lower) and forcefully pushing for LN adoption do not seem to understand how impractical that would be.
What do you think about the issues involved with LN and the added friction that layer two adds to common settlements compared to traditional layer one transactions? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.
Image credits: Shutterstock, and Bitcoin Unlimited’s Peter Rizun.
Want to create your own secure cold storage paper wallet? Check our tools section.Tags in this story Analysis, Bitcoin Unlimited, Charts, Cryptocurrency, data, Fee Market, figures, Hash and Time-Lock Contracts, HTLCs, Insecure, Issues, lightning network, LN Liquidity, micropayments, N-Technology, Peter Rizun, Research, Rising Fees, Scaling Solution, vulnerabilities Jamie Redman
Authors: Rod Scrimger, Paul LaSalle, Mridula Parihar and Meeta GuptaPages: 700Publisher: WileyISBN: 0764548425
TCP/IP is the protocol suite that runs almost every network environment today. Consequently there are tons of books about TCP/IP – some deal with network implementation issues, some with applications, others are about security implications, and still further you can find books on protocol theory and protocol analysis. Finally there are books which try to give you an overview, a starting point on everything there is to know about TCP/IP. “TCP/IP Bible” is one such book. Who are the authors and have they done a good job?
About the authors
The book is written by a team of 5 authors: Rob Scrimger, Paul LaSalle, Mridula Parihar, Meeta Gupta and Clay Leitzke. All of them are network specialists, hold various certifications in networking topics (mainly from the Microsoft certification programme), and work as trainers and educators. The Indian pert of the team (Parihar and Gupta) work for India’s leading IT training and education company NIIT Ltd.
Inside the book
As one would expect from people with extensive experience in teaching and training, the book offers a clear writing style and a systematic presentation of the topics – as is evident from a first glance inside its covers.
The book is organized in four parts, each with several chapters covering individual topics.
Part I – Understanding TCP/IP Communications, deals with the various layers of the TCP/IP stack. First, the OSI reference model is introduced and then you see how this translates in practice into the TCP/IP stack model. Each chapter in this part covers a particular layer of the stack: physical, network, internet, transport and application.
In Part II – Working with TCP/IP, you get all the information needed to install and configure TCP/IP on today’s most popular operating systems. The authors included instructions for manual configuration on a typical Linux distribution, as well as on all the Windows systems from Microsoft.
Automatic configuration is examined next. Here you’ll find information on protocols for automatic configuration of TCP/IP nodes: Bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Closing part II is a chapter on naming and name resolution issues. The local HOSTS file, DNS, NetBIOS naming and WINS are crucial topics when designing a network, and in this chapter you’ll get an overview of these topics as well as some implementation details (for ex. configuring DNS on Windows 2000).
Part III – Common TCP/IP Applications is about the most popular applications that run on TCP/IP. But first of all, the authors examine the issues with providing internet access to your network. Private network addressing is covered as well as guidelines for designing a private network. Since connecting a network to the internet is a high security risk, the authors included overviews of firewalls (from simple packet filters to stateful packet inspection firewalls and applications proxy firewalls), network address translation (NAT), VPNs and tunneling protocols. You will notice these are the features integrated in most security appliances now available on the market.
The next chapters cover the individual applications:
The fourth and last part of the book, Building and Maintaining TCP/IP Networks, is focused on implementation and maintenance guidelines. The chapters in this part contain very useful information on planning, building and monitoring your network. First of all the authors focus on how to determine your addressing scheme, calculate address needs and the amount of traffic users will generate in a single day. This information is very important while planning a network. Next chapter is about designing routing for the network, and some advices for server placement follow. Also, a chapter on network security is included, which covers authentication, encryption, PGP and SSL.
The following chapters are devoted to troubleshooting network and connectivity problems and monitoring TCP/IP networks (including tools for packet capture i.e. sniffers). Particularly useful here is a dissection of the typical network troubleshooting process. Finally, the last chapter is about technologies that are just being introduced or will be in the near future: IPv6, TCP/IP in the wireless world, and smart appliances.
After reading the book, what are my thoughts?
TCP/IP Bible is perhaps an unfortunate choice for a title. In fact, the book contains instructions and guidelines for setting up a whole network, from the physical assemblage to the implementation of various network based services in an organization. It is not merely about the TCP/IP protocol suite, it contains much more.
Trying to round up and collect all there is to know about TCP/IP networking into a single volume, seems like a monstrous task. Yet, the authors managed to do just that, in a very accessible way. On the other hand, most of the topics covered are treated only as an overview or introduction to the subject. If there was a detailed discussion of each topic, the book would be 10 times longer (and heavier), not the 600 pages you get with this volume. Therefore my suggestion is: don’t read this book if you seek detailed discussion of TCP/IP protocol suite inner workings.
I couldn’t really decide whom the book was intended for. The publisher advertises it as suitable for all reader levels, from beginning to advanced. Maybe the best answer is given by the authors themselves: they acknowledge the book is intended as a primer, a starting point on the TCP/IP protocol. And in this sense it’s a very good book, especially for those who have already started working with TCP/IP, perhaps implemented a simple network and some basic services, but want to find out what else is there to know. As for intermediate and advanced users, this book can be at best a reference on TCP/IP, not a source of in-depth knowledge.
The authors did a particularly good job in explaining the “theoretical” part of TCP/IP – the OSI model and its correspondence to the TCP/IP layers. This may seem like esoteric stuff, but in order to gain a deeper understanding of how networking really works, some theoretical background is indeed required. And this knowledge will certainly pay off as better analytical and troubleshooting skills, essential for IT staff. Also, the authors have invested an effort to cover both the Linux and the Windows world, especially when providing information on configuring various TCP/IP-based services and applications.
This book is a Bible in the sense it provides basic knowledge on TCP/IP related technologies. It’s a very good primer, but for further enlightenment you’ll have to explore further, perhaps choose a more specialized book.
TCP is the de-facto transport protocol on the Internet. It makes sure to send, and receive information across the internet for every type of content. It’s everywhere. When you load a website or send an email or watch a movie on YouTube. Today, it is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol (IP). It is also responsible to make sure to manage data sent in a way, that there is no congestion anywhere. That said, TCP/IP can be optimized even further. In this post, we are sharing how to analyze and optimize TCP/IP with TCP Optimizer. It’s a software that can optimize TCP/IP.
There are two parts. First is Analysis, and the second is Optimization. You can analyze by visiting this link on their website. The analysis displays a bunch of messages which you might not totally understand except for bits, and pieces. The basic idea one can easily understand is there are a few settings for TCP which can be changed so more data can be sent across. The default settings restrict the amount of data. You will get details about MTU, MSS, RWIN, and so on. What you should look is if there is anything which suggests you change values, and optimizes TCP.
I got the following messages:
Keep this page open, as you will need it for optimizing the TCP on your PC using their software.How to optimize TCP/IP
TCP Optimizer is a portable software which changes few things on the network level, and few on registry settings. The best part is that its a portable application of a very small size. Suggest you keep a copy in your Inbox. Once you download it from here, launch it with admin privileges.
Those who are wondering how it chooses the optimal settings, then its because of the advanced algorithm in the software. Depending on PC to PC, and network, it finds the best TCP Settings for your specific connection speed.
For those who understand technical details, it tunes TCP/IP parameters, such as MTU, RWIN, and even advanced ones like QoS and ToS/Diffserv prioritization. While the application is mostly for broadband uses, you can use it on almost any connection.
Features of TCP Optimizer:
After it applies new settings, it will ask you to reboot the PC for best results. I will always suggest to keep an eye on your internet browsing performance and make sure it has either remained the same or has improved. In case there is a problem, choose to roll back to default Windows Settings.
Fun Fact – Windows comes with an Auto Tuning feature which was first released with Windows Vista. It is available in Windows 10, and many disable it because of some issues. The primary reason to disable it is when you use an old router and auto-tuning doesn’t go well with it.
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